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Sample records for carbonated soft drinks

  1. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  2. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

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    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  3. Yeast Contamination Potential in a Carbonated Soft Drink Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    species of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Thrall, 2004). Yeasts are useful in bakery and breweries but undesirable in carbonated soft drink industries due to ... characteristics compared to yeast colonies described in Cheesebrough (1985). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The yeasts isolated had some budding cells. The.

  4. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

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    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  5. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  6. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

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    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  7. Modification of a Soft Drink by Adding Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles to Prevent Tooth Erosion

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    Esmaeili Khoozani N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the factors in dental erosion is consumption of acidic soft drinks. Although the effects of various additives to acidic soft drinks for the prevention of tooth erosion have been assessed, little data have been published on the possibility of preventing the erosion through soft drinks containing calciumcarbonate nanoparticles. Objectives: To examine the erosive factors of 7up soft drink and to determine the possibilities of decreasing or preventing the erosion phenomenon of the soft drink containing calcium-carbonate nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: 7up soft drink was assigned as control and a set of solutions containing 0.04, 0.05, and 0.06 vol % of the nano-particles were assigned as the experimental solutions. The pH, titratable acidity (TA, calcium and phosphorus concentrations and degree of saturation with respect to enamel hydroxyapatite (DSEn were calculated. These parameters refer to assessment of erosive potential of the soft drinks. The erosion potential was evaluated based on the micro-hardness and the structural changes of the tooth surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis H test,andBonferroni-adjusted Mann- Whitney U test. Results: An increase in the nano-additive content of the solutions increased pH and DSEn; however, it decreased the TA (P < 0.05. There was a significant difference between the micro hardness in the control and experimental groups (p<0.001. SEM imagesrevealed less surface erosion of the specimens stored in the higher nanoadditive concentrations. The modified drink containing 0.06% nano-additive revealed the highest hardness with no evidenceof tooth erosion. Conclusions: Adding calcium carbonate nanoparticles to soft drinks can be considered as a novel method to reduce or prevent tooth erosion

  8. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

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    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  9. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

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    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  10. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  11. The 'Twinkie Defense': the relationship between carbonated non-diet soft drinks and violence perpetration among Boston high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the association of carbonated non-diet soft drink consumption and violence perpetration in a sample of Boston adolescents. In a survey of Boston public high schools, respondents were asked how often they drank non-diet soft drinks and whether they had carried a weapon or engaged in physical violence with a peer. Regression analysis was used to determine the role of soft drink consumption in these behaviours. Adolescents who drank more than five cans of soft drinks per week (nearly 30% of the sample) were significantly more likely to have carried a weapon and to have been violent with peers, family members and dates (pactions, even after controlling for gender, age, race, body mass index, typical sleep patterns, tobacco use, alcohol use and having family dinners. There was a significant and strong association between soft drinks and violence. There may be a direct cause-and-effect relationship, perhaps due to the sugar or caffeine content of soft drinks, or there may be other factors, unaccounted for in our analyses, that cause both high soft drink consumption and aggression.

  12. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  13. Simultaneous determination of Sunset yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks using gold nanoparticles carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Behpour, Mohsen; Golestaneh, Mahshid

    2012-05-01

    The monitoring of synthetic dyes in foods is very important due to their potential harmfulness to human beings. Herein, a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) that is chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu) was fabricated and used for the determination of Sunset yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (Tz). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) results revealed two well-resolved anodic peaks for SY and Tz with remarkably increase in oxidation signals of these colourants. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of SY and Tz. High sensitivity and selectivity, sub-micromolar detection limit, high reproducibility and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing make the nAu-CPE electrode very suitable for the determination of SY and Tz in commercially available soft drinks. The detection limits was 3.0×10(-8) and 2.0×10(-9)moll(-1) for SY and Tz, respectively, which are remarkably lower than those reported previously for SY and Tz using other modified electrodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA LINE 8/CARBONATED SOFT DRINK PT COCA-COLA BOTTLING INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

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    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI Central Java merupakan salah satu perusahaan produsen minuman ringan yang terkemuka di Indonesia, dengan dua jenis kelompok produk yang dihasilkan yaitu minuman karbonasi/Carbonated Soft Drink (Coca-Cola, Sprite, dan Fanta dan non-karbonasi (Frestea dan Ades. Dalam usaha untuk mempertahankan mutu dan meningkatkan produktifitas, salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan adalah masalah perawatan fasilitas/mesin produksi.  Makalah ini membahas mengenai penyebab dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh breakdown mesin terjadi pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink, khususnya pada conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine. Untuk mendapatkan mesin yang dapat terjaga keterandalannya dibutuhkan suatu konsep yang baik. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM merupakan sebuah konsep yang baik untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Konsep ini, selain melibatkan semua personil dalam perusahaan, juga bertujuan untuk merawat semua fasilitas produksi yang dimiliki perusahaan.Data yang digunakan merupakan data breakdown conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine dari ME Monthly Report PT.CCBI selama bulan Januari-Desember 2005 khususnya line 8. Selain itu makalah ini juga membahas performance maintenance PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia-Central Java, dengan memperhitungkan nilai Mean Time Beetwen Failure (MTBF, Mean Time To Repair (MTTR, serta Availability mesin, dengan menggunakan data record Line 8 selama bulan Mei 2006 sampai bulan Juli 2006. Sehingga nantinya akan diketahui informasi keadaan aktual dari perusahaan tentang sistem perawatannya, khususnya pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink apakah baik atau buruk. Kata kunci : Total Production Maintenance, Conveyor, Filler Machine, Bottle Washer Machine, Performance Maintenance   PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI-Central Java represent one of notable light beverage producer company in Indonesia, with two product group type yielded is carbonated beverage/Carbonated Soft

  15. Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization using soft drink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2012-10-01

    An eco-friendly and economical method for the formation of uniform-sized carbon spheres by hydrothermal dehydration/condensation of a commercial carbonated beverage at 200 oC is reported. CO2 dissolved in the beverage accelerates the dehydration kinetics of the dissolved sugar molecules leading to production of homogeneous carbon spheres having a diameter less than 850 nm. In the presence of CO2, the rough surface of these carbon spheres likely results from continuous Ostwald ripening of constituent microscopic carbon-containing spheres that are formed by subsequent polymerization of intermediate HMF molecules.

  16. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-23

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

  17. Impact of substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks by intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands: example of a benefit-risk approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A; Tijhuis, Mariken J; Fransen, Heidi P; Verhagen, Hans; Hoekstra, Jeljer

    2011-02-01

    Substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners may have potential beneficial, but also adverse health effects. This study assessed the benefits and risks associated with substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands. A tiered approach was used analogous to the risk assessment paradigm, consisting of benefit and hazard identification, exposure assessment and finally benefit and risk characterization and comparison. Two extreme scenarios were compared in which all carbonated soft drinks were sweetened with either intense sweeteners or added sugar. National food consumption survey data were used, and intake of added sugar and intense sweeteners was calculated using the food composition table or analytical data for sweetener content. Reduction in dental caries and body weight were identified as benefits of substituting sugar. The mean difference in total energy intake between the scenarios was 542 kJ per day in men and 357 kJ per day in women, under the assumption that no compensation takes place. In the 100% sweetener scenario, the average BMI decreased 1.7 kg/m(2) in men and 1.3 kg/m(2) in women when compared to the 100% sugar scenario. Risks are negligible, as the intake of intense sweeteners remains below the ADI in the substitution scenario. Substitution of added sugar by intense sweeteners in carbonated soft drinks has beneficial effects on BMI and the reduction in dental caries, and does not seem to have adverse health effects in young adults, given the available knowledge and assumptions made.

  18. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of α = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present.

  19. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

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    Cooke Lucy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016, fruit squash (p = 0.042 and milk (p = 0.020 than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017 and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003. No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  20. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  1. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for Students who perceived soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  2. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  3. Voltammetric sensor for tartrazine determination in soft drinks using poly (p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid/zinc oxide nanoparticles in carbon paste electrode

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    Ghasem Karim-Nezhad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (p-ABSA were used to fabricate a modified electrode, as a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor, for the determination of tartrazine. A fast and easy method for the fabrication of poly p-ABSA (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-carbon paste electrode (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-CPE by cyclic voltammetry was used. By combining the benefits of Pp-ABSA, ZnO NPs, and CPE, the resulted modified electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity in terms of tartrazine oxidation by giving much higher peak currents than those obtained for the unmodified CPE and also other constructed electrodes. The effects of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric response of tartrazine were investigated. At the optimum conditions, the sensor has a linear response in the concentration range of 0349–5.44 μM, a good detection sensitivity (2.2034 μA/μM, and a detection limit of 80 nM of tartrazine. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of tartrazine in soft drinks with satisfactory results.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, Frequency and Level of Consumption Regarding Non-alcoholic Carbonated Soft Drinks among Students from Two High Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2015

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    Nguyen Thanh Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD among students from two high schools in Hanoi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city. Results: Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD. Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01. Recommendations: Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.

  5. Voltammetric sensor for tartrazine determination in soft drinks using poly (p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid)/zinc oxide nanoparticles in carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim-Nezhad, Ghasem; Khorablou, Zeynab; Zamani, Maryam; Seyed Dorraji, Parisa; Alamgholiloo, Mahdieh

    2017-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (p-ABSA) were used to fabricate a modified electrode, as a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor, for the determination of tartrazine. A fast and easy method for the fabrication of poly p-ABSA (Pp-ABSA)/ZnO NPs-carbon paste electrode (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-CPE) by cyclic voltammetry was used. By combining the benefits of Pp-ABSA, ZnO NPs, and CPE, the resulted modified electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity in terms of tartrazine oxidation by giving much higher peak currents than those obtained for the unmodified CPE and also other constructed electrodes. The effects of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric response of tartrazine were investigated. At the optimum conditions, the sensor has a linear response in the concentration range of 0349-5.44 μM, a good detection sensitivity (2.2034 μA/μM), and a detection limit of 80 nM of tartrazine. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of tartrazine in soft drinks with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Determination of synthetic food dyes in commercial soft drinks by TLC and ion-pair HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Francisca Ivani; Florindo Guedes, Maria Izabel; Pinto Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão; Pereira Mendes, Francisca Noélia; Salmito Rodrigues, Paula Alves; Costa Maia, Carla Soraya; Marques Ávila, Maria Marlene; de Matos Ribeiro, Luzara

    2014-08-15

    Synthetic food colourings were analyzed on commercial carbonated orange and grape soft drinks produced in Ceará State, Brazil. Tartrazine (E102), Amaranth (E123), Sunset Yellow (E110) and Brilliant Blue (E133) were extracted from soft drinks using C18 SPE and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), this method was used to confirm the composition of food colouring in soft drinks stated on label. The concentration of food colouring in soft drink was determined by ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The results obtained with the samples confirm that the identification and quantification methods are recommended for quality control of the synthetic colours in soft drinks, as well as to determine whether the levels and lables complies with the recommendations of food dyes legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Characterization of a Carbonated Ginger Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saka Ambali ABDULKAREEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread of effort in developing countries like Nigeria to develop carbonated drink from the locally source materials. To achieve this aim, ginger has been consider as an alternative material for the production of carbonated drink, this is because ginger and its by-products have a lot of applications in confectionaries, pharmaceuticals and beverages production. Apart from the applications of ginger listed above, ginger is also a very important and highly valuable crop in most part of West African, Japan, and China. In this study, ginger soft drink was developed by a combination of fresh ginger rhizome and Carbon dioxide (CO2. The CO2 gas volume was steadily increased to make three (3 samples B, C, and D, while sample A is the non-carbonated sample. All the samples were characterized according to chemical and microbiological analysis of the final product and values obtained from the analysis of the developed ginger soft drink are within the range of standard values for carbonated drink. Shelf-life analysis was carried out on the final product and it corresponds to the Shelf-life of a standard carbonated drink. Sample D with the highest gas volume of 2.8 cm3 has the best Shelf-life. Results obtained from the various analysis conducted indicates that the production of a carbonated ginger soft drink from fresh ginger rhizome is practically possible, cost effective and has numerous advantages when compared with other available carbonated drinks.

  8. Parental attitudes towards soft drink vending machines in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel-Paterson, Maia; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-10-01

    Soft drink vending machines are available in 98% of US high schools. However, few data are available about parents' opinions regarding the availability of soft drink vending machines in schools. Six focus groups with 33 parents at three suburban high schools were conducted to describe the perspectives of parents regarding soft drink vending machines in their children's high school. Parents viewed the issue of soft drink vending machines as a matter of their children's personal choice more than as an issue of a healthful school environment. However, parents were unaware of many important details about the soft drink vending machines in their children's school, such as the number and location of machines, hours of operation, types of beverages available, or whether the school had contracts with soft drink companies. Parents need more information about the number of soft drink vending machines at their children's school, the beverages available, the revenue generated by soft drink vending machine sales, and the terms of any contracts between the school and soft drink companies.

  9. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Classificação de refrigerantes através de análise de imagens e análise de componentes principais (PCA Carbonated soft drink classification based on image analysis and PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da S. Godinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for the colour-based classification of RGB (red-green-blue images, acquired using a common scanner, of commercial carbonated soft drinks. Mean histograms of image colour channels were evaluated for the PCA classification of 29 brands of Guaraná, Cola, and orange flavors. Loadings for principal component axes resulted in different patterns for sample grouping on score plots according to RGB histograms. pH, sorbic acid and sucrose measurements were also correlated to the analyzed brands through PCA score plots of the digitalized images.

  11. The Feasibility of Noise Control in a Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi Dehaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background “Noise” can be defined as any unwanted sound. Soft drink plants, which produce the raw materials used in most carbonated beverage factories, are sources of noise. Objectives This study investigated the noise pollution present in a soft drink CO2 gas injection plant, in order to present noise control measures. Materials and Methods The instructions specified by the canadian center for occupational health and safety (CCOHS were followed during the noise study, and a sound level meter, CEL.450 calibrated with CEL-110.2 based on ISO-9612 methods, was used to record the sound pressure level (SPL at each grid point. SPL was determined in weighting scales A and C. and a noise survey map of equivalent SPLs was drawn for each part. Each part of the floor area of the soft drink factory where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map to determine the causes of high levels of noise. In order to reduce noise level in each part, the absorption coefficient, transmission loss, and noise reduction rate were calculated in the proposed control area. Results According to the study results, noise levels in a CO2 plant’s house and control room ranged from 88 to 102 dB and 79 to 82 dB (A, respectively. In order to reduce the amount of emitted noise in the CO2 plant house and control room, a noise control plan was implemented in each part of the facility; it was met with effective results. Conclusions The findings of this investigation have clearly revealed that plant workers are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. However, after the implementation of a noise control plan in each part of the facility, the noise dose received by workers has significantly decreased. The need to implement a noise conservation program was established.

  12. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  13. [Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Poznań University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology.

  14. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  15. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  16. Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselkvist, Agneta; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents. A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer. High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.

  17. The structure of the soft drinks supply at the market of Yekaterinburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Solov'eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays research of the regional markets and consumers’ preferences in the soft drinks segment are actual. This is associated with the saturation of the market and increasing competition within the segment. The research of the market is the base for the assessments of the prospects for the certain enterprise and for the sector development. Analysis of the assortment of the made and sold at the Yekaterin-burg soft drinks was realized. The article shows the position of the good relative to the all-marketing positions in the region. It has been established that assortment of the soft drinks is characterized by the diversity of the types and drinks on the basis of the aromatic staff prevail (41,6%, juice and juice-contained beverages (28,2%, mineral and drinkable bottled water (21,4% with different trademarks prevail. Leaders of the market are two big foreign companies. “Coca-Cola Company” with trademarks “Coca-cola”, “Fanta”, “Sprite”, “Nestea”, “Dobriy”, “Bon Aqua” and the company “Pepsi Co Russia” representing trademarks “Pepsi” “Mirinda”, “7up”, “Tonus”, “Russkiy Dar”. According to strength saturation with carbon dioxide medium carbonated drinks (40,4% and strong carbonated drinks (39,1% prevail. The light carbonated drinks are much smaller and account 13,5%, and non-carbonated drinks are the smallest part of the market (6,96%. The reason of that structure that the carbon dioxide is actively used by the soft drinks producers as a preservative, regulator of the acidity and antioxidant. The research of the package show that the producers use polymeric materials, metal, glass and combined pack. The main trends of the market are increasing consumer requirements to the quality and information about the proposed drinks, the growth of the number of consumers that attend to the ingredients and the impact of “the healthy food choice” on the market.

  18. CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS IN SOFT AND ENERGY DRINKS AVAILABLE ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Elena Ionică

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a stimulant that is commonly found in many foods and drinks that we consume. Concerns exist about the potential adverse health effects of high consumption of dietary caffeine, especially in children and pregnant women. Recommended caffeine intakes corresponding to no adverse health effects have been suggested recently for healthy adults (400 – 450 mg/day, for women contemplating pregnancy (300 mg/day, and for young children age 4 – 6 years (45 mg/day. Different brands of soft and energy carbonated beverages available on the Romanian market were analysed for caffeine by HPLC with a diode array UV-VIS detector at 217 nm. The column was a reverse phase C18 and the mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L, pH 4.3 and acetonitrile (88:12, v/v. The caffeine contents in energy drink samples ranged from 16.82 mg/100 mL to 39.48 mg/100 mL while the carbonated soft drink group showed caffeine content in the range of 9.79 – 14.38 mg/100 mL. In addition, the concentrations of caffeine have been converted into the daily intake doses based on beverages consumption. The mean values of caffeine daily intakes were 124 mg and 49 mg through the ingestion of energy drinks and soft drinks, respectively.

  19. Effect of carbonated drinks on wound healing of oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Ayesha; Ilyas, Muhammad Sharjeel; Jafari, Fahim Haider; Farzana, Fauzia

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated drinks are the second most consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world after tea. The effects of these drinks on hard tissues and vital organs of the body have been proved beyond doubt. This study, however, explains the effect of these drinks on wound healing of oral epithelium. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were considered for the study. A circular wound of 3.0 mm was created on the buccal mucosa of all animals and they were divided into two groups. Animals in group 1 were fed with chow pellet and water, while those in group 2 were fed with a commercially available carbonated drink instead of water. Six animals from each group were euthanized at 0, 7, and 21 days. Wound site was histologically assessed for differences in thickness and characteristics of the regenerating epithelium between two groups. There was a marked difference in the healing pattern between the two groups. Animals in group 1 showed a normal healing pattern at the end of day 21. In the group 2, the regenerated epithelium showed hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis along with acanthosis at the end of the experiment with a subsequent delayed inflammatory reaction at day 21. Consumption of carbonated drinks can disrupt oral wound healing. The contents in carbonated drinks have a proinflammatory action on the soft tissue. Results suggest that epithelial changes seen in experimental group 2 could be a result of constant irritation by the acidic and fizzy nature of carbonated drinks.

  20. Soft Drink Influence on Margin Integrity in Composite Resin Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente DDS, MS, Jose; Abad DDS, Karol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that certain previously selected soda drinks could have on the integrity of the margins of composite restorations made on 25 human teeth, where the margins were placed both on enamel and dentin. Specimens were divided in different groups (n=5) to be exposed to soft drinks 30 minutes a day for 30 days. Selected drinks were: Coca Cola, Coca Cola Zero, Squirt, Gladiator and water. SEM pictures were taken at the beginning and at the 30 day mark...

  1. Microbial quality of soft drinks sold in Abuja, Nigeria | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates were identified using growth on nutrient agar and broth, Gram's reaction, colony morphology, biochemical tests results and criteria for disregarding negative cultures. Resistance of isolates from soft drinks was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). Twenty six bacterial isolates belonging ...

  2. Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school adolescents in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Healthy meal pattern is very important in the maintenance of the highest level of physical, mental and social well-being of an individual, more so during the adolescence period which is characterized by dramatic physical ...

  3. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  4. Preliminary study on aluminum-air battery applying disposable soft drink cans and Arabic gum polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Wijaya, H. F.; Majlan, E. H.; Sudaryanto; Arwati, I. G. A.; Sebayang, D.

    2017-09-01

    This study is in relation to preliminary investigation of aluminium-air battery using disposable soft drink cans as aluminium source for anode. The cathode uses commercial porous carbon sheet to trap oxygen from air. This work applies a commercial cashing to place carbon cathode, electrolyte, Arabic gum polymer, and aluminium anode in a sandwich-like arrangement to form the aluminium-air battery. The Arabic gum as electrolyte polymer membrane protects anode surface from corrosion due to aluminium oxide formation. The study result shows that the battery discharge test using constant current loading of 0.25 mA yields battery capacity of 0.437 mAh with over 100 minute battery life times at 4M NaOH electrolyte and 20 % Arabic gum polymer as the best performance in this investigation. This study gives significant advantage in association with beneficiation of disposable soft drink cans from municipal solid waste as aluminium source for battery anode.

  5. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Deliens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm, finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control, being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy, having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling, and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices.

  6. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  7. Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate, through the use of soft (Escherichia coli) and hard (polystyrene microspheres) particles, the distribution and persistence of allochthonous particles inoculated in drinking water flow chambers. Biofilms were allowed to grow for 7-10 months in tap water from Nancy's drinking water network and were composed of bacterial aggregates and filamentous fungi. Both model particles adhered almost exclusively on the biofilms (i.e. on the bacterial aggregates and on the filamentous structures) and not directly on the uncolonized walls (glass or Plexiglas). Biofilm age (i.e. bacterial density and biofilm properties) and convective-diffusion were found to govern particle accumulation: older biofilms and higher wall shear rates both increased the velocity and the amount of particle deposition on the biofilm. Persistence of the polystyrene particles was measured over a two-month period after inoculation. Accumulation amounts were found to be very different between hard and soft particles as only 0.03 per thousand of the soft particles inoculated accumulated in the biofilm against 0.3-0.8% for hard particles.

  8. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-08-21

    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  9. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-01-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption...

  11. Erosive potential of soft drinks on human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Lin Wang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: All tested soft drinks were found to be erosive. Soft drinks with high calcium contents have significantly lower erosive potential. Low pH value and high citrate content may cause more surface enamel loss. As the erosive time increased, the titratable acidity to pH 7 may be a predictor of the erosive potential for acidic soft drinks. The erosive potential of the soft drinks may be predicted based on the types of acid content, pH value, titratable acidity, and ion concentration.

  12. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2013-01-01

    Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring

  13. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Maslova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. RESULTS: At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33 times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66 and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29 registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74 during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially

  14. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of phthalates in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-12-15

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is proposed for analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft drinks. However, the instability of microemulsion is a critical issue. In this research, a novel material, Pluronic® F-127, which has the properties of polymer and surfactant, was added for stabilizing the microemulsion in the MEEKC system. Our data demonstrate that the presence of Pluronic® F-127 (0.05-0.30%) also helps enhance resolution of highly hydrophobic compounds, DBP and DEHP. The electrokinetic injection of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including sample (-10 kV, 20 s) was introduced in this MEEKC system and this yielded about 25-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with hydrodynamic injection (1 psi, 10 s). During method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.99), within a range of 75-500 ng/mL for DBP and 150-1000 ng/mL for DEHP. As the precision and accuracy assays, absolute values of relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) in intraday (n=3) and interday (n=5) observations were less than 4.93%. This method was further applied for analyzing six commercial soft drinks and one was found containing 453.67 ng/mL of DEHP. This method is considered feasible for serving as a tool for analysis of highly hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  16. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Mærsk; Belza, A; Holst, J J

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD vers...... semi-skimmed milk) and two non-energy-containing beverages (aspartame-sweetened soft drink (ASSD) and water) on appetite, appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake (EI).......Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD versus...

  17. Preliminary studies on the use of kolanuts (cola nitida) for soft drink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh nuts (seeds) of kola (Cola nitida) were used in the preparation of kola soft drink. Proximate analysis of the nut was carried out to determine its moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat and caffeine contents. The pH, total solids, specific gravity, caffeine and sensory attributes of the developed kola soft drink were ...

  18. Soft Drink Vending Machines in Schools: A Clear and Present Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James; Murnan, Judy; Moore, Bradene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the availability of soft drinks in schools ("pouring rights contracts") and its effects on the growing nutritional problems of American youth. Of special concern is the prevalence of overweight youth, which has been increasing at alarming rates. There has been a direct relationship found between soft drink consumption and…

  19. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  20. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  1. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Robert A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total. Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136. Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001, branded beer (p = 0.0004, and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006. Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126. About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  3. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-03-09

    This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  4. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-furnace carbon black is produced by pyrolysis of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or their mixtures. The oil feedstock for the production of oil-furnace carbon black is mainly composed of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, which are residues of petroleum cracking, while the gaseous raw material is commonly natural gas. Most of the oil-furnace carbon black production (> 99 % is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds. Occasionally, oil-furnace carbon blacks are used in contact with other rubber compounds and fillers that have different pigments, particularly with the color white. It has been observed that frequently a migrating rubber soluble colorant would enter the white or light colored rubber composition from the adjacent carbon black filled rubber, resulting in a highly undesirable staining effect. Methods for determining non-oxidized residue on the surface of the oil-furnace carbon black include extraction of carbon black with the appropriate organic solvent, and measuring the color of the organic solvent by means of a colorimeter on 425 nm (ASTM D 1618-99. Transmittance values of 85 % or more are indicative of a practically non-staining carbon black, while transmittance values below 50 % generally lead to a carbon black with pronounced staining characteristics. Many oil-furnace carbon blacks, particularly those with a larger particle size (dp > 50 nm which are produced by pyrolysis, have strongly adsorbed non-reacted oil on their surfaces. Upon incorporation in a rubber compound, the colored materials are gradually dissolved by the rubber matrix and migrate freely into adjacent light colored rubber compounds, causing a highly objectionable staining effect. Adjusting furnace parameters in the industrial process of producing specific soft grades of carbon black cannot obtain minimal values of toluene discoloration. The minimal value of toluene discoloration is very important in special applications. Therefore, after-treatment of

  5. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  6. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  7. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  9. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.

  10. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions.

  11. Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2007-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non–industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science. PMID:17329656

  12. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

  13. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A.; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6?23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscui...

  14. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mahony, Jennifer; De Martino, Simone; Stucchi, Carlo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of enteric bacteria in ice cubes produced in different environments (home-made, prepared in bars and pubs with ice machines and produced in industrial plants) and to determine their survival in different alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were found in almost all samples analysed. All industrial and the majority of home-made samples did not contain coliforms. Enterococci were not identified in domestic samples while they were detected in two industrial and three bar/pub samples. The samples collected from bars and pubs were characterized by the highest levels of enteric bacteria. Fourteen strains representing 11 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, some of which are known agents of human infections. The most numerous groups included Enterococcus and Stenotrophomonas. The survival of Enterococcus faecium ICE41, Pantoea conspicua ICE80 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ICE272, that were detected at the highest levels (100-400 CFU/100 mL thawed ice) in the ice cubes, was tested in six drinks and beverages characterized by different levels of alcohol, CO2, pH and the presence of antibacterial ingredients. The results showed a species-specific behaviour and, in general, a reduction of the microbiological risks associated with ice after its transfer to alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  17. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  18. Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract.

  19. The effects of different types of taxes on soft-drink consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikhbihi Adam, Abdulfatah; Smed, Sinne

    Monthly data from GfK Consumerscan Scandinavia for the years 2006 – 2009 are used to estimate the effects of different tax scenarios on the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB’s). Most studies fail to consider demand interrelationships between different types of soft-drinks when...... as well as between different container sizes. Especially the large sizes and discount brands provide considerable value for money to the consumer. Three different type of taxes is considered; a tax based on the content of added sugar in various SSB’s, a flat tax on soft-drinks alone and a size...... differentiated tax on soft-drinks that remove the value for money obtained by purchasing large container sizes. The scenarios are scaled equally in terms of obtained public revenue. Largest effect in terms of reduced intake of calories and sugar are obtained by applying the tax on sugar in all beverages, even...

  20. Color stability of visible light cured composite resin after soft drink immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizatul Khairani Hasan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is a tooth-colored filling material containing Bis-GMA which exhibits water sorption properties. People tend to consume soft drink with various colors. Water sorption properties can alter the color stability of composite resin purpose. Purpose: This study was to determine the influence of immersion durations of composite resin in soft drink on color stability. Methods: The visible-light cured hybrid composite resin and soft drink were used. Ten disk specimens (2.5 mm thickness and 15 mm diameter of composite resin were prepared and light cured for 20 seconds, then stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37° C. The initial color of specimens were measured by Chromameter. After that, each specimen was immersed in 30 ml of soft drink up to 48, 72, and 96 hours at 37° C. The specimens’ color were measured again after each immersion. The color changes were calculated by CIE L*a*b* system formula. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD (α = 0.05. Result: The ANOVA showed that the immersion durations of composite resin in soft drinks had significant influence on the color stability (p < 0.05. The LSD0.05 tests showed significant differences among all groups. The least color change was detected from the group of 48 hours immersion, while the greatest color change was from the group of 96 hours immersion. Conclusions: The immersion of composite resin in soft drinks influenced the color stability (began after 48 hours immersion.

  1. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Giffney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

  2. In vitro evaluation of the erosive potential of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Rengin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel erosion. A total of 108 bovine enamel samples (∅ = 3 mm) were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated into six groups (n = 18). Soft acidic drinks (orange juice, Coca-Cola, Sprite) were used both in their regular forms and at a kinetic viscositiy of 5 mm(2)/s, which was adjusted by adding hydroxypropyl cellulose. All solutions were pumped over the enamel surface from a reservoir with a drop rate of 3 ml/min. Each specimen was eroded for 10 min at 20 °C. Erosion of enamel surfaces was measured using profilometry. Data were analyzed using independent t tests and one-way ANOVAs (p viscosity-modified drinks (Coca-Cola, 4.90 ± 0.34 μm; Sprite, 4.46 ± 0.39 μm; orange juice, 1.10 ± 0.22 μm). For both regular and viscosity-modified forms, Coca-Cola and Sprite caused higher enamel loss than orange juice. Increasing the viscosity of acidic soft drinks to 5 mm(2)/s reduced enamel erosion by 12.6-18.7 %. The erosive potential of soft acidic drinks is not only dependent on various chemical properties but also on the viscosity of the acidic solution and can be reduced by viscosity modification.

  3. Associations of social-environmental and individual-level factors with adolescent soft drink consumption: Results from the SMILE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. de Vries (Hein); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAdolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208,

  4. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekdes K. Gebremariam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective: This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks among adolescents. Methods: In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results: A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions: There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents.

  5. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  6. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic methods. Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However, infrared spectros- copy distinguishes itself as a fast and reliable method for quantitative ...

  7. Mechanical behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete using softdrink can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilya, J.; Cheow Chea, C.

    2017-11-01

    This research was carried out to study the behaviour of concrete, specifically compressive and flexural strength, by incorporating recycled soft drink aluminium can as fibre reinforcement in the concrete. Another aim of the research is to determine the maximum proportion of fibres to be added in the concrete. By following standard mix design, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete was made to have a target mean strength of 30 N/mm2 with not more than 30 mm of slump. Having the same workability, OPC concrete with 0%, 1% and 2% of soft drink can aluminium fibre was prepared based on weight of cement. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength. Laboratory test results based on short term investigation reveals that the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete containing fibre are higher than of normal OPC concrete. Among two volume fractions, concrete with 1% of soft drink can fibre have performed better result in compressive strength and flexural strength compared with 2% amount of soft drink can fibre. The optimum proportion of aluminium fibre to be added in the concrete as fibre reinforcement is 1% fibre content by weight of cement which gave all the positive response from all the tests conducted.

  8. Soft drink consumption is associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; He, Haiyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Meng, Ge; Chu, Jiaqi; Mei, Yan; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-02-01

    Research evidence supports a positive link between soft drinks and depressive symptoms. However, data thus far are only from Caucasian populations. We investigated whether high levels of consumption of soft drinks were associated with the depressive symptoms among adults in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 3667 adults in Tianjin, China. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), cut-off point of 40, 45 or 50 indicating elevated depressive symptoms. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 7.6% (SDS ≥50). After adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having elevated depressive symptoms by increasing levels of soft drink consumption were 1.00, 1.43 (1.01, 2.01) and 2.00 (1.15, 3.37) (p for trend consumption of soft drinks was significantly related to a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among adults in China. This is the first large cross-sectional study addressing this topic in an Asia population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic methods. Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However, infrared spectroscopy distinguishes itself as a fast and reliable method for quantitative ...

  10. Erosive Effect of Different Soft Drinks on Enamel Surface in vitro: Application of Stylus Profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Radomir; Gasic, Jovanka; Trutic, Natasa; Sunaric, Slavica; Popovic, Jelena; Djekic, Petar; Radenkovic, Goran; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the erosive potential of various soft drinks by measuring initial pH and titratable acidity (TA) and to evaluate enamel surface roughness using different exposure times. The initial pH of the soft drinks (group 1: Coca-Cola; group 2: orange juice; group 3: Cedevita; group 4: Guarana, and group 5: strawberry yoghurt) was measured using a pH meter, and TA was measured by titration with NaOH. Enamel samples (n = 96), cut from unerupted human third molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups: experimental (groups 1-5) and control (filtered saliva). The samples were exposed to 50 ml of soft drinks for 15, 30 and 60 min, 3 times daily, during 10 days. Between immersions, the samples were kept in filtered saliva. Enamel surface roughness was measured by diamond stylus profilometer using the following roughness parameters: Ra, Rq, Rz, and Ry. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests. The pH values of the soft drinks ranged from 2.52 (Guarana) to 4.21 (strawberry yoghurt). Orange juice had the highest TA, requiring 5.70 ml of NaOH to reach pH 7.0, whereas Coca-Cola required only 1.87 ml. Roughness parameters indicated that Coca-Cola had the strongest erosion potential during the 15 min of exposure, while Coca-Cola and orange juice were similar during 30- and 60-min exposures. There were no significant differences related to all exposure times between Guarana and Cedevita. Strawberry yoghurt did not erode the enamel surface regardless of the exposure time. All of the tested soft drinks except yoghurt were erosive. Erosion of the enamel surfaces exposed to Coca-Cola, orange juice, Cedevita, and Guarana was directly proportional to the exposure time. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Soft Drinks Consumption and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Zeba; Karoli, Ritu; Fatima, Jalees; Khanduri, Sachin; Varshneya, Shishir; Ahmad, Sara Sabina

    2017-05-01

    The increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been implicated in the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome Little of the research on sugar-sweetened beverage intake has examined the consumption patterns of sugared beverages by college students, despite the vulnerabilities of this population to weight gain. The current study sought to characterize sugar-sweetened beverage intake of undergraduate students who belong to high socio-economic strata and to study its correlation with presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In a cross sectional, a self reported questionnaire based study about soft drink consumption (≥2/day, 1/day, drink consumption had positive correlation with presence of NAFLD. Substantial consumption of soft drinks is leading to increased obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Artificially sweetened diet soft drinks have been posed as a healthier alternative due to their lack of calories but they do not guarantee protection against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  12. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  13. Study to Assess the Prevalence of Soft Drinking and its Determinants among the School going Children of Gwalior city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05. A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05.Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest.

  14. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  16. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia Mantziki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1 of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2 The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187 were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake. There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  17. PREPARATION OF THE CORE OF WALNUT FOR USE IN THE COMPOSITION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyakonova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In work it is considered conditions of preparation of a core of the Walnut for the following use as a prescription component of soft drinks of improvement. It is provided the analysis of patent and literary source in which are explained the existing productions technology of soft drinks on the basis of nut raw materials. It is considered influence on fatty acids compound of nucleus of Walnut by high temperatures, frying at 200 °C, damp-thermal treatment, by soaking in water and boiling during 60 seconds. It is scientifically argues  that the most optimum method of preparation of a core of the Walnut which allows to inactivate an undesirable microflora and to raise physical and chemical indicators of nut is the method of damp-thermal processing of raw materials. It is designated influence of the long-lived soaking on durability of a core of nut and content of the free phosphorus in its structure which characterizes amount of phytin substances in raw materials. It is proved that the long-lived soaking destroys complexes of phytin acid with phosphorus release. After 10 clocks of soaking, the amount of the free phosphorus in the studied exemplars of the Walnut increases to 55 %. It is established technological parameters of preparation of nut extract by selection of its optimum hydro module. It is developed nut drink with the balanced composition of fatty acids. It was investigated chemical composition of nut drink which is characterized by content of 40 % of fats, 18 % ‒ proteins and near 37 % of carbohydrates. It is analyzed possible influence of nut drink on the needs of a human body for biologically valuable substances, and established that the developed drink satisfies the need of an organism for essence of fatty acids more than for 30 %. It is carried out the production approbation of the developed product that confirms practicality of the designed technology and high organoleptic rates of nut drink.

  18. Soft drink effects on sensorimotor rhythm brain computer interface performance and resting-state spectral power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundahl, John; Jianjun Meng; He, Jeffrey; Bin He

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems allow users to directly control computers and other machines by modulating their brain waves. In the present study, we investigated the effect of soft drinks on resting state (RS) EEG signals and BCI control. Eight healthy human volunteers each participated in three sessions of BCI cursor tasks and resting state EEG. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar, caffeine, or neither ingredient. A comparison of resting state spectral power shows a substantial decrease in alpha and beta power after caffeine consumption relative to control. Despite attenuation of the frequency range used for the control signal, caffeine average BCI performance was the same as control. Our work provides a useful characterization of caffeine, the world's most popular stimulant, on brain signal frequencies and their effect on BCI performance.

  19. Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Rafiony; Martalena Br Purba; I Dewa Putu Pramantara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the e...

  20. Healthy nutrition and health-washing corporate discourses across three organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mara Stan

    2017-01-01

    The study inquires about the means by which corporate discourse formulates, invokes and challenges scientific research by examining three case studies of organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry...

  1. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  2. Taxing soft drinks in the Pacific: implementation lessons for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Quested, Christine; Juventin, Lisa; Kun, Russ; Khan, A Nisha; Swinburn, Boyd

    2011-03-01

    A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible.

  3. The Association between Soft Drink Consumption and Body Fat in Females Age 16 to 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Megan M; Heelan, Kate A; Mowry, Deborah A; Abbey, Bryce

    American soft drink consumption (SDC) has increased since the 1960's surpassing all other kinds of beverage consumption. In recent years, the scientific literature has suggested that SDC has been linked to the rising epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents. However, there is lack of information in scientific literature on the effects of SDC on body fat (BF%) in young females. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SDC and BF% in young women, ages 16-24 years. Sixty-six females were asked to complete a 3-day food record, food frequency questionnaire, and an assessment BF% by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, participants consumed 29.44 ± 44.68 fl oz/day of soft drinks. There were significant positive associations between SDC and BF% (r = 0.24, p SDC, secondary analysis compared moderate SDC (MSDC: SDC (HSDC: ≥ 32 fl oz/day). Results suggested HSCD had significantly greater BF% than MSDC. Therefore, limiting the consumption of soft drinks is suggested in order to maintain a healthy BF%.

  4. [Daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents in the northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.

  5. Determinants and patterns of soft drink consumption in young adults: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, Libby; Irwin, Melissa; King, Lesley; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    To explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding caloric soft drinks in a group of young adults attending university and to identify opportunities for a health promotion intervention aimed at reducing consumption. In-depth, semi-structured focus groups segmented by gender. Sydney, Australia. Undergraduate University of Sydney students aged 18-30 years (n 35). Social and environmental cues, intrinsic qualities of beverages and personal health beliefs were identified as important influences on consumption. Social cues included settings in which alcohol is usually consumed, socialising with friends, and family influences. Environmental cues included purchasing of fast foods, and ready availability, preferential pricing and promotion of caloric beverages. Reinforcing intrinsic qualities of caloric soft drinks included taste, sugar and caffeine content, and their association with treats and rewards. Major gender differences as well as variations in individual readiness for behaviour change were observed. Raising awareness of the sugar content of various beverages and the potential health impacts associated with their consumption was considered important. The findings provide new insights with important implications for policy and practice, and suggest that there is considerable scope for promoting awareness in this group. Carefully designed social marketing campaigns highlighting the health issues and addressing social and environmental cues relating to caloric soft drink consumption are required. There is a need for gender-differentiated intervention programmes which are both informational and appealing to young adults. Further research is warranted, particularly to investigate beverage consumption relating to fast-food meal deals and young adults' consumption patterns in more depth.

  6. Surface roughness and translucency of resin composites after immersion in coffee and soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvea, Cresus V Depes; Bedran, Luciane M; de Faria, Márcia Aguiar; Cunha-Ferreira, Neli

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro changes in color and surface roughness of different composite resins when subjected to cycles of immersion in three coloring solutions: coffee, soft drink, and coffee plus soft drink. Sixty test specimens were made of each material, all in shade A3. Translucency and initial roughness measurements were taken by spectrophotometer and roughness meter. Then the samples were submitted to three cycles per day of exposure to potentially coloring solutions for a period of 15 days. Final roughness and translucency measurements were taken, the mean and standard deviation calculated for each resin and each variable. Data were initially analyzed by the one away ANOVA test, which showed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Subsequently the post hoc and Tukey tests were performed with level of significance of 0.05. The results showed that the coloring substances altered translucency and surface roughness. DURAFILL resin immersed in the soft drink (M3) was the least pigmented, while CONCEPT resin immersed in the coffee (M2) showed the the least loss of surface smoothness. The Spearman and Pearson coefficients were 0.38 and 0.04 respectively, signifying that there is no correlation between roughness and translucency.

  7. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Almer Bernsdorf, MSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426, 2010 (n = 42,218 and 2013 (n = 34,330 in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25–79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG 1–4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (soft drink intake (≥3 times/week. The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007–2013 (p < 0.0001. A corresponding decrease was found in the proportion of individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3–4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83–0.91 and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85–0.92, respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3–4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63–1.31 and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10–1.25, respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02. The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007–2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  8. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine; Toft, Ulla; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (< once/week) and for individuals with a frequent soft drink intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p < 0.0001). A corresponding decrease was found in the proportion of individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3-4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.91) and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85-0.92), respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3-4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63-1.31) and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10-1.25), respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02). The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  9. Is consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundt, Jacob H; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Markestad, Trond

    2017-10-01

    In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3 to -5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW  4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: -2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A reagent-free SIA module for monitoring of sugar, color and dissolved CO2 content in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerasong, S; Chan-Eam, S; Sereenonchai, K; Amornthammarong, N; Ratanawimarnwong, N; Nacapricha, D

    2010-05-23

    This work presents a new sequential injection analysis (SIA) method and a module for simultaneous and real-time monitoring of three key parameters for the beverage industry, i.e., the sugar content (measured in Brix), color and dissolved CO(2). Detection of the light reflection at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) of sucrose and water was utilized for sucrose content measurement. A near infrared LED (890+/-40 nm) was chosen as the light source to ensure that all the ingredients and dyes in soft drinks will not interfere by contributing light absorption. A linear calibration was obtained for sucrose over a wide concentration range (3.1-46.5 Brix). The same module can be used to monitor the color of the soft drink as well as the dissolved CO(2) during production. For measuring the color, the sample is segmented between air plugs to avoid dispersion. An RGB-LED was chosen as the light source in order to make this module applicable to a wide range of colored samples. The module also has a section where dissolved CO(2) is measured via vaporization of the gas from the liquid phase. Dissolved CO(2), in a flowing acceptor stream of water resulting in the change of the acceptor conductivity, is detected using an in-house capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The module includes a vaporization unit that is also used to degas the carbonated drink, prior the measurements of sucrose and color within the same system. The method requires no chemicals and is therefore completely friendly to the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2013-11-01

    We estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate the association between soft drink consumption and overweight, obesity, and diabetes prevalence in 75 countries, controlling for other foods (cereals, meats, fruits and vegetables, oils, and total calories), income, urbanization, and aging. Data were obtained from the Euromonitor Global Market Information Database, the World Health Organization, and the International Diabetes Federation. Bottled water consumption, which increased with per-capita income in parallel to soft drink consumption, served as a natural control group. Soft drink consumption increased globally from 9.5 gallons per person per year in 1997 to 11.4 gallons in 2010. A 1% rise in soft drink consumption was associated with an additional 4.8 overweight adults per 100 (adjusted B; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1, 6.5), 2.3 obese adults per 100 (95% CI = 1.1, 3.5), and 0.3 adults with diabetes per 100 (95% CI = 0.1, 0.8). These findings remained robust in low- and middle-income countries. Soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries.

  12. Soft drink consumption and gestational diabetes risk in the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazar-Ezcurra, Mikel; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco J; de Irala, Jokin; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-02-20

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing worldwide. To the best of our knowledge the specific evaluation of soft drink consumption as a risk factor for developing GDM has only been conducted in the Nurses' Health Study II. To investigate the incidence of GDM according to soft drink consumption in the SUN project. The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3396 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2012. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess soft drink consumption. Four categories of sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) and diet soft drink (DSD) consumption (servings) were established: rarely or never (3/month and ≤1/week) and high (≥2/week). Potential confounders were adjusted through non-conditional logistic regression models. During the follow-up, we identified 172 incident cases of GDM. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, family history of diabetes, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, parity, fast-food consumption, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, multiple pregnancy, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, fiber intake, following special diet and snacking, SSSD consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident GDM, with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.31) and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.01-2.77) for the highest and intermediate categories, respectively, versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.006). Conversely, DSD consumption was not associated with GDM incidence (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.52-1.31) for the highest versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.258). Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Higher consumption of SSSDs before pregnancy was an independent risk factor for GDM, however, no association was

  13. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks?Energy drinks differ from soft drinks and sports drinks. Soft drinks have a lower amount of caffeine. They also contain sugar or fake sweeteners. Sports drinks can have vitamins, carbs, and sugar. You should ...

  14. Soft drink, software and softening of teeth: a case report of tooth wear in the mixed dentition due to a combination of dental erosion and attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 9-year-old boy with severe tooth wear as a result of drinking a single glass of soft drink per day. This soft drink was consumed over a period of one to two hours, while he was gaming intensively on his computer. As a result, a deep bite, enamel cupping, sensitivity of

  15. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of obesity-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Allison M; Bassett, Julie K; Milne, Roger L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G

    2018-02-21

    To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks. Anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference, were taken and questions about smoking, leisure-time physical activity and intake of alcoholic beverages were completed. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) is a prospective cohort study which recruited 41 514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. A second wave of data collection occurred in 2003-2007. Data for 35 593 participants who developed 3283 incident obesity-related cancers were included in the main analysis. Increasing frequency of consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with greater waist circumference at baseline. For sugar-sweetened soft drinks, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity-related cancers increased as frequency of consumption increased (HR for consumption >1/d v. 1/d v. drinks.

  16. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  17. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  18. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  19. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  20. Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, A K; LeChevallier, M W; Broadaway, S C; McFeters, G A

    1986-09-01

    A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogenization procedure (developed previously) indicated that 41.4% of the water samples had heterotrophic plate count bacteria attached to carbon particles. With the enumeration procedures described, heterotrophic plate count bacteria were recovered at an average rate of 8.6 times higher than by conventional analyses. Over 17% of the samples contained carbon particles colonized with coliform bacteria as enumerated with modified most-probable-number and membrane filter techniques. In some instances coliform recoveries were 122 to 1,194 times higher than by standard procedures. Nearly 28% of the coliforms attached to these particles in drinking water exhibited the fecal biotype. Scanning electron micrographs of carbon fines from treated drinking water showed microcolonies of bacteria on particle surfaces. These data indicate that bacteria attached to carbon fines may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms penetrate treatment barriers and enter potable water supplies.

  1. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.

  3. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmala, Seri; Hartiwi, Hartiwi

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  4. Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

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    Ayu Rafiony

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the emergence of obesity in adolescents. Obesity in adolescents at risk of becoming obese in adulthood and potentially can lead to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases Objective: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of obesity and to investigate risk factors for energy intake and frequency of consumption of fast food and soft drinks on the incidence of obesity in high school students in Pontianak. Method: This research was an observational study which involves case-control design. The samples in this study are 160 students consisting of 80 obese high school teenagers and 80 non-obese high school teenagers. The choice for a subject of research used proportional stratified random sampling. Measurement of obesity status subject was taken by the measurement of weight and height based on the reference standard WHO / NCHS. It also involves data intake of fast food and soft drinks based on interviews with SQFFQ. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of obesity in high school teenagers in Pontianak was 9.29%. The bivariate test result showed no association  between total  energy intake of fast food and obesity (p0.05. There was a relationship between the frequency of total  fast food and of the local fast food consumption with obesity (p0.05. Multivariable analysis showed that the total energy intake was the most dominant factor to the onset of obesity (p<0.05; OR=5.27; 95% CI: 1.64-16.97. Conclusion

  5. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Katzmarzyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing and diet (artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD. Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049, but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002 and %BF (p = 0.0001. Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  6. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and general health among employees of a soft drinks industry

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    parisa moshashaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : regards body and mental mutually influence to each other, and the health of these two categories include integrity and human health, This study aimed to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and general health among employees of a soft drinks industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 workers from a soft drinks factory were selected on the basis of census which has more than a year working experience. Measuring devices containing demographic data collection questionnaire, GHQ-28 questionnaire and body map chart to record musculoskeletal disorders in different areas of the body. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. Results: The results showed that the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was found in the neck (27.56% and lower back region (25.5% during the past 12 months. Age, BMI, years of experience, daily working hours, and shift work are a risk factor for body's organs musculoskeletal disorders, especially the lower back. Most employees surveyed were in a dubious status in public health (4.47 ± 25.89. People were not desirable in terms of physical health, anxiety and social dysfunction. Also, there was a significant relationship between anxiety symptoms with foot pain and depressive symptoms and back pain. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there is a significant relationship between general health with musculoskeletal disorders in the lower back and legs.

  8. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

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    Botezelli Jose D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15 and allowed to consume water (C, light Coca Cola ® (L or regular Coca Cola® (R as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats.

  9. Bisphenol A in soft drinks and canned foods and data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Karzi, Vasiliki; Vakonaki, Elena; Goumenou, Marina; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Stivaktakis, Polychronis; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. About 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0% of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (range) were 33.4 ± 4.4 ng/g (4.90 ± 0.64-66.0 ± 8.6 ng/g) in canned solid phase, 2.70 ± 0.08 ng/ml (1.90 ± 0.06-3.50 ± 0.11 ng/ml) in canned liquid phase and 2.30 ± 0.18 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.03-10.2 ± 0.8 ng/ml) in soft drinks. The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature according to which higher concentrations of BPA were detected in the solid fraction of canned food compared to their liquid fraction.

  10. A simple and rapid resonance Rayleigh scattering method for detection of indigo carmine in soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Yang, Jidong; Tan, Xuanping; Zhang, Zhan; Hu, Xiaomei; Yang, Menghuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel method that uses acridine orange (AO) to detect indigo carmine (IC) in soft drinks was developed. The method is highly sensitive and is based on a resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) technique. In Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, pH 4.3, the weak RRS intensity of AO was greatly enhanced by the addition of IC, with the maximum peak located at 332 nm. Under optimum conditions, it was found that the enhanced RRS intensity was proportional to the concentration of IC over a range of 2-32 × 10(-6)  mol/L. A low detection limit of 2.4 × 10(-8)  mol/L was achieved. The sensitivity and selectivity of the method are high enough to permit the determination of trace amounts of IC without any significant interference from high levels of other components such as common anions and other amino acids. Finally, the concentration of IC in three different soft drinks was determined with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2011-08-01

    A new solid phase extraction method is described for sensitive and selective determination of trace levels of rhodamine B in soft drink, food and industrial waste water samples. The method is based on the adsorption of rhodamine B on the Sepabeads SP 70 resin and its elution with 5 mL of acetonitrile in a mini chromatographic column. Rhodamine B was determined by using UV visible spectrophotometry at 556 nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of rhodamine B, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, resin amount, and sample volume were investigated. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of rhodamine B were investigated. The preconcentration factor was found 40. The detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the reagent blank for rhodamine B was 3.14 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were found as 5% in 1×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ rhodamine B. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including soft drink, food and industrial waste water and lipstick samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, Marina Kjærgaard; Nilsson, C; Secher, A

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic...... astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were...... than energy expenditure, suggesting differential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences...

  13. From Networks to Nematics -- Carbon Nanotubes as Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Erik K.

    2006-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent just one example of an emerging paradigm in condensed matter physics and materials science: traditionally ``hard'' materials appearing in new ``soft'' applications and environments. In part, this trend being is being fueled by the desire to exploit solution and fluid-based approaches, such as self assembly and flow processing, in an effort to streamline the engineering and commercialization of new materials and applications. In this talk I will review our recent work on dispersing, aligning and manipulating carbon nanotubes in complex fluids and polymer melts. Due to the large aspect ratios and strong attractive interaction potentials intrinsic to such materials, a number of scientific and technical challenges become immediately apparent. In particular, I will focus on the subtle interplay of rheological influences, such as externally applied shear and elongation stresses, with the inherent ``stickiness'' of carbon nanotube suspensions and melts, where the latter typically favors the formation of disordered networks or ``gels'' over the more desirable liquid-crystalline order. For simple shear, the strength of the applied stress is found to be a critical factor in dictating carbon nanotube morphology, which varies from a quiescent network to macroscopic aggregates to a fully dispersed, flow-aligned (para)nematic state. Although we find remarkably low loading thresholds for elastic percolation, our results highlight a fundamental dilemma for the engineering of conducting carbon nanotube polymer composites; dispersion stability will often be achieved at the expense of electrical conductivity.

  14. Yeast contamination potential in a carbonated soft drink industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components of the filling valve in a gravity filling machine namely, tulip rubber, spreader rubber and vent tube were analyzed for yeasts using the membrane filtration method. After 5 days incubation, it was found that the tulip rubber had the highest yeast count of 9 cfu/20mls while the vent tube had the least count of 5 ...

  15. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 11 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks. The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, paraoxon-methyl, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) when spiked at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate). Samples were filtered (if particulate matter was present), degassed (if carbonated), and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitation was performed with matrix-matched external standard calibration solutions. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.0750 to 10.0 microg/L. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficient of determination (r2) values greater than or equal to 0.9900 with the exception of 2 values that were 0.9285 and 0.8514. Fortification spikes at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate) over the course of 2 days (n=8 each day) for 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=48): 94.4 (15.2) for alachlor, 98.2 (13.5) for atrazine, 83.1 (41.6) for butachlor, 89.6 (24.5) for isoproturon, 87.9 (24.4) for malaoxon, 96.1 (9.26) for monocrotophos, 101 (25.7) for paraoxon-methyl, 86.6 (20.4) for phorate, 101 (16.5) for phorate sulfone, 93.6 (25.5) for phorate sulfoxide, and 98.2 (6.02) for 2,4-D.

  16. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    of overfeeding during different developmental periods. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were offered chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet (chow plus chocolate and soft drink) during gestation and lactation. At birth, offspring were randomly cross-fostered within each dietary group into small and normal litter sizes...... weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....

  17. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2017-08-28

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  19. Soft drink, software and softening of teeth - a case report of tooth wear in the mixed dentition due to a combination of dental erosion and attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2010-10-21

    This case report describes a 9-year-old boy with severe tooth wear as a result of drinking a single glass of soft drink per day. This soft drink was consumed over a period of one to two hours, while he was gaming intensively on his computer. As a result, a deep bite, enamel cupping, sensitivity of primary teeth and loss of fillings occurred. Therefore, dentists should be aware that in patients who are gaming intensively, the erosive potential of soft drinks can be potentiated by mechanical forces leading to excessive tooth wear.

  20. [Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Two Soft Drinks on Bracket Bond Strength and on Intact and Sealed Enamel: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Azam; Sindhu, D; Nayak, Rabindra S; Mamatha, J; Chaitra, K R; Vishwakarma, Swati

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two soft drinks, Coca-Cola and Mirinda orange on bracket bond strength, on adhesive remnant on teeth after debonding the bracket, and to observe by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) the effect of these drinks on intact and sealed enamel. 120 non-carious maxillary premolar teeth already extracted for Orthodontic purposes were taken and divided into three groups, i.e., Coca-Cola drink, Mirinda orange, and control (artificial saliva) group. Brackets were bonded using conventional methods. Teeth were kept in soft drinks for 15 days, for 15 min, 3 times a day, separated by intervals of 2 h. At other times, they were kept in artificial saliva. The samples, thus obtained were evaluated for shear bond strength using the universal testing machine and subsequently subjected for adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. SEM study on all the three groups was done for evaluating enamel surface of the intact and sealed enamel. The lowest mean resistance to shearing forces was shown by Mirinda orange group (5.30 ± 2.74 Mpa) followed by Coca-Cola group (6.24 ± 1.59 Mpa) and highest resistance to shearing forces by control group (7.33 ± 1.72 Mpa). The ARI scores revealed a cohesive failure in control samples and an adhesive failure in Mirinda and cola samples. SEM results showed areas of defect due to erosion caused by acidic soft drinks on intact and sealed enamel surface. Mirinda group showed the lowest resistance to shearing forces, followed by Coca-Cola group and with the highest resistance to shearing forces by the control group. There were significant differences between the control group and the study groups. Areas of defects, which were caused by erosion related to acidic soft drinks on the enamel surface around the adhesive, were seen. Areas of defects caused by Coca-Cola were more extensive when compared to Mirinda orange drink.

  2. A Study of Different Subsequence Elimination Strategies for the Soft Drink Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maldonado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of soft drinks involves two main stages: syrup preparation and bottling. To obtain the lots sequence in the bottling stage, three approaches are studied. They are based on the sub-tour elimination constraints used in mathematical models for the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem. Two of the mathematical models are from the literature and use classical constraints. The third model includes multi-commodity flow constraints to eliminate disconnected subsequences. The computational behavior of the three models is studied using instances generated with data from the literature. The numerical results show that there are considerable differences among the three models and indicates that the multi-commodity formulation provides good results but it requires far more computational effort when the instances are solved by a commercial software.

  3. Global Brands and Consumer Ethnocentrism of Youth Soft Drink Consumers in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammam Haris Tasurru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a large market for consumer products targeting youth consumers, with populations of more than 70 million young inhabitants and market size of USD 155 billion. The large size of this potential market attracts foreign products with globallyrecognized brands to enter the Indonesian market. The objective of this study is to explain the purchase intention of youth consumers toward a particular brand of soft drink with global penetration by their perceptions and ethnocentrism. This study obtained response from 156 youths in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. The resulting data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with LISREL software package. The study found that consumer ethnocentrism decreases purchase intention, both directly and indirectly through brand image. Contrary to the hypothesis, consumer ethnocentrism does not influence corporate image of the global firm, which significantly influences brand image but only slightly impacts purchase intentions directly.

  4. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  5. Water Consumption in European Children : Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-01-01

    Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices

  6. Consumption of soft drinks and juices and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in a European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Klinaki, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Parr, Christine L.; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Wennberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Ward, Heather A.; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess associations between intake of combined soft drinks (sugar sweetened and artificially sweetened) and fruit and vegetable juices and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC) and biliary tract cancers (GBTC) using data from

  7. The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    This study investigated whether soft drink consumption is related to fighting and bullying behaviour among school-aged children and whether nervousness and irritation mediated this relationship. The data on 7583 adolescents aged 11-15 years from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged

  8. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,21...

  9. Perceived rules and accessibility: measurement and mediating role in the association between parental education and vegetable and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Lien, Nanna; Torheim, Liv Elin; Andersen, Lene F; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-08-17

    The existence of socioeconomic differences in dietary behaviors is well documented. However, studies exploring the mechanisms behind these differences among adolescents using comprehensive and reliable measures of mediators are lacking. The aims of this study were (a) to assess the psychometric properties of new scales assessing the perceived rules and accessibility related to the consumption of vegetables and soft drinks and (b) to explore their mediating role in the association between parental education and the corresponding dietary behaviors. A cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents from three counties in Norway (mean age 14.3 years (SD = 0.6)) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. Principal component analysis, test-retest and internal reliability analysis were conducted. The mediating role of perceived accessibility and perceived rules in the association between parental education and the dietary behaviors was explored using linear regression analyses. Factor analyses confirmed two separate subscales, named "accessibility" and "rules", both for vegetables and soft drinks (factor loadings >0.60). The scales had good internal consistency reliability (0.70-0.87). The test-retest reliability of the scales was moderate to good (0.44-0.62). Parental education was inversely related to the consumption of soft drinks and positively related to the consumption of vegetables. Perceived accessibility and perceived rules related to soft drink consumption were found to mediate the association between parental education and soft drink consumption (47.5 and 8.5 % of total effect mediated). Accessibility of vegetables was found to mediate the association between parental education and the consumption of vegetables (51 % of total effect mediated). The new scales developed in this study are comprehensive and have adequate validity and reliability; they are therefore considered appropriate for use among 13-15 year-olds. Parents, in particular those with a

  10. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems.

  11. Does the provision of cooled filtered water in secondary school cafeterias increase water drinking and decrease the purchase of soft drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughridge, J L; Barratt, J

    2005-08-01

    Secondary school students often do not drink sufficient quantities of water during the school day to prevent dehydration, promote learning and good health. The study aimed to measure the effect of health promotion and the free provision of cooled filtered water on the consumption of water and soft drinks. It also aimed to explore students' views of drinking water provision. A study was conducted with three secondary schools in North Tyneside. Over a 3 month period one school was given cooled filtered water and active promotion (W + P), another had water only (W). The control school (C) took part in post-intervention focus group work. The average volume of water drunk by students, in school 'W + P' was greater (P = 0.05) than that drunk in school 'W' and control school 'C'. The volume of soft drinks purchased by students in all three schools before and during the intervention remained static. Focus group data revealed that students viewed their existing water provision as poor and wanted sufficient supplies of cooled filtered water in school. This pilot study indicates that active promotion of water drinking increased consumption of water by secondary school students. Further developments of the project are suggested.

  12. Does cheese intake blunt the association between soft drink intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome? Results from the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    H?stmark, Arne Torbj?rn; Haug, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A high soft drink intake may promote, whereas intake of cheese may reduce risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but will cheese intake blunt the soft drink versus MetS association? Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Oslo Health Study. Participants Among the 18?770 participants of the Oslo Health Study there were 5344 men and 6150 women having data on cheese and soft drink intake and on risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. The MetSRisk index=the weighted sum of...

  13. Health impact assessment of the UK soft drinks industry levy: a comparative risk assessment modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Mytton, Oliver T; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Elhussein, Ahmed; Rayner, Mike; Jebb, Susan A; Blakely, Tony; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    the proportion of low-sugar drinks sold in the better-case scenario would result in 91 042 (4289-204 903; 0·6%) fewer adults and children with diabetes, 1528 (4414-21 785; 19·7) fewer incident cases of diabetes per year, and 172 718 (47 919-294 499; 2·8) fewer decayed, missing, or filled teeth annually. The greatest benefit for obesity and oral health would be among individuals aged younger than 18 years, with people aged older than 65 years having the largest absolute decreases in diabetes incidence. The health impact of the soft drinks levy is dependent on its implementation by industry. Uncertainty exists as to how industry will react and about estimation of health outcomes. Health gains could be maximised by substantial product reformulation, with additional benefits possible if the levy is passed on to purchasers through raising of the price of high-sugar and mid-sugar drinks and activities to increase the market share of low-sugar products. None.

  14. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Distribution of filamentous fungi in a manufacturing factory for plastic caps for soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The distribution of filamentous fungi was studied in a production line for plastic caps for soft drinks. Of 52 samples from both the swab and air sampling tests, a total of 47 filamentous fungi were isolated. Of those 47 fungi, 32 (68.0%) were found in the swab test samples. As for the swab test results, the area where most of the filamentous fungi were isolated was the printing/inspection room followed by the resin storage room. The breakdown of the filamentous fungi showed Cladosporium: 14.9%; Penicillium: 10.6%; Acremonium: 8.5%; Trichoderma: 8.5%; Arthrinium: 6.4%; and Aureobasidium: 6.4%. The fungal count of raw material (MPN/100g) was zero for the base resin, 0.36 for the master batch and 4.3 for the liner material, respectively. Those fungal counts seemed to be very low and it was concluded that the hygienic conditions of the plastic cap production line were very good.

  16. Risk assessments of aspartame, acesulfame K, sucralose and benzoic acid from soft drinks, "saft", nectar and flavoured water

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority conducted a risk assessment of the intense sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose and the preservative benzoic acid from soft drinks, “saft”, nectar and flavoured water. VKM concludes that for all age groups in all scenarios the intake of sweeteners is well below the established ADI values, thus, there is no concern related to the intake of the sweeteners aspartame, ace...

  17. Exposure to Food Advertising On Television: Associations With Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Jennifer L. Harris

    2011-01-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food adve...

  18. Soft drink intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Aditya; Kwok, Chun Shing; Mamas, Mamas A

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages is independently associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether soft drink consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Medline and EMBASE were searched in November 2015 for studies which considered soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverage [SSB] and artificially sweetened beverage [ASB]) intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Pooled risk ratios for adverse outcomes were calculated using inverse variance with a random effects model, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. A total of 12 studies (eight cross-sectional, four prospective cohort studies) with 56 244 participants (age range 6-98 years) were included in the review. Our pooled analysis found that soft drink intake is associated with metabolic syndrome. This relationship is shown in cross-sectional studies of SSB consumption (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.91) and both cross-sectional and prospective studies of ASB consumption (RR 2.45; 95% CI 1.15-5.14; RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.44, respectively). However, pooled results of prospective cohort studies of SSB consumption found no association between intake and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Sugar-sweetened beverage and ASB intake are both associated with metabolic syndrome. This association may be driven by the fact that soft drink intake serves as a surrogate for an unhealthy lifestyle, or an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Remineralizing effect of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion caused by soft drinks : ultrastructural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Marco; Mirando, Maria; Rattalino, Davide; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio,Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Material and Methods Fifty specimens were assigned to 5 groups of 10 specimens each. (Group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, 3: erosive challenge,...

  20. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  1. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Holloman, Christopher; Lowry-Gordon, Karen

    2009-10-26

    During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%). Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  2. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-01-01

    .... Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such...

  3. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Secher, A; Kildegaard, J; Skovgaard, T; Nielsen, M O; Grove, K; Raun, K

    2017-01-16

    Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were assigned to either S or C diet, giving four groups until the end of the experiment at 26 weeks of age. As expected, adult offspring fed the S diet post weaning became obese (body weight: Pchocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences for the metabolic phenotype in the offspring if they continued on the S diet in postnatal life. These offspring displayed obesity despite lowered energy intake associated with alterations in hypothalamic leptin signalling.

  4. The effect for Japanese workers of a self-help computerized cognitive behaviour therapy program with a supplement soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Nonaka, Yuji; Abe, Keiichi; Adachi, So-Ichiro; Adachi, Shohei; Kuboki, Tomifusa; Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (CCBT) programs can provide a useful self-help approach to the treatment of psychological problems. Previous studies have shown that CCBT has moderate effects on depression, insomnia, and anxiety. The present study investigated whether a supplement drink that includes L-carnosine enhances the effect of CCBT on psychological well-being. Eighty-seven participants were randomly allocated to a control group, CCBT, or CCBT with supplement drink. The CCBT and CCBT with supplement drink groups received six weekly self-help CCBT program instalments, which consisted of psycho-education about stress management and coping, behaviour activation, and cognitive restructuring. The CCBT group consumed a bottle of the supplement soft drink every morning through the 6 weeks. This program was delivered by an e-learning system on demand and also included a self-help guidebook. Seventy-two participants completed the program or were assess at the end of the study. ANOVA revealed that there were significant interactions (times × groups) for POMS tension-anxiety and fatigue. The CCBT group showed significantly improved tension-anxiety scores, whereas the CCBT with drink group showed significant improvements on fatigue. The self-help CCBT program reduced the subjective experience of tension-anxiety in this group of workers. The addition of a supplement drink enhanced the effect of CCBT on fatigue, providing one possible approach to enhancement of such programs. This study was registered on September 2, 2016 at UMIN. The registration number is UMIN000023903.

  5. Determination of pesticide residues (> 0.5 microg/L) in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 19 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pesticide residues determined were 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (2,4'-DDD); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD); alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; dieldrin; aldrin; ethion; chlorpyrifos; beta-endosulfan; malathion; methyl-parathion; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-HCH; delta-HCH; and gamma-HCH. Blind fortification solutions containing 4 different levels of pesticide residues (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/L) were provided to 8 collaborating laboratories who used them to create test samples in 6 matrixes (also provided): 2 colas, a diet cola, a clear lemon-lime soft drink, an orange soft drink, and a sports drink. Reproducibility (RSDR) for all 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 7 to 151% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 11 to 121% at 0.5 microg/L, and 14 to 67% at 1.0 microg/L. Repeatability (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and the sports drink, ranged from 1 to 76% for the 19 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level, 9 to 38% at 0.5 microg/L, and 9 to 38% at 1.0 microg/L. Recoveries for the 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 77 to 645% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 60 to 231% at 0.5 microg/L, and 61 to 146% at 1.0 microg/L. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action with a limit of quantification (LOQ) equal to 0.5 microg/L for 4,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDD; 4,4'-DDE; 4,4'-DDD; 2,4'-DDE; aldrin; dieldrin; alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; chlorpyrifos; and ethion, and an LOQ equal to 1.0 microg/L for beta-endosulfan; alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; delta-HCH; gamma-HCH; methyl-parathion; and

  6. Determination of low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 11 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues determined in this study were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Blind fortification solutions containing 3 different levels of pesticide residues were provided to 9 collaborating laboratories to create test samples at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 0.5 microg/L with a 10-fold concentration for phorate in a total of 6 matrixes (2 colas, 1 diet cola, 1 clear lemon-lime soft drink, 1 orange soft drink, and 1 sports drink). Good qualitative performance of the method was demonstrated for all pesticide residues. Reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 7 to 151% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDR ranged from 9 to 57% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D in all matrixes. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and sports drink, ranged from 0 to 124% for the 11 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDr ranged from 4 to 26%. Recoveries for the 11 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 84 to 300% at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate) and from 66 to 127% at the 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate) level. Coefficients of determination (r2) of the matrix-matched calibration curves were > or = 0.95. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC

  7. Supplementation of soft drinks with metallic ions reduces dissolution of bovine enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L. For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L or in combination (1 mmol/L with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative.

  8. Trace analysis of Ponceau 4R in soft drinks using differential pulse stripping voltammetry at SWCNTs composite electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifei; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Xuemin; Xu, Jingkun; Wen, Yangping

    2015-08-01

    Ponceau 4R, an edible synthetic colorant used in drinks, syrups, and sweets, has been successfully detected using differential pulse voltammetry at a single-walled carbon nanotubes-modified composite electrode based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and two derivatives thereof. The electrochemical parameters of three Ponceau 4R sensors, such as pH value, pre-concentration time, and scan rate, have been optimized, and their electrochemical performances have been compared. A poly(acrylate-modified 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)-single-walled carbon nanotubes-poly(vinyl alcohol)-modified electrode showed the best electrocatalytic activity, with the highest response current, lowest detection limit (1.8 nm), widest linear range (0.0055-110.6 μm), and best sensing stability. Additionally, the modified electrode has also been successfully employed for real sample analysis with soft drinks. Satisfactory results were obtained, demonstrating this to be an easy and effective approach for trace analysis of Ponceau 4R in food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between long-term consumption of soft drinks and variables of bone modeling and remodeling in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Remer, Thomas; Stehle, Peter; Schoenau, Eckhard; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-12-01

    Soft drinks are thought to displace milk in diets of children and adolescents and therefore might affect variables of bone modeling and remodeling. We assessed the association between long-term consumption of several types of soft drinks and bone variables in children and adolescents. Long-term dietary data from 3-d weighed dietary records collected by 228 healthy children and adolescents enrolled in the DONALD Study in 4 y of study participation were used for data analysis. Variables of bone modeling and remodeling of the radius were assessed by using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, muscle area, BMI SD scores, and growth velocity, long-term consumption of all soft drinks and uncaffeinated soft drinks was negatively associated with bone mineral content (P drinks was negatively associated with polar strength strain index (P drinks was negatively associated with total protein and milk intake, but was not associated with potential renal acid load. Long-term consumption of caffeinated and uncaffeinated soft drinks appears to have bone catabolic effects in boys and girls. This effect is mainly mediated by the negative association with total protein intake and is not primarily based on milk displacement.

  10. Direct treatment of high-strength soft drink wastewater using a down-flow hanging sponge reactor: performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Junhui; Fang, Curtis; Yu, Jimmy; Sathyagal, Arun; Willman, Eric; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2017-07-01

    A stand-alone down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system with a two-stage configuration was operated for 700 days to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater at 3000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD). Throughout the operation, >90% COD and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency was obtained by the first stage, and a final effluent of COD reactor performance in the first stage. The microbial community of the retained biomass on the sponges differed significantly based on spatial locations of sponges, sampling time points, and loading shocks. In general, Proteobacteria were found to be more abundant in the reactor at an organic removal efficiency >80% than that at reactor operation. In addition, high abundance of Bacteroidetes in the reactor was speculated to be responsible for the VFA accumulation in the effluent. This study demonstrated that stand-alone DHS reactor could be used in treating high-strength wastewater efficiently.

  11. Analysis of water-soluble azo dyes in soft drinks by high resolution UPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Yang, J L; Li, J H; Li, X L; Li, J; Lu, X Y; Shen, J Z; Wang, Y W; Zhang, Z H

    2011-10-01

    An UPLC-Orbitrap MS system was exploited to develop and validate a method for the simultaneous determination of 11 water-soluble azo dyes (Acid Yellow 17, Acid Red 14, Acid Red 26, Acid Red 73, Acid Orange 52, Acid Orange 7, Acid Orange 12, Acid Yellow 36, Acid Orange 5, Acid Red 88 and Acid Red 9) in soft drinks. Three pairs of isomers and four disulphonated azo dyes were among a total of 11 water-soluble azo dyes obtained and purified using an SPE cartridge. They were well separated using optimized UPLC conditions with a RP18 column and a MS detector with a compatible mobile phase system. All these dyes were detected by the Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. HCD tandem MS fragment ions are first reported in this paper, and these fragment ions can be used for identification of isomers of azo dyes. According to SANCO/10684/2009, one quasi-molecular ion in full scan mode as quantification ion and one or two HCD tandem MS fragment ions as identification ions are required for compound confirmation. Matrix-matched calibration was employed for quantification. The linear matrix-matched calibration for the 11 dyes was in the range 5-200 ng g(-1) with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9939-0.9988. Recoveries were 68.9-110.8% with coefficients of variation of 0.9-12.0%. Depending on the dye and matrix involved, the LODs were between 1.0 and 3.2 ng g(-1) and LOQs were between 5.2 and 9.8 ng g(-1).

  12. Risk assessments of aspartame, acesulfame K, sucralose and benzoic acid from soft drinks, "saft", nectar and flavoured water

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2013-01-01

    KM concludes that for all age groups in all scenarios the intake of sweeteners is well below the established ADI values, thus, there is no concern related to the intake of the sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K or sucralose. VKM further concludes that the benzoic acid intake in 2-year-old-children (in scenarios 3 and 4) is of concern for high concumers since their intake have increased compared to 2007 and now reach the ADI for high consumers of soft drinks and “saft”, although the A...

  13. Does cheese intake blunt the association between soft drink intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome? Results from the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Haug, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A high soft drink intake may promote, whereas intake of cheese may reduce risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but will cheese intake blunt the soft drink versus MetS association? Cross-sectional study. The Oslo Health Study. Among the 18 770 participants of the Oslo Health Study there were 5344 men and 6150 women having data on cheese and soft drink intake and on risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. The MetSRisk index=the weighted sum of triglycerides (TG), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) divided by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were used as a combined risk estimate to examine the cheese/soft drink versus MetS interaction, and the SumRisk index was used to assess whether increasing intake of soft drinks/cheese would include an increasing number of MetS factors being above the cut-off values. We analysed the data using non-parametric correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In all three groups of soft drink intake (seldom/rarely, 1-6 glasses/week, ≥1 glass/day), there was a negative cheese versus MetSRisk correlation (p≤0.003), but in the highest intake group the influence of cheese seemed to level off, suggesting interaction. However, there was no interaction between cheese and soft drinks within the fully adjusted models. Conversely, at all four levels of cheese intake, MetSRisk increased with an increasing intake of soft drinks (p≤0.001 at all cheese levels). Similar associations were found with the SumRisk index. When controlling for a large number of covariates (eg, sex, age group, smoking, education, physical activity, intake of fruits/berries and vegetables), the above associations prevailed. Cheese intake blunted the association between soft drink intake and MetS, an influence possibly related to fatty acid desaturation, or to undetected covariates.

  14. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürge Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0, flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min, and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer. Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS- 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2>0.9962, accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%, precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%, limits of detection (LODs, and limits of quantification (LOQs parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  15. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  16. Modelling of structure and properties of soft carbons with application to carbon anode baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oeyvind

    1998-11-01

    This work deals with topics related to modelling and control of ring furnaces for the baking of carbon anodes used in aluminium electrolysis. Anodes made of a granular coke and coal tar pitch are used in aluminium electrolysis. The anode properties are imperative for successful operation of the aluminium smelters. After mixing and forming the anode paste, heat treatment of the carbon blocks takes place in so-called ring furnaces. A ring furnace consists of a series of heat treatment sections where each section is loaded with a batch of anodes. The heat treatment of the anodes in a section consumes a lot of energy, and the anode properties partly depend on the heat treatment program. Previous work in the field of ring furnace modelling, operation and control is shortly reviewed. Both petroleum coke and coal tar pitch belong to the group of soft carbons. Models for structural parameters and porosity of soft carbons are developed. Furthermore, a new model for pyrolysis of coal tar pitch is proposed. Based on the models for pyrolysis, structure and porosity, new models for properties of single phase carbons and composite anodes are developed. These models are suitable for use in optimization of the baking process. A detailed mathematical model of a part of the heat treatment process is formulated in three spatial dimensions. The model is based on first principle descriptions of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena and the resulting model appears as a set of partial differential equations. The spatial differential operators are discretized by using the finite volume approach. In this way, a high dimensional nonlinear state space model is obtained. The model has been simulated using the method of lines. A vector of quantities which describes the anode properties is defined. This property vector constitutes a systematic definition of anode quality where the quality parameters are calculated as nonlinear transformations of the state space vector. Models are derived

  17. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  18. Use of carbon dioxide laser in oral soft tissue procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nimit; Verma, Sunil; Chadha, Minni; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2015-01-01

    Lasers have been introduced in dentistry as an alternative to conventional knife surgery. The advantage to the operator includes a clean dry field that enhances visibility and reduces the procedure time. The patient benefits by minimal postoperative pain and swelling. The paper discusses use of carbon dioxide laser in five conditions commonly encountered in oral cavity. PMID:26668460

  19. Re-examination of Advertising Effectiveness in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefulu Adesoga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamined the effectiveness of Advertising in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos, Nigeria. The study linked with past researches through its extensive conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature review. The methodology adopted was survey research design. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on samples from the selected Companies. The weighted means and percentage values of the respondents were used in the analysis and decision making. The findings showed the need for a better understanding of organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive achievement of advertising goals because of its impacts on customers’ awareness and product adoption.. The study concluded that advertising is a potent and veritable tool for achieving marketing goals. The study recommended that firms should identify the best advertising program to achieve its advertising goals. By implication, marketing decision maker should incorporate advertising expenditures in the marketing budget in appreciation of its role.

  20. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, J M; Maersk, M; Belza, A

    2015-01-01

    insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, suggesting that UA may have a causal role in the development of metabolic complications. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of consuming SSSDs on circulating levels of UA in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS...... milk, diet cola and water. Thus, a high daily intake of SSSDs in overweight and obese subjects without overt diabetes may increase the risk of developing metabolic complications through the elevation of UA. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00777647.European Journal of Clinical......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) are associated with the development of metabolic disorders. Fructose is a major component of SSSDs and is demonstrated to induce uric acid (UA) production and stimulate fat accumulation independent of excess caloric intake. UA induce...

  1. PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Aminu; Sharp, Liz; Stern, Ben; Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj

    2012-04-01

    While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg(-1). For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L(-1) with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

  2. Predictors and mediators of differences in soft drinks consumption according to gender and plans of further education among Norwegian secondary-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilsen, M.; te Velde, S.J.; Bere, E.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore mediators of gender and educational differences in sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption (SDC) and whether gender and level of future education moderate the associations of accessibility, modelling, attitudes and preferences with SDC. Design A cross-sectional school-based

  3. View the label before you view the movie: a field experiment into the impact of portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-06-06

    Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  4. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling. PMID:21645373

  5. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Michiel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101 were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition or with millilitre information (control condition. Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25, nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15. Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  6. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  7. Dental Erosion: Immediate pH Changes of Commercial Soft Drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The pH ranged from 2.74 - 2.76 for cola drinks, 2.68- 4.48 for non-cola drinks and 3.55 - 3.91 for fruit juices. LaCasera®; t0 (on opening) was 2.68, t3 (3 minutes) was 2.72. Seven up®; t0=3.15, t3=3.15. Cocacola®; t0=2.76, t3=2.74. Schweppes®; t0=2.94, t3=2.83. Krest®; t0=4.48, t3=4.54. Pepsicola®; t0=2.74 ...

  8. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Moretto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from

  9. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek? Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer?s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of ...

  10. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  11. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-02-27

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.

  12. Determination Of Caustic Drain Out Period Of Glass Bottle Washerand Impact Of Total And Effective Caustic Strengths For Glass Bottle Washing In Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.MJ. Harshani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important processes in soft drink production is bottle washing high quality of the product depends on that. A main objective of the present study is to determine the impact of total caustic and effective caustic strength on the washing performance of glass bottles. Total and effective caustic strength in samples were measured based on titration results. Four parameters were considered on the washing performance of glass bottles such as Microbiological Tests APC and Yeast amp Molds Methylene blue test Phenolphthalein test and Physical inspection. Ten samples were tested for every test per each time and three times were considered for a day and conduct for 43 days within two caustic drains out periods. Negative correlations in between total effective caustic strengths with time Days indicate from 29 days onward in tanks. There is a Positive correlation P 0.05 in between Carbonates gml and time Days onward. Positive correlations P 0.05 indicate from 35 days onward for the number of algae present bottles number of dirty bottles and APC too. Twenty nine days from the initial charge of caustic soda can be taken as the most suitable day for the caustic discharge. Under the practical scenario mean differences of total and effective caustic strengths are negligible compared to the standard value and not significantly difference P 0.05.

  13. Directed-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes on Soft Substrates for Flexible Biosensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Woo; Koh, Juntae; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2009-03-01

    We developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for flexible biosensors. In this strategy, thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and linker-free assembly process was applied onto the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neuro-transmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  14. Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Juntae; Yi, Mihye; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Jhon, Young Min; Hong, Seunghun

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for use as flexible biosensors. In this strategy, a thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and a linker-free assembly process was applied on the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited a typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neurotransmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  15. Osteoradionecrosis Following Carbon Ion Radiotherapy: Case History Report of a Soft Palate Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Meiko; Kanazaki, Ayako; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy, a form of charged particle radiotherapy that has been used to treat various inoperable and radio-resistant tumors, has been associated with less severe late effects than conventional radiotherapy. A 63-year-old woman with a soft palate defect received carbon ion radiotherapy (total dose: 64 Gray equivalents). Several late effects were observed, and osteoradionecrosis was observed not only on the tumor side but also on the other side and gradually expanded during maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. While the definitive prosthesis improved her speech and eating ability, careful adjustments and close follow-up should continue with respect to postradiation effects.

  16. Source attribution using FLEXPART and carbon monoxide emission inventories: SOFT-IO version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Bastien; Fontaine, Alain; Eckhardt, Sabine; Auby, Antoine; Boulanger, Damien; Petetin, Hervé; Paugam, Ronan; Athier, Gilles; Cousin, Jean-Marc; Darras, Sabine; Nédélec, Philippe; Stohl, Andreas; Turquety, Solène; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Since 1994, the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) program has produced in situ measurements of the atmospheric composition during more than 51 000 commercial flights. In order to help analyze these observations and understand the processes driving the observed concentration distribution and variability, we developed the SOFT-IO tool to quantify source-receptor links for all measured data. Based on the FLEXPART particle dispersion model (Stohl et al., 2005), SOFT-IO simulates the contributions of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the ECCAD emission inventory database for all locations and times corresponding to the measured carbon monoxide mixing ratios along each IAGOS flight. Contributions are simulated from emissions occurring during the last 20 days before an observation, separating individual contributions from the different source regions. The main goal is to supply added-value products to the IAGOS database by evincing the geographical origin and emission sources driving the CO enhancements observed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. This requires a good match between observed and modeled CO enhancements. Indeed, SOFT-IO detects more than 95 % of the observed CO anomalies over most of the regions sampled by IAGOS in the troposphere. In the majority of cases, SOFT-IO simulates CO pollution plumes with biases lower than 10-15 ppbv. Differences between the model and observations are larger for very low or very high observed CO values. The added-value products will help in the understanding of the trace-gas distribution and seasonal variability. They are available in the IAGOS database via http://www.iagos.org. The SOFT-IO tool could also be applied to similar data sets of CO observations (e.g., ground-based measurements, satellite observations). SOFT-IO could also be used for statistical validation as well as for intercomparisons of emission inventories using large amounts of data.

  17. Hybrid Carbon-Based Scaffolds for Applications in Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafdi, Khalid; Joseph, Robert M.; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.

    2012-01-01

    Current biomedical scaffolds utilized in surgery to repair soft tissues commonly fail to meet the optimal combination of biomechanical and tissue regenerative properties. Carbon is a scaffold alternative that potentially optimizes the balance between mechanical strength, durability, and function as a cell and biologics delivery vehicle that is necessary to restore tissue function while promoting tissue repair. The goals of this study were to investigate the feasibility of fabricating hybrid fibrous carbon scaffolds modified with biopolymer, polycaprolactone and to analyze their mechanical properties and ability to support cell growth and proliferation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography, and cell adhesion and cell proliferation studies were utilized to test scaffold suitability as a cell delivery vehicle. Mechanical properties were tested to examine load failure and elastic modulus. Results were compared to an acellular dermal matrix scaffold control (GraftJacket® [GJ] Matrix), selected for its common use in surgery for the repair of soft tissues. Results indicated that carbon scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical maximums and capacity to support fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in comparison with GJ. Fibroblast adhesion and proliferation was collinear with carbon fiber orientation in regions of sparsely distributed fibers and occurred in clusters in regions of higher fiber density and low porosity. Overall, fibroblast adhesion and proliferation was greatest in lower porosity carbon scaffolds with highly aligned fibers. Stepwise multivariate regression showed that the variability in maximum load of carbon scaffolds and controls were dependent on unique and separate sets of parameters. These finding suggested that there were significant differences in the functional implications of scaffold design and material properties between carbon and dermis derived scaffolds that affect scaffold utility as a tissue replacement

  18. The use of nutshell carbons in drinking water filters for removal of trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedna, Mohamed; Marshall, Wayne E; Husseiny, Abdo A; Rao, Ramu M; Goktepe, Ipek

    2004-02-01

    Filtration of drinking water by point-of-use (POU) or point-of-entry (POE) systems is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Drinking water is filtered to remove both organic and inorganic contaminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of granular activated carbon from nutshells (almond, English walnut, pecan) in a POU water filtration system to determine its effectiveness in removing select, potentially toxic metal ions, namely, copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+) or zinc (Zn2+) found in drinking water. The nutshell-based carbon system was designated "Envirofilter" and was compared to four commercial POU systems with brand names of BRITA, Omni Filter, PUR and Teledyne Water Pik. Eight prototype "Envirofilters", consisting of individual or binary mixtures of carbons made from acid-activated almond or pecan shells and steam-activated pecan or walnut shells were constructed and evaluated for adsorption of the three metal ions. The results indicated that a binary mixture of carbons from acid-activated almond and either steam-activated pecan or walnut shells were the most effective in removing these metals from drinking water of all the POU systems evaluated. Binary mixtures of acid-activated almond shell-based carbon with either steam-activated pecan shell- or walnut shell-based carbon removed nearly 100% of lead ion, 90-95% of copper ion and 80-90% of zinc ion. Overall the performance data on the "Envirofilters" suggest that these prototypes require less carbon than commercial filters to achieve the same metal adsorption efficiency and may also be a less expensive product.

  19. Tailored Granular Activated Carbon Treatment of Perchlorate in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    layers. The carbon layer surfaces are generally uncharged ( hydrophobic ), and they thus repel water and charged inorganic species such as perchlorate...Xu et al., 2002; Kiraly and Findenegg, 1998); and onto cellulose, clay, quartz, titanium dioxide, zeolites , soils and membranes (Baillarger et al...carbon is termed “exhausted” and no additional removal of the compound from the liquid phase is observed. As with other hydrophobic compounds, a

  20. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal.

  1. Synergic effects of sugar and caffeine on insulin-mediated metabolomic alterations after an acute consumption of soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Mateos, Rosa María; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; González-Cortés, José Joaquín; Corrales-Cuevas, Manuel; Rojas-Cots, Juan Alberto; Segundo, Carmen; Schwarz, Mónica

    2017-09-01

    High sugar consumption elicits numerous deleterious effects on health by inducing insulin resistance, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is also growing evidence that caffeine may play an important role in the regulation of insulin release and the appearance of related metabolic impairments. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute sugar and caffeine intake on the metabolic health status by using a metabolomic multi-platform based on the combination of flow injection mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. To this end, we performed a randomized, crossover and double-blind intervention study with different soft drinks from the same brand. Numerous metabolomic changes were detected in serum samples over time after the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy-related metabolites, amino acids and lipids, thus demonstrating the intense effects provoked by acute sugar consumption on the organism during 3 h of follow-up. However, the most significant findings were observed after the co-ingestion of caffeine, which could be indicative of a synergic effect of this psychostimulant on insulin-mediated perturbations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Softly, Softly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs…

  3. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: Detailed Analysis of the Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Renault

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted.To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342 among obese pregnant women with BMI≥30 kg/m2.Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA; physical activity intervention alone (PA; or control (C. Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14 and endpoint (weeks 36-37 using a validated food frequency questionnaire.During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7 greater weight gain than those with a low (<1wk intake. The results for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks.In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149.

  4. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2000-01-01

    layers of the sediment. Algal photosynthetic activity and nitrogen uptake reduced nitrogen effluxes and denitrification rates. Sulfate reduction was the most important pathway for carbon mineralization in the sediments of the shallow-water station. In contrast, high bottom-water NO3- concentrations...... and was, together with organotrophic O-2 respiration, the most important pathway for carbon mineralization within these sediments. The obtained process rates were comparable to mineralization rates from much warmer localities, suggesting that benthic mineralization in arctic marine environments......Organic carbon mineralization was studied in a shallow-water (4 m), sandy sediment and 2 comparatively deep-water (150 and 300 m), soft sediments in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Benthic microalgae inhabiting the shallow-water locality significantly affected diurnal O-2 conditions within the surface...

  5. Removal of selected metals from drinking water using modified powdered block carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, V.; Sayeg, I. J.; Buchler, P. M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the possible alternative removal options for the development of safe drinking water supply in the trace elements affected areas. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causes various adverse effects on living bodies. Performance of three filter bed method was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments have been conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon (PBC), powder carbon steel and ball ceramic in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The PBC modified is a satisfactory and practical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water.

  6. Soft drink intake at age six and nine and the association with BMI three and seven years later - A follow-up study based on the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Wang; Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Husby, Ida

    . Mean intake of soft drinks was 0.14 l/d at age 6 and 0.12 l/d at age 9 (difference p=0.08). No associations were found between intake of soft drink at age 6 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.8; p=0.91), or intake at age 9 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.3; p= 0.80). Neither was the change in intake of soft drinks from...... age 6 to 9 associated with BMI at age 13 (b:-0.6; p= 0.46). Conclusion: In young children aged 6 years the intake of soft drinks did not seem to be associated with BMI at age 13. Neither was the change in intake or intake at age 9.1.Conflicts of interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest...

  7. Determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schunck, Jacob; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-01-19

    Mate beer and Mate soft drinks are beverages produced from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate). In Yerba Mate, the xanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, also known as methylxanthines, are important active components. The presented method for the determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-UV) offers a fully automated and sensitive determination of the three methylxanthines. Filtration of the samples was followed by degassing, dilution with acetonitrile in the case of Mate beers for protein precipitation, and centrifugation before the extracts were analyzed by HPTLC-UV on LiChrospher silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator and acetone/toluene/chloroform (4:3:3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the absorbance was scanned at 274nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4ng/zone, respectively, for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. With recoveries close to 100% and low standard deviations reliable results were guaranteed. Experimental Mate beers as well as Mate beers and Mate soft drinks from the market were analyzed for their concentrations of methylxanthines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Torbjørn Høstmark

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD, we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  9. Determination of sucralose in soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroka, Joerg; Doncheva, Ivanka; Spangenberg, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a method based on HPTLC in which reagent-free derivatization is followed by UV/fluorescence detection. The method was tested for the determination of sucralose (C12H19C13O8; (2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[(2R,3S,4S,5S)-2,5-bis(chloromethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]oxy-5-chloro-6-hydroxymethyl)oxane-3, 4-diol; CAS Registry No. 56038-13-2) in carbonated and still beverages at the proposed European regulatory limits. For still beverages, a portion of the sample was diluted with methanol-water. For carbonated beverages, a portion of the sample was degassed in an ultrasonic bath before dilution. Turbid beverages were filtered after dilution through an HPLC syringe filter. The separation of sucralose was performed by direct application on amino-bonded (NH2) silica gel HPTLC plates (no cleanup needed) with the mobile phase acetonitrile-water. Sucralose was determined after reagent-free derivatization at 190 degrees C; it was quantified by measurements of both UV absorption and fluorescence. The samples, both spiked and containing sucralose, were sent to 14 laboratories in five different countries. Test portions of a sample found to contain no sucralose were spiked at levels of 30.5, 100.7, and 299 mg/L. Recoveries ranged from 104.3 to 124.6% and averaged 112% for determination by UV detection; recoveries ranged from 98.4 to 101.3% and averaged 99.9% for determination by fluorescence detection. On the basis of the results for spiked samples (blind duplicates at three levels), as well as sucralose-containing samples (blind duplicates at three levels and one split level), the values for the RSDr ranged from 10.3 to 31.4% for determinations by UV detection and from 8.9 to 15.9% for determinations by fluorescence detection. The values for the RSDR values ranged from 13.5 to 31.4% for determinations by UV detection and from 8.9 to 20.7% for determinations by fluorescence detection.

  10. Determination of gardenia yellow colorants in soft drink, pastry, instant noodles with ultrasound-assisted extraction by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-E; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Ling, Yun; Li, Hong-Na; Li, Shao-Hui; Jiang, Shou-Jun; Ren, Zhi-Qin; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Feng

    2016-05-13

    A novel, rapid and simple analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of crocin, crocetin and geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The solid samples were relatively homogenized into powders and fragments. The gardenia yellow colorants were successively extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The analytes were quantitatively measured in the extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.995) of crocin, crocetin and geniposide were obtained within their linear ranges respectively (50-1000ng/mL, 50-1000ng/mL, 15-240ng/mL) by external standard method. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02μg/g for crocin, 0.01μg/g for crocetin and 0.002μg/g for geniposide. And the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the ranges of 0.05-0.45μg/g for crocin, and in the ranges of 0.042-0.32μg/g for crocetin, and in the ranges of 0.02-0.15μg/g for geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles samples. The average recoveries of crocin, crocetin and geniposide ranged from 81.3% to 117.6% in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The intra- and inter-day precisions were respectively in the range of 1.3-4.8% and 1.7-11.8% in soft drink, pastry and instant noodle. The developed methods were successfully validated and applied to the soft drink, pastry, and instant noodles collected from the located market in Beijing from China. Crocin, crocetin and geniposide were detected in the collected samples. The average concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 4.20mg/g for crocin, and from 0.62 to 3.11mg/g for crocetin, and from 0.18 to 0.79mg/g for gardenia in various food samples. The method can provide evidences for government to determine gardenia yellow pigments and geniposide in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  12. Potential effects of organic carbon production on ecosystems and drinking water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta is an important component of the Ecosystem Restoration Program of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program (CALFED. CALFED is a collaborative effort among state and federal agencies to restore the ecological health and improve water management of the Delta and San Francisco Bay (Bay. Tidal wetland restoration is intended to provide valuable habitat for organisms and to improve ecosystem productivity through export of various forms of organic carbon, including both algae and plant detritus. However, the Delta also provides all or part of the drinking water for over 22 million Californians. In this context, increasing sources of organic carbon may be a problem because of the potential increase in the production of trihalomethanes and other disinfection by-products created during the process of water disinfection. This paper reviews the existing information about the roles of organic carbon in ecosystem function and drinking water quality in the Bay-Delta system, evaluates the potential for interaction, and considers major uncertainties and potential actions to reduce uncertainty. In the last 10 years, substantial progress has been made on the role of various forms of organic carbon in both ecosystem function and drinking water quality; however, interactions between the two have not been directly addressed. Several ongoing studies are beginning to address these interactions, and the results from these studies should reduce uncertainty and provide focus for further research.

  13. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 19 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); alpha-endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); dieldrin; ethion; 4,4-DDD; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDT); beta-endosulfan; 4,4-DDT; and endosulfan sulfate when spiked into a 200 mL matrix sample at 0.50 microg/L. The samples were diluted with acetonitrile and water, then liquid-liquid phase extracted into petroleum ether. The resulting extract was concentrated to near dryness and diluted with hexane:dichloromethane (50:50). The concentrated samples were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The resulting solution was concentrated and separated on a Florisil substrate. The eluent was concentrated to near dryness, reconstituted to produce a 200-fold concentration, and analyzed using a GC/MS instrument operated in the selective ion monitoring mode. The GC/MS instrument was equipped with a large volume injector capable of injecting 25 microL. External standards prepared in dichloromethane were used for quantification without the need for matrix-matched calibration because the extraction step minimized the matrix effects. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficients of determination (r2) of greater than or equal to 0.9900, with the exception of one value that was 0.988. Fortification spikes at 0.50 microg/L in 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) over the course of 2 days (4 days for Gatorade), where n=8 each day, yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=64): 95.6 (24.8) for alpha-BHC; 91.9 (23.6) for beta-BHC; 89.1 (21

  14. Monitoring and removal of cyanobacterial toxins from drinking water by algal-activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Salim, Emad H; Azab, Yahia A; Ismail, Abdel-Hamid M

    2016-10-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most potent toxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water supplies. This study investigated the abundance of toxin-producing algae in 11 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). A total of 26 different algal taxa were identified in treated water, from which 12% were blue green, 29% were green, and 59% were diatoms. MC levels maintained strong positive correlations with number of cyanophycean cells in raw and treated water of different DWTPs. Furthermore, the efficiency of various algal-based adsorbent columns used for the removal of these toxins was evaluated. The MCs was adsorbed in the following order: mixed algal-activated carbon (AAC) ≥ individual AAC > mixed algal powder > individual algal powder. The results showed that the AAC had the highest efficient columns capable of removing 100% dissolved MCs from drinking water samples, thereby offering an economically feasible technology for efficient removal and recovery of MCs in DWTPs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effects of two soft drinks on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of orthodontic metal brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Soodabeh Sadat; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza; Sajadi, Sepideh

    2014-07-01

    Bond failure of brackets during orthodontic treatment is a common problem; which results in treatment interference, increased treatment time and prolonged clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and a non-alcoholic beer on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic metal brackets in vitro. Eighty intact human premolars were divided into two experimental groups of Coca-Cola and non-alcoholic beer (Istak), and a control group of artificial saliva. Over a period of thirty days, the test groups were immersed in the respective soft drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day. For the remainder of the time, they were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The control group was stored in artificial saliva during the experiment. All samples were subjected to shearing forces using Universal Testing Machine. ARI was determined with a stereomicroscope at ×12 magnification. The data of shear bond strength were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post-Hoc test and the data of ARI scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. No significant difference was observed in ARIs of the three groups (P≤ 0.552). The shear bond strength of Coke group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups (P≤ 0.035); but there was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of Istak and the control group (P≤ 0.999). Coca-Cola decreased the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  16. Effects of two soft drinks on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of orthodontic metal brackets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Sadat Sajadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bond failure of brackets during orthodontic treatment is a common problem; which results in treatment interference, increased treatment time and prolonged clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and a non-alcoholic beer on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI of orthodontic metal brackets in vitro.Eighty intact human premolars were divided into two experimental groups of Coca-Cola and non-alcoholic beer (Istak, and a control group of artificial saliva. Over a period of thirty days, the test groups were immersed in the respective soft drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day. For the remainder of the time, they were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The control group was stored in artificial saliva during the experiment. All samples were subjected to shearing forces using Universal Testing Machine. ARI was determined with a stereomicroscope at ×12 magnification. The data of shear bond strength were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post-Hoc test and the data of ARI scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.No significant difference was observed in ARIs of the three groups (P≤ 0.552. The shear bond strength of Coke group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups (P≤ 0.035; but there was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of Istak and the control group (P≤ 0.999.Coca-Cola decreased the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  17. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: Detailed Analysis of the Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted. To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342) among obese pregnant women with BMI≥30 kg/m2. Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14) and endpoint (weeks 36-37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149.

  18. Long-term dynamics of dissolved organic carbon: implications for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Köhler, Stephan J; Futter, Martyn N

    2012-08-15

    Surface waters are the main source of drinking water in many regions. Increasing organic carbon concentrations are a cause for concern in Nordic countries since both dissolved and particulate organic carbon can transport contaminants and adversely affect drinking water treatment processes. We present a long-term study of dynamics of total (particulate and dissolved) organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in the River Fyris. This river supplies drinking water to approximately 200000 people in Uppsala, Sweden. The River Fyris is a main tributary to Lake Mälaren, which supplies drinking water to approximately 2 million people in the greater Stockholm area. Utilities responsible for drinking water supply in both Uppsala and Stockholm have expressed concerns about possible increases in TOC. We evaluate organic carbon dynamics within the Fyris catchment by calculating areal mass exports using observed TOC concentrations and modeled flows and by modeling dissolved organic carbon (as a proxy for TOC) using the dynamic, process based INCA-C model. Exports of TOC from the catchment ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 g m(-2) year(-1) in the period 1995-2010. The variation in annual exports was related to climatic variability which influenced seasonality and amount of runoff. Exports and discharge uncoupled at the end of 2008. A dramatic increase in TOC concentrations was observed in 2009, which gradually declined in 2010-2011. INCA-C successfully reproduced the intra- and inter-annual variation in concentrations during 1996-2008 and 2010-2011 but failed to capture the anomalous increase in 2009. We evaluated a number of hypotheses to explain the anomaly in 2009 TOC values, ultimately none proved satisfactory. We draw two main conclusions: there is at least one unknown or unmeasured process controlling or influencing surface water TOC and INCA-C can be used as part of the decision-making process for current and future use of rivers for drinking water supply. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  19. Short-term organic carbon migration from polymeric materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guannan; Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik

    2018-02-01

    Polymeric materials are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. These materials could release organic carbon that supports bacterial growth. To date, the available migration assays for polymeric materials have not included the potential influence of chlorination on organic carbon migration behavior. Hence, we established a migration and growth potential protocol specifically for analysis of carbon migration from materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. Four different materials were tested, including ethylene propylene dienemethylene (EPDM), poly-ethylene (PEX b and PEX c) and poly-butylene (PB). Chlorine consumption rates decreased gradually over time for EPDM, PEXc and PB. In contrast, no free chlorine was detected for PEXb at any time during the 7 migration cycles. Total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was evaluated in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated migrations. TOC concentrations for EPDM and PEXb in chlorinated migrations were significantly higher than non-chlorinated migrations. The AOC results showed pronounced differences among tested materials. AOC concentrations from chlorinated migration waters of EPDM and PB were higher compared to non-chlorinated migrations, whereas the opposite trend was observed for PEXb and PEXc. There was also a considerable difference between tested materials with regards to bacterial growth potential. The results revealed that the materials exposed to chlorine-influenced migration still exhibited a strong biofilm formation potential. The overall results suggested that the choice in material would make a considerable difference in chlorine consumption and carbon migration behavior in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  1. Field-amplified sample injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for the analysis of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and their diglycidyl ethers and derivatives in canned soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Ayala, Héctor; Núñez, Oscar; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Conditions were established for the separation and analysis of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and their diglycidyl ethers by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). Good resolution was obtained for all compounds, although in order to achieve the separation of ortho-ortho, ortho-para, and para-para isomers of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), BFDGE x 2H(2)O and BFDGE x 2HCl, it was necessary to use a 25 microm id fused silica capillary. To increase sensitivity, a field-amplified sample injection (FASI)-MECC method was developed using 10 mM SDS solution as injection matrix and a 75 microm id fused silica capillary. Instrumental quality parameters such as LODs (0.999), and run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (RSD values lower than 12.5%) were determined. Finally, the suitability of the FASI-MECC method for the analysis of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and their diglycidyl ethers in canned soft drinks was evaluated. Quantitation was performed by matrix-matched calibration using a plastic-bottled isotonic drink as matrix. The results showed that FASI-MECC is an economic method for the screening and quantitation of these kinds of compounds in soft drink beverages, with no loss of reproducibility, and effective at concentrations lower than the specific migration level values established by the European Union.

  2. Effects of Assimilable Organic Carbon and Free Chlorine on Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Kong, Weiwen; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Bolin

    2015-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM). The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L-1 in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1×105 cells.mL-1 to 2.6×104 cells.mL-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L-1 to 4.8×104 cells.mL-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L-1 due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network. PMID:26034988

  3. Effects of assimilable organic carbon and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolu; Wang, Jingqi; Liu, Tingting; Kong, Weiwen; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Bolin

    2015-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM). The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L(-1) in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1 × 10(5) cells.mL(-1) to 2.6 × 10(4) cells.mL(-1) at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L(-1) to 4.8 × 10(4) cells.mL(-1) at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L(-1) due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network.

  4. Effects of assimilable organic carbon and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Liu

    Full Text Available Assimilable organic carbon (AOC is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM. The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L(-1 in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1 × 10(5 cells.mL(-1 to 2.6 × 10(4 cells.mL(-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L(-1 to 4.8 × 10(4 cells.mL(-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L(-1 due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network.

  5. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared to control group. How to cite the article: Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: A comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):7-10.

  6. Investigating Chemical Composition and Indications of Hydrosol Soft Drinks (Aromatic Waters) Used in Persian Folk Medicine for Women's Hormonal and Reproductive Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Afifi, Mehdi; Etemadfard, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Hydrosol soft drinks in Persian nutrition culture are produced as side products of the essential oil industry to be used as safe remedies for treatment of some ailments. This study investigated hydrosols for women's hormonal health conditions. Detailed information was gathered by questionnaires. Chemical constituents of these mono- or poly-herbal hydrosols were identified after liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster and K-means analysis (SPSS software) were used to find their relevance. A literature survey was also performed. In most cases, thymol, carvacrol, and carvone were the major constituents except for dill, white horehound, willow, Moderr, and yarrow hydrosols, whose their major components were dill ether, menthol, phenethyl alcohol, linalool, or camphor. Based on clustering methods, some similarities could be found in their constituents with some exceptions. None of them have been studied scientifically before. These investigations may lead to the development of some functional drinks or even new lead components.

  7. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity. Objective: We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft...... drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures. Design: A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity- Associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist...

  8. Platinum/carbon multilayer reflectors for soft-x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, G S; Yamashita, K; Suzuki, T; Hatsukade, I; Tamura, K; Ishigami, T; Takahama, S; Namba, Y

    1994-09-01

    We have fabricated platinum/carbon (Pt/C) multilayer reflectors with 2d spacaings between 50 and 200 Å, using an electron-beam evaporator. We investigated the effects of 2d values, the number of layer pairs, substrate temperature, coatings, and the long-term stability on the reflectivity performance by using characteristic x rays and monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the 0.8-8-keV region. In this study we show that Pt/C multilayers with 10-20 layer pairs exhibit high and stable soft-x-ray reflectivity. The interfacial roughness was measured in the range of 5 Å and becomes lower for structures deposited at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Coating these reflectors with a 100-Å-thick platinum layer increased the grazing angle reflectivity without significantly lowering the Bragg peak reflectivity.

  9. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and caffeine in commercial soft drinks using reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Turak, Fatma; Güzel, Remziye; Dinç,Erdal

    2017-01-01

    A new reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid (AA) and caffeine (CAF) in 11 different commercial drinks consisting of one energy drink and 10 ice tea drinks. Separation of the analyzed AA and CAF with an internal standard, caffeic acid, was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm i.d.), using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2M H3PO4 (11:89, v/v) wit...

  10. Determination of cadmium and lead at sub-ppt level in soft drinks: An efficient combination between dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlate, Jaime S; Soares, Bruno M; Seeger, Tassia S; Vecchia, Paula Dalla; Mello, Paola A; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A

    2017-04-15

    A DLLME method for extraction and preconcentration of Cd and Pb from soft drinks and further determination by GF AAS was developed. Important parameters of DLLME such as the type and volume of dispersive and extraction solvents, concentration of DDTC (complexing agent) and pH were evaluated. Better results were obtained using 500μL of acetone for Cd and 700μL of acetonitrile for Pb as dispersive solvents, 60μL of CCl4 as extraction solvent for both analytes and 500μL of 1.5% DDTC solution. Accuracy was evaluated by recovery assays and ranged from 91 to 113% for Cd and from 95 to 108% for Pb, with RSD below 10 and 7%, respectively. The LODs were 0.006 and 0.072ngL-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The optimized method was applied for the determination of Cd and Pb in soft drinks with different brands and flavours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of high milk and sugar-sweetened and non-caloric soft drink intake on insulin sensitivity after 6 months in overweight and obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine; Bruun, Jens M

    2017-01-01

    on insulin sensitivity and further to compare milk with sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A secondary analysis of a 6-month RCT with 60 overweight and obese subjects randomly assigned to 1 L/d of either milk (1.5 g fat/100 mL), SSSD, non-calorie soft drink (NCSD), or water was conducted...... parameters differed significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there were no differences in effect between intake of milk, SSSD, NCSD, and water (1 L/d) for 6-month on risk markers of T2D in overweight and obese adults. As a secondary analysis, these results need confirmation in future......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Milk contributes with saturated fat, but randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of dairy on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) where dairy is given as whole foods are scarce. The objective of our study was to investigate the long-term effects of semi-skimmed milk...

  12. Particle size distribution and property of bacteria attached to carbon fines in drinking water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Leilei

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative change and size distribution of particles in the effluents from a sand filter and a granular activated carbon (GAC filter in a drinking water treatment plant were investigated. The average total concentration of particles in the sand filter effluent during a filter cycle was 148 particles/mL, 27 of which were larger than 2 µm in size. The concentration in the GAC effluent (561 particles/mL was significantly greater than that in the sand filter effluent. The concentration of particles larger than 2 µm in the GAC filter effluent reached 201 particles/mL, with the amount of particles with sizes between 2 µm and 15 µm increasing. The most probable number (MPN of carbon fines reached 43 unit/L after six hours and fines between 0.45 µm and 8.0 µm accounted for more than 50%. The total concentration of outflowing bacteria in the GAC filter effluent, 350 CFU (colony-forming units/mL, was greater than that in the sand filter effluent, 210 CFU/mL. The desorbed bacteria concentration reached an average of 310 CFU/mg fines. The disinfection efficiency of desorbed bacteria was lower than 40% with 1.5 mg/L of chlorine. The disinfection effect showed that the inactivation rate with 2.0 mg/L of chloramine (90% was higher than that with chlorine (70%. Experimental results indicated that the high particle concentration in raw water and sedimentation effluent led to high levels of outflowing particles in the sand filter effluent. The activated carbon fines in the effluent accounted for a small proportion of the total particle amount, but the existing bacteria attached to carbon fines may influence the drinking water safety. The disinfection efficiency of desorbed bacteria was lower than that of free bacteria with chlorine, and the disinfection effect on bacteria attached to carbon fines with chloramine was better than that with only chlorine.

  13. The removal of chlorophenoxy herbicides from drinking water by activated carbon adsorption and liquid core microcapsule perstraction

    OpenAIRE

    Engels, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water quality reports have highlighted a persistent trend in pesticide detection in the Republic of Ireland. One of the main concerns of the drinking water industry is that consistent pesticide removal rates do not occur despite the existence of activated carbon (AC) treatment regimes in most plants. The present work examines the removal of three chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, 2,4-D and dichlorprop) from aqueous solutions by AC adsorption and a novel liquid-core microcapsule perstra...

  14. Development of biomass in a drinking water granular active carbon (GAC) filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Silvana; Boller, Markus; Köster, Oliver; Helbing, Jakob; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-12-01

    Indigenous bacteria are essential for the performance of drinking water biofilters, yet this biological component remains poorly characterized. In the present study we followed biofilm formation and development in a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter on pilot-scale during the first six months of operation. GAC particles were sampled from four different depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) and attached biomass was measured with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. The attached biomass accumulated rapidly on the GAC particles throughout all levels in the filter during the first 90 days of operation and maintained a steady state afterward. Vertical gradients of biomass density and growth rates were observed during start-up and also in steady state. During steady state, biomass concentrations ranged between 0.8-1.83 x 10(-6) g ATP/g GAC in the filter, and 22% of the influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed. Concomitant biomass production was about 1.8 × 10(12) cells/m(2)h, which represents a yield of 1.26 × 10(6) cells/μg. The bacteria assimilated only about 3% of the removed carbon as biomass. At one point during the operational period, a natural 5-fold increase in the influent phytoplankton concentration occurred. As a result, influent assimilable organic carbon concentrations increased and suspended bacteria in the filter effluent increased 3-fold as the direct consequence of increased growth in the biofilter. This study shows that the combination of different analytical methods allows detailed quantification of the microbiological activity in drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of diclofenac by conventional drinking water treatment processes and granular activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of conventional drinking water treatment processes with and without pre-oxidation with chlorine and chlorine dioxide and the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration for the removal of diclofenac (DCF). Water treatment was performed using the Jar test with filters on a lab scale, employing nonchlorinated artesian well water prepared with aquatic humic substances to yield 20HU true color, kaolin turbidity of 70 NTU and 1mgL(-1) DCF. For the quantification of DCF in water samples, solid phase extraction and HPLC-DAD methods were developed and validated. There was no removal of DCF in coagulation with aluminum sulfate (3.47mgAlL(-1) and pH=6.5), flocculation, sedimentation and sand filtration. In the treatment with pre-oxidation and disinfection, DCF was partially removed, but the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was unchanged and byproducts of DCF were observed. Chlorine dioxide was more effective than chorine in oxidizing DCF. In conclusion, the identification of DCF and DOC in finished water indicated the incomplete elimination of DCF through conventional treatments. Nevertheless, conventional drinking water treatment followed by GAC filtration was effective in removing DCF (⩾99.7%). In the oxidation with chlorine, three byproducts were tentatively identified, corresponding to a hydroxylation, aromatic substitution of one hydrogen by chlorine and a decarboxylation/hydroxylation. Oxidation with chlorine dioxide resulted in only one byproduct (hydroxylation). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Trace Arsenic to Meet Drinking Water Standards Using Iron Oxide Coated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntim, Susana Addo; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-05-12

    This study presents the removal of trace level arsenic to meet drinking water standards using an iron oxide-multi-walled carbon nanotube (Fe-MWCNT) hybrid as a sorbent. The synthesis was facilitated by the high degree of nanotube functionalization using a microwave assisted process, and a controlled assembly of iron oxide was possible where the MWCNT served as an effective support for the oxide. In the final product, 11 % of the carbon atoms were attached to Fe. The Fe-MWCNT was effective in arsenic removal to below the drinking water standard levels of 10 µg L(-1). The absorption capacity of the composite was 1723 µg g(-1) and 189 µg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V) respectively. The adsorption of As(V) on Fe-MWCNT was faster than that of As(III). The pseudo-second order rate equation was found to effectively describe the kinetics of arsenic adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for As(III) and As(V) fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich models.

  17. Oral Cooling and Carbonation Increase the Perception of Drinking and Thirst Quenching in Thirsty Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Peyrot des Gachons

    Full Text Available Fluid ingestion is necessary for life, and thirst sensations are a prime motivator to drink. There is evidence of the influence of oropharyngeal stimulation on thirst and water intake in both animals and humans, but how those oral sensory cues impact thirst and ultimately the amount of liquid ingested is not well understood. We investigated which sensory trait(s of a beverage influence the thirst quenching efficacy of ingested liquids and the perceived amount ingested. We deprived healthy individuals of liquid and food overnight (> 12 hours to make them thirsty. After asking them to drink a fixed volume (400 mL of an experimental beverage presenting one or two specific sensory traits, we determined the volume ingested of additional plain, 'still', room temperature water to assess their residual thirst and, by extension, the thirst-quenching properties of the experimental beverage. In a second study, participants were asked to drink the experimental beverages from an opaque container through a straw and estimate the volume ingested. We found that among several oro-sensory traits, the perceptions of coldness, induced either by cold water (thermally or by l-menthol (chemically, and the feeling of oral carbonation, strongly enhance the thirst quenching properties of a beverage in water-deprived humans (additional water intake after the 400 ml experimental beverage was reduced by up to 50%. When blinded to the volume of liquid consumed, individual's estimation of ingested volume is increased (~22% by perceived oral cold and carbonation, raising the idea that cold and perhaps CO2 induced-irritation sensations are included in how we normally encode water in the mouth and how we estimate the quantity of volume swallowed. These findings have implications for addressing inadequate hydration state in populations such as the elderly.

  18. Oral Cooling and Carbonation Increase the Perception of Drinking and Thirst Quenching in Thirsty Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Avrillier, Julie; Gleason, Michael; Algarra, Laure; Zhang, Siyu; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime; Breslin, Paul A S

    Fluid ingestion is necessary for life, and thirst sensations are a prime motivator to drink. There is evidence of the influence of oropharyngeal stimulation on thirst and water intake in both animals and humans, but how those oral sensory cues impact thirst and ultimately the amount of liquid ingested is not well understood. We investigated which sensory trait(s) of a beverage influence the thirst quenching efficacy of ingested liquids and the perceived amount ingested. We deprived healthy individuals of liquid and food overnight (> 12 hours) to make them thirsty. After asking them to drink a fixed volume (400 mL) of an experimental beverage presenting one or two specific sensory traits, we determined the volume ingested of additional plain, 'still', room temperature water to assess their residual thirst and, by extension, the thirst-quenching properties of the experimental beverage. In a second study, participants were asked to drink the experimental beverages from an opaque container through a straw and estimate the volume ingested. We found that among several oro-sensory traits, the perceptions of coldness, induced either by cold water (thermally) or by l-menthol (chemically), and the feeling of oral carbonation, strongly enhance the thirst quenching properties of a beverage in water-deprived humans (additional water intake after the 400 ml experimental beverage was reduced by up to 50%). When blinded to the volume of liquid consumed, individual's estimation of ingested volume is increased (~22%) by perceived oral cold and carbonation, raising the idea that cold and perhaps CO2 induced-irritation sensations are included in how we normally encode water in the mouth and how we estimate the quantity of volume swallowed. These findings have implications for addressing inadequate hydration state in populations such as the elderly.

  19. [Removal of arsenite from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-Jie; Jia, Yong-Feng; Wu, Xing; Wang, He

    2009-06-15

    Nano zero-valent iron was loaded onto activated carbon by deoxidizing Fe2+ in aqueous solution and approximately 8.2% (wt) of iron was loaded it. The size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) x (1 000-3 000) nm. The adsorption capacity for arsenic was approximately 1.997 mg/g activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI/AC) in the 2 mg/L As(III) solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The uptake of arsenic by NZVI/AC was rapid in the first 12 h (94.3%) and equilibrium was achieved at 72 h (99.86%). As(III) was partly oxidized by the absorbent in the process of absorption. The presence of phosphate and silicate ions significantly decreased arsenic removal rate while the effect of other common ions such as sulfate, carbonate and oxalate was insignificant. NZVI/AC was effectively regenerated after adsorption of arsenic when elution was applied with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. The results suggest that NZVI/AC is an ideal candidate for the treatment of arsenic contaminated drinking water.

  20. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  1. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  2. A method for preparing ferric activated carbon composites adsorbents to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao Li; Lin, Y C; Chen, X; Gao, Nai Yun

    2007-09-30

    Iron oxide/activated carbon (FeO/AC) composite adsorbent material, which was used to modify the coal-based activated carbon (AC) 12 x 40, was prepared by the special ferric oxide microcrystal in this study. This composite can be used as the adsorbent to remove arsenic from drinking water, and Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation well describes the experimental adsorption isotherms. Then, the arsenic desorption can subsequently be separated from the medium by using a 1% aqueous NaOH solution. The apparent characters and physical chemistry performances of FeO/AC composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch and column adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the arsenic removal capability of the prepared FeO/AC composite material and virgin activated carbon. It can be concluded that: (1) the main phase present in this composite are magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)), hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) and goethite (alpha-FeO(OH)); (2) the presence of iron oxides did not significantly affect the surface area or the pore structure of the activated carbon; (3) the comparisons between the adsorption isotherms of arsenic from aqueous solution onto the composite and virgin activated carbon showed that the FeO/AC composite behave an excellent capacity of adsorption arsenic than the virgin activated carbon; (4) column adsorption experiments with FeO/AC composite adsorbent showed that the arsenic could be removed to below 0.01 mg/L within 1250 mL empty bed volume when influent concentration was 0.5mg/L.

  3. Laser-induced forward transfer of carbon nanowalls for soft electrodes fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: constantinescu@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université/CNRS, LP3 laboratory (UMR CNRS 7341), F-13288 Marseille (France); INFLPR – National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin, E-mail: s_vizi@infim.ro [INFLPR – National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Valentin [INFLPR – National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Aldica, Gheorghe [NIMP – National Institute of Materials Physics, Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Lazea-Stoyanova, Andrada [INFLPR – National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Alloncle, Anne-Patricia; Delaporte, Philippe [Aix-Marseille Université/CNRS, LP3 laboratory (UMR CNRS 7341), F-13288 Marseille (France); Dinescu, Gheorghe [INFLPR – National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbon nanowalls (CNW) are grown on quartz substrates, by plasma techniques. • Thermal, morphological and electrical investigations of CNW are presented. • Laser-induced forward transfer of CNW pixels is demonstrated. • Raman spectrometry of printed pixels vs. donor CNW is discussed. - Abstract: Carbon nanowalls (CNW) are two-dimensional interconnected graphitic nanostructures that have a few μm in length and height, reaching typical thicknesses of a few tens of nm. We present results on such layers synthesized in a low pressure argon plasma jet, injected with acetylene and hydrogen, on transparent substrates (quartz) heated at 600 °C, without catalyst. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the CNW are stable up to 420 °C in air, and Raman spectroscopy investigations highlight their graphene-like structure. Finally, using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser device (355 nm, 50 ps), we show that 2D-arrays of CNW (pixels and lines) can be printed by laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), preserving their architecture and structure. Electrical measurements on 1 μm thick CNW demonstrate typical values in the range of 357.5–358.4 Ω for the samples grown on Au/Cr electrodes, and in the range of 450.1–474.7 Ω for the LIFT printed lines (under positive, negative, and neutral polarization; 1 kHz–5 MHz frequency range; 500 mV and 1 V, respectively). Their morphology is highlighted by means of optical and electronic microscopy. Such structures have potential applications as soft conductive lines, in sensor development and/or embedding purposes.

  4. Effect of porosity and tortuosity of electrodes on carbon polymer soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sunjai Nakshatharan; Punning, Andres; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents an electro-mechanical model and simulation of ionic electroactive polymer soft actuators with a porous carbon electrode, polymer membrane, and ionic liquid electrolyte. An attempt is made to understand the effects of specific properties of the porous electrodes such as porosity and tortuosity on the charge dynamics and mechanical performance of the actuator. The model uses porous electrode theory to study the electrochemical response of the system. The mechanical response of the whole laminate is attributed to the evolution of local stresses caused by diffusion of ions (diffusion-induced stresses or chemical stresses). The model indicates that in actuators with porous electrode, the diffusion coefficient of ions, conductivity of the electrodes, and ionic conductivity in both electrodes and separator are altered significantly. In addition, the model leads to an obvious deduction that the ions that are highly active in terms of mobility will dominate the whole system in terms of resulting mechanical deformation direction and rate of deformation. Finally, to validate the model, simulations are conducted using the finite element method, and the outcomes are compared with the experimental data. Significant effort has been put forward to experimentally measure the key parameters essential for the validation of the model. The results show that the model developed is able to well predict the behavior of the actuator, providing a comprehensive understanding of charge dynamics in ionic polymer actuator with porous electrodes.

  5. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and caffeine in commercial soft drinks using reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Fatma; Güzel, Remziye; Dinç, Erdal

    2017-04-01

    A new reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid (AA) and caffeine (CAF) in 11 different commercial drinks consisting of one energy drink and 10 ice tea drinks. Separation of the analyzed AA and CAF with an internal standard, caffeic acid, was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm i.d.), using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2M H3PO4 (11:89, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and an injection volume of 1.0 μL. Calibration graphs for AA and CAF were computed from the peak area ratio of AA/internal standard and CAF/internal standard detected at 244.0 nm and 273.6 nm, respectively. The developed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method was validated by analyzing standard addition samples. The proposed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method gave us successful results for the quantitative analysis of commercial drinks containing AA and CAF substances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and caffeine in commercial soft drinks using reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid (AA and caffeine (CAF in 11 different commercial drinks consisting of one energy drink and 10 ice tea drinks. Separation of the analyzed AA and CAF with an internal standard, caffeic acid, was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm i.d., using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2M H3PO4 (11:89, v/v with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and an injection volume of 1.0 μL. Calibration graphs for AA and CAF were computed from the peak area ratio of AA/internal standard and CAF/internal standard detected at 244.0 nm and 273.6 nm, respectively. The developed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method was validated by analyzing standard addition samples. The proposed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method gave us successful results for the quantitative analysis of commercial drinks containing AA and CAF substances.

  7. Insight into the hard-soft acid-base properties of differently substituted phenylhydrazines in reactions with dimethyl carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, Anthony E; Aricò, Fabio; Tundo, Pietro

    2008-11-20

    Following the preliminary studies on the reactivity of the ambident nucleophile phenylhydrazine with dimethyl carbonate, investigations involving para-substituted phenylhydrazines were carried out in order to probe differences in the reactivity within this class of nucleophile. Phenylhydrazines substituted by electron withdrawing or donating substituents showed an increase in reactivity of the phenylhydrazine toward dimethyl carbonate. Under the basic conditions used, all phenylhydrazines displayed hard nucleophilicity, signifying that para-substitution on the phenyl ring has little effect on the hard-soft behavior of this class of nucleophile. This conclusion fits well within the results previously obtained using other para-substituted nucleophiles, i.e., phenols.

  8. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  9. [Removal of arsenate from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-jie; Jia, Yong-feng; Yao, Shu-hu; Wu, Xing; Wang, Shu-ying

    2009-12-01

    A new adsorbent, activated carbon impregnated with nano zero-valent iron was prepared, which size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) nm x (1000-3000) nm and approximately 8.2% of iron was loaded onto it. The arsenate removal percentage was 99.5% by 1.5 g/L NZVI/AC in the 2 mg/L arsenic solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The adsorption capacity was about 15.4 mg/g when equilibrium concentration was 1.0 mg/L. Kinetics revealed that uptake of arsenate ion by NZVI/AC was 91.4% in the first 12 h and equilibrium time was about 72 h. The intraparticle diffusion model was applied to study the mechanics of arsenate in the activated carbon. The presence of phosphate and silicate could significantly decrease arsenate removal while the effects of the other anions and cations on the arsenic removal were neglectable. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated when elution is done with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Our results suggest that NZVI/AC is a suitable candidate for drinking water treatment due to its high reactivity.

  10. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents Citotoxicidade e mutagenicidade de refrigerantes sabor cola e uva, em células de medula óssea de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.Devido ao grande consumo de refrigerantes no Brasil e no mundo nos últimos anos, e tendo em vista que alguns dos componentes presentes na composição destes possuem potenciais danosos para os organismos, em especial o humano, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial citotóxico e mutagênico de uma marca de refrigerante sabor Cola e uma de sabor Uva. Foram utilizadas como sistema-teste as células de medula óssea de ratos Wistar, tratados via gavagem com dose única do refrigerante sabor Cola ou Uva e, em seguida, fornecidos ad libitum (no lugar da água, por 24 horas. Foi feito um controle negativo, administrando água, em dose única, e um controle positivo administrando ciclofosfamida, via intraperitoneal. A análise estatística mostrou que os refrigerantes sabor Cola e Uva não foram citotóxicos. Entretanto, o refrigerante sabor Cola foi mutagênico neste

  11. Association of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in drinking water and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademikia, Samaneh; Rafiee, Zahra; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mansourian, Marjan; Modaberi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the amounts of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in two drinking water sources and their relationship with some gastrointestinal diseases. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. Two wells located in residential areas were selected for sampling and measuring the TOC, nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)). This water is used for drinking as well as for industrial and agricultural consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations of water samples were analyzed using DR 5000 spectrophotometer. The information of patients was collected from the records of the main referral hospital of the region for gastrointestinal diseases. In both areas under study, the mean water nitrate and nitrite concentrations were higher in July than in other months. The mean TOC concentrations in areas 1 and 2 were 2.29 ± 0.012 and 2.03 ± 0.309, respectively. Pollutant concentration and gastrointestinal disease did not show any significant relationship (P > 0.05). Although we did not document significant association of nitrite, nitrate, and TOC content of water with gastrointestinal diseases, it should be considered that such health hazards may develop over time, and the quality of water content should be controlled to prevent different diseases.

  12. Preparation of iron-impregnated granular activated carbon for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qigang; Lin, Wei; Ying, Wei-chi

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was impregnated with iron through a new multi-step procedure using ferrous chloride as the precursor for removing arsenic from drinking water. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that the impregnated iron was distributed evenly on the internal surface of the GAC. Impregnated iron formed nano-size particles, and existed in both crystalline (akaganeite) and amorphous iron forms. Iron-impregnated GACs (Fe-GACs) were treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize iron in GAC and impregnated iron was found very stable at the common pH range in water treatments. Synthetic arsenate-contaminated drinking water was used in isotherm tests to evaluate arsenic adsorption capacities and iron use efficiencies of Fe-GACs with iron contents ranging from 1.64% to 12.13% (by weight). Nonlinear regression was used to obtain unbiased estimates of Langmuir model parameters. The arsenic adsorption capacity of Fe-GAC increased significantly with impregnated iron up to 4.22% and then decreased with more impregnated iron. Fe-GACs synthesized in this study exhibited higher affinity for arsenate as compared with references in literature and shows great potential for real implementations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol drinking and one-carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms on pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Sawaki, Akira; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hiraki, Akio; Kawase, Takakazu; Watanabe, Miki; Nakamura, Tsuneya; Yamao, Kenji; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2008-10-01

    Effect of alcohol consumption on pancreatic cancer risk has been investigated in many studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effect of alcohol on pancreatic cancer in conjunction with polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism enzymes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), and thymidylate synthase (TS) variable number of tandem repeat. A total of 157 pancreatic cancer patients and 785 age- and sex- matched control subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic models adjusted for potential confounders. Heavy alcohol drinking was marginally associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.00-3.62). None of the polymorphisms showed any significant effect on pancreatic cancer risk by genotype alone. In stratified analysis, effect of alcohol consumption on pancreatic cancer was observed in individuals with the MTHFR 667 CC, MTR 2756 AA, or MTRR 66 G allele. OR (95% CI) of pancreatic cancer for heavy drinkers compared with never drinkers was 4.50 (1.44-14.05) in the MTHFR 667 CC genotype, 2.65 (1.17-6.00) in the MTR 2756 AA genotype, and 3.35 (1.34-8.36) in the MTRR 66 G allele carriers. These results suggest that the folate-related enzyme polymorphism modifies the association between drinking habit and pancreatic cancer risk.

  14. Optimized extraction method for LC-MS determination of bisphenol A, melamine and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in selected soft drinks, syringes, and milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Alaa

    2013-07-01

    Described below is an optimized solid-phase extraction method (SPE) for the simultaneous determination of three hazardous plastic additives. Two high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (HPLC-ESI-MS) methods were developed and validated to estimate the melamine (MEL), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA) contents in drinking water, syringes, soft drinks, and dry milk powder. One extraction procedure optimally recovered all three substances from the different matrices. Two extraction columns were combined and included a silica gel LiChroprep RP-2 column (20:1, g/g, top column) and a Sep-Pak with a C18 column (500mg, bottom column). The analytical column was an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C8 column, 4.6mm×150mm, 5μm, maintained at 50±2°C. MEL and DEHP were monitored by positive triple quad mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) using an acidic mobile phase, while BPA was monitored by negative TQ-MS using a mobile phase containing a 0.05% ammonia solution. The general linear range of the three compounds ranged from 12 to 1000pg/μL in the injected solution (25μL). The average extraction recoveries were within the range of 83.0-102.5%. Relatively high concentrations of BPA and DEHP were found in the milk powder and sterile syringes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  16. Substrate turnover at low carbon concentrations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    utilisation and bacterial growth at low nutrient conditions in a model distribution system. The model system consisted of two loops in series, where flow rate and retention time were controlled independently. Spiking the drinking water of the model system with two different environmentally realistic......Water quality changes caused by microbial activity in the distribution network can cause serious problems. Reducing the amount of microbial available substrate may be an effective way to control bacterial aftergrowth. The purpose of the present study was to study the kinetics of substrate...... concentrations of carbon allowed for a close monitoring of the kinetics of substrate turnover (less than 10 μg C/L 14C-benzoic acid was added). The mineralisation of benzoic acid was rapid and could be modelled by a no-growth Monod expression using a maximum degradation rate of 0.59 μg C/L/h and a half...

  17. Adsorption of microcystin-LR on mesoporous carbons and its potential use in drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Jung, Sung-Mok; Yi, In-Geol; Choi, Jae-Woo; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2017-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a common toxin derived from cyanobacterial blooms an effective, rapid and non-toxic method needs to be developed for its removal from drinking water treatment plants (DWTP). For an adsorption-based method, mesoporous carbon can be a promising supplemental adsorbent. The effect of mesoporous carbon (MC1, MC2, and MC3) properties and water quality parameters on the adsorption of MC-LR were investigated and the results were analyzed by kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamic, Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO), and intraparticle diffusion models. MC1 was the most appropriate type for the removal of MC-LR with a maximum adsorption capacity of 35,670.49 μg/g. Adsorption of MC-LR is a spontaneous reaction dominated by van der Waals interactions. Pore sizes of 8.5-14 nm enhance the pore diffusion of MC-LR from the surface to the mesopores of MC1. The adsorption capacity was not sensitive to changes in the pH (3.2-8.0) and the existence of organic matter (2-5 mg/L). Furthermore, the final concentration of MC-LR was below the WHO guideline level after a 10-min reaction with 20 mg/L of MC1 in the Nak-Dong River, a drinking water source. The MC-LR adsorption mainly competed with humic substances (500-1000 g/mole); however, they did not have a great effect on adsorption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Consumption and correlates of sweet foods, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks among primary school children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Ali Saad R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week. Approximately 56.3%children were reportedly drinking carbonated beverages weekly and 17.1% in daily basis. Weekly consumption of energy drinks was reported in 21.9% and daily consumption in 4.3% of the children. Daily sweets consumption was positively associated with children age (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-9.5, p=0.035), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.2-5.2, p less than 0.001), energy drinks (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, p=0.029), eating high fat food (OR= 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4, p=0.023), and inversely with children body mass index (BMI) (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.9, p less than 0.001). Consuming carbonated beverages on regular basis was positively associated with consuming energy drinks (OR=9.0, 95% CI: 4.0-21.0, p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary choices were found to be prevalent at early age. Comprehensive intervention programs should be established to prevent unhealthy dietary choices and promote healthier dietary behaviors. Qualitative studies are needed for better understanding of children's dietary behaviors.

  19. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Amaranth and Tartrazine in Drinks and Gelatins Using a Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Perdomo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast, sensitive, and selective method for the simultaneous determination of one pair of synthetic colorants commonly found mixed in food products, Amaranth (AM and Tartrazine (TZ, based on their adsorption and oxidation on a screen-printed electrode (SPE is presented. The variation of peak current with pH, supporting electrolyte, adsorption time, and adsorption potential were optimized using square wave adsorptive voltammetry. The optimal conditions were found to be: pH 3.2 (PBS, Eads 0.00 V, and tads 30 s. Under these conditions, the AM and TZ signals were observed at 0.56 and 0.74 V, respectively. A linear response were found over the 0.15 to 1.20 µmol L−1 and 0.15 to 0.80 µmol L−1 concentrations, with detection limits (3σ/slope of 26 and 70 nmol L−1 for AM and TZ, respectively. Reproducibility for 17.7 µmol L–1 AM and TZ solutions were 2.5 and 3.0% (n = 7, respectively, using three different electrodes. The method was validated by determining AM and TZ in spiked tap water and unflavored gelatin spiked with AM and TZ. Because a beverage containing both AM and TZ was not found, the method was applied to the determination of AM in a kola soft drink and TZ in an orange jelly and a soft drink powder.

  20. Carbon nanofiber-filled conductive silicone elastomers as soft, dry bioelectronic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Slipher, G A; Mrozek, R A

    2016-01-01

    Soft and pliable conductive polymer composites hold promise for application as bioelectronic interfaces such as for electroencephalography (EEG). In clinical, laboratory, and real-world EEG there is a desire for dry, soft, and comfortable interfaces to the scalp that are capable of relaying the microvolt-level scalp potentials to signal processing electronics. A key challenge is that most material approaches are sensitive to deformation-induced shifts in electrical impedance associated with decreased signal-to-noise ratio. This is a particular concern in real-world environments where human motion is present. The entire set of brain information outside of tightly controlled laboratory or clinical settings are currently unobtainable due to this challenge. Here we explore the performance of an elastomeric material solution purposefully designed for dry, soft, comfortable scalp contact electrodes for EEG that is specifically targeted to have flat electrical impedance response to deformation to enable utilization ...

  1. Adsorption of arsenic on multiwall carbon nanotube-zirconia nanohybrid for potential drinking water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntim, Susana Addo; Mitra, Somenath

    2012-06-01

    The adsorptive removal of arsenic from water using a multiwall carbon nanotube-zirconia nanohybrid (MWCNT-ZrO(2)) is presented. The MWCNT-ZrO(2) with 4.85% zirconia was effective in meeting the drinking water standard levels of 10 μg L(-1). The absorption capacity of the composite were 2000 μg g(-1) and 5000 μg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V) respectively, which were significantly higher than those reported previously for iron oxide coated MWCNTs. The adsorption of As(V) on MWCNT-ZrO(2) was faster than that of As(III), and a pseudo-second order rate equation effectively described the uptake kinetics. The adsorption isotherms for As(III) and As(V) fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. A major advantage of the MWCNT-ZrO(2) was that the adsorption capacity was not a function of pH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing and comparing the total antioxidant capacity of commercial beverages: application to beers, wines, waters and soft drinks using TRAP, TEAC and FRAP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Raquel B; Tafulo, Paula A R; Sales, M Goreti F

    2013-01-01

    This work measures and tries to compare the Antioxidant Capacity (AC) of 50 commercial beverages of different kinds: 6 wines, 12 beers, 18 soft drinks and 14 flavoured waters. Because there is no reference procedure established for this purpose, three different optical methods were used to analyse these samples: Total Radical trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Parameter (FRAP). These methods differ on the chemical background and nature of redox system. The TRAP method involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms while TEAC and FRAP involves electron transfer reactions. The AC was also assessed against three antioxidants of reference, Ascorbic acid (AA), Gallic acid (GA) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl- 2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Anova one-way tests were applied to all results and suggested that methods and standards exhibited significant statistical differences. The possible effect of sample features in the AC, such as gas, flavours, food colouring, sweeteners, acidity regulators, preservatives, stabilizers, vitamins, juice percentage, alcohol percentage, antioxidants and the colour was also investigated. The AC levels seemed to change with brand, kind of antioxidants added, and kind of flavour, depending on the sample. In general, higher ACs were obtained for FRAP as method, and beer for kind of sample, and the standard expressing the smaller AC values was GA.

  3. Benzoic and sorbic acid in soft drink, milk, ketchup sauce and bread by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Nemati, Mahboob; Ansarin, Masood; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie

    2015-01-01

    Benzoic acid and sorbic acid are widely used for food preservation. These preservatives are generally recognised as safe. The aim of this study was to determine the level of benzoic and sorbic acid in food samples that are usually consumed in Iran. Therefore, 54 samples, including 15 soft drinks, 15 ultra-high-temperature milk, 15 ketchup sauces and 9 bread samples, were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Benzoic acid was detected in 50 (92.5%) of the samples ranging from 3.5 to 1520 µg mL⁻¹, while sorbic acid was detected in 29 (50.3%) samples in a range of 0.8 and 2305 µg mL⁻¹. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for benzoate were found to be 0.1 and 0.5 µg mL⁻¹, respectively, and for sorbate 0.08 and 0.3 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. The results showed that benzoic acid and sorbic acid widely occur in food products in Iran.

  4. Avaliação do desenpenho logístico da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes Evaluation of the logistic performance of Brazil's soft drink supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vieira Conceição

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho logístico de quatro elos da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes (fornecedores de embalagem para refrigerantes, indústria de refrigerantes, atacado e supermercado, adotando como metodologia o survey eletrônico. As repostas foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes estatísticos Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, além de uma análise descritiva dos dados e da realização dos testes de hipótese. As empresas avaliaram o desempenho logístico da cadeia, por meio de indicadores da logística interna e externa, e identificaram a percentagem de uso desses indicadores. A taxa média de respostas foi de 40%. A pesquisa mostrou que os elos da cadeia de refrigerantes utilizam mais os indicadores de desempenho, que avaliam a logística interna, do que os que avaliam a logística externa.An evaluation was made of the logistics performance of four links in Brazil's soft drink supply chain (soft drink packaging suppliers, soft drink industry, wholesalers and supermarkets, based on an electronic survey of 54 companies, from which a 40% response rate was obtained. The answers were analyzed based on the supply chain management theory, using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests and a descriptive analysis of the data. The surveyed companies evaluated the logistic performance of the chain based on indicators selected from a literature review, and identified the percentage of use of these indicators. It was found that the links in the soft drink chain preferentially use internal logistics performance indicators more than external logistics indicators.

  5. The Electronic Structure of Carbon and its Allotropes as Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A study of the electronic structure of the stage I and stage II alkali graphite intercalation compounds using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy has been done. The pi band of the alkali graphite intercalation compounds is strongly affected by the intercalation process as witnessed by the apparent change in shape of the density of states in comparison to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. From the change in shape, it is possible to determine the amount of charge transferred from the intercalant to the graphite. Our result of complete charge transfer is in disagreement with the results of Wiech and his co-workers. A thorough discussion of both methods of analysis is presented. A comparison of the observed density of states of synthetically grown diamond with natural diamond indicates that synthetic diamond is not the same as natural diamond. A brief discussion of various techniques for growing diamond is presented, as well as the construction of a chemical vapor deposition apparatus to grow diamond-like thin films along with soft x-ray emission and Raman spectroscopy measurements. We find that diamond can only be grown at low pressures if it is highly defective. This is in agreement with theoretical models of chemical vapor deposition. We also discuss the electronic structure of a very rare form of diamond, Lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamond). Lonsdaleite is sp^3 bonded carbon but in a hexagonal matrix. It is only found in highly shocked systems and appears to be the metastable phase between graphite and diamond on the carbon phase diagram. We also briefly discuss the most recently discovered member of the carbon family, Buckminsterfullerene. We present electronic structure data on C_ {60} samples produced in a carbon-arc generator designed and built at the University. Comparison of our data to other published data shows very good agreement.

  6. Control of specific carbon dioxide production in a fed-batch culture producing recombinant protein using a soft sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Robert; Lukasser, Cornelia; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2015-04-20

    The feeding of a fed-batch cultivation producing recombinant protein was controlled by a soft sensor set-up. It was assumed that the control approach could be based on the cell's production of carbon dioxide and that this parameter indicates the metabolic state occurring at induced protein expression. The soft sensor used the on-line signals from a carbon dioxide analyser and a near-infrared (NIR) probe for biomass to estimate the specific production rate qCO2. Control experiments were carried out with various qCO2 set-points where we observe that the feeding of nutrients to the culture could easily be controlled and resulted in a decreased variability compared to uncontrolled cultivations. We therefore suggest that this control approach could serve as an alternative to other commonly applied methods such as controlling the cell's overflow metabolism of acetate or the cell's specific growth rate. However, further studies of the internal metabolic fluxes of CO2 during protein expression would be recommended for a more precise characterization of the relationship between qCO2 and protein expression in order to fully interpret the control behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of Diet Drinks in the United States, 2009‒2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calorie versions of sodas, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, and carbonated water, consistent with definitions reported by ... Sugar drinks : Include sodas, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened bottled waters, consistent with definitions reported ...

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Carbonate Species and Solid Carbonate Phases of Selected Trace Elements pertinent to Drinking Water Standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, John A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkin, Richard T. [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report contains a series of tables summarizing the thermodynamic properties of aqueous carbonate complexes and solid carbonate phases of the following elements: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) thallium (Tl), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn). Most of these elements are potentially hazardous as defined by extant primary drinking water standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remainder are not considered hazardous, but are either listed by EPA under secondary standards, or because they can adversely affect drinking water quality. Additional tables are included giving the thermodynamic properties for carbonates of the alkali metal and alkali earth elements, sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and strontium (Sr), because of their value in developing correlative models to estimate the thermodynamic properties of carbonate minerals for which no such data currently exist. The purpose in creating the tables in this report is to provide future investigators with a convenient source for selecting and tracing the sources of thermodynamic data of the above listed elements for use in modeling their geochemical behavior in “underground sources of drinking water” (USDW). The incentive for doing so lies with a heightened concern over the potential consequences of the proposed capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by fossil fuel fired power plants in deep subsurface reservoirs. If CO2 were to leak from such reservoirs, it could migrate upward and contaminate USDWs with undesirable, but undetermined, consequences to water quality. The EPA, Office of Research and Development, through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, funded the preparation of this report.

  9. Complementary constraints from carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) isotopes on the glacial ocean's soft-tissue biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, A.; Somes, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional, process-based model of the ocean's carbon and nitrogen cycles, including 13C and 15N isotopes, is used to explore effects of idealized changes in the soft-tissue biological pump. Results are presented from one preindustrial control run (piCtrl) and six simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with increasing values of the spatially constant maximum phytoplankton growth rate μmax, which accelerates biological nutrient utilization mimicking iron fertilization. The default LGM simulation, without increasing μmax and with a shallower and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and increased sea ice cover, leads to 280 Pg more respired organic carbon (Corg) storage in the deep ocean with respect to piCtrl. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the colder glacial thermocline increase, which reduces water column denitrification and, with delay, nitrogen fixation, thus increasing the ocean's fixed nitrogen inventory and decreasing δ15NNO3 almost everywhere. This simulation already fits sediment reconstructions of carbon and nitrogen isotopes relatively well, but it overestimates deep ocean δ13CDIC and underestimates δ15NNO3 at high latitudes. Increasing μmax enhances Corg and lowers deep ocean δ13CDIC, improving the agreement with sediment data. In the model's Antarctic and North Pacific Oceans modest increases in μmax result in higher δ15NNO3 due to enhanced local nutrient utilization, improving the agreement with reconstructions there. Models with moderately increased μmax fit both isotope data best, whereas large increases in nutrient utilization are inconsistent with nitrogen isotopes although they still fit the carbon isotopes reasonably well. The best fitting models reproduce major features of the glacial δ13CDIC, δ15N, and oxygen reconstructions while simulating increased Corg by 510-670 Pg compared with the preindustrial ocean. These results are consistent with the idea that the soft-tissue pump was more efficient

  10. Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y; Moster, Dag; Lie, Rolv Terje; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-09-01

    Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown. We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP in their children. The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft drinks and total caffeine consumption] and CP in children, with nonconsumers as the reference group. Models included adjustment for maternal age and education, medically assisted reproduction, and smoking, and for each source of caffeine, adjustments were made for the other sources. Total daily caffeine intake before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk. High consumption (≥6 servings/d) of caffeinated soft drinks before pregnancy was associated with an increased CP risk (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and children of women consuming 3-5 daily servings of caffeinated soft drinks during pregnancy weeks 13-30 also had an increased CP risk (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8). A mean daily consumption of 51-100 mg caffeine from soft drinks during the first half of pregnancy was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of CP in children (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6). Maternal total daily caffeine consumption before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk in children. The observed increased risk with caffeinated soft drinks warrants further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIROLO, Rodrigo; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; CORRER, Gisele Maria; GONZAGA, Carla Castiglia; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max) and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO) before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD) at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E) and lightness (∆L) variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001). All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L). The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively). Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching. PMID:25075672

  12. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PIROLO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E and lightness (∆L variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001. All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L. The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively. Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching.

  13. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Mufeed Siddiqui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A soft drink or a carbonated drink is a non-alcoholic drink that commonly contains water, a sweetener, carbon dioxide, acidulants, colorings, preservatives, antioxidants, and/or foaming agents, and a flavoring agent. A total of 200 adult patients of low socioeconomic status, aged 18-35 years, were selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire with 26 closed ended questions was designed for the present study which consists of questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages. One hundred and ninety nine (99.5% of the subjects enjoyed drinking soft drinks. Out of 200 subjects only 8 (4% responded that they will stop drinking soft drinks. The present study results showed that all the target population heard about soft drinks but very few of them were aware of the ill effects on general health and on teeth. So there is a need to spread awareness among people about the adverse effects of the carbonated beverages consumption and thus there is a need to plan health education programs.

  14. Soft and wrinkled carbon membranes derived from petals for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Ying; Li, Li; Li, Hongbian; Shang, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    Biomass materials are promising precursors for the production of carbonaceous materials due to their abundance, low cost and renewability. Here, a freestanding wrinkled carbon membrane (WCM) electrode material for flexible supercapacitors (SCs) was obtained from flower petal. The carbon membrane was fabricated by a simple thermal pyrolysis process and further activated by heating the sample in air. As a binder and current collector-free electrode, the activated wrinkled carbon membrane (AWCM) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 332.7 F/g and excellent cycling performance with 92.3% capacitance retention over 10000 cycles. Moreover, a flexible all-solid supercapacitor with AWCM electrode was fabricated and showed a maximum specific capacitance of 154 F/g and great bending stability. The development of this flower petal based carbon membrane provides a promising cost-effective and environmental benign electrode material for flexible energy storage. PMID:28361914

  15. The Role of Packaging in Quality Perception : A Study of Sports Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Lundell, Johan; Wigstrand, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Background During the last few decades, the market for beverages has shifted, which among other things has resulted in declining sales for carbonated soft drinks. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of health issues and this is reflected in a trend towards more fitness activities and increasing sales of sports drinks, a change that also applies to the Swedish market. For this reason, packaging design is seen as an important tool when firms aim to differentiate themselves from competito...

  16. The presence of significant methylotrophic population in biological activated carbon of a full-scale drinking water plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Moon, Kyung-Eun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-12-01

    Methylotrophs within biological activated carbon (BAC) systems have not received attention although they are a valuable biological resource for degradation of organic pollutants. In this study, methylotrophic populations were monitored for four consecutive seasons in BAC of an actual drinking water plant, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing. Methylotrophs constituted up to 5.6% of the bacterial community, and the methanotrophs Methylosoma and Methylobacter were most abundant. Community comparison showed that the temperature was an important factor affecting community composition, since it had an impact on the growth of particular methylotrophic genera. These results demonstrated that BAC possesses a substantial methylotrophic activity and harbors the relevant microbes.

  17. Impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bacterial communities of biological activated carbon filter intended for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyuan, Liu; Shuili, Yu; Heedeung, Park; Qingbin, Yuan; Guicai, Liu; Qi, Li

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inevitably present in the aquatic environment owing to their increasing production and use. However, knowledge of the potential effects of TiO2 NPs on the treatment of drinking water is scarce. Herein, the effects of two types of anatase TiO2 NPs (TP1, 25 nm; TP2, 100 nm) on the bacterial community in a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis, ATP quantification, and 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Both TP1 and TP2 significantly inhibited the bacterial ATP level (p treatment, whereas those of Bacilli class and Gammaproteobacteria class increased. TiO2 NP size showed a greater effect on the bacterial composition than did the dose based on Bray-Curtis distances. These findings identified negative effects of TiO2 NPs on the bacterial community in the BAC filter. Given the fact that BAC filters are used widely in drinking water treatment plants, these results suggested a potential threat by TiO2 NP to drinking water treatment system.

  18. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  19. Removing 17β-estradiol from drinking water in a biologically active carbon (BAC) reactor modified from a granular activated carbon (GAC) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongtian; Dvorak, Bruce; Li, Xu

    2012-06-01

    Estrogenic compounds in drinking water sources pose potential threats to human health. Treatment technologies are needed to effectively remove these compounds for the production of safe drinking water. In this study, GAC adsorption was first tested for its ability to remove a model estrogenic compound, 17β-estradiol (E2). Although GAC showed a relatively high adsorption capacity for E2 in isotherm experiments, it appeared to have a long mass transfer zone in a GAC column reactor, causing an early leakage of E2 in the effluent. With an influent E2 concentration of 20 μg/L, the GAC reactor was able to bring down effluent E2 to ≈ 200 ng/L. To further enhance E2 removal, the GAC reactor was converted to a biologically active carbon (BAC) reactor by promoting biofilm growth in the reactor. Under optimal operating conditions, the BAC reactor had an effluent E2 concentration of ≈ 50 ng/L. With the empty bed contact times tested, the reactor exhibited more robust E2 removal performance under the BAC operation than under the GAC operation. It is noted that estrone (E1), an E2 biodegradation intermediate, was frequently detected in reactor effluent during the BAC operation. Results from this study suggested that BAC could be an effective drinking water treatment process for E2 removal and in the meantime E1 accumulation needs to be addressed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Are we justified in suggesting change to caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drink intake in lower urinary tract disease? Report from the ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann; Rantell, Angie; Thiagamoorthy, Gans; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. While fluid intake is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks, and artificial sweeteners are less well understood and evidence from epidemiological studies is mixed and sometimes contradictory. The aim of this paper is to appraise the available evidence on the effect of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction in addition to suggesting proposals for further research. Literature review based on a systematic search strategy using the terms "fluid intake," "caffeine," "alcohol," "carbonated" and "urinary incontinence," "detrusor overactivity," "Overactive Bladder," "OAB." In addition to fluid intake, there is some evidence to support a role of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated beverages in the pathogenesis of OAB and lower urinary tract dysfunction. Although some findings are contradictory, others clearly show an association between the ingestion of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol with symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS Given the available evidence lifestyle interventions and fluid modification may have an important role in the primary prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, more research is needed to determine the precise role of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol in the pathogenesis and management of these symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate that research. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:876-881, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A survey on levels and seasonal changes of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and its precursors in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Aoki, Yusuke; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, customers' concerns about chlorinous odour in drinking water have been increasing. One promising approach for reducing chlorinous odour is the minimization of residual chlorine in water distribution, which requires stricter control of organics to maintain biological stability in water supply systems. In this investigation, the levels and seasonal changes of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and its precursors in drinking water were surveyed to accumulate information on organics in terms of biological stability. In tap water samples purified through rapid sand filtration processes, the average AOC concentration was 174 microgC/L in winter and 60 microgC/L in summer. This difference seemed to reflect the seasonal changes of AOC in the natural aquatic environment. On the other hand, very little or no AOC could be removed after use of an ozonation-biological activated carbon (BAC) process. Especially in winter, waterworks should pay attention to BAC operating conditions to improve AOC removal. The storage of BAC effluent with residual chlorine at 0.05-0.15 mgCl2/L increased AOC drastically. This result indicated the possibility that abundant AOC precursors remaining in the finished water could contribute to newly AOC formation during water distribution with minimized residual chlorine. Combined amino acids, which remained at roughly equivalent to AOC in finished water, were identified as major AOC precursors. Prior to minimization of residual chlorine, enhancement of the removal abilities for both AOC and its precursors would be necessary.

  2. A review: Potential and challenges of biologically activated carbon to remove natural organic matter in drinking water purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotta-Gamage, Shashika Madushi; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    The use of biologically activated carbon (BAC) in drinking water purification is reviewed. In the past BAC is seen mostly as a polishing treatment. However, BAC has the potential to provide solution to recent challenges faced by water utilities arising from change in natural organic matter (NOM) composition in drinking water sources - increased NOM concentration with a larger fraction of hydrophilic compounds and ever increasing trace level organic pollutants. Hydrophilic NOM is not removed by traditional coagulation process and causes bacterial regrowth and increases disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during disinfection. BAC can offer many advantages by removing hydrophilic fraction and many toxic and endocrine compounds which are not otherwise removed. BAC can also aid the other downstream processes if used as a pre-treatment. Major drawback of BAC was longer empty bed contact time (EBCT) required for an effective NOM removal. This critical review analyses the strategies that have been adopted to enhance the biological activity of the carbon by operational means and summarises the surface modification methods. To maximize the benefit of the BAC, a rethink of current treatment plant configuration is proposed. If the process can be expedited and adopted appropriately, BAC can solve many of the current problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. de Boer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The canonical question of which physical, chemical or biological mechanisms were responsible for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial is yet unanswered. Insight from paleo-proxies has led to a multitude of hypotheses but none so far have been convincingly supported in three dimensional numerical modelling experiments. The processes that influence the CO2 uptake and export production are inter-related and too complex to solve conceptually while complex numerical models are time consuming and expensive to run which severely limits the combinations of mechanisms that can be explored. Instead, an intermediate inverse box model approach of the soft tissue pump is used here in which the whole parameter space is explored. The glacial circulation and biological production states are derived from these using proxies of glacial export production and the need to draw down CO2 into the ocean. We find that circulation patterns which explain glacial observations include reduced Antarctic Bottom Water formation and high latitude upwelling and mixing of deep water and to a lesser extent reduced equatorial upwelling. The proposed mechanism of CO2 uptake by an increase of eddies in the Southern Ocean, leading to a reduced residual circulation, is not supported. Regarding biological mechanisms, an increase in the nutrient utilization in either the equatorial regions or the northern polar latitudes can reduce atmospheric CO2 and satisfy proxies of glacial export production. Consistent with previous studies, CO2 is drawn down more easily through increased productivity in the Antarctic region than the sub-Antarctic, but that violates observations of lower export production there. The glacial states are more sensitive to changes in the circulation and less sensitive to changes in nutrient utilization rates than the interglacial states.

  4. Removal of Heavy Metals from Drinking Water by Magnetic Carbon Nanostructures Prepared from Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Muneeb Ur Rahman Khattak; Muhammad Zahoor; Bakhtiar Muhammad; Farhat Ali Khan; Riaz Ullah; AbdEI-Salam, Naser M.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals contamination of drinking water has significant adverse effects on human health due to their toxic nature. In this study a new adsorbent, magnetic graphitic nanostructures were prepared from watermelon waste. The adsorbent was characterized by different instrumental techniques (surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TG/DTA) and was used for the removal of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) from water. The adsorption parameters were determined for heavy metals adsorpti...

  5. Oral Cooling and Carbonation Increase the Perception of Drinking and Thirst Quenching in Thirsty Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Avrillier, Julie; Gleason, Michael; Algarra, Laure; Zhang, Siyu; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime; Breslin, Paul A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Fluid ingestion is necessary for life, and thirst sensations are a prime motivator to drink. There is evidence of the influence of oropharyngeal stimulation on thirst and water intake in both animals and humans, but how those oral sensory cues impact thirst and ultimately the amount of liquid ingested is not well understood. We investigated which sensory trait(s) of a beverage influence the thirst quenching efficacy of ingested liquids and the perceived amount ingested. We deprived healthy in...

  6. Predictive factors of acute skin reactions to carbon ion radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusagi, Yosuke; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Oike, Takahiro; Noda, Shin-Ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2017-11-22

    The skin is considered a critical organ at risk in carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for locally advanced malignant bone and soft tissue tumors (MBSTs). The predictive factors for acute skin reactions after CIRT have not been investigated. The present study aimed to identify these factors and evaluate the correlation between the severity of acute skin reactions and skin dose parameters. CIRT with total doses of 64.0-70.4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) was administered to 22 patients with MBSTs. The skin-tumor distance (STD), maximum skin total dose (Dmax), and area of the skin receiving a total dose of X Gy (RBE) were evaluated. All patients developed acute skin reactions after CIRT, including Grades 1 and 2 dermatitis in 15 (71%) and 6 (29%) patients, respectively. There was a significant difference in the STD between the two groups (P = 0.007), and the cut-off value of STD for predicting Grade 2 acute skin reactions was 11 mm. There was a significant difference in Dmax between the groups (P reactions.

  7. Removal of radio N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA from drinking water by coagulation and Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-K. Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA in drinking water supplies has raised concern over its removal by common drinking water treatment processes. However, only limited studies have been examined to evaluate the potential removal of NDMA by numerous water treatment technologies within a realistic range (i.e., sub μg/L of NDMA levels in natural water due to analytical availability. In this study, a simple detection method based on scintillation spectroscopy has been used to quantify the concentration of 14C-labeled NDMA at various ratios of sample to scintillation liquid. Without sample pretreatment, the method detection limits are 0.91, 0.98, 1.23, and 1.45 ng/L of NDMA at scintillation intensity ratios of 10:10, 5:15, 15:5, and 2.5:17.5 (sample: scintillation liquid, respectively. The scintillation intensity in all cases is linear (R2>0.99 and is in the range of 0 to 100 ng/L of NDMA. In addition, because scintillation intensity is independent of solution pH, conductivity, and background electrolyte ion types, a separate calibration curve is unnecessary for NDMA samples at different solution conditions. Bench-scale experiments were performed to simulate individual treatment processes, which include coagulation and adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC, as used in a drinking water treatment plant, and biosorption, a technique used in biological treatment of waste water. The results show that coagulation and biosorption may not be appropriate mechanisms to remove NDMA (i.e., hydrophilic based on its low octanol-water partitioning coefficient, Log Kow=0.57. However, relatively high removal of NDMA (approximately 50% was obtained by PAC at high PAC dosages and longer contact times.

  8. Neural stimulation and recording with bidirectional, soft carbon nanotube fiber microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Flavia; Summerson, Samantha R; Aazhang, Behnaam; Kemere, Caleb; Pasquali, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The development of microelectrodes capable of safely stimulating and recording neural activity is a critical step in the design of many prosthetic devices, brain-machine interfaces, and therapies for neurologic or nervous-system-mediated disorders. Metal electrodes are inadequate prospects for the miniaturization needed to attain neuronal-scale stimulation and recording because of their poor electrochemical properties, high stiffness, and propensity to fail due to bending fatigue. Here we demonstrate neural recording and stimulation using carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber electrodes. In vitro characterization shows that the tissue contact impedance of CNT fibers is remarkably lower than that of state-of-the-art metal electrodes, making them suitable for recording single-neuron activity without additional surface treatments. In vivo chronic studies in parkinsonian rodents show that CNT fiber microelectrodes stimulate neurons as effectively as metal electrodes with 10 times larger surface area, while eliciting a significantly reduced inflammatory response. The same CNT fiber microelectrodes can record neural activity for weeks, paving the way for the development of novel multifunctional and dynamic neural interfaces with long-term stability.

  9. 2D and 3D seismic measurements to evaluate the collapse risk of an important prehistoric cave in soft carbonate rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara

    2015-02-01

    The southern part of the Apulia region (the Salento peninsula) has been the site of at least fifteen collapse events due to sinkholes in the last twenty years. The majority of these occurred in "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites). Man-made and/or natural cavities are sometimes assets of historical and archaeological significance. This paper provides a methodology for the evaluation of sinkhole hazard in "soft" carbonate rocks, combining seismic and mine engineering methods.Acase study of a natural cavity which is called Grotta delle Veneri is illustrated. For this example the approach was: i) 2D and 3D seismic methods to study the physical-mechanical characteristics of the rock mass that constitutes the roof of the cave; and ii) scaled span empirical analysis in order to evaluate the instability of the crown pillar's caves.

  10. [Investigation of the microbial diversity and structure of biological activated carbon from different sources in drinking water treatment process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Er-Deng; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Xin-Xin; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology was used to investigate the microbial diversity and structure of biological activated carbon (BAC) from different sources in drinking water advanced treatment process. Diversity indices of samples A, B and C, with relatively high tannic acid and humic acid adsorption capacity, were close to each other, which meant higher microbial diversity. However, samples D and E had relatively lower diversity indices with the low tannic acid and humic acid adsorption capacity. There were five species including β-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes in the phylogenetic tree of BAC samples. Among them, β-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria were the dominant microbial species in these BAC samples, which played an important role in organic matter removal. Planctomycetes, γ-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the non-dominant microbial species. Bacteroidetes only existed in samples A, B, C and D, while did not occur in sample E. The BAC samples with the higher tannic acid and humic acid adsorption capacity had higher microbial diversity. This research should deepen the understanding of microbial community in BAC, and provide a theoretical basis for the safety of drinking water.

  11. Retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological activated carbon filters for drinking water and the impact on ammonia reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Shuili; Park, Heedeung; Liu, Guicai; Yuan, Qingbin

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p  0.05). In the dynamic state, different amounts of TiO2 NP pulses were injected into three pilot-scale BAC filters. The decay of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters was very slow. Both titanium quantification and scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the retention of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters after 134 days of operation. Furthermore, the TiO2 NP pulses considerably reduced the performance of ammonia reduction. This study identified the retention of TiO2 NPs in BAC filters and the negative effect on the ammonia reduction, suggesting a potential threat to DWT by TiO2 NPs.

  12. An innovative treatment concept for future drinking water production : Fluidized ion exchange – ultrafiltration – nanofiltration – granular activated carbon filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A new treatment concept for drinking water production from surface water has been investigated on a pilot scale. The treatment concept consists of fluidized ion exchange (FIEX), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC). The FIEX process removed

  13. By-product reuse in drinking water softening: influence of operating conditions on calcium carbonate pellet characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Camilla; Rosshaug, P. S.; Kristensen, J. B.

    softened water. As of yet, no overview exists of how the physical and chemical properties of pellets are affected by operating conditions, such as placement in the water treatment train and which seeding material is used (quartz sand or calcium carbonate). The aim of this study was to characterize pellets...... formed under different operating conditions in pilot scale experiments at 8 Danish water treatment plants softening 16 water types. Results showed that iron concentrations, measured with ICP-MS, varied from 19 to 9,200 mg/kg and manganese varied from 0.5 to 980 mg/kg. The concentrations depended on both...... with high market value e.g. in markets such as glass or chemical industries. Our results assist the circular economy thinking in drinking water production....

  14. Whey-grape juice drink processed by supercritical carbon dioxide technology: Physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and volatile profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Gabriela V; Silva, Eric Keven; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Martins, Carolina P C; Andrade, Luiz Guilherme Z S; Moraes, Jeremias; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Guimarães, Jonas T; Esmerino, Erick A; Freitas, Mônica Q; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Sant' Ana, Anderson S; Meireles, M Angela A; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-01-15

    The effect of supercritical carbon dioxide technology (SCCD, 14, 16, and 18MPa at 35±2°C for 10min) on whey-grape juice drink characteristics was investigated. Physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids), bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, DPPH and ACE activity) and the volatile compounds were performed. Absence of differences were found among treatments for pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, total anthocyanin and DPPH activity (p-value>0.05). A direct relationship between SCCD pressure and ACE inhibitory activity was observed, with 34.63, 38.75, and 44.31% (14, 16, and 18MPa, respectively). Regards the volatile compounds, it was noted few differences except by the presence of ketones. The findings confirm the SCCD processing as a potential promising technology to the conventional thermal treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle Therapy Using Protons or Carbon Ions for Unresectable or Incompletely Resected Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demizu, Yusuke, E-mail: y_demizu@nifty.com [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Jin, Dongcun; Sulaiman, Nor Shazrina; Nagano, Fumiko; Terashima, Kazuki; Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Akagi, Takashi [Department of Radiation Physics, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Fujii, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hakodate Goryokaku Hospital, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan); Daimon, Takashi [Department of Biostatistics, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Fuwa, Nobukazu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ise Red Cross Hospital, Ise, Mie (Japan); Okimoto, Tomoaki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the treatment outcomes of particle therapy using protons or carbon ions for unresectable or incompletely resected bone and soft tissue sarcomas (BSTSs) of the pelvis. Methods and Materials: From May 2005 to December 2014, 91 patients with nonmetastatic histologically proven unresectable or incompletely resected pelvic BSTSs underwent particle therapy with curative intent. The particle therapy used protons (52 patients) or carbon ions (39 patients). All patients received a dose of 70.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness) in 32 fractions (55 patients) or 16 fractions (36 patients). Results: The median patient age was 67 years (range 18-87). The median planning target volume (PTV) was 455 cm{sup 3} (range 108-1984). The histologic type was chordoma in 53 patients, chondrosarcoma in 14, osteosarcoma in 10, malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in 5, and other in 9 patients. Of the 91 patients, 82 had a primary tumor and 9 a recurrent tumor. The median follow-up period was 32 months (range 3-112). The 3-year rate of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control was 83%, 72%, and 92%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazards model revealed that chordoma histologic features and a PTV of ≤500 cm{sup 3} were significantly associated with better OS, and a primary tumor and PTV of ≤500 cm{sup 3} were significantly associated with better PFS. Ion type and number of fractions were not significantly associated with OS, PFS, or local control. Late grade ≥3 toxicities were observed in 23 patients. Compared with the 32-fraction protocol, the 16-fraction protocol was associated with significantly more frequent late grade ≥3 toxicities (18 of 36 vs 5 of 55; P<.001). Conclusions: Particle therapy using protons or carbon ions was effective for unresectable or incompletely resected pelvic BSTS, and the 32-fraction protocol was effective and relatively less toxic. Nevertheless, a

  16. Ammonium removal of drinking water at low temperature by activated carbon filter biologically enhanced with heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Duo-Ying; Huang, Xiao-Fei; Song, Yang

    2016-03-01

    We sought to confirm whether use of Acinetobacter strains Y7 and Y16, both strains of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria, was practical for removing ammonium (NH4 (+)-N) from drinking water at low temperatures. To test this, ammonium-containing drinking water was treated with strains Y7 and Y16 at 8 and 2 °C. Continuous ammonium treatment was conducted in order to evaluate the performance of three biologically enhanced activated carbon (BEAC) filters in removing ammonium. The three BEAC filters were inoculated with strain Y7, strain Y16, and a mixture of strains Y7 and Y16, respectively. A granular activated carbon (GAC) filter, without inoculation by any strains, was tested in parallel with the BEAC filters as control. The results indicated that NH4 (+)-N removal was significant when a BEAC filter was inoculated with the mixture of strains Y7 and Y16 (BEAC-III filter). Amounts of 0.44 ± 0.05 and 0.25 ± 0.05 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N were removed using the BEAC-III filter at 8 and 2 °C, respectively. These values were 2.8-4.0-fold higher than the values of ammonium removal acquired using the GAC filter. The synergistic effect of using strains Y7 and Y16 in concert was the cause of the high-ammonium removal efficiency achieved by using the BEAC-III filter at low temperatures. In addition, a high C/N ratio may promote NH4 (+)-N removal efficiency by improving biomass and microbial activity. This study provides new insight into the use of biofilters to achieve biological removal of ammonium at low temperature.

  17. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Electrochemical determination of copper ions in spirit drinks using carbon paste electrode modified with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Lamy-Mendes, Alyne C; Rezende, Edivaltrys Inayve Pissinati; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino, Luiz Humberto; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2015-03-15

    This work describes for first time the use of biochar as electrode modifier in combination with differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric (DPAdSV) techniques for preconcentration and determination of copper (II) ions in spirit drinks samples (Cachaça, Vodka, Gin and Tequila). Using the best set of the experimental conditions a linear response for copper ions in the concentration range of 1.5 × 10(-6) to 3.1 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) with a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 4.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The repeatability of the proposed sensor using the same electrode surface was measured as 3.6% and 6.6% using different electrodes. The effect of foreign species on the voltammetric response was also evaluated. Determination of copper ions content in different samples of spirit drinks samples was also realized adopting inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and the results achieved are in agreement at a 95% of confidence level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization and performance evaluation of an innovative mesoporous activated carbon used for drinking water purification in comparison with commercial carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu-Jin; Li, Wei-Guang; Wang, Guang-Zhi; Zhang, Duo-Ying; Fan, Wen-Biao; Yin, Zhao-Dong

    2015-09-01

    The preparation, characterization, and performance evaluation of an innovative mesoporous activated carbon (C-XHIT) were conducted in this study. Comparative evaluation with commercial carbons (C-PS and C-ZJ15) and long-term performance evaluation of C-XHIT were conducted in small-scale system-A (S-A) and pilot-scale system-B (S-B-1 and S-B-2 in series), respectively, for treating water from Songhua River. The cumulative uptake of micropollutants varied with KBV (water volume fed to columns divided by the mass of carbons, m(3) H2O/kg carbon) was employed in the performance evaluation. The results identified that mesoporous and microporous volumes were simultaneously well-developed in C-XHIT. Higher mesoporosity (63.94 %) and average pore width (37.91 Å) of C-XHIT ensured a higher adsorption capacity for humic acid compared to C-PS and C-ZJ15. When the KBV of S-A reached 12.58 m(3) H2O/kg carbon, cumulative uptake of organic pollutants achieved by C-XHIT increased by 32.82 and 156.29 % for DOC (QC) and 22.53 and 112.48 % for UV254 (QUV) compared to C-PS and C-ZJ15, respectively; in contrast, the adsorption capacity of NH4 (+)-N did not improve significantly. C-XHIT achieved high average removal efficiencies for DOC (77.43 ± 16.54 %) and UV254 (83.18 ± 13.88 %) in S-B over 253 days of operation (KBV = 62 m(3) H2O/kg carbon). Adsorption dominated the removal of DOC and UV254 in the initial phases of KBV (0-15 m(3) H2O/kg carbon), and simultaneous biodegradation and adsorption were identified as the mechanisms for organic pollutant uptake at KBV above 25 m(3) H2O/kg carbon. The average rates contributed by S-B-1 and S-B-2 for QC and QUV were approximately 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. Good linear and exponential correlations were observed between S-A and S-B in terms of QC and QUV obtained by C-XHIT, respectively, for the same KBV ranges, indicating a rapid and cost-saving evaluation method. The linear correlation between mesoporosity and QC

  20. Treatability of drinking water parameters from Kerian River by using carbon-mineral composite: Batch mechanisms and characterization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Nordin, Muhamad Farid Mohd; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-09-01

    There are many treatment processes over the world on river water. However, the simple and low cost technologies are quite limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the turbidity, colour, pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TSS), Iron and Manganese from selected river water by a combination of activated carbon, limestone and polyvinyl alcohol which produces a composite media. The analyses for the parameters removal efficiency are conducted by using statistical analysis two ways Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In batch study, the removal efficiency of all the mixture of composite media indicated the composite adsorbent could remove more than 50% of raw water contaminants which complies to National Drinking Water Quality Standard, 2000. The optimum mixing ratio of hydrophobic: hydrophilic is 1:7 and 1:2 which is 875.0g and 667.0g limestone, 125.0 g and 333.0 g activated carbon (AC) and water 375 ml with highest removal percentage for turbidity (91.86%), colour (93.44%), TSS (91.27%), iron (98.49%) and manganese (98.18%). The study indicated that the composite material has a good potential for further research and future application.

  1. Microbial activity in granular activated carbon filters in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The investigations described are carried out to analyse the microbiological processes in relation to the GAC characteristics and the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in Granular Activated Carbon filters (GACFs) in water treatment. The main goal of the study was to obtain a qualitative

  2. Analysis of up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter technology in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoming; Liu, Jincui; Li, Shaowen; Biney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Problems have been found in the traditional post-positioned down-flow biological activated carbon filter (DBACF), such as microorganism leakage and low biodegradability. A pilot test was carried out to place a BACF between the sediment tank and the sand filter; a new technology of dual media up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter (UBACF) was developed. Results showed that in terms of the new process, the up-flow mode was better than the down-flow. Compared with the DBACF, the problem of microorganism leakage could be well resolved with the UBACF process by adding disinfectant before the sand filtration, and a similar adsorption effect could be obtained. For the tested raw water, the COD(Mn) and NH3-N removal rate was 54.6% and 85.0%, respectively, similar to the waterworks with the DBACF process. The UBACF greatly enhanced oxygen supply capability and mass transfer rate via aeration, and the NH3-N removal ability was significantly improved from 1.5 mg/L to more than 3 mg/L. Influent to the UBACF with higher turbidity could be coped with through the primary filtration of the ceramisite layer combined with fluid-bed technology, which gave the carbon bed a low-turbidity environment of less than 1.0 NTU. The backwashing parameters and carbon abrasion rate of the two processes were almost the same.

  3. Tailored Granular Activated Carbon Treatment of Perchlorate in Drinking Water. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    carbon layer surfaces are generally uncharged ( hydrophobic ), and they thus repel water and charged inorganic species such as perchlorate. However...cationic surfactants onto graphite, cellulose, clay, quartz, titanium dioxide, zeolites , soils, and membranes. However, the project team is not aware

  4. Double Soft-Template Synthesis of Nitrogen/Sulfur-Codoped Hierarchically Porous Carbon Materials Derived from Protic Ionic Liquid for Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Hua; Li, Li; Yao, Ying; Qu, Haonan; Zhang, Chengli; Liu, Shanhu; Zhou, Yanmei

    2017-08-09

    Heteroatom-doped hierarchical porous carbon materials derived from the potential precursors and prepared by a facile, effective, and low-pollution strategy have recently been particularly concerned in different research fields. In this study, the interconnected nitrogen/sulfur-codoped hierarchically porous carbon materials have been successfully obtained via one-step carbonization of the self-assembly of [Phne][HSO4] (a protic ionic liquid originated from dilute sulfuric acid and phenothiazine by a straightforward acid-base neutralization) and the double soft-template of OP-10 and F-127. During carbonization process, OP-10 as macroporous template and F-127 as mesoporous template were removed, while [Phne][HSO4] not only could be used as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur source, but also as a pore forming agent to create micropores. The acquired carbon materials for supercapacitor not only hold a large specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 even at 1.0 A g-1, but also fine rate property with 169 F g-1 at 10 A g-1 and excellent capacitance retention of nearly 100% over 5000 circulations in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, carbon materials also present eximious rate performance with 70% in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte.

  5. Consumo de bebidas e refrigerantes por adolescentes de uma escola pública Consumo de bebidas y refrescos en adolescentes de una escuela pública Beverage and soft drink consumption by adolescents from a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Chermont P. Estima

    2011-03-01

    escuela (22,1%. El principal factor señalado para el consumo de refrescos fue el sabor (75,4%. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de bebidas con azúcar, especialmente los refrescos, fue frecuente entre adolescentes. Esas bebidas son disponibles y consumidas tanto en casa como en la escuela y son consideradas sabrosas. Los programas de educación nutricional deben pensar en cómo priorizar el consumo de otras bebidas, además de controlar la comercialización de esos productos en las escuelas, con el objetivo de estimular el consumo de bebidas más sanas para esa franja de edad.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of beverage and soft drinks by adolescents of a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 71 adolescents (aged between 14 to 17 years old from both genders, attending a technical school in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, answered the following questions: the kind of beverage taken during meals, the places where soft drinks were consumed and the main reason related to this intake. RESULTS: The most frequent consumed beverage was the industrialized fruit juice (38.1%, followed by regular soft drinks (28.6% and natural fruit juices (22.2%. The main place where soft drinks were consumed was home (38.2%, followed by school (22.1%. The main reason associated with soft drink intake was the flavor (75.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet beverage intake was frequent among adolescents, specially soft drinks. These beverages are available and consumed at home and at school, and they were considered tasteful. Nutritional education programs should discuss how to prioritize the intake of other beverages and how to control the sale of these products at schools, aiming to stimulate the intake of more healthy beverages by adolescents.

  6. Removal of Heavy Metals from Drinking Water by Magnetic Carbon Nanostructures Prepared from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muneeb Ur Rahman Khattak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals contamination of drinking water has significant adverse effects on human health due to their toxic nature. In this study a new adsorbent, magnetic graphitic nanostructures were prepared from watermelon waste. The adsorbent was characterized by different instrumental techniques (surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TG/DTA and was used for the removal of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn from water. The adsorption parameters were determined for heavy metals adsorption using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption kinetics and effect of time, pH, and temperature on heavy metal ions were also determined. The best fits were obtained for Freundlich isotherm. The percent adsorption showed a decline at high pH. Best fit was obtained with second-order kinetics model for the kinetics experiments. The values of ΔH° and ΔG° were negative while that of ΔS° was positive. The prepared adsorbent has high adsorption capacities and can be efficiently used for the removal of heavy metals from water.

  7. Ozonation effect on natural organic matter adsorption and biodegradation--application to a membrane bioreactor containing activated carbon for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguer, Ronan; Tatin, Romuald; Couvert, Annabelle; Wolbert, Dominique; Tazi-Pain, Annie

    2010-02-01

    More stringent legislation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) urges the drinking water industry to improve in DOM removal, especially when applied to water with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and low turbidity. To improve conventional processes currently used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the performances of a hybrid membrane bioreactor containing fluidized activated carbon were investigated at the DWTP of Rennes. Preliminary results showed that the residual DOC was the major part of the non-biodegradable fraction. In order to increase the global efficiency, an upstream oxidation step was added to the process. Ozone was chosen to break large molecules and increase their biodegradability. The first step consisted of carrying out lab-scale experiments in order to optimise the necessary ozone dose by measuring the process yield, in terms of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). Secondly, activated carbon adsorption of the DOC present in ozonated water was quantified. The whole process was tested in a pilot unit under field conditions at the DWTP of Rennes (France). Lab-scale experiments confirmed that ozonation increases the BDOC fraction, reduces the aromaticity of the DOC and produces small size organic compounds. Adsorption tests led to the conclusion that activated carbon unexpectedly removes BDOC first. Finally, the pilot unit results revealed an additional BDOC removal (from 0.10 to 0.15 mg L(-1)) of dissolved organic carbon from the raw water considered. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grys, Hans

    2007-07-01

    Soft drinks provide a unique way to explore chemical principles. A challenging exercise for students is to determine the pressure of the carbon dioxide gas inside a sealed 12 ounce soft drink can. When presented as an open-ended problem, this exercise encourages students to think deeply about the principles involved and to develop creative strategies that are sound both theoretically and practically. A number of different methods are discussed for solving the problem, including solutions that use the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law. The investigation includes aspects of gas behavior, equilibrium, solubility, and acids and bases.

  9. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of biological activated carbon (BAC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) for pollutants removal in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J Y; Chen, Z L; Liang, H; Li, X; Wang, Z Z; Li, G B

    2009-01-01

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) were systematically compared for the drinking water treatment from slightly polluted raw water under the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.5 h. MBR exhibited excellent turbidity removal capacity due to the separation of the membrane; while only 60% of influent turbidity was intercepted by BAC. Perfect nitrification was achieved by MBR with the 89% reduction in ammonia; by contrast, BAC only eliminated a moderate amount of influent ammonia (by 54.5%). However, BAC was able to remove more dissolved organic matter (DOM, especially for organic molecules of 3,000 approximately 500 Daltons) and corresponding disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) in raw water than MBR. Unfortunately, particulate organic matter (POM) was detected in the BAC effluent. On the other hand, BAC and MBR displayed essentially the same capacity for biodegradable organic matter (BOM) removal. Fractionation of DOM showed that the removal efficiencies of hydrophobic neutrals, hydrophobic acids, weakly hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic organic matter through BAC treatment were 11.7%, 8.8%, 13.9% and 4.8% higher than that through MBR; while MBR achieved 13.8% higher hydrophobic bases removal as compared with BAC.

  11. Iron-impregnated granular activated carbon for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qigang

    A new multi-step iron impregnation method was developed in this study to impregnate GAC with a high amount of iron that possesses desired characteristics: stable, even distribution, and high arsenic adsorption capacity. Research was carried out to investigate the impact of the amount of impregnated iron on arsenic adsorption properties: capacity, affinity, and kinetics. Fe-GACs were characterized in terms of the amount, stability, distribution, morphology, and species of impregnated iron. It was found that a high amount of iron was stably impregnated in GAC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that the impregnated iron was evenly distributed on the internal surface of GAC. Impregnated iron formed nano-size particles and existed in both crystalline (akaganeite) and amorphous iron. Arsenic adsorption tests were conducted using Fe-GACs with iron content of 1.64--28.90% in a low arsenic concentration that is typical for drinking water treatment. The amount of impregnated iron affects arsenic maximum adsorption capacity (qm) but has little impact on the Langmuir constant h (the affinity of adsorbent for adsorbate). The qm for both As(V) and As(III) adsorptions increased significantly with increase of the amount of impregnated iron up to 13.59%. Further increase of iron amounts caused a gradual decrease of qm for As(V). BET analysis indicated impregnated iron possesses the highest surface area at iron content of 13.59%. A new second-order kinetic model was developed to investigate the impact of the amounts of impregnated iron on arsenic adsorption kinetics. With iron content increased from 1.64% to 28.90%, the intrinsic adsorption rate constants reduced from 4.6x10-2 1/hr to 1.18x10 -3 1/hr, which indicates that impregnated iron slows arsenic intraparticle diffusion rate in Fe-GAC. The decreased arsenic intraparticle diffusion rate was most likely caused by reduced pore size of Fe-GACs. Column tests were

  12. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Deng, Shuguang; Mitchell, Martha C; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2009-12-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) adsorption technology has the potential to support point of use (POU) based treatment approach for removal of bacterial pathogens, natural organic matter (NOM), and cyanobacterial toxins from water systems. Unlike many microporous adsorbents, CNTs possess fibrous shape with high aspect ratio, large accessible external surface area, and well developed mesopores, all contribute to the superior removal capacities of these macromolecular biomolecules and microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive review on application of CNTs as adsorbent media to concentrate and remove pathogens, NOM, and cyanobacterial (microcystin derivatives) toxins from water systems. The paper also surveys on consideration of CNT based adsorption filters for removal of these contaminants from cost, operational and safety standpoint. Based on the studied literature it appears that POU based CNT technology looks promising, that can possibly avoid difficulties of treating biological contaminants in conventional water treatment plants, and thereby remove the burden of maintaining the biostability of treated water in the distribution systems.

  13. [Diversity and bacteria community structure of activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Shang, Hai-tao; Hao, Chun-bo; Luo, Peng; Gu, Jun-nong

    2011-05-01

    Two granular activated carbon (GAC) samples with 1.5 a and 5 a age were collected, Bacterial genome DNA was extracted for the 16S rDNA gene amplification, and then a bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed. After the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, bacterial diversity and community structure of two activated carbon biofilm sample were studied. The results showed the bacteria in GAC with 5 a age could be divided into 11 groups, which were as follows alpha-Proteobacteria (26.5%), beta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), delta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), Planctomycetes (12.2%), Gemmatimonadetes (6.1%), Acidobacteria (4.1%), Nitrospira (2.0%), gamma-Proteobacteria (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.0%), Actinobacteria (2.0%), Unclassified Bacteria (10.2%). The bacteria in GAC with 1.5 a age could be divided into 10 groups, which were as follows alpha-Proteobacteria (21.6%), Planctomycetes( 10.8%), Bacteroidetes (10.8%), beta-Proteobacteria (9.0%), Acidobacteria (9.0%), Nitrospira (7.2%), detla-Proteobacteria (7.2%), Unclassified Proteobacteria (5.4%), Gemmatimonadetes (3.6%), Unclassified Bacteria (14.4%). The results revealed a variety of bacterial divisions on the studied GAC biofilm. Proteobacteria had the highest share in the two total clones, and alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria were on a dominant position. A relatively high proportion of delta-Proteobacteria was observed in the biofilm of GAC with 5 a age, and Nitrospira was in a minor proportion. However, a totally converse condition appeared in GAC with 1.5 a age. Two pathogenic bacteria, Afipia and Chryseobacterium, were detected in analyzed GACs, which implies a potential microbial risk in water supply.

  14. Ceria modified activated carbon: an efficient arsenic removal adsorbent for drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Radha; Somasundar, Yogesh; Iyer, Venkatesh Shankar; Baruwati, Babita

    2017-06-01

    Ceria (CeO2) coated powdered activated carbon was synthesized by a single step chemical process and demonstrated to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from water without any pre-oxidation process. The formation of CeO2 on the surface of powdered activated carbon was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The percentage of Ce in the adsorbent was confirmed to be 3.5 % by ICP-OES. The maximum removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 10.3 and 12.2 mg/g, respectively. These values are comparable to most of the commercially available adsorbents. 80 % of the removal process was completed within 15 min of contact time in a batch process. More than 95 % removal of both As(III) and As(V) was achieved within an hour. The efficiency of removal was not affected by change in pH (5-9), salinity, hardness, organic (1-4 ppm of humic acid) and inorganic anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate and fluoride) excluding phosphate. Presence of 100 ppm phosphate reduced the removal significantly from 90 to 18 %. The equilibrium adsorption pattern of both As(III) and As(V) fitted well with the Freundlich model with R 2 values 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The material shows reusability greater than three times in a batch process (arsenic concentration reduced below 10 ppb from 330 ppb) and a life of at least 100 L in a column study with 80 g material when tested under natural hard water (TDS 1000 ppm, pH 7.8, hardness 600 ppm as CaCO3) spiked with 330 ppb of arsenic.

  15. An overview of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater and implications for drinking water safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Hynds, P.; Flynn, R.

    2017-06-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is composed of a diverse array of compounds, predominantly humic substances, and is a near ubiquitous component of natural groundwater, notwithstanding climatic extremes such as arid and hyper-arid settings. Despite being a frequently measured parameter of groundwater quality, the complexity of DOC composition and reaction behaviour means that links between concentration and human health risk are difficult to quantify and few examples are reported in the literature. Measured concentrations from natural/unpolluted groundwater are typically below 4 mg C/l, whilst concentrations above these levels generally indicate anthropogenic influences and/or contamination issues and can potentially compromise water safety. Treatment processes are effective at reducing DOC concentrations, but refractory humic substance reaction with chlorine during the disinfection process produces suspected carcinogenic disinfectant by-products (DBPs). However, despite engineered artificial recharge systems being commonly used to remove DOC from recycled treated wastewaters, little research has been conducted on the presence of DBPs in potable groundwater systems. In recent years, the capacity to measure the influence of organic matter on colloidal contaminants and its influence on the mobility of pathogenic microorganisms has aided understanding of transport processes in aquifers. Additionally, advances in polymerase chain reaction techniques used for the detection, identification, and quantification of waterborne pathogens, provide a method to confidently investigate the behaviour of DOC and its effect on contaminant transfer in aquifers. This paper provides a summary of DOC occurrence in groundwater bodies and associated issues capable of indirectly affecting human health.

  16. Relating freshwater organic matter fluorescence to organic carbon removal efficiency in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Baker, Andy; Bridgeman, John

    2009-02-15

    Monthly raw and clarified water samples were obtained for 16 UK surface water treatment works. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique was used for the assessment of total organic carbon (TOC) removal and organic matter (OM) characterisation. The impact of algae presence in water on TOC removal, and its relationship with fluorescence, was analysed. Fluorescence peak C intensity was found to be a sensitive and reliable measure of OM content. Fluorescence peak C emission wavelength and peak T intensity (reflecting the degree of hydrophobicity and the microbial fraction, respectively) were found to characterize the OM; the impact of both on TOC removal efficiency was apparent. OM fluorescence properties were shown to predict TOC removal, and identify spatial and temporal variations. Previous work indicates that the trihalomethane (THM) concentration of treated water can be predicted from the raw water TOC concentration. The simplicity, sensitivity, speed of analysis and low cost, combined with potential for incorporation into on-line monitoring systems, mean that fluorescence spectroscopy offers a robust analytical technique to be used in conjunction with, or in place of, other approaches to OM characterisation and THM formation prediction.

  17. Environmental Informatics and Soft Computing Paradigm: Processing of Cocos Nucifera Shell Derived Activated Carbon for Treatment of Distillery Spent Wash—A Solution to Environmental Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Raut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft computing techniques are very much needed to design the environmental related systems these days. Soft computing (SC is a set of computational methods that attempt to determine satisfactory approximate solutions to find a model for real-world problems. Techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms can be used in solving complex environmental problems. Self-organizing feature map (SOFM model is proposed in monitoring and collecting of the data that are real time and static datasets acquired through pollution monitoring sensors and stations in the distilleries. In the environmental monitoring systems the ultimate requirement is to establish controls for the sensor based data acquisition systems and needs interactive and dynamic reporting services. SOFM techniques are used for data analysis and processing. The processed data is used for control system which even feeds to the treatment systems. Cocos nucifera activated carbon commonly known as coconut shell activated carbon (CSC was utilized for the treatment of distillery spent wash. Batch and column studies were done to investigate the kinetics and effect of operating parameter on the rate of adsorption. Since the quantum of spent water generated from the sugar industry allied distillery units is huge, this low cost adsorbent is found to be an attractive economic option. Equilibrium adsorption date was generated to plot Langmuir and Tempkin adsorption isotherm. The investigation reveals that though with lower adsorption capacities CSC seems to be technically feasible solution for treating sugar distillery spent. Efforts are made in this paper to build informatics for derived activated carbon for solving the problem of treatment of distillery spent wash. Capsule. Coconut shell derived activated carbon was synthesized, characterized, and successfully employed as a low cost adsorbent for treatment of distillery spent wash.

  18. Erosive characteristics and fluoride content of cola-type drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omid, N; Zohoori, F V; Kometa, S; Maguire, A

    2016-04-01

    Excessive consumption of carbonated soft drinks is detrimental to general and oral health. This study determined endogenous pH, titratable acidity (TA) and fluoride (F) ion concentration of cola-type drinks available in the UK. Subsidiary aims were to compare: (i) endogenous pH and TA of drinks upon opening (T0) and after 20 minutes (T20); (ii) endogenous pH, TA and F ion concentration of diet vs regular and plastic bottle vs canned drinks. Endogenous pH, TA (mls 0.1M NaOH) and F ion (mg/L) of 71 products were measured using a pH meter and F-ISE. A Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test compared pH and TAs at T0 and T20; a Mann-Whitney U test compared pH, TAs and F ion concentration for; a) regular vs diet drinks; and b) plastic bottle vs canned drinks. Mean (±SD) pH for regular and diet drinks was 2.44 ± 0.12 and 2.83 ± 0.33 respectively (p = 0.001). Mean NaOH (ml) to raise pH to 5.5 and 5.7 was 5.49 ± 0.76 and 6.40 ± 0.78 (regular drinks); 5.17 ± 1.03 and 6.03 ± 1.07 (diet drinks). Diet (p = 0.040) and regular (p = 0.041) drinks had higher TA to pH 5.7 at T0 compared with T20; at T20 regular drinks had higher TA to pH 5.5 (p = 0.026) and pH 5.7 (p = 0.030) than diet drinks. There was no difference in F ion concentration between regular vs diet drinks (p = 0.754) and no significant container effect. Erosive characteristics were similar between manufacturers, but higher erosive potentials were evident at T0 compared with 20 minutes later and for regular compared with diet drinks. F ion concentration of drinks was low.

  19. Assessment of calculation methods for calcium carbonate saturation in drinking water for DIN 38404-10 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Moel, P.J.; Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Van Rijn, M.; Van Dijk, J.C.; Van der Meer, W.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The new German standard on the calculation of calcite saturation in drinking water, DIN 38404-10, 2012 (DIN), marks a change in drinking water standardization from using simplified equations applicable for nomographs and simple calculators to using extensive chemical modeling requiring computer

  20. A reduced graphene oxide nanofiltration membrane intercalated by well-dispersed carbon nanotubes for drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfu; Qiu, Minghui; Ding, Hao; Fu, Kaiyun; Fan, Yiqun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report a promising rGO-CNT hybrid nanofiltration (NF) membrane that was fabricated by loading reduced graphene oxide that was intercalated with carbon nanotubes (rGO-CNTs) onto an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) microfiltration membrane via a facile vacuum-assisted filtration process. To create this NF membrane, the CNTs were first dispersed using block copolymers (BCPs); the effects of the types and contents of BCPs used on the dispersion of CNTs have been investigated. The as-prepared rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes were then used for drinking water purification to retain the nanoparticles, dyes, proteins, organophosphates, sugars, and particularly humic acid. Experimentally, it is shown that the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes have high retention efficiency, good permeability and good anti-fouling properties. The retention was above 97.3% even for methyl orange (327 Da); for other objects, the retention was above 99%. The membrane's permeability was found to be as high as 20-30 L m-2 h-1 bar-1. Based on these results, we can conclude that (i) the use of BCPs as a surfactant can enhance steric repulsion and thus disperse CNTs effectively; (ii) placing well-dispersed 1D CNTs within 2D graphene sheets allows an uniform network to form, which can provide many mass transfer channels through the continuous 3D nanostructure, resulting in the high permeability and separation performance of the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes.In this study, we report a promising rGO-CNT hybrid nanofiltration (NF) membrane that was fabricated by loading reduced graphene oxide that was intercalated with carbon nanotubes (rGO-CNTs) onto an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) microfiltration membrane via a facile vacuum-assisted filtration process. To create this NF membrane, the CNTs were first dispersed using block copolymers (BCPs); the effects of the types and contents of BCPs used on the dispersion of CNTs have been investigated. The as-prepared rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes were then used for

  1. Tracing dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential between source water and finished drinking water at a lowland and an upland UK catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emma; Freeman, Christopher; Gough, Rachel; Holliman, Peter J

    2015-12-15

    Rising dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in many upland UK catchments represents a challenge for drinking water companies, in particular due to the role of DOC as a precursor in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs). Whereas traditionally, the response of drinking water companies has been focussed on treatment processes, increasingly, efforts have been made to better understanding the role of land use and catchment processes in affecting drinking water quality. In this study, water quality, including DOC and THM formation potential (THMFP) was assessed between the water source and finished drinking water at an upland and a lowland catchment. Surprisingly, the lowland catchment showed much higher reservoir DOC concentrations apparently due to the influence of a fen within the catchment from where a major reservoir inflow stream originated. Seasonal variations in water quality were observed, driving changes in THMFP. However, the reservoirs in both catchments appeared to dampen these temporal fluctuations. Treatment process applied in the 2 catchments were adapted to reservoir water quality with much higher DOC and THMFP removal rates observed at the lowland water treatment works where coagulation-flocculation was applied. However, selectivity during this DOC removal stage also appeared to increase the proportion of brominated THMs produced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  3. Complementary Constraints from Carbon (13C) and Nitrogen (15N) Isotopes on the Efficiency of the Glacial Ocean's Soft-Tissue Biological Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, A.; Somes, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional, process-based model of the ocean's carbon and nitrogen cycles, including 13C and 15N isotopes, is used to explore effects of idealized changes in the soft-tissue biological pump. Results are presented from one preindustrial control run and six simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with increasing values of the spatially constant maximum phytoplankton growth rate μmax, which mimicks iron fertilization. The default LGM simulation, without increasing μmax and with a shallower and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and increased sea ice cover, leads to 280 Pg more respired organic carbon (Corg) than the pre-industrial control. Dissolved oxygen in the thermocline increase, which reduces water column denitrification and nitrogen fixation, thus increasing the ocean's fixed nitrogen inventory and decreasing δ15NNO3. This simulation already fits observed carbon and nitrogen isotopes relatively well, but it overestimates deep ocean δ13CDIC and underestimates δ15NNO3 at high latitudes. Increasing μmax enhances Corg and lowers deep ocean δ13CDIC, improving the fit. Modest increases in μmax result in higher subpolar δ15NNO3 due to enhanced local nutrient utilization, and better agreement with reconstructions. Large increases in nutrient utilization are inconsistent with nitrogen isotopes although they still fit the carbon isotopes reasonably well. The best fitting models with modest increases in μmax reproduce major features of the glacial δ13CDIC, δ15N, and oxygen reconstructions while simulating increased Corg by 510-670 Pg. These results are consistent with the idea that the soft-tissue pump was more efficient during the LGM. Both circulation and biological nutrient utilization contribute. However, these conclusions are preliminary given our idealized experiments, which do not consider changes in benthic denitrification and spatially inhomogenous changes in aeolian iron fluxes. The analysis illustrates interactions

  4. On-line preconcentration of cobalt in drinking water using a minicolumn packed with activated carbon coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerutti, Soledad; Moyano, Susana; Gasquez, Jose A.; Stripeikis, Jorge; Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D. E-mail: ldm@unsl.edu.ar

    2003-11-21

    An on-line flow injection preconcentration-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry method is developed for trace determination of cobalt in drinking water samples by sorption on a conical minicolumn packed with activated carbon at pH 9.5. The cobalt was eluted from the minicolumn with 10% (v/v) nitric acid. An enrichment factor of 190-fold for a sample volume of 10 ml was obtained. The detection limit (DL) value for the preconcentration method proposed was 5 ng l{sup -1}. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 50 ng l{sup -1} Co level was 4.7% relative standard deviation. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cobalt was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 at levels near the DLs up to at least 0.35 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cobalt in drinking water samples.

  5. Seasonal-related effects on ammonium removal in activated carbon filter biologically enhanced by heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen; Li, Wei-Guang; Gong, Xu-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Fei; Fan, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Duoying; Yao, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Ju; Song, Yang

    2017-08-01

    To determine the potential effects of seasonal changes on water temperature and water quality upon removal of ammonium and organic carbon pollutants and to characterize the variations in microbial characteristics, a pilot-scale activated carbon filter biologically enhanced with heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria was investigated for 528 days. The results show that 69.2 ± 28.6% of ammonium and 23.1 ± 11.6% of the dissolved organic carbon were removed by the biologically enhanced activated carbon (BEAC) reactor. It is shown that higher biodegradable dissolved organic carbon enhances ammonium removal, even at low temperatures. The C/N ratio consumed by the BEAC reactor reached a steady value (i.e., 3.3) after 2 months of operation. Despite seasonal fluctuations and competition of the indigenous community, the heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. HRBLi 16 and Acinetobacter harbinensis strain HITLi 7) remained relatively stable. The amount of carbon source was the most significant environmental parameter and dramatically affected the microbial community compositions in the BEAC reactor. The present study provides new insights into the application of a BEAC reactor for ammonium removal from drinking water, resisting strong seasonal changes.

  6. A rapid shaking-based ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction for the simultaneous determination of six synthetic food colourants in soft drinks, sugar- and gelatin-based confectionery by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Guo, Jing-Bo; Du, Li-Ming; Tian, Hong; Hao, Cheng-Xuan; Wang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Jie-Yan

    2013-11-01

    A novel and simple rapid shaking-based method of ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction for the determination of six synthetic food colourants (Tartrazine, Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Allura Red, Ponceau 4R, and Erythrosine) in soft drinks, sugar- and gelatin-based confectionery was established. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector was used for the determinations. The extraction procedure did not require a dispersive solvent, heat, ultrasonication, or additional chemical reagents. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8MIM][BF4]) was dispersed in an aqueous sample solution as fine droplets by manual shaking, enabling the easier migration of analytes into the ionic liquid phase. Factors such as the [C8MIM][BF4] volume, sample pH, extraction time, and centrifugation time were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the proposed method showed excellent detection sensitivity with limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) within 0.015-0.32 ng/mL. The method was also successfully used in analysing real food samples. Good spiked recoveries from 95.8%-104.5% were obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption pattern, Attitudes and Nutrition Knowledge on Soft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet to our understanding it is not well established what are Belgian adults' nutrition knowledge and attitude towards soft drink consumption. This study aimed at assessing Belgian consumers' attitude, consumption pattern and nutrition knowledge on soft drinks. A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among Belgian ...

  8. Consumption pattern, Attitudes and Nutrition Knowledge on Soft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among Belgian adults through an existing consumer panel for ... about soft drinks will be useful in raising awareness, changing attitudes and increasing nutrition knowledge of adult's soft drink ... product or brand based on his/her assessment of specific characteristics of the ...

  9. A Survey on Chemical Constituents and Indications of Aromatic Waters Soft Drinks (Hydrosols) Used in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Neurological Disorders and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Pasdaran, Ardalan; Zebarjad, Zahra; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    In Persian nutrition culture, drinking aromatic waters (hydrosols, distillate) has a long history as functional beverages or therapeutic remedies. The co-distilled water with essential oils, which contains partial amounts of more water-soluble volatile compounds are diluted and used as beverages. Since the solubility of volatile components is different in water, the overall composition, and thus the biological activities of aromatic waters seem to be different from the essential oils they were co-distilled with. Despite the essential oils, chemical constituents of many aromatic waters have not been evaluated scientifically. This research investigated hydrosols used for mental and neurological health maintenance in Persian nutrition culture and their chemical constituents. Constitutions of these hydrosols were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cluster analysis was used to evaluate the relevance of these hydrosols chemical constituents. About 93 compounds were identified from 20 aromatic waters. the major or second major constituents were thymol (azarol howthorn, frankincense, lemon balm, valerian, shadab), phenethyl alcohol (damask rose, dog-rose, starflower), carvacrol (basil, creeping buttercup, lemon balm); eugenol (shadab, dog-rose, starflower, basil), camphor (yarrow and wormwood), carvone (oriental plane), caryophyllene (cuminum), cinnamaldehyde (Chinese cinnamon), p-cymen-7-ol (musk willow), limonene (lemon verbena), linalool and α-terpineol (bitter orange), menthol (date palm) and methyl 5-vinylnicotinate (olive). Although, these hydrosols prepared from plants belong to different genus and families, but cluster analysis showed obvious similarities between their chemical constituents. Results of this investigation showed in many cases that the constituents of aromatic waters are different from the pure essential oil.

  10. 1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide-silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO-Ag-CF) for the purification of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surender; Ghosh, Somnath; Munichandraiah, N; Vasan, H N

    2013-06-14

    A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide-Ag (rGO-Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water.

  11. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript ... Page maintained by: Office of Associate Director of Communication, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend Tweet YouTube ...

  13. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  14. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of binge drinks. 4 On average, underage drinkers consume more drinks per drinking occasion than adult drinkers. ... Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  15. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27. ...

  16. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  17. Generation of soluble microbial products by bio-activated carbon filter during drinking water advanced treatment and its influence on spectral characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Hong, E-mail: song.wei0326@163.com [National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: 742702437@qq.com [National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Dong, E-mail: zhdongtj7021@sina.com [National Engineering Research Center of Urban Water Resources, Shanghai National Engineering Research Center of Urban Water Resources Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200082 (China); Chen, Hong-bin, E-mail: hbctxc@tongji.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of bio-activated carbon (BAC) filter, the water quality of influent and effluent treated with BAC in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) of Shanghai during 2015 was valued. Combining the results from UV{sub 254}, SUVA{sub 254}, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), it is found that performance of BAC treatment will be affected by characteristics of activated carbon (AC), which is relevant to the type of activated carbon (including shape and operating time) in this study. Fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (FEEM) shows that the humification index (HIX) and index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) is a reliable indicator to descript the variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during BAC process. The pattern of variation in BIX and HIX implies that soluble microbial products (SMPs) are formed and humic-like substances are removed during BAC treatment, which is also confirmed by the change of peaks of FEEM in BAC effluent. Large, positive correlations between SUVA{sub 254} and disinfection by-products formation potential yield (DBPFP yield) demonstrate that UV-absorbing DOM is directly related to the generation of DBPs. Poor correlations of HIX with DBPFP suggest that non-humic substances with UV-absorbing properties play an important role in the generation of DBPs in water with low SUVA{sub 254}. Finally, strong but negative correlations between BIX and DBPFP suggest that vigorous microbial metabolism of BAC results in a decrease in DBPFP. However, the DBPFP yield will be enhanced for the generation of SMPs by BAC, especially in summer. - Highlights: • SMPs can be produced by BAC during drinking water advanced treatment. • BAC can reduce DBPFP, while there are risks associated with increasing DBPFP yield. • SUVA{sub 254} is strongly correlated with the DBPFP yields. • BIX is strongly correlated with DBPFP and THMFP, but weakly with HAAFP.

  18. THE ILL EFFECTS IN THE ORAL HEALTH AMONG THE ADULTS DUE TO THE CONSUMPTION OF AERATED DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami Kannan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Excessive consumption of carbonated soft drink is detrimental to oral and general health and the popularity of the aerated drinks among adults has grown exponentially. This study aims at determining the prevalence of aerated drinks among students in PSG Institute of management. The focus of the study is mainly on the aerated drinks consumption pattern, frequency of consumption, reason and the following symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted using questionnaire. About 200 students in PSG Institute of Management were taken for the study and the answer to the questions were analysed. RESULTS The results showed that out of the total participants 93% reported consuming aerated drinks out of which 84% of participants were seen to consume aerated drink for a period of more than 3 years. About 55% of participants were found to have symptoms like sensitivity. About 41% of them were found to have anterior tooth discoloration and 47% of them were found to have bleeding gums. About 52% of them were found to have mouth dryness consuming aerated drinks. Hence, the participants who took larger quantity of aerated drinks for a longer period of time were found to have more than three symptoms of the study conducted (sensitivity, anterior tooth discoloration, bleeding gums and mouth dryness. CONCLUSION The above study clearly shows that there is an increase in proportion of consumption of aerated drinks among young adult, thus resulting in increased ill effect in the oral health.

  19. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufarová, M.; Hájková, V.; Chalupský, J.; Burian, T.; Vacík, J.; Vorlíček, V.; Vyšín, L.; Gaudin, J.; Medvedev, N.; Ziaja, B.; Nagasono, M.; Yabashi, M.; Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Sinn, H.; Störmer, M.; Koláček, K.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Juha, L.

    2017-12-01

    All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. Responses of a-C and C60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular (C60) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.

  20. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-02-05

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Study on the performance of the headspace liquid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in soft drinks and environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hadi; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz

    2009-04-08

    A simple, efficient and virtually solventless headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) technique, combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed for the analysis of sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) in soft drinks and environmental water samples. A microdrop of organic solvent was suspended from the tip of a microsyringe needle over the headspace of the stirred sample solution, containing the analytes for a desired time. The microdrop was then retracted into the microsyringe and directly injected into the GC-MS, without any further pretreatment. Initially, microextraction efficiency factors were optimized, and the optimum experimental conditions found were as follows: 2.5 microL toluene microdrop exposed for 20 min over the headspace of a 6.5 mL aqueous sample (45 degrees C), containing 3 M of NaCl with pH of 1.5 and stirred at 1000 rpm. Under the optimized extraction conditions, preconcentration factors of 154 and 198, limits of detection of 0.3 and 0.1 microg L(-1) (S/N=3) with dynamic linear ranges of 1-500 and 0.5-500 microg L(-1), were obtained for SA and BA respectively. A good repeatability (RSDor= 0.99) of results were achieved. The accuracy of the method was tested by the relative recovery experiments on spiked samples, with results ranging from 90 to 113%. The method proved to be rapid and cost-effective and is a green procedure for screening purposes.

  2. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy Improves the Prognosis of Unresectable Adult Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, Keiichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko, E-mail: tsujii@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Bessho, Hiroki; Takagi, Ryo; Morikawa, Takamichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Tonogi, Morio [Department of Oral Medicine, Tokyo Dental College, Ichihara (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with 70.4 GyE for unresectable bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 46.2 years) were enrolled in this prospective study on C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fractions (fr) between April 2001 and February 2008. The primary end points were acute and late reactions of normal tissues, local control rate, and overall survival rate. The secondary end point was efficacy of the treatment in comparison to historical results with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE/16 fr. Results: The 3-year local control rate and overall survival rate for all patients were 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81.0-100%) and 74.1% (95% CI = 57.5-90.6%), respectively. Acute reaction of Grade 3 or more was observed in only 1 patient. With regard to late reactions, visual loss was observed in 1 patient and a Grade 3 reaction of the maxillary bone was observed in 4 patients. A comparison with historical results revealed that the local control rate with 70.4 GyE was significantly higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 91.8% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the overall survival with 70.4 GyE tended to be higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 74.1% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.09). Conclusion: C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fr for bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck appears to be effective with acceptable toxicities in comparison to conventional RT and C-ion RT with lower doses.

  3. Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleaf, Philip; Englund, Sophie; Östlund, Anna; Lindegren, Klara; Wiberg, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb ® 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite ® A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C 3 C 11 , C 14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C 4 , C 6 , C 8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched

  4. Paper/Carbon Nanotube-Based Wearable Pressure Sensor for Physiological Signal Acquisition and Soft Robotic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhaoyao; Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Van-Thai; An, Jianing; Wei, Yuefan; Du, Hejun; Tran, Tuan; Lu, Wenqiang

    2017-11-01

    A wearable and flexible pressure sensor is essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health and also the development of a highly intelligent robot. A flexible, wearable pressure sensor is fabricated based on novel single-wall carbon nanotube /tissue paper through a low-cost and scalable approach. The flexible, wearable sensor showed superior performance with concurrence of several merits, including high sensitivity for a broad pressure range and an ultralow energy consumption level of 10(-6) W. Benefited from the excellent performance and the ultraconformal contact of the sensor with an uneven surface, vital human physiological signals (such as radial arterial pulse and muscle activity at various positions) can be monitored in real time and in situ. In addition, the pressure sensors could also be integrated onto robots as the artificial skin that could sense the force/pressure and also the distribution of force/pressure on the artificial skin.

  5. The CPP-ACP relieved enamel erosion from a carbonated soft beverage: an in vitro AFM and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C P; Huang, S B; Liu, Y; Li, J Y; Yu, H Y

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the CPP-ACP's effect on enamel against carbonated beverage erosion and explore the potential mechanism. A total of 30 enamel samples were prepared from sound bovine incisors, divided into 3 groups. Samples in the control group were kept in artificial saliva. Specimens' surfaces were smeared with a CPP-ACP agent (Tooth Mousse, TM) for 3 min, rinsed with distilled water for 10s, merged into cola (Coca Cola, CC) for 4 intervals of 2 min, rinsed again for the TM+CC group. In the CC group, specimens were treated solely with cola for 4 intervals (2 min each). The cycles were applied at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 h. The surface microhardness (SMH) alterations were measured using a microhardness tester, the surface profiles were analyzed using the atomic force microscope, and the surface crystalline amount (I%) and crystallinity (FWHM) were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. The SMH were significantly decreased in CC group, showing the largest SMH alteration; the reduction of SMH in TM+CC group was lower than that in CC group, still larger than control. After cycles, the TM+CC group showed rougher surfaces than control, while the CC group had the roughest surfaces. The TM+CC had an I% higher than the CC, and lower than the control. The TM+CC group had a FWHM lower than CC, higher than control. CPP-ACP was able to relieve the erosion on enamel from carbonated beverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soft Drinks, Mind Reading, and Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kyle T.

    2009-01-01

    Proof is a central component of mathematicians' work, used for verification, explanation, discovery, and communication. Unfortunately, high school students' experiences with proof are often limited to verifying mathematical statements or relationships that are already known to be true. As a result, students often fail to grasp the true nature of…

  7. Acoustic Analysis of Composite Soft Materials IV.Evaluation of Compressibility of Bound Rubber in Carbon Black Filled SBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maebayashi, Masahiro; Endo, Masashi; Matsuoka, Tatsuro; Koda, Shinobu; Isono, Yoshinobu

    A carbon black (CB) filled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compound was investigated by acoustic techniques, scanning acoustic microscopy and longitudinal wave velocitometry. The CB agglomerates of larger than 5 µm dispersed in the compound mixed by two-roll mill were observed as black spots in acoustic micrographs. On the other hand, the CB agglomerates in the compound mixed by oil-pressure kneader were not observed in the acoustic micrograph, since the particle size of the agglomerates was less than 5 µm. The density and the longitudinal wave velocity of the compound were measured as a function of the weight percentage of the CB. The density and the velocity increased linearly with the content of the CB. The mass ratio of the bound rubber to the CB in the unvulcanized sample was determined by using toluene extraction and thermo gravimetric analysis. The partial specific adiabatic compressibility of the CB was estimated as (-0.5±0.5)×10-10 Pa-1 on the basis of the three states model. The adiabatic compressibility of the bound rubber was (2.2±0.5)×10-10 Pa-1, and it is half of that of the SBR matrix.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF 8030 DRINKS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    before retailing that is taken as. M. P '. 36. 'sobo'. The consumption of sobo has continued to spread across. Nigeria been helped mainly by the worsening economic fortune of the majority of people and the escalating price of soft drinks and beverages that are commonly patronized. Foods frequently serve as vehicle for ...

  9. Generation of soluble microbial products by bio-activated carbon filter during drinking water advanced treatment and its influence on spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of bio-activated carbon (BAC) filter, the water quality of influent and effluent treated with BAC in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) of Shanghai during 2015 was valued. Combining the results from UV254, SUVA254, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), it is found that performance of BAC treatment will be affected by characteristics of activated carbon (AC), which is relevant to the type of activated carbon (including shape and operating time) in this study. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) shows that the humification index (HIX) and index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) is a reliable indicator to descript the variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during BAC process. The pattern of variation in BIX and HIX implies that soluble microbial products (SMPs) are formed and humic-like substances are removed during BAC treatment, which is also confirmed by the change of peaks of FEEM in BAC effluent. Large, positive correlations between SUVA254 and disinfection by-products formation potential yield (DBPFP yield) demonstrate that UV-absorbing DOM is directly related to the generation of DBPs. Poor correlations of HIX with DBPFP suggest that non-humic substances with UV-absorbing properties play an important role in the generation of DBPs in water with low SUVA254. Finally, strong but negative correlations between BIX and DBPFP suggest that vigorous microbial metabolism of BAC results in a decrease in DBPFP. However, the DBPFP yield will be enhanced for the generation of SMPs by BAC, especially in summer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise ... Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... future Preconception Health (Full) Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop ... Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  13. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who ... Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  14. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Living in Philadelphia, PA Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop ... Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  15. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  16. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... at some point in their lives. Interferes with brain development Research shows that young people’s brains keep ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health ...

  18. Fractionation and removal of dissolved organic carbon in a full-scale granular activated carbon filter used for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Oriol; Lefèvre, Benoît; Fernández, Marc; Bernat, Xavier; Paraira, Miquel; Pons, Marc

    2013-05-15

    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and, more particularly, its individual fractions by two different GACs was investigated in full-scale filters in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Fractionation of NOM was performed by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) into biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks and low molecular weight organics. The sorption capacity of GAC in terms of iodine number (IN) and apparent surface area (SBET), as well as the filling of narrow- and super-microporosity were monitored over the 1-year operation of the filters. Both GACs demonstrated to be effective at removing NOM over a wide range of fractions, especially the low and intermediate molecular weight fractions. TOC removal initially occurred via adsorption, and smaller (lighter) fractions were more removed as they could enter and diffuse more easily through the pores of the adsorbent. As time progressed, biodegradation also played a role in the TOC removal, and lighter fractions continued to be preferentially removed due to their higher biodegradability. The gained knowledge would assist drinking water utilities in selecting a proper GAC for the removal of NOM from water and, therefore, complying more successfully the latest water regulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... De Las Manos Salva Vidas Mi Salud, Mi Decisión, Mi Futuro Salud Pregestacional ¿Yo? ¿Tener un Bebé? ¿ ... professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [ ...

  20. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send ...

  1. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  2. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... 10:09) Systems Mapping: The Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take ... professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript ...

  3. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27.9 ... risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – ...

  4. Anterior cervical fusion with carbon fiber cage containing coralline hydroxyapatite: preliminary observations in 45 consecutive cases of soft-disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Umberto; Mastronardi, Luciano; Puzzilli, Fabrizio

    2002-04-01

    The purposes of bone substitutes for anterior cervical fusion (ACF) are immediate biomechanical support and osteointegration of the graft. The authors report their preliminary results in performing ACF in which carbon fiber cages (CFCs) containing coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) are used as bone substitute. During a 24-month period, anterior microsurgical discectomy was performed in 45 consecutive patients for soft-disc cervical herniation. In all cases ACF was performed using a CFC containing a core of granulated coralline HA. Fifty-seven CFCs were implanted in 33 single-level and 12 two-level procedures. The mean operative time was 83 minutes for one-level and 97 minutes for two-level procedures. The mean hospital stay was 1.51 days, and there were no permanent complications. At a mean follow up of 22.3 months, the pain had decreased or disappeared in all patients, and the patients' satisfaction rate was very high. Good results were also obtained in patients who smoked cigarettes. Patients underwent radiographic evaluation at Day 1, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Implant-related complications were not observed and revision surgeries were not performed. Twelve-month cervical x-ray films demonstrated complete fusion in all cases, without evidence of breakage, collapse, pseudarthrosis, subsidence, angular deformity, or protrusion. Signs of pathological absorption and necrosis were not found in contiguous vertebral bodies, and inflammatory reactions were never seen around cages. These preliminary results suggest that implants composed of CFC containing granulated coralline HA are promising bone substitutes to be used in ACF, with a good rate of incorporation and no significant complications.

  5. Soft Lenses*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhema. Low water content-30 - 40% therefore less well tolerated. Impermeable to gases. Low elasticity and therefore optics not good. Subject to stress and strain especially when drying. Easily infected. A series of cases fitted with Bionite soft lenses is described. Good results were obtained in bullous kera- topathy, dry.

  6. Coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Li, R.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Albanes, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Bernstein, L.; Black, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; English, D.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giles, G.G.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Jacobs, E.J.; Koushik, A.; Männisö, S.; Marshall, J.R.; Miller, A.B.; Patel, A.V.; Robien, K.; Rohan, T.E.; Schairer, C.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Wolk, A.; Ziegler, R.G.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened

  7. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on granular activated carbon and their fates during drinking water purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jia; Kasuga, Ikuro; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki; Shigeeda, Takaaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia is a precursor to trichloramine, which causes an undesirable chlorinous odor. Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration is used to biologically oxidize ammonia during drinking water purification; however, little information is available regarding the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) associated with GAC. In addition, their sources and fates in water purification process remain unknown. In this study, six GAC samples were collected from five full-scale drinking water purification plants in Tokyo during summer and winter, and the abundance and community structure of AOA and AOB associated with GAC were studied in these two seasons. In summer, archaeal and bacterial amoA genes on GACs were present at 3.7 × 10(5)-3.9 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry and 4.5 × 10(6)-4.2 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry, respectively. In winter, archaeal amoA genes remained at the same level, while bacterial amoA genes decreased significantly for all GACs. No differences were observed in the community diversity of AOA and AOB from summer to winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high AOA diversity in group I.1a and group I.1b in raw water. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of processed water samples revealed that AOA diversity decreased dramatically to only two OTUs in group I.1a after ozonation, which were identical to those detected on GAC. It suggests that ozonation plays an important role in determining AOA diversity on GAC. Further study on the cell-specific activity of AOA and AOB is necessary to understand their contributions to in situ nitrification performance.

  8. Fatores associados ao consumo regular de refrigerante não dietético em adultos de Pelotas, RS Factores asociados al consumo regular de gaseosa no dietética en adultos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Factors associated with regular non-diet soft drink intake among adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton José Rombaldi

    2011-04-01

    general desde el del año pasado, cuantas veces tu tomaste gaseosa no dietética?". Las respuestas categorizadas fueron dicotomizadas para fines de análisis. Fue considerado consumo regular de refrigerante no dietético la frecuencia de cinco o más veces por semana. La asociación con variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, conductuales y nutricionales fue analizada por la prueba de chi-cuadrado para heterogeneidad y tendencia linear y el análisis multivariable fue realizado por medio de regresión de Poisson, con variancia robusta. RESULTADOS: Cerca de un quinto de la población adulta de Pelotas (20,4% ingería regularmente gaseosa no dietética. Individuos del sexo masculino (RP 1,50; IC95%: 1,20;2,00, fumadores actuales (RP 1,60; IC 95%: 1,20;2,10 y que consumían semanalmente meriendas (RP 2,10; IC95%: 1,60;2,70 presentaron mayor prevalencia de consumo de gaseosas no dietéticas en el análisis ajustado. El análisis estratificado por sexo mostró que el consumo regular de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue factor protector al consumo de gaseosas entre mujeres (RP 0,50; IC95%: 0,30;0,90. CONCLUSIONES: La frecuencia de consumo regular de gaseosas no dietéticas en la población adulta fue elevada, particularmente entre hombres, jóvenes y fumadores.OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with regular intake of non-diet soft drinks among adults. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study including 972 adults (aged 20 to 69 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, conducted in 2006. The frequency of non-diet soft drink intake in the 12 months prior to the study was evaluated by the question: "In general since last , how many times did you have a non-diet soft drink?". The answers were dichotomized for the analysis. Intake of non-diet soft drinks five times or more per week was considered regular intake. The association between the outcome and sociodemographic, behavioral and nutritional variables was tested using the chi-square test for heterogeneity and linear

  9. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up to 2 drinks per day for men. Binge Drinking: NIAAA defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking that brings blood ... Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), defines binge drinking as 5 or more alcoholic drinks for males ...

  10. Soft Thermal Sensor with Mechanical Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Wang, Ting; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    A soft thermal sensor with mechanical adaptability is fabricated by the combination of single-wall carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups and self-healing polymers. This study demonstrates that this soft sensor has excellent thermal response and mechanical adaptability. It shows tremendous promise for improving the service life of soft artificial-intelligence robots and protecting thermally sensitive electronics from the risk of damage by high temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  12. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound a...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  13. Adsorption characteristics of trace levels of bromate in drinking water by modified bamboo-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chuang, Yen Hsun; Hsu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Winn-Jung

    2017-09-19

    This study was undertaken to investigate the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromate (BrO 3 - ) on bamboo charcoals that are activated with nitrogen and water vapor. Bamboo-based activated carbon (AC) was dipped in acid and oxidized in a mixture of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. Oxidation treatment considerably improved the physicochemical properties of AC, including purity, pore structure and surface nature, significantly enhancing BrO 3 - adsorption capacity. AC with many oxygenated groups and a high mesopore volume exhibited a particularly favorable tendency for BrO 3 - adsorption. Its adsorption of BrO 3 - is best fitted using Langmuir isotherm, and forms a monolayer. A kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of BrO 3 - by the ACs involved chemical sorption and was controlled by intra-particle diffusion. The competitive effects of natural organic matter (NOM) on AC were evaluated, and found to reduce the capacity of carbon to adsorb BrO 3 - . Residual dissolved ozone reacted with AC, reducing its capacity to absorb BrO 3 - . Proper dosing and staging of the ozonation processes can balance the ozone treatment efficiency, BrO 3 - formation, and the subsequent removal of BrO 3 - .

  14. An innovative treatment concept for future drinking water production: fluidized ion exchange – ultrafiltration – nanofiltration – granular activated carbon filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new treatment concept for drinking water production from surface water has been investigated on a pilot scale. The treatment concept consists of fluidized ion exchange (FIEX, ultrafiltration (UF, nanofiltration (NF, and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC. The FIEX process removed calcium and other divalent cations; the UF membrane removed particles and micro-organisms; and the NF membrane and GAC removed natural organic matter (NOM and micro-pollutants. This study focused on the prevention of fouling of the UF and scaling of the NF and investigated the overall removal of micro-pollutants by the treatment concept. The results of the experiments showed that in 14 days of continuous operation at a flux of 65 l/h m2 the UF performance was stable with the FIEX pre-treated feed water without the aid of a coagulant. The scaling of the NF was also not observed even at 97% recovery. Different micro-pollutants were spiked in the NF feed water and their concentrations in the effluent of NF and GAC were measured. The combination of NF and GAC removed most of the micro-pollutants successfully, except for the very polar substances with a molecular weight lower than 100 Daltons.

  15. Export of Dissolved Organic Carbon following Prescribed Fire on Forested Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Management for Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Olivares, C. I.; Uzun, H.; Erdem, C. U.; Trettin, C.; Liu, Y.; Robinson, E. R.; Karanfil, T.; Chow, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    that are significantly different from the raw material. Based on our understanding, this watershed-scale study is the first field-scale study to evaluate the effects of prescribed fire on treatability of drinking water supplies.

  16. Effects of coconut granular activated carbon pretreatment on membrane filtration in a gravitational driven process to improve drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávia Vieira; Yamaguchi, Natália Ueda; Lovato, Gilselaine Afonso; da Silva, Fernando Alves; Reis, Miria Hespanhol Miranda; de Amorim, Maria Teresa Pessoa Sousa; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of a polymeric microfiltration membrane, as well as its combination with a coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment, in a gravitational filtration module, to improve the quality of water destined to human consumption. The proposed membrane and adsorbent were thoroughly characterized using instrumental techniques, such as contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The applied processes (membrane and GAC + membrane) were evaluated regarding permeate flux, fouling percentage, pH and removal of Escherichia coli, colour, turbidity and free chlorine. The obtained results for filtrations with and without GAC pretreatment were similar in terms of water quality. GAC pretreatment ensured higher chlorine removals, as well as higher initial permeate fluxes. This system, applying GAC as a pretreatment and a gravitational driven membrane filtration, could be considered as an alternative point-of-use treatment for water destined for human consumption.

  17. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  18. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ... & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  19. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... binge drinking carries more serious and longer-lasting risks as well. Alcohol Poisoning Alcohol poisoning is the most life-threatening ... or pale skin If you think someone has alcohol poisoning, call 911 ... drinking impairs judgment, so drinkers are more likely to take risks they might not take when they're sober. ...

  20. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking (40 percent vs. 7 percent) and 5 times more likely to have missed a class (64 percent vs. 12 percent). 6 Alcohol Use ... 6 weeks of freshman year are a vulnerable time for heavy drinking and ... social pressures at the start of the academic year. How much is a ...

  1. Associação entre consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal em escolares da rede pública de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a associação entre o consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em 1.423 estudantes, entre 9 e 16 anos, de escolas públicas de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O consumo de bebidas foi avaliado por meio do recordatório alimentar de 24 horas e questionário de freqüência de consumo alimentar. Peso e estatura foram coletados para o cálculo do IMC. As análises de regressão linear foram estratificadas por sexo e ajustadas por atividade física, idade e efeito do conglomerado (classes. Verificou-se associação positiva entre freqüência de consumo de refrigerante e idade (p = 0,05 e negativa entre consumo de leite e idade (p = 0,004. Apenas para as meninas, o IMC associou-se positivamente com o consumo de sucos (β = 0,02; p = 0,03. Para as outras bebidas não foram encontradas associações entre IMC e freqüência usual de consumo. O consumo de refrigerantes e sucos representou cerca de 20% do total de energia média consumida diariamente. Os resultados indicam que esforços para reduzir a ingestão de energia por meio de bebidas devem enfatizar também os sucos.The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05 and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004. For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (β = 0.02; p = 0.03. For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and

  2. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated activated carbon prepared from bark of Morinda tinctoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, Augustine; Pius, Anitha

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to design and develop a novel cost effective method for fluoride removal, applicable to rural areas of developing countries. Adsorption is widely considered as one of the appropriate technologies for water defluoridation. This study investigates the feasibility of using low-cost biomass based activated carbon from the bark of Morinda tinctoria coated with aluminum hydroxide (AHAC) for water defluoridation, at neutral pH range. Characterization of AHAC was done through IR, SEM with EDAX studies before and after fluoride treatment. The fluoride adsorption capacity of AHAC as a function of contact time, pH and initial fluoride concentration was investigated. The role of co-existing interfering ions also was studied. The isotherm and kinetic models were used to understand the nature of the fluoride adsorption onto AHAC. Freundlich isotherm and intra-particle diffusion were the best-fitting models for the adsorption of fluoride on AHAC. Fluoride adsorption kinetics well fitted with pseudo-second order model. The results showed excellent fluoride adsorption capacity was found to be 26.03 mg g-1 at neutral pH.

  3. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When kids drink too much juice, juice drinks, sports drinks, and soda, these beverages can crowd out the ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ...

  4. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  5. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – Decembe...

  7. Rapid analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and pulse glow discharge ion source ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Liu, Shaowen; Hou, Yanbing; Zhang, Jialei; Xu, Xiang; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-03-01

    An analytical method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent coupled with positive pulse glow discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for analysis of 30 pesticide residues in drinking water samples. Reduced ion mobilities and the mass-mobility correlation of 30 pesticides were measured. The pesticides were divided into five groups to verify the separation capability of pulse glow discharge in mobility spectrometry. The extraction conditions such as desorption solvent, ionic strength, conditions of adsorption and desorption, the amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and solution pH were optimized. The enrichment factors of pesticides were 5.4- to 48.7-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 50-fold). The detection limits of pesticides were 0.01∼0.77 μg/kg. The linear range was 0.005-0.2 mg/L for pesticide standard solutions, with determination coefficients from 0.9616 to 0.9999. The method was applied for the analysis of practical and spiked drinking water samples. All results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed method was proven to be a commendably rapid screening qualitative and semiquantitative technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples on site. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...

  9. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Swimming Is No Accident No Antibiotics Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic ... Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4: ...

  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ... the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > File Formats ...

  12. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  13. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Our Source of Health (:30) Systems Thinking The Value of Systems Thinking (10:09) Systems Mapping: The ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  14. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such ...

  15. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Philadelphia, PA Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence ... in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Dangerous Creatures Healthy Changes Start in Preschool ...

  16. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  17. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ...

  18. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos ...

  19. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention ... Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

  20. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and ...

  1. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research ... In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital ...

  2. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  3. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... goals: Foster changes in society that facilitate healthy adolescent development and that help prevent and reduce underage drinking. ... cultural, and gender differences. Conduct additional research on adolescent ... to development. Work to improve public health surveillance on underage ...

  4. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  5. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your ...

  6. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  7. Fuzzy Soft Sets and Fuzzy Soft Lattices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shao, Yingchao; Qin, Keyun

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, the notion of fuzzy soft lattice is defined and some related properties are derived, which extends the notion of a fuzzy lattice to include the algebraic structures of soft sets...

  8. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  9. Soft Translations and Soft Extensions of BCI/BCK-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazra Sultana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored.

  10. Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.

    2016-01-01

    in their children. METHODS: The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week...... 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft...

  11. Energy Drinks: A Contemporary Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita; Deuster, Patricia A; Shearer, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

  12. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  13. The First Drinking Simulator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current Thermal cycling units fail to simulate the drinking behaviors, and oral balancing temperature. They cannot also simulate other oral conditions such as drink coloring, and chemicals like tea, coffee, carbonated and noncarbonated, citrus juices as well as alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks and also saliva and milk itself. The main objective of this study is to introduce the designing and manufacturing the first Drinking Simulator Unit (DSU that reproduces the thermal, color and chemicalcycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions uniquely. Methods: The invented system generally has two parts: the hardware and the software parts. The hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic parts. The software part is responsible for controlling the heating and cooling systems, electric valves, the pumps, and automatic filling systems of tanks as well as the sensors of the machine. Results: DSU is the first unit can reproduce the thermal, color and chemical cycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions. Different kinds of colored and acidic drinks and also other chemical materials such as bleaching substances as well as detergents and antiseptics used for dentistry, industrial and medical purposes can be tested by DSU. DSU has also to be considered as an appliance performing in-vitro researches on dental structures. Conclusion: The invented system can greatly improve and validate the results of such researches.  

  14. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  15. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Go: Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (:30) Influenza (:60) No Hay Excusas Prevención del virus del Zika para ... Drinking Transcript High resolution [27.9 MB] Open Captioned [12.6 ...

  16. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: ...

  17. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Drinking" width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/I9hdkDTaQWU?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

  18. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  19. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  20. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... d’Opération d’Urgence (COU) Portuguese Vacine-se e proteja-se contra o sarampo Somali Halagu Tallaalo ... Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback ...

  1. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  2. A new model of the formation of Pennsylvanian iron carbonate concretions hosting exceptional soft-bodied fossils in Mazon Creek, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotroneo, S; Schiffbauer, J D; McCoy, V E; Wortmann, U G; Darroch, S A F; Peng, Y; Laflamme, M

    2016-11-01

    Preservation of Pennsylvanian-aged (307 Ma) soft-bodied fossils from Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA, is attributed to the formation of siderite concretions, which encapsulate the remains of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine flora and fauna. The narrow range of positive δ34 S values from pyrite in individual concretions suggests microenvironmentally limited ambient sulfate, which may have been rapidly exhausted by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Tissue of the decaying carcass was rapidly encased by early diagenetic pyrite and siderite produced within the sulfate reduction and methanogenic zones of the sediment, with continuation of the latter resulting in concretion cementation. Cross-sectional isotopic analyses (δ13 C and δ18 O) and mineralogical characterization of the concretions point to initiation of preservation in high porosity proto-concretions during the early phases of microbially induced decay. The proto-concretion was cemented prior to compaction of the sediments by siderite as a result of methanogenic production of 13 C-rich bicarbonate-which varies both between Essex and Braidwood concretions and between fossiliferous and unfossiliferous concretions. This work provides the first detailed geochemical study of the Mazon Creek siderite concretions and identifies the range of conditions allowing for exceptional soft-tissue fossil formation as seen at Mazon Creek. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Consumo de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar entre adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo Consumption of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages among adolescents from public schools in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bueno do Carmo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as práticas alimentares de adolescentes quanto à ingestão energética, distribuição de macronutrientes na dieta e porções consumidas de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar. METODOLOGIA: Foi avaliada uma amostra de adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por um Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar. Para a comparação do consumo com a recomendação de ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes, utilizaram-se as Dietary Reference Intakes. A análise do consumo de doces baseou-se nas recomendações do guia alimentar norte-americano. Dados de consumo de refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar foram avaliados em comparação com outros estudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 390 adolescentes. Apenas 6,2% destes apresentaram consumo energético em conformidade com o intervalo preconizado e 83,8% revelaram ingestão energética acima dos valores propostos. Expressiva parcela apresentou consumo de carboidratos e proteínas de acordo com o recomendado, mas foi verificado consumo alto de lipídios em 36,7% da amostra. Comprovou-se um consumo médio de 3,8 porções diárias de doces, sendo que 78,2% dos entrevistados ultrapassaram a recomendação máxima. O consumo médio diário alcançou aproximadamente 230ml e 550ml de refrigerante e bebidas com adição de açúcar, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Devido à alarmante inadequação das práticas alimentares observadas entre os adolescentes, devem ser adotadas estratégias educativas que enfatizem a redução do consumo de açúcares e os benefícios da adoção de uma dieta equilibrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary patterns of adolescents in relation to energy intake, distribution of macronutrients in diet and consumption of portions of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages. METHODOLOGY: A sample of adolescents enrolled in public schools in Piracicaba

  4. Hierarchical porous carbons with layer-by-layer motif architectures from confined soft-template self-assembly in layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Jing; Ding, Bing; Malgras, Victor; Chang, Zhi; Hao, Xiaodong; Wang, Ya; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    Although various two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been explored as promising capacitive materials due to their unique layered structure, their natural restacking tendency impedes electrolyte transport and significantly restricts their practical applications. Herein, we synthesize all-carbon layer-by-layer motif architectures by introducing 2D ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) within the interlayer space of 2D nanomaterials. As a proof of concept, MXenes are selected as 2D hosts to design 2D-2D heterostructures. Further removing the metal elements from MXenes leads to the formation of all-carbon 2D-2D heterostructures consisting of alternating layers of MXene-derived carbon (MDC) and OMC. The OMC layers intercalated with the MDC layers not only prevent restacking but also facilitate ion diffusion and electron transfer. The performance of the obtained hybrid carbons as supercapacitor electrodes demonstrates their potential for upcoming electronic devices. This method allows to overcome the restacking and blocking of 2D nanomaterials by constructing ion-accessible OMC within the 2D host material.

  5. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2017-04-01

    Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black.

  6. Drinking cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh andexplore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility oflinking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water...... beconducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant’s drinking water sourceswere all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explainedthat they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Conclusion: Theoretically, V....... cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however,water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinkingwater sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system anddrinking water sources among the study population...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vital Signs Vital Signs – Presión Arterial Alta Other Languages Arabic احصل على التطعيم لتجنب الحصبة French Faites- ... of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...

  8. Single tonic-clonic seizure after energy drink abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco S; Italiano, Domenico; Gervasi, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido

    2012-03-01

    Energy drinks are soft beverages especially marketed for adolescents in order to obtain a heightened sense of awareness. Concerns about the safety of these drinks are raised based on our observation of potentially serious adverse effects. Caffeine and taurine are psychoactive agents highly present in energy drinks, which may lead to modification of neurotransmission. We herein report the case of a 20-year-old man presenting with a generalized epileptic seizure after energy drink consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft Neutrosophic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the neutrosophic group and subgroup to soft neutrosophic group and soft neutrosophic subgroup respectively. Properties and theorems related to them are proved and many examples are given.

  10. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  11. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples.

  12. Taking the sweetness out of the 'Share a Coke' marketing campaign: the influence of personalized labelling on elementary school children's bottled drink choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDarby, F; O'Hora, D; O'Shea, D; Byrne, M

    2018-01-01

    Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors. Children aged 8-13 years (N = 404) were randomly assigned to one of three drink labeling conditions: Prime Healthy, Prime Unhealthy and Control. All participants selected one beverage from 12 options, comprising six healthy and unhealthy drinks. Personalizing healthy drinks increased choice of healthy drinks (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.24-4.00), and personalizing unhealthy drinks reduced choice of healthy drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-.0.75). Higher self-esteem predicted choosing own-named drinks (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.00-1.18; p = .049). Children's drink choices are influenced by personalizing drink bottles. Tighter regulation of this marketing strategy for soft drinks may reduce children choice of these drinks. Personalization may also be used to encourage children to choose healthy drinks. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  14. Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, S; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2012-03-01

    Carbonated soft drinks and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardiometabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc., who together control 34% of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the United States, Brazil and China) from 2000 to 2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL(-1) ) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Soft stylus probes for scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Träuble, Markus; Li, Fei; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Gassner, Anne-Laure; Hojeij, Mohamad; Wittstock, Gunther; Girault, Hubert H

    2009-08-15

    A soft stylus microelectrode probe has been developed to carry out scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) of rough, tilted, and large substrates in contact mode. It is fabricated by first ablating a microchannel in a polyethylene terephthalate thin film and filling it with a conductive carbon ink. After curing the carbon track and lamination with a polymer film, the V-shaped stylus was cut thereby forming a probe, with the cross section of the carbon track at the tip being exposed either by UV-photoablation machining or by blade cutting followed by polishing to produce a crescent moon-shaped carbon microelectrode. The probe properties have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry, approach curves, and line scans over electrochemically active and inactive substrates of different roughness. The influence of probe bending on contact mode imaging was then characterized using simple patterns. Boundary element method simulations were employed to rationalize the distance-dependent electrochemical response of the soft stylus probes.

  16. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodology will allow future in situ investigations to temporally monitor mixed culture drinking water biofilm structural changes during disinfection treatments. Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodo

  17. Quantification of caffeine in dietary supplements and energy drinks by solid-surface fluorescence using a pre-concentration step on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talio, María Carolina; Acosta, María Gimena; Alesso, Magdalena; Luconi, Marta O; Fernández, Liliana P

    2014-01-01

    A new method for the determination of caffeine, a non-fluorescent analyte, based on the enhancement of the fluorescence of Rhodamine B dye on a membrane filter modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes is proposed. The method comprises pre-concentration of caffeine on a solid support by chemofiltration in buffered solution onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes previously oxidised and dispersed in cationic surfactant admicelles. The effect of experimental parameters, including the nature of the buffer and pH, the nature of the solid support, filtration flow rate, dye and carbon nanotube concentration, and the nature of the surfactant and concentration were investigated by means univariation assays. Under optimum experimental conditions, the pre-concentration system gave detection and quantification limits of 0.3 and 1.1 µg l(-1), respectively. A wide linear range was achieved varying from concentrations of 1.1 to 9.7 × 103 µg l(-1) (r(2) = 0.999). Satisfactory recovery values were obtained using the method of standard addition, confirming the feasibility of this method for caffeine determination in energising dietary supplements and energy drinks.

  18. Soft hair as a soft wig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We consider large gauge transformations of gravity and electromagnetism in D=4 asymptotically flat spacetime. Already at the classical level, we identify a canonical transformation that decouples the soft variables from the hard dynamics. We find that only the soft dynamics is constrained by BMS or large U(1) charge conservation. Physically this corresponds to the fact that sufficiently long-wavelength photons or gravitons that are added to the in-state will simply pass through the interaction region; they scatter trivially in their own sector. This implies in particular that the large gauge symmetries bear no relevance to the black hole information paradox. We also present the quantum version of soft decoupling. As a consistency check, we show that the apparent mixing of soft and hard modes in the original variables arises entirely from the long range field of the hard charges, which is fixed by gauge invariance and so contains no additional information.

  19. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  20. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non?college-attending peers. These drink...

  1. Teaching Families to Keep Their Children S.A.F.E. From Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponder, S. W; Anderson, M. A

    2008-01-01

      Soft drinks or sugary beverages Soft drinks (sugary drinks), whether in the form of sweetened carbonated beverages, juice drinks, sweetened tea, or sport drinks, are a primary source of excess calories in the diets of most children...

  2. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  3. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  4. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  5. Room temperature redox reaction by oxide ion migration at carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 heterointerface probed by an in situ hard x-ray photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tsuchiya, Shogo Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki Yamashita, Hideki Yoshikawa, Kazuya Terabe, Keisuke Kobayashi and Shu Yamaguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SX-XAS have been employed to investigate a local redox reaction at the carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC thin film heterointerface under applied dc bias. In HX-PES, Ce3d and O1s core levels show a parallel chemical shift as large as 3.2 eV, corresponding to the redox window where ionic conductivity is predominant. The window width is equal to the energy gap between donor and acceptor levels of the GDC electrolyte. The Ce M-edge SX-XAS spectra also show a considerable increase of Ce3+ satellite peak intensity, corresponding to electrochemical reduction by oxide ion migration. In addition to the reversible redox reaction, two distinct phenomena by the electrochemical transport of oxide ions are observed as an irreversible reduction of the entire oxide film by O2 evolution from the GDC film to the gas phase, as well as a vigorous precipitation of oxygen gas at the bottom electrode to lift off the GDC film. These in situ spectroscopic observations describe well the electrochemical polarization behavior of a metal/GDC/metal capacitor-like two-electrode cell at room temperature.

  6. Operations on Soft Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling, analysis and computing of problems with uncertainty is one of the hottest areas in interdisciplinary research involving applied mathematics, computational intelligence and decision sciences. It is worth noting that uncertainty arises from various domains has very different nature and cannot be captured within a single mathematical framework. Molodtsov’s soft sets provide us a new way of coping with uncertainty from the viewpoint of parameterization. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of soft graphs, vertex-induced soft graphs, edge-induced soft graphs and describe some operations on soft graphs by presenting several examples to demonstrate these new concepts. Finally, we investigate some fundamental properties of soft graphs.

  7. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  8. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  9. On defining soft spaces by weak soft neighborhood systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha ÖZTÜRK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we define the concepts of weak soft neighborhood space, soft w^{s}(?,?'-continuous, soft w^{s}-continuous and soft w^{s^{*}}-continuous on weak soft neighborhood spaces. Finally, we introduce their basic properties and some examples.

  10. Um modelo de otimização inteira mista e heurísticas relax and fix para a programação da produção de fábricas de refrigerantes de pequeno porte A mixed integer programming model and relax and fix heuristics for the production scheduling of small scale soft drink plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisemara Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo propomos um modelo de otimização inteira mista para o problema de dimensionamento e seqüenciamento dos lotes de produção em fábricas de refrigerantes de pequeno porte, com tempos e custos de set up de produção dependentes do seqüenciamento dos lotes. O modelo considera o estágio de envase como sendo o gargalo da produção da planta, o que é comum em fábricas de pequeno porte com uma única linha de envase, e restrições de lote mínimo do estágio de xaroparia. Variações da heurística relax and fix são propostas e comparadas na solução de exemplares do modelo, gerados com dados reais de uma fábrica localizada no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados mostram que as abordagens são capazes de gerar soluções melhores do que as utilizadas pela empresa.In this paper we propose a mixed integer programming model to the lot sizing and sequencing problem of a soft drink plant with sequence-dependent set up costs and times. The model considers that the bottling stage is the production bottleneck, which is common in small plants with only one production line, and minimum lot size constrains of the syrup stage. Variations of the relax and fix heuristic are proposed and compared. A computational study with instances generated based on real data from a plant situated in the State of São Paulo-Brazil is also presented. The results show that the approaches are capable to produce better solutions than the ones from the company.

  11. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  12. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  13. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  14. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  15. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  16. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  17. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  18. Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOCs) from the Groundwater Sources of Drinking Water via Granular Activated Carbon Treatment (WaterRF Report 4440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the feasibility of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment of selected carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (cVOC) to sub-μg/L levels. The project consisted of three tasks. The task objectives are: Task I - determine c...

  19. Soft Pion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  20. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-12-26

    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  1. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  2. Fuzzy soft connected sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce some different types of fuzzy soft connected components related to the different types of fuzzy soft connectedness and based on an equivalence relation defined on the set of fuzzy soft points of X. We have investigated some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components. We show that the fuzzy soft C5-connected component may be not exists and if it exists, it may not be fuzzy soft closed set. Also, we introduced some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components in discrete fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a departure from the general topology.

  3. Spectrophotometric Detection of Rhodamine B after Separation-Enrichment by Using Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Yunus Emre; Soylak, Mustafa; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A new, simple UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for the separation-preconcentration and determination of rhodamine B based on its adsorption onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been described. The effects of parameters for the quantitative recoveries of rhodamine B, including pH, flow, sample volumes, etc., were optimized. Matrix effects of concomitant ions or other dyes were also examined. The preconcentration factor and LOD were calculated as 125 and 0.80 μg/L, respectively. The procedure was applied to the spectrophotometric detection of rhodamine B in a soft drink, dialysis water, textile industry wastewater, and nail polish samples.

  4. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  5. Effects of Oral Administration of Energy Drinks on Blood Chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Energy drinks are canned or bottled carbonated beverages that contain large amounts of caffeine and sugar with additional ingredients, such as BVitamins, amino acids and herbal stimulants. Previous reports have shown that consumption of large amounts of these energy drinks may result in adverse health ...

  6. Rotting softly and stealthily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J

    2005-08-01

    The soft rot erwiniae, which are plant pathogens on potato and other crops world-wide, synthesize and secrete large quantities of plant cell wall degrading enzymes that are responsible for the soft rot phenotype, earning them the epithet 'brute force' pathogens. They have been distinguished from classic 'stealth' pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, which possesses an extensive battery of Type III secreted effector proteins and phytotoxins to manipulate and suppress host defences. However, recent studies, including whole-genome sequencing, are revealing many components of stealth pathogenesis within the soft rot erwiniae (SRE), suggesting that 'stealth' and 'brute force' should not be regarded as mutually exclusive modes of pathogenesis.

  7. OBTENTION OF CARAMEL COLOR FOR CARBONATED BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnel Benítez Cortés

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is done in order to evaluate a process for the preparation of caramel color to produce carbonated soft drinks. The effect of the concentration of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide in caramel color properties such as density, pH, color and Brix is evaluated and it is compared with a color pattern caramel color which was imported. The results indicate that the prepared sample with 3.6 mL of phosphoric acid and 46 mL of ammonium hydroxide has similar characteristics to the sample pattern. With this sample, iromber and cola syrup is prepared, showing very good results for the case of the cola, not so for iromber syrup. Durability studies are favorable, keeping the pH constant and color stability.

  8. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  9. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...

  10. The microbiology and deterioration of soft drinks subjected to two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pediococcus spp. occurred in brand A but not in brand B. Much higher incidence (30%) of Staphylococcus spp. was observed in brand B as compared with 10% in brand A. Bacillus spp. were the most predominant bacterial group found in both brands while Aspergillus spp. and Cladosporium spp. dominated the two brands.

  11. Shared drink and a soft punch: an almost deadly combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Karsten; Srivastava, David; Bosbach, Simon; Lehmann, Beat

    2016-11-29

    Injuries of the spleen in blunt abdominal trauma are common and can lead to fatal bleeding. The diagnostic of choice to determine severity and treatment is usually made in contrast-enhanced CT. In our case we used contrast-enhanced ultrasound to identify the origin of an intra-abdominal bleeding following a minor trauma in a patient with splenomegaly due to an Epstein-Barr virus infection. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The decomposition of vegetation and soil in marginal peat-forming landscapes: climate simulations to quantify gaseous and dissolved carbon fluxes and the effects on peat accumulation and drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, J.; Bell, M.; Clark, J. M.; Graham, N.; Templeton, M.; Brazier, R.; Verhoef, A.; Freeman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands in the UK represent a large proportion of the soil carbon store, however there is concern that some systems may be switching from sinks to sources of carbon. The accumulation of organic material in peatlands results from the slow rates of decomposition typically occurring in these regions. Climate change may lead to faster decomposition which, if not matched by an equivalent increase in net primary productivity and litter fall, may tip the balance between source and sink. Recent trends have seen a greater flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from peatlands to surface waters and a change in DOM character, presenting challenges to water treatment, for example in terms of increased production of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Peat systems border a large proportion of reservoirs in the UK so uncertainty regarding DOM quantity and quality is a concern for water utilities. This study considered five peatland vegetation types (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, peat soil and mixed litter) collected from the Exmoor National Park, UK where it is hypothesised that peat formation may be strongly affected by future changes to climate. A factorial experiment design to simulate climate was used, considering vegetation type, temperature and rainfall amount using a current baseline and predictions from the UKCP09 model. Gaseous fluxes of carbon were monitored over a two month period to quantify the effect on carbon mineralisation rates while 13C NMR analysis was employed to track which classes of compounds decayed preferentially. The DOM collected was characterised using UV and fluorescence techniques before being subject to standard drinking water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation followed by chlorination). The effect of the experimental factors on DOM amenability to removal and propensity to form DBPs was then considered, with both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetonitrile (HAN) DBP classes monitored. Initial results have shown a

  14. Flexidrive: a soft artificial muscle motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony C. H.; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd

    2011-04-01

    We use our thumbs and forefingers to rotate an object such as a control knob on a stereo system by moving our finger relative to our thumb. Motion is imparted without sliding and in a precise manner. In this paper we demonstrate how an artificial muscle membrane can be used to mimic this action. This is achieved by embedding a soft gear within the membrane. Deformation of the membrane results in deformation of the polymer gear and this can be used for motor actuation by rotating the shaft. The soft motors were fabricated from 3M VHB4905 membranes 0.5mm thick that were pre-stretched equibiaxially to a final thickness of 31 μm. Each membrane had polymer acrylic soft gears inserted at the center. Sectors of each membrane (60° sector) were painted on both sides with conducting carbon grease leaving gaps between adjoining sectors to avoid arcing between them. Each sector was electrically connected to a power supply electrode on the rigid acrylic frame via narrow avenues of carbon-grease. The motors were supported in rigid acrylic frames aligned concentrically. A flexible shaft was inserted through both gears. Membranes were charged using a step wave PWM voltage signal delivered using a Biomimetics Lab EAP Control unit. Both membrane viscoelasticity and the resisting torque on the shaft influence motor speed by changing the effective circumference of the flexible gear. This new soft motor opens the door to artificial muscle machines molded as a single part.

  15. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  16. Effect of acidic food and drinks on surface hardness of enamel, dentine, and tooth-coloured filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkhantee, S; Patanapiradej, V; Maneenut, C; Tantbirojn, D

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acidic food and drinks (Cola soft drink, drinking yogurt, orange juice, sports drink, Tom-yum soup) on surface hardness of various substrates (enamel, dentine, universal composite, microfilled composite, conventional glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified resin composite). Specimens (n = 10) were alternately immersed, 5 s each, in food or drinks and in artificial saliva for 10 cycles. Baseline and post-immersion Vickers hardness were compared using paired t-test. The difference in hardness between the groups was analysed with one-way ANOVA followed by a least significant different (LSD) test. Cola soft drink significantly reduced surface hardness of enamel, dentine, microfilled composite, and resin modified glass ionomer (p Tom-yum soup did not reduce surface hardness of any substrate. This in vitro study confirms the erosive potential of certain acidic food and drinks that public should be aware of.

  17. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  18. Soft Soil Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-619A Soft Soil Mobility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TOP supersedes TOP 02-2-619, Soft Soil Vehicle Mobility, dated 21 May 1970. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to identify changes

  19. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  20. Older Adults and Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than this increases the risk of serious alcohol problems. Heavy drinking makes certain health problems worse, too, ... or drink heavily can experience a variety of problems from alcohol. 3 Many prescription, over-the-counter medications, and ...

  1. Chloramines in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  2. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  3. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes as nanocomposite materials: determination of myricetin in some drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajian

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of myricetin on a gold nanoparticle/ethylenediamine/multi-walled carbon-nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/GCE has been investigated. Myricetin effectively accumulated on the AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/GCE and caused a pair of irreversible redox peaks at around 0.408 V and 0.191 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.5 for oxidation and reduction reactions respectively. The heights of the redox peaks were significantly higher on AuNPs/en/MWNTs/GCE compare with MWCNTs/GC and there was no peak on bare GC. The electron-transfer reaction for myricetin on the surface of electrochemical sensor was controlled by adsorption. Some parameters including pH, accumulation potential, accumulation time and scan rate have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, anodic peak current was proportional to myricetin concentration in the dynamic range of 5.0×10-8 to 4.0×10-5 mol L-1 with the detection limit of 1.2×10-8 mol L-1. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of myricetin content in tea and fruit juices.

  4. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  5. On operations of soft sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sezgin, Aslıhan; Atagün, Akın Osman

    2011-01-01

    ... called soft set theory is free from the difficulties affecting existing methods. In soft set theory, the problem of setting the membership function does not arise, which makes the theory easily applied to many different fields. Works on soft set theory has been progressing rapidly since Maji et al.  [8] introduced several operations of soft set...

  6. Reslts on fuzzy soft functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir TANAY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fuzzy soft function is mentioned by Aygünoğlu et al and Kharal et al in their papers (named Introduction to Fuzzy Soft Groups (2009 and Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes (2009, respectively. In this paper, some results on the fuzzy soft image and preimage of set theoretic operations of fuzzy soft sets under a fuzzy soft function are studied. Also the notion of fuzzy soft equality is introduced and some related results are given.

  7. Energy drinks and escalation in drug use severity: An emergent hazard to adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Wanda E; Jackson, Dylan B

    2017-11-29

    The aim of the current study is to determine whether energy drink consumption contributes to drug use and, more specifically, an escalation in the severity of drug use. We first examine the association between energy drink use and hard drug use, and subsequently investigate whether soft drug use mediates this relationship. Potential moderating influences are also investigated by testing whether the degree of mediation varies by age, gender, and race. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of 8th (ages 13-14), 10th (ages 15-16), and 12th (ages 17-18) grade adolescents from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey. Negative binomial regression is employed to examine associations between energy drink consumption and soft and hard drug use. Mediation results indicate that energy drink consumption is significantly associated with increased soft drug use, which is, in turn, associated with significant increases in hard drug use. This cascading effect of energy drink consumption on drug use appears to be stronger among younger females and older males. Results for the moderating effect of race are mixed. Energy drinks appear to pose an important threat to adolescent health in the form of soft and hard drug use. The United States may want to consider adopting energy drink policies similar to European countries and Canada, which require warning labels on beverages with high caffeine content. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fuzzy parametrized fuzzy soft topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Atmaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researches have contributed a lot towards fuzzification of Soft Set Theory. In this paper, we introduce the topological structure of fuzzyfying soft sets called fuzzy parametrized soft sets. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated basic properties of it. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity and compactness in the content of fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  9. Filters for soft X-ray solar telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Eberhard; Grebe, Kurt; Golub, Leon

    1990-01-01

    Soft X-ray telescopes require filters that block visible and infrared light and have good soft X-ray transmission. The optical properties of possible materials are discussed, and the fabrication and testing methods for the filters used in a 10-inch normal incidence telescope for 63 A are described. The best performances in the 44-114-A wavelength range are obtained with foils of carbon and rhodium.

  10. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  11. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...... combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  12. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...... relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...

  13. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  14. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  16. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  17. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  18. Topology of soft cone metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ismet; Simsek, Dagistan; Taskopru, Kemal

    2017-09-01

    In Simsek's paper it was introduced a concept of soft cone metric space via soft elements and some fixed point theorems in soft cone metric space were provided. In this work, we examine topological structures such as open ball, soft neighbourhood and soft open set in soft metric spaces and their some properties, and prove that every soft cone metric space under some condition is a soft topological space according to elementary operations on soft sets.

  19. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  20. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-17

    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.