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Sample records for carbonated beverage consumption

  1. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Talha Mufeed Siddiqui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A soft drink or a carbonated drink is a non-alcoholic drink that commonly contains water, a sweetener, carbon dioxide, acidulants, colorings, preservatives, antioxidants, and/or foaming agents, and a flavoring agent. A total of 200 adult patients of low socioeconomic status, aged 18-35 years, were selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire with 26 closed ended questions was designed for the present study which consists of questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages. One hundred and ninety nine (99.5% of the subjects enjoyed drinking soft drinks. Out of 200 subjects only 8 (4% responded that they will stop drinking soft drinks. The present study results showed that all the target population heard about soft drinks but very few of them were aware of the ill effects on general health and on teeth. So there is a need to spread awareness among people about the adverse effects of the carbonated beverages consumption and thus there is a need to plan health education programs.

  2. Consumption and correlates of sweet foods, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks among primary school children in Saudi Arabia.

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    Alsubaie, Ali Saad R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week. Approximately 56.3%children were reportedly drinking carbonated beverages weekly and 17.1% in daily basis. Weekly consumption of energy drinks was reported in 21.9% and daily consumption in 4.3% of the children. Daily sweets consumption was positively associated with children age (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-9.5, p=0.035), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.2-5.2, p less than 0.001), energy drinks (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, p=0.029), eating high fat food (OR= 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4, p=0.023), and inversely with children body mass index (BMI) (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.9, p less than 0.001). Consuming carbonated beverages on regular basis was positively associated with consuming energy drinks (OR=9.0, 95% CI: 4.0-21.0, p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary choices were found to be prevalent at early age. Comprehensive intervention programs should be established to prevent unhealthy dietary choices and promote healthier dietary behaviors. Qualitative studies are needed for better understanding of children's dietary behaviors.

  3. Carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages induces ghrelin release and increased food consumption in male rats: Implications on the onset of obesity.

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    Eweis, Dureen Samandar; Abed, Fida; Stiban, Johnny

    The dangerous health risks associated with obesity makes it a very serious public health issue. Numerous studies verified a correlation between the increase in obesity and the parallel increase in soft drink consumption among world populations. The effects of one main component in soft drinks namely the carbon dioxide gas has not been studied thoroughly in any previous research. Male rats were subjected to different categories of drinks and evaluated for over a year. Stomach ex vivo experiments were undertaken to evaluate the amount of ghrelin upon different beverage treatments. Moreover, 20 male students were tested for their ghrelin levels after ingestion of different beverages. Here, we show that rats consuming gaseous beverages over a period of around 1 year gain weight at a faster rate than controls on regular degassed carbonated beverage or tap water. This is due to elevated levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and thus greater food intake in rats drinking carbonated drinks compared to control rats. Moreover, an increase in liver lipid accumulation of rats treated with gaseous drinks is shown opposed to control rats treated with degassed beverage or tap water. In a parallel study, the levels of ghrelin hormone were increased in 20 healthy human males upon drinking carbonated beverages compared to controls. These results implicate a major role for carbon dioxide gas in soft drinks in inducing weight gain and the onset of obesity via ghrelin release and stimulation of the hunger response in male mammals. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

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    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  5. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

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    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  6. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

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    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  7. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

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    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  8. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  9. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

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    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  10. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

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    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

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    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

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    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  13. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

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    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  14. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

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    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  15. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

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    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  16. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

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    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone st...

  17. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

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    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Overweight and Obese African American Women

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    Terryl J. Hartman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.

  19. Determinants of Non Alcoholic Beverages (NAB) Consumption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive role in the consumption probability of soda beverages. The study concluded that an ... contributions to household food and nutrition in general, and especially, for their role in ... marketing and product positioning. To achieve this, the.

  20. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome.

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    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1990-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).

  1. Beverage Alcohol Choice Among University Students: Perception, Consumption and Preferences

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    Claudia Liana SALANTA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze and compare the beverage alcohol choice among university students. The study was carried out on a total of 1069 students (men and women from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage consumption, perception and preference. The main reasons associated with alcohol consumption were relaxation and socialization followed by taste and flavour. The most respondents are attracted by flavor and aroma of the favourite beverage. The participants in the study were not heavy social drinkers (only 1.7 % of participants consume alcohol every day. Beer and wine, were the alcoholic beverages ranked in the top of preferences. Our findings can provide information for educators and policymakers in Romania to implement target-orientated interventions against alcohol abuse at universities. The results of this study may also add evidence to university administrators and public health educators elsewhere dealing with students from Romania.

  2. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

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    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  3. Beverage consumption pattern among undergraduates of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few admitted always drinking while with friends (7.3%) or had feeling of guilt about drinking habit (9%) while over 70% agreed to parents` or guardians` awareness of drinking habit. Conclusion: Higher percentage of the respondents consumed more of healthy beverage such as fruit juices and soft drinks than alcoholic ...

  4. Snack and beverage consumption and preferences in a sample of Chinese children - Are they influenced by advertising?

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    Liu, Peng; Yu, Yang; King, Lesley; Li, Mu

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of unhealthy snack and beverages can lead to childhood obesity, which has become a major concern globally. Television food advertisements may influence children's snack and beverages preferences. This article aims to explore children's snack and beverage consumption habits; examine the extent of television advertising for non-core (energy-dense, nutrient poor) snack and beverages; and assess the influence of television advertising on children's snack and beverages preferences in Harbin, China. The study consisted of two components, a recall survey on the snack and beverage consumption and preferences of 9-11 years old school children; and recording snack and beverage advertisements on three popular television channels. Odds Ratio (OR) was used to estimate the likelihood of children selecting particular snack and beverages as their top three choices according to whether their preferences were influenced by television advertisements. The majority of children consumed non-core snacks (100%) and beverages (80%) in the four weeks prior to the survey. Nearly 40% of television food advertisements were for non-core snacks and beverages. Non-core snacks (OR of 1.13) and non-core beverages (OR of 1.23) were more likely chosen as children's top three snack/beverage choices, particularly, "puffed food and tubers" snack and carbonated beverages (OR of 1.31 and 1.45, respectively). The snack and beverage preferences appeared to be influenced by television advertisements in this sample of Chinese children, highlighting the potential health and nutritional value of policy to reduce advertising of non-core foods in China.

  5. The Short-Term Impacts of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax on Beverage Consumption.

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    Zhong, Yichen; Auchincloss, Amy H; Lee, Brian K; Kanter, Genevieve P

    2018-04-11

    On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar ("regular") and sugar-substitute ("diet") beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents' consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6-31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15-February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities. Survey questions included frequency and volume of bottled water and beverages. Outcomes were daily consumption, and 30-day consumption frequency and volume. Propensity score-weighted difference-in-differences regression was used to control for secular time trend and confounding. Covariates were sociodemographics, BMI, health status, smoking, and alcohol use. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Within the first 2 months of tax implementation, relative to the comparison cities, in Philadelphia the odds of daily consumption of regular soda was 40% lower (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.37, 0.97); energy drink was 64% lower (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.17, 0.76); bottled water was 58% higher (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13, 2.20); and the 30-day regular soda consumption frequency was 38% lower (ratio of consumption frequency=0.62, 95% CI=0.40, 0.98). Early results suggest that the tax influenced daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water. Future studies are needed to evaluate longer-term impact of the tax on sugared beverage consumption and substitutions. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage.

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    Cuomo, Rosario; Savarese, Maria Flavia; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aragri, Adriana; Cirillo, Carla; Vozzella, Letizia; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Verlezza, Viviana; Efficie, Eleonora; Buyckx, Maxime

    2011-10-14

    There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p beverages. The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

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    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  8. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  9. The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...

  10. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  11. Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-06-01

    Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  13. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafekost Katherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  14. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: implications for public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2011-12-22

    High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  15. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zito Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2 compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2, during a solid (SM and a liquid meal (LM on: a gastric volume, b caloric intake, c ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2, ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1 were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min. Total gastric volumes (TGV were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS. Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p 2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66 or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95. Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p 2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1. No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  16. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  17. The relationship between socioeconomic status and beverage consumption in children: The Cuenca Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla Tobarra, Marta; García Hermoso, Antonio; Lahoz García, Noelia; Notario Pacheco, Blanca; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Pozuelo Carrascosa, Diana P; García Meseguer, María José; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente A

    2018-01-19

    beverage consumption constitutes a source of children's daily energy intake. Some authors have suggested that consumption of caloric beverages is higher in children with a low socioeconomic position because families limit their spending on healthy food in order to save money. the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and Spanish children's beverage consumption. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sub-sample of 182 children (74 girls) aged 9-11 from the province of Cuenca (Spain). Beverage consumption was assessed using the YANA-C assessment tool, validated for HELENA study. Data for parental socioeconomic status were gathered by using self-reported occupation and education questions answered by parents and classified according to the scale proposed by the Spanish Society of Epidemiology. beverage intake was higher in children belonging to a middle-status family than in those of upper socioeconomic status (p = 0.037). The energy from beverages was similar in most water intake categories, except for water from beverages (p = 0.046). Regarding other beverages categories, middle-status children had higher consumption levels. In contrast, lower status children drank more fruit juices and skimmed milk. All of these do not show statistically significant differences. our study did not find significant associations between beverages consumption and socioeconomic status in children. In fact, intake for most beverage categories was higher in middle-status children than in both other socioeconomic groups. Future research is needed in order to identify this complex relation between socioeconomic inequality and beverage intake behavior.

  18. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y Claire

    2014-03-01

    We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.

  19. Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.S.; Osman, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    colour carbonated beverage than rats receiving colourless carbonated beverage. The black colour beverages have caffeine which may be the reason for decreasing bone mineral density. Very high significant increase was recorded in glucose level in groups (II) and (III) while insulin was decreased significantly in group (II), and very high significant decrease in group (III) was observed which lead to diabetes mellitus. It could be concluded that carbonic acid found in carbonated beverages may lead to the alkalinity of the blood which reflect metabolic problem. Cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems more than non-cola sodas. Cola beverages consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density and furthermore, cola beverages consumption is a significant risk factor for devolving of metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance that might result in diabetes

  20. The relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of heart failure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Iffat; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether sweetened beverage consumption is associated with risk of heart failure (HF) in a large prospective population-based study of men. A population-based cohort comprising 42,400 men, 45-79 years of age, was followed from 1998 through 2010. Sweetened beverage consumption was assessed by utilising a food frequency questionnaire. Incident events of HF were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox regression analyses were implemented to investigate the association between sweetened beverage consumption and HF. During a mean follow-up time of 11.7 years, a total of 4113 HF events were identified. We observed a positive association between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of HF after adjustment for other risk factors (p for trend beverages per day had a statistically significant higher risk of developing HF (23%, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35) compared to men who were non-consumers. Our finding that sweetened beverage consumption is associated with higher risk of HF could have implications for HF prevention strategies. Additional prospective studies investigating the link between sweetened beverage consumption and HF are therefore needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  2. Investigating adolescents' sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits in China, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Chiang, Timothy C; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-05-25

    Background China has undergone rapid Westernization and established dramatic social reforms since the early 21st century. However, health issues led to challenges in the lives of the Chinese residents. Western fast food and sweetened beverages, two food options associated with chronic diseases and obesity, have played key roles to alter adolescents' dietary patterns. This study aims to examine the association between adolescents' visits to Western fast food restaurants and sweetened beverage consumption. Methods Applying three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) between 2006 and 2011 (n = 1063), we used generalized Poisson regression (GPR) to investigate the association between adolescents' Western fast food restaurant visits and sweetened beverage consumption, as the popularity of fast food and sweetened beverages has skyrocketed among adolescents in contemporary China. A linear-by-linear association test was used as a trend test to study general patterns between sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits. We adjusted all models with sweetened beverage consumption frequency, four food preferences (fast food, salty snacks, fruits and vegetables), school status, gross household income, provinces, rural/urban regions, age and gender. Results From the results of the trend test, frequent sweetened beverage consumption was highly associated with more Western fast food restaurant visits among Chinese adolescents in the three waves (p beverage consumption or did not drink them at all, had much less likelihood of visiting Western fast food restaurants (p beverage consumption was highly associated with Western fast food restaurant visits in contemporary China. Further actions are needed from the Chinese central government to create a healthier dietary environment for adolescents.

  3. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  4. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  5. Young Children's Screen Habits are Associated with Consumption of Sweetened Beverages Independently of Parental Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabriele; Prell, Hillevi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the associations between children’s screen habits and their consumption of sweetened beverages. Because parents might be disposed to regulate their child’s screen and dietary habits in a similar direction, our specific aim was to examine whether these associati......Objectives: This study investigated the associations between children’s screen habits and their consumption of sweetened beverages. Because parents might be disposed to regulate their child’s screen and dietary habits in a similar direction, our specific aim was to examine whether...... and diets. Results: Associations between screen habits and sweetened beverage consumption were found independent of parental norms regarding sweetened beverages. A longitudinal analysis revealed that sweetened beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up was predicted by exposure to commercial TV at baseline...... (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1–1.9). Cross-sectional analysis showed that the likelihood of consuming sweetened beverages at least 1–3 times per week increased for each hour/day watching television (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2–1.9), and for being exposed to commercials (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3–2.1). TV viewing time...

  6. Beverages consumption in Brazil: results from the first National Dietary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rosangela A; Souza, Amanda M; Duffey, Kiyah J; Sichieri, Rosely; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of beverage consumption patterns using the first nationally representative survey of dietary intake in Brazil. Design Beverage consumption data were obtained by 1-day food records in an individual dietary survey. Setting nationwide cross-sectional survey, 2008–09. Subjects nationally representative sample of individuals ≥10 years (n=34,003). Results Beverages contributed to 17.1% of total energy consumption. Caloric coffee beverages provided the greatest level of energy overall (464 kJ or 111 kcal/d). Individuals from 10 to 18 (243 kJ or 58 kcal/d) and from 19 to 39 years old (230 kJ or 55 kcal/d consumed higher proportion of energy from sugar sweetened soft drinks than individuals over this age (142 kJ or 34 kcal/d for those 40–59 and 79 kJ or 19 kcal/d for those >60 years old). Conclusions Overall, the contribution of beverages, particularly sugary beverages, to total energy consumption in Brazil represents an important public health challenge and is comparable with those from other countries. PMID:25158687

  7. Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...

  8. Dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Evans, Martin H; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Evans, Alexandra E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2010-10-01

    To examine the dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by children in middle and high school. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 15,283 children in middle and high schools in Texas. Consumption of sodas and noncarbonated flavored and sports beverages (FSBs) were examined separately for their associations with the level of (1) unhealthy food (fried meats, French fries, desserts) consumption, (2) healthy food (vegetables, fruit, and milk) consumption, (3) physical activity including usual vigorous physical activity and participation in organized physical activity, and (4) sedentary activity, including hours spent watching television, using the computer, and playing video games. For both genders, consumption of soda and FSBs was systematically associated with a number of unhealthy dietary practices and with sedentary behaviors. However, consumption of FSBs showed significant positive graded associations with several healthy dietary practices and level of physical activity, whereas soda consumption showed no such associations with healthy behaviors. Consumption of FSBs coexists with healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors, which suggests popular misperception of these beverages as being consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Assessment and obesity-prevention efforts that target sugar-sweetened beverages need to distinguish between FSBs and sodas.

  9. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

  10. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Almost two-thirds of boys and girls consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Boys consumed an average 164 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.3% of total daily caloric intake. Girls consumed an average 121 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.2% of total daily caloric intake. •Among both boys and girls, older youth had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to younger children. •Non-Hispanic Asian boys and girls consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic boys and girls. Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children (1). Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children (2-6). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. youth aged 2-19 years for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Adults, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Approximately one-half of U.S. adults consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Men consumed an average 179 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.9% of total daily caloric intake. Women consumed an average 113 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.1% of total caloric intake. •Young adults had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to older adults. •Non-Hispanic Asian men and women consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women. Sugar-sweetened beverages are a major contributor of calories and added sugars to diets of U.S. adults (1). Studies have found that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to weight gain, metabolic syndrome, dental caries, and type 2 diabetes in adults (2-4). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of total calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults aged 20 and over for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  13. Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Zapata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  14. [Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, María Elisa; Rovirosa, Alicia; Carmuega, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  15. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  16. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  17. Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the National Weight Control Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Thomas, J. Graham; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Roberts, Susan A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Wing, Rena R.; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers. Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weight loss for > 1 year). Results While few participants (10%) consume sugar-sweetened beverages on a regular basis, 53% regularly consume LNCSB. The top five reasons for choosing LNCSB were for taste (54%), to satisfy thirst (40%), part of routine (27%), to reduce calories (22%) and to go with meals (21%). The majority who consume LNCSB (78%) felt they helped control total calorie intake. Many participants considered changing patterns of beverage consumption to be very important in weight loss (42%) and maintenance (40%). Increasing water was by far the most common strategy, followed by reducing regular calorie beverages. Conclusions Regular consumption of LNCSB is common in successful weight loss maintainers for various reasons including helping individuals to limit total energy intake. Changing beverage consumption patterns was felt to be very important for weight loss and maintenance by a substantial percentage of successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. PMID:25044563

  18. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children. © 2013 The Author. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Ho, Li-Ming; Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Jhe-Yo

    2013-09-08

    The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol's price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (-0.820), wine (-0.955), whisky (-0.587), brandy (-0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan.

  20. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  1. Sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Talavera, Juan O; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mexican population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns and physical activity were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Sweetened beverage consumption was evaluated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Anthropometric and clinical measures were assessed with standardized procedures. The definition of metabolic syndrome was determined using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The associations of interest were evaluated by means of linear and logistic regression models. The Mexican states of Morelos and Mexico. A total of 5240 individuals aged 20 to 70 years (mean 39.4 (sd 11.5) years) were evaluated. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 56.6 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 26.6 %. We found that for each additional daily sweetened beverage serving consumed, participants experienced an average increase of 0.49 mmol/l in TAG and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 0.31 mmol/l. Subjects consuming more than two servings of sweetened beverages daily were at 2.0 times greater risk of metabolic syndrome than those who did not consume sweetened beverages. We also observed that higher sweetened beverage consumption increased the risk of all components of the metabolic syndrome. Our data support the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults, possibly by providing excess energy and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.

  2. Proximity of snacks to beverages increases food consumption in the workplace: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Ernest; Gorlin, Margarita; Chance, Zoë; Novemsky, Nathan; Dhar, Ravi; Huskey, Kim; Hatzis, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to bolster employee satisfaction, many employers provide free snacks at the office. Unfortunately, keeping employees happy can conflict with the goal of keeping them healthy, since increased snacking at work can contribute to overeating and obesity. Building on the growing body of research in choice architecture, we tested one factor that might influence snack consumption without impacting satisfaction: the relative distance between snacks and beverages. In a large field study at Google, we measured snack consumption when snacks were closer to or farther from beverages. We found that employees who used the beverage station closer to the snack station were more likely to take a snack- the likelihood of snacking increased from 12% to 23% for men and from 13% to 17% for women when the beverage station closest to the snack station was used. These results imply that employers and even families could reduce snack consumption easily, cheaply, and without backlash, by increasing the relative distance between beverages and snacks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Schulze, M.B.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverage but not diet soda consumption is positively associated with progression of insulin resistance and prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relationship between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda,...

  5. Changes in beverage consumption among adolescents from public schools in the first decade of the century XXI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luana Silva; Vasconcelos, Thaís Meirelles de; Veiga, Gloria Valéria da; Pereira, Rosângela Alves

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in beverage consumption among adolescents between 2003 and 2008. Two school-based cross-sectional studies were carried out with public school students (12 to 19 years-old) from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from three food records were used to estimate daily, weekdays and weekend average consumption (volume and percent contribution for total daily energy intake) of milk and milk-based beverages, sugar sweetened beverages, fresh squeezed fruit juices, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. Beverage consumption age-adjusted means for weekdays and weekends were compared using linear regression (Generalized Linear Models - GLM). A total of 433 adolescents were examined in 2003, and 510 in 2008. The prevalence of overweight was 17% in 2003 and 22% in 2008 (p > 0.05). Milk was the most consumed beverage, being reported by 89% of adolescents, followed by sodas (75%). In general, in the five-year period, there was an increase in the prevalence of consumption of alcoholic drinks, guarana syrup refreshment, and processed fruit drinks, especially on weekdays. The soft drink was the largest contributor to the total energy consumption, corresponding on average to 4% of daily energy intake. The main changes in the beverage consumption among adolescents from Niterói, in the first decade of the XXI century, were the tendency to reduce the consumption of milk and the increase in the consumption of processed and alcoholic beverages.

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    Is sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption associated with age at menarche? More frequent SSB consumption was associated with earlier menarche in a population of US girls. SSB consumption is associated with metabolic changes that could potentially impact menarcheal timing, but direct associations with age at menarche have yet to be investigated. The Growing up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of 16 875 children of Nurses' Health Study II participants residing in all 50 US states. This analysis followed 5583 girls, aged 9-14 years and premenarcheal at baseline, between 1996 and 2001. During 10 555 person-years of follow-up, 94% (n = 5227) of girls reported their age at menarche, and 3% (n = 159) remained premenarcheal in 2001; 4% (n = 197) of eligible girls were censored, primarily for missing age at menarche. Cumulative updated SSB consumption (composed of non-carbonated fruit drinks, sugar-sweetened soda and iced tea) was calculated using annual Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaires from 1996 to 1998. Age at menarche was self-reported annually. The association between SSB consumption and age at menarche was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. More frequent SSB consumption predicted earlier menarche. At any given age between 9 and 18.5 years, premenarcheal girls who reported consuming >1.5 servings of SSBs per day were, on average, 24% more likely [95% confidence interval (CI): 13, 36%; P-trend: 1.5 SSBs daily had an estimated 2.7-month earlier menarche (95% CI: -4.1, -1.3 months) relative to those consuming ≤2 SSBs weekly. The frequency of non-carbonated fruit drink (P-trend: 0.03) and sugar-sweetened soda (P-trend: 0.001), but not iced tea (P-trend: 0.49), consumption also predicted earlier menarche. The effect of SSB consumption on age at menarche was observed in every tertile of baseline BMI. Diet soda and fruit juice consumption were not associated with age at menarche. Although we adjusted for a variety of suspected

  7. Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); S. Kremers (Stef); A. Ferreira (Isabel); A. Singh (Amika); A. Oenema (Anke); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383,

  8. Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.

    In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture

  9. Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Boutkabout, C.; Levie, D.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on

  10. Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

  11. Food Environment, Policy and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption in U.S. Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is a critical nutrition problem in the U.S. and has been identified as a key contributor to the current epidemic of obesity among adolescents. Up to date, little is known on how this high level of SSBs consumption can be reduced. Recently, environmental and policy interventions have been advocated as powerful strategies to address the epidemic. While there is a growing consensus that food environments and policies play important roles ...

  12. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Mendola, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Background: Artificial sweeteners are widely replacing caloric sweeteners. Data on long-term impact of artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption during pregnancy on offspring obesity risk are lacking. We prospectively investigated intake of ASBs and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during...... pregnancy in relation to offspring growth through age 7 years among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes. Methods: In a prospective study of 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, maternal dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire...

  14. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption. PMID:21247417

  15. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyden Marybeth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption.

  16. Association Between Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption During Pregnancy and Infant Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Meghan B; Sharma, Atul K; de Souza, Russell J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Subbarao, Padmaja; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of artificial sweeteners has increased substantially in recent decades, including among pregnant women. Animal studies suggest that exposure to artificial sweeteners in utero may predispose offspring to develop obesity; however, to our knowledge, this has never been studied in humans. To determine whether maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy is associated with infant body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]). This cohort study included 3033 mother-infant dyads from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study, a population-based birth cohort that recruited healthy pregnant women from 2009 to 2012. Women completed dietary assessments during pregnancy, and their infants' BMI was measured at 1 year of age (n = 2686; 89% follow-up). Statistical analysis for this study used data collected after the first year of follow-up, which was completed in October 2013. The data analysis was conducted in August 2015. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages and sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy, determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Infant BMI z score and risk of overweight at 1 year of age, determined from objective anthropometric measurements and defined according to World Health Organization reference standards. The mean (SD) age of the 3033 pregnant women was 32.4 (4.7) years, and their mean (SD) BMI was 24.8 (5.4). The mean (SD) infant BMI z score at 1 year of age was 0.19 (1.05), and 5.1% of infants were overweight. More than a quarter of women (29.5%) consumed artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, including 5.1% who reported daily consumption. Compared with no consumption, daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a 0.20-unit increase in infant BMI z score (adjusted 95% CI, 0.02-0.38) and a 2-fold higher risk of infant overweight at 1 year of age (adjusted odds ratio

  17. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not

  18. Fluid milk consumption and demand response to advertising for non-alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RICKERTSEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian fluid milk consumption has declined steadily over the last twenty years, despite the dairy industry spending increasing amounts of money on advertising. Using a two-stage model, we investigate whether advertising has increased the demand for milk. No effect of advertising on the demand for non-alcoholic beverages is found in the first stage. In the second stage, an almost ideal demand system including advertising expenditures on competing beverages is estimated. The effects of generic advertising within the beverage group are positive and significant for whole milk and negative and significant for lower fat milk. The own-advertising elasticity for the combined fluid milk group is 0.0008. This highly inelastic elasticity suggests that increased advertising will not be profitable for the producers. Several cross-advertising effects are statistically significant, emphasizing the usefulness of a demand system approach.

  19. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Florent Vieux; Matthieu Maillot; Florence Constant; Adam Drewnowski

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. Methods Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4–13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008–2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled), milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee,...

  20. Relation Between Rates of Geriatric Suicide and Consumption of Alcohol Beverages in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among older adults, suicide is a significant and persistent health problem. The highest suicide rate is found among white men aged 65 years and older. The causes of elder suicide are multifaceted. Although no predominate factor precipitates or explains geriatric suicide, alcohol is strongly linked to suicide attempts and completions. This study examined the relationship between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages in European countries. Data on suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages were obtained from the World Health Organization databases. Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a positive correlation between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of spirits. No correlations between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of beer or wine were found. We also found no correlations between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-old females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, or spirits. The results of this study are consistent with reports that consumption of spirits is associated with suicide events. It is to be hoped that this paper will stimulate further studies that are necessary to clarify the relation between suicide rates in different age groups and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and attract more attention to the problem of geriatric suicide.

  1. Healthy life style and food, beverages and cigarettes consumption in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article, the authors analyze the term healthy life style. Information sources focusing on health and factors influencing it and having the final impact on it are mostly of medicine character. Together with the development of medicinal diagnostic and curing procedures, the importance of health conditions influenced by infectious diseases is decreasing. On the other hand, the importance of factors related to the life style (eating habits in particular is growing.In the second part of the article, the authors analyze and interpret the data of the Czech Statistical Office about the consumption of selected foods in the form of secondary analysis. The effort was to take into account the assessment of the trends as well as to deduce their possible impact on the health condition of the individual. From the analyses mentioned it is obvious that in the selected statistical data of the development of food and beverages consumption in the Czech Republic the tendencies towards healthy life style have not been unambiguous or significant within the last eight years.In certain areas such as consumption of alcoholic beverages, milk and diary products and meat there have been noted changes for better. In most of the areas analyzed (alcoholic beverages, fruit and vegetable, oil, fish these tendencies are not obvious or significant. Alarming is the growing consumption of cigarettes.

  2. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social isolation leads

  3. Consumption estimation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Díaz-Ufano, María Luisa

    2015-02-26

    The interest in the type and quantity of non alcoholic beverage, sodium, food supplements and oil consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. The need to intake liquids varies depending on the diet, the physical activity carried out, the environmental temperature, the humidity, etc. The variety of beverages in the diet can contribute to increasing the micro nutrient intake: vitamins, antioxidants, minerals. Risks associated to high sodium consumption are: an increase in high blood pressure, vascular endothelial deterioration, bone demineralisation, kidney disease, stomach cancer. Progress in health, investigation, education, etc. are leading to an increase in food supplement consumption. Olive oil represents one of the basic pillars of the Mediterranean diet and its normal presence in nutrition guarantees an adequate content of some important nutrients; not only oleic acid and linoleic acid but also tocopherols, phytoesterols and phenolic compounds. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises

  4. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Adult Caregivers and Their Children: The Role of Drink Features and Advertising Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Mallya, Giridhar; Jordan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine how parents' beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising are associated with parents' and their children's SSB consumption. Design: Cross-sectional representative telephone survey of Philadelphia parents in households with children between the ages of 3 and 16 years.…

  6. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. Number 271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children. Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend…

  7. Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands.

  8. Sweetened beverage intake in association to energy and sugar consumption and cardiometabolic markers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferidi, P; Millett, C; Laverty, A A

    2018-04-01

    Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are promoted as healthy alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce sugar intake, but their effects on weight control and glycaemia have been debated. This study examines associations of SSBs and ASBs with energy and sugar intake and cardiometabolic measures. One thousand six hundred eighty-seven children aged 4-18 participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008/9-2011/12) in the UK. Linear regression was used to examine associations between SSBs and ASBs and energy and sugar, overall and from solid foods and beverages, and body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and blood analytes. Fixed effects linear regression examined within-person associations with energy and sugar. Compared with non-consumption, SSB consumption was associated with higher sugar intake overall (6.1%; 4.2, 8.1) and ASB consumption with higher sugar intake from solid foods (1.7%; 0.5, 2.9) but not overall, mainly among boys. On SSB consumption days, energy and sugar intakes were higher (216 kcal; 163, 269 and 7.0%; 6.2, 7.8), and on ASB consumption days, sugar intake was lower (-1.0%; -1.8, -0.1) compared with those on non-consumption days. SSB and ASB intakes were associated with higher levels of blood glucose (SSB: 0.30 mmol L -1 ; 0.11, 0.49 and ASB: 0.24 mmol L -1 ; 0.06, 0.43) and SSB intake with higher triglycerides (0.29 mmol L -1 ; 0.13, 0.46). No associations were found with other outcomes. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with higher sugar intake and both SSBs and ASBs with a less healthy cardiometabolic profile. These findings add to evidence that health policy should discourage all sweetened beverage consumption. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Herbeth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference.

  10. Influence of body position, food and beverage consumption on BIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Eitner, F.; Ismail, A. H.; Pikkemaat, R.; Cordes, A.; Floege, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of fluid changes using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) during hemodialysis could help to predict hypotensive complications and extend the patient's life. Food and beverage consumption during the treatment may influence the measurements and the calculated fluid removal. In the present article the change observed in whole body and segmental (knee-to-knee, abdomen) BIS measurements following a sequence similar to the one of dialysis treatment (lying down, sitting and eating, lying down) on healthy subjects is presented. The measurements have been performed using a commercial bioimpedance device with a frequency range of 5 kHz to 1 MHz. Knee-to-knee measurements seem to be less sensitive to these influences, compared to the standard whole body and the alternative abdomen BIS measurements. The results indicate that the individual influence of both body posture and food and beverage consumption may be superposed when combined.

  11. Postpartum Teens’ Breakfast Consumption is Associated with Snack and Beverage Intake and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth L; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007–2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enroll...

  12. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control...

  13. Beverage- and Brand-Specific Binge Alcohol Consumption among Underage Youth in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; O'Doherty, Catherine; Jernigan, David

    2015-09-01

    Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption among youth; beverage and brand-specific consumption during binge drinking is poorly understood. The objective was to characterize beverage- and brand-specific consumption associated with binge drinking among underage youth in the U.S. An internet panel was used to obtain a sample of 1,032 underage youth aged 13-20, who drank alcohol in the past 30 days. For each brand consumed, youth reported drinking quantity and frequency, and whether they engaged in binge drinking with that brand (≥5 drinks for males, ≥4 for females). Each youth reporting binge drinking with a brand constituted a binge drinking report. Overall, 50.9% of youth binge drank with ≥1 brand, and 36.5% of youth who consumed any particular brand reported binge drinking with it. Spirits accounted for 43.8% of binge drinking reports. Twenty-five brands accounted for 46.2% of binge drinking reports. Many of these brands were disproportionately associated with binge drinking relative to their youth market share. Binge drinking among youth is most commonly involves spirits, and binge drinking is concentrated within a relatively small number of brands. Understanding factors underlying beverage and brand preference among binge drinking youth could assist prevention efforts.

  14. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-11-02

    Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the pricing studies we reviewed

  15. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. Methods We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Results Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the

  16. Postpartum teens' breakfast consumption is associated with snack and beverage intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high-risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007-2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a 7-day recall of breakfast, snack, and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or χ² tests. General linear models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than 2 days per week. Those who ate breakfast 6 to 7 days/week consumed 1,197 fewer kilocalories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer kilocalories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than 2 days per week (P teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was...

  18. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity. PMID:26270675

  19. A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-03-23

    As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determining their associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Korean adults. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012 data, 19,800 Korean adults (≥20 years) with a single 24-h dietary recall and health examination data were investigated. All beverage items consumed by participants were categorized into 15 beverage groups based on the KNHANES coding system. Three major beverage consumption patterns were identified according to factor analysis: (1) the "healthy beverage" (high intake of dairy products, 100% fruit/vegetable juices and low intake of alcoholic beverages); (2) the "sugar-sweetened beverage" (high intake of soda, sweetened coffee/tea, and fruit drink); and (3) the "unsweetened beverage" (high intake of unsweetened coffee) patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the odds of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and MetS (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program III [NCEP III]) for each beverage pattern after controlling for covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of the "healthy beverage" pattern with risks of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure (BP) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98), 0.83 (0.74-0.92), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.85 (0.79-0.98), and 0.81 (0.72-0.92), respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of associations of the "sugar-sweetened beverage" pattern with risks of abdominal obesity, elevated FBG and BP were 1.15 (1.03-1.30), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), and 1.18 (1.04-1.33), respectively. However, no associations were found between the "unsweetened beverage" pattern and any parameters examined. Intake of healthy beverages should be encouraged to

  20. Evaluation of the Environmental Performance and rationing of Water Consumption in Industrial Production of Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miranda Cavalcante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region, with a high hydric potential, has attracted companies that require significant volumes of water; therefore, control instruments are necessary to monitor this trend. In this study, the degree of rationing of water use by beverage industries in Para state and the behavior of the sector are discussed. The subjects’ variables were classified according to four study dimensions (environmental management, water management, wastewater management, and advanced measures for rationing that compose the rationing level of water industrial management. The independent variables were associated by size, industry type, packaging used, water availability and the economic value of water. The data show that beverage production has a significant water footprint, higher than 15,250 m3/day, and that small industries have the highest relative consumptions (more than 7 L of water/beverage L. In general, the sector does not ration significant quantities of water; a better result was obtained for water management. However, some more efficient measures could be adopted, especially with regard to water reuse in cooling towers. Analysis of the variables shows that the rationing level is directly dependent on the size of the industry and on the type of product. Consumption tends to be lavish. In response to this situation, public policies should be prioritized to determine the water footprint of products and environmental cost should be considered in the overall cost of production.

  1. Alcohol consumption and mortality: is wine different from other alcoholic beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Crozier, A; Lean, M E

    2001-08-01

    Alcohol has been an integral part of the diets of many cultures for thousands of years, and formed the basis of early antiseptics. However, many health professionals have been loath to recommend its moderate consumption. Fears of increased risks of cancers, strokes and coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as its role in accidents, violence, psychological and social decline (when consumed in excess) meant that alcohol was viewed as generally detrimental to health. Recent reports have examined some of these fears and suggest that the moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly red wine, may actually protect against the development of CHD. Evidence for the influence of alcoholic drinks on strokes and cancer is less clear. This review discusses the chemical differences between red wine and other alcoholic beverages and their possible effects on the development of CHD, stroke and cancer. Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that red wine does indeed offer a greater protection to health than other alcoholic beverages. This protection has been attributed to grape-derived antioxidant polyphenolic compounds found particularly in red wine.

  2. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  3. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in

  4. Maternal consumption of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage: relationships to infant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, J R; Allen, L H; Martinez, E; Pelto, G H

    2001-08-01

    To document the consumption during pregnancy of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage, and its relationship to subsequent infant size, physical growth and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prospective cohort study. Six villages in rural, central Mexico in 1984-1985. Seventy mother-infant pairs. Most women (72.9%) consumed pulque during pregnancy, and 28.6% consumed more than 150 g ethanol week(-1) from the beverage. Individuals who consumed pulque showed no compensating decrease in energy obtained from other foods. Pulque consumption possessed curvilinear relationships with both infant length (at 1 and 6 months) and Bayley mental performance (at 6 months). Heavy pulque intakes were associated with smaller infant size and poorer mental performance. In modest quantities, pulque consumption may have been beneficial due to its micronutrient content. Intakes of alcohol from pulque were common among pregnant women in these rural, central Mexican villages. Given current scientific knowledge of the adverse effects of ethanol on foetal development, public health interventions are needed to reduce heavy pulque consumption during pregnancy in some areas of rural Mexico.

  5. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  6. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  7. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  8. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  9. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  10. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374

  11. Beverage-consumption patterns and associations with metabolic risk factors among low-income Latinos with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage-consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes can benefit from consideration of beverage-consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Discretionary food and beverage consumption and its association with demographic characteristics, weight status, and fruit and vegetable intakes in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Wong, Weng Kei; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Rangan, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Excessive consumption of discretionary foods/beverages in the Australian population has been identified, increasing the risk of obesity and chronic disease. The present study aimed to examine the associations between demographic, anthropometric and dietary factors and the consumption of discretionary foods, discretionary beverages and discretionary foods/beverages combined. Discretionary food/beverage consumption reported in two 24 h recalls was analysed, stratified by gender, age, socio-economic status, country of birth, BMI, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intakes. 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australian adults (n 7873) aged 19 years or above. Mean discretionary food and beverage consumption was 631 g (28 % by weight from foods; 72 % from beverages), providing 2721 kJ of energy intake (72 % from foods; 28 % from beverages). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption was higher in younger age groups (Pbeverage consumption (β=6·6, Pfood consumption (β=0·5, P=0·01). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption as well as discretionary foods alone and discretionary beverages alone were associated with BMI in Australian adults. In addition, high intakes were associated with younger age, lower socio-economic status, and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  13. Hot Food and Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Its two histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have been associated with different risk factors. The possibility of an association between the consumption of hot food and beverages and esophageal cancer, especially ESCC, has long been suspected, presenting a potentially modifiable risk factor. A meta-analysis of existing observational studies was performed to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. A search was conducted through MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Current Contents Connect to November 11, 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model for the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. Subgroup analyses were conducted for ESCC and EAC, as well as for studies that adjusted for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, two well-recognized risk factors for ESCC. Consumption of hot food and drink was associated with an increased risk of any esophageal cancer (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.46, 2.48). Heterogeneity was observed. There was an increased risk of ESCC (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.79, 2.93), which remained even after adjusting for significant confounding variables (OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.71, 3.33). The relationship was not significant for EAC. The consumption of hot food and beverages was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, particularly ESCC. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students' lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health.

  15. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption.

  16. Pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption and academic performance among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.

  17. What parents do is not always right – parents’ impact on children’s sugar-containing beverage consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate what influences children’s intake of sugar- containing beverages (soda, juice, coco milk etc.) in a family-setting. Parents, rather than friends, have been found to influence children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study set out to explore whether......-containing beverage consumption and the parents’ request for child’s reduction of sugar-containing beverage intake impacted the child’s intake of sugar-containing beverages significantly. Conclusion: This study contributes to understanding the dyadic interaction between parents and children in relation to intake...... parents exert the same kind of influence when it comes to unhealthy practices, that is avoiding sources of high-calorie intake such as sugar-containing beverages. Method: We conducted a survey with 242 children (mean age 11.48, SD 0.56) and 118 adults (mean age 41.58, SD 4.03) recruited from public...

  18. Beverage Consumption in Relation to Discretionary Food Intake and Diet Quality among US Adults, 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    A majority of Americans consume beverages and discretionary foods-foods that are typically low in nutrient value but high in sugar, sodium, fats, and cholesterol-as part of their daily diet, which profoundly impacts their energy balance and nutritional status. This study examined consumption of different types of beverages in relation to discretionary food intake and diet quality among US adults. Nationally representative sample of 22,513 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012 waves were analyzed. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products that do not necessarily provide essential nutrients that the human body needs, but can add variety. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables (eg, eating habits, taste preferences) by using within-individual variations in diet and beverage consumption between 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Approximately 21.7%, 42.9%, 52.8%, 26.3%, and 22.2% of study participants consumed diet beverage, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), coffee, tea, and alcohol, respectively, and 90.1% consumed discretionary foods on any given day. Across beverage types, alcohol (384.8 kcal) and SSB (226.2 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily total calorie intake; coffee (60.7 kcal) and diet-beverage (48.8 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily calorie intake from discretionary foods, and SSB consumption was associated with the largest reduction in daily overall diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The impact of beverage consumption on daily calorie intake (overall and from discretionary foods) and diet quality differed across individual sociodemographics and body-weight status. The incremental daily calorie intake from discretionary foods associated with diet-beverage consumption was highest in obese adults, and that associated with SSB was highest in

  19. Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Oldham, Melissa; Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt; Angus, Colin; Robinson, Eric

    2018-05-14

    To test whether reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages would reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in a laboratory (study 1) and a real-world drinking environment (study 2). Additionally, we modelled the potential public health benefit of reducing the standard serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom. Studies 1 and 2 were cluster-randomized experiments. In the additional study, we used the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model to estimate the number of deaths and hospital admissions that would be averted per year in the United Kingdom if a policy that reduces alcohol serving sizes in the on-trade was introduced. A semi-naturalistic laboratory (study 1), a bar in Liverpool, UK (study 2). Students and university staff members (study 1: n = 114, mean age = 24.8 years, 74.6% female), residents from local community (study 2: n = 164, mean age = 34.9 years, 57.3% female). In study 1, participants were assigned randomly to receive standard or reduced serving sizes (by 25%) of alcohol during a laboratory drinking session. In study 2, customers at a bar were served alcohol in either standard or reduced serving sizes (by 28.6-33.3%). Outcome measures were units of alcohol consumed within 1 hour (study 1) and up to 3 hours (study 2). Serving size condition was the primary predictor. In study 1, a 25% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 20.7-22.3% reduction in alcohol consumption. In study 2, a 28.6-33.3% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 32.4-39.6% reduction in alcohol consumption. Modelling results indicated that decreasing the serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages by 25% could reduce the number of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths per year in the United Kingdom by 4.4-10.5% and 5.6-13.2%, respectively. Reducing the serving size of alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom appears to lead to a reduction in alcohol consumption within a single drinking occasion. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction

  20. "If it tastes good, I'm drinking it": qualitative study of beverage consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason P; Gillman, Matthew W; Linakis, Stephanie K; Goldman, Roberta E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how college students choose beverages and whether behavioral interventions might reduce their heavy consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. From April to June 2010, 90 students participated in 12 focus groups at 6 colleges in Massachusetts and Louisiana. The study team undertook a group content analysis of the verbatim focus group transcripts using the immersion-crystallization method. The mean age of participants was 19 years. Fifty percent were white, and 47% were black. Several themes emerged in focus groups: taste is paramount; price is important but secondary; health and nutritional content of beverages are of limited interest; juice has a "health halo"; and water is consumed primarily for hydration. Students were often highly fixated on favorite sugar-sweetened beverages. Price was uniquely important for good-tasting beverages costing less than one dollar. Some students reported calorie content as important for food choices, but most had no awareness of beverage calorie content. Students' negative perceptions of sugar-sweetened beverages focused largely on the "dangers" of sugar and chemicals in sodas. They expressed particular concern about soda's corrosive chemical properties or diet soda causing cancer. The health halo for juice persisted even with some recognition of high sugar content. Students thought shocking educational messages would be necessary to get them to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among college students, taste and price were the most important factors in choosing beverages. Interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water may conquer taste and brand preference to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of individual and worksite environmental factors on water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among overweight employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Wall, Sarah; Harden, Samantha; Comber, Dana L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    The worksite environment may influence employees' dietary behaviors. Consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) affect weight management; however, little research has evaluated the influence of worksite factors on beverage consumption. Our purpose was to determine whether individual and worksite factors are associated with water and SSB intake among overweight and obese employees. Data were collected as part of baseline assessments for a worksite-based, weight-management intervention trial. Height and weight of participants (N = 1,482; 74% female; mean age = 47 y [standard deviation (SD) = 11 y]; mean weight = 208 lbs [SD = 46 lbs]) were assessed, and participants completed a validated beverage intake questionnaire. Environmental characteristics of worksites (N = 28) were audited. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify worksite conditions that may support healthier beverage intake patterns. Most participants were white (75% of sample) with at least some college education or a college degree (approximately 82% of sample). Mean water and SSB intake were 27 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz) and 17 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz), respectively; SSB intake (191 kcal [SD = 218 kcal]) exceeded the recommended discretionary energy intake. Statistical models did not identify any significant predictors of water intake. Female sex and increasing level of education and household income were associated with lower SSB intake; baseline body weight and greater number of worksite water coolers and vending machines were associated with higher SSB intake. The QCA identified worksite type (ie, not manual labor) as a condition necessary for healthier beverage consumption; a worksite break policy of 2 or more per day may lead to unhealthy beverage consumption. Lower SSB consumption was noted among older participants, female participants, and among participants with higher education and income levels. Workplace factors influence beverage consumption among overweight

  2. The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M; Chacón, Violeta; Barnoya, Joaquin; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-01

    The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students' SSB consumption. Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students' consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics. We collected built environment data to examine aspects of the school food environment. We developed Poisson regression models for each SSB variety and used descriptive analyses to characterize the sample. Guatemala City, Guatemala. Guatemalan adolescents (n 1042) from four (two public, two private) secondary schools. Built environment data revealed that students from the two public schools lacked access to water fountains/coolers. The SSB industry had a presence in the schools through advertisements, sponsored food kiosks and products available for sale. Common correlates of SSB consumption included school type, sedentary behaviour, frequency of purchasing lunch in the cafeteria, and frequency of purchasing snacks from vending machines in school and off school property. Guatemalan adolescents frequently consume SSB, which may be encouraged by aspects of the school environment. Schools represent a viable setting for equitable population health interventions designed to reduce SSB consumption, including increasing access to clean drinking-water, reducing access to SSB, restricting SSB marketing and greater enforcement of existing food policies.

  3. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-05-19

    The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4-13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008-2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled), milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements. Consumption patterns were examined by age group, gender, household incomes, time and location of consumption, region and seasonality. Total water consumption from drinking water, beverages, and foods, and the water-to-calorie ratios (L/kcal) were compared to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) adequate intake standards. Total water intake (1338 ml/d) came from plain water (19%), beverages (48%), and food moisture (33%). Plain drinking water provided 258 g/d (241 g/d for children aged 4-8 years; 274 g/d for 9-13 years), mostly (83.8%) from tap. Water and beverages supplied 901 g /d of water. Tap water consumption increased with income and was highest in the South of England. The consumption of bottled water, soda, tea and coffee increased with age, whereas milk consumption declined. About 88.7% of children did not meet EFSA adequate intake standards. The daily water shortfall ranged from 322 ml/d to 659 ml/d. Water-to-calorie ratio was 0.845 L/1000 kcal short of desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1000 kcal. Total water intake were at 74.8% of EFSA reference values. Drinking water consumption among children in the UK was well below US and French estimates.

  4. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V.; Tarekegn, Yared A.; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods:. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable log...

  5. National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: analysis of NHANES across three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks consumption trends in children Methods Data from individuals ages Results During the NHANES 1976–1980 and 1988–1994 periods, approximately 84–85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001–2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p  Conclusions Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk.

  6. Associations between the home environment and children's sweet beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up: the 'Be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, A; Renders, C M; van de Gaar, V M; Hirasing, R A; Raat, H

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates the association between home environmental characteristics and sweet beverage consumption (i.e. beverages that contain sugar) of 7-year-old children. The population for analysis consisted of n = 2047 parents and their children from the population-based 'Be active, eat right' study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, parental beliefs, parenting practices and child's sweet beverage consumption were obtained by parental report with questionnaires. We performed linear and multinomial regression analyses evaluating associations between characteristics at age 5 years and (i) consumption at 7 years and (ii) consumption patterns between age 5 and 7 years with reference category 'low consumption'. Based on the report from their parents, 5-year-old children drank on average 3.0 (SD:1.4) sweet beverage per day. Children consumed less sweet beverages at age 7 years (beta -0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to -0.09) when there were less sweet beverages available at home. The multinomial regression model showed that children with parents who discouraged sweet beverage consumption were more likely to decrease their sweet beverage consumption over the study period (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43). Moreover, when there were less sweet beverages available at home, children were less likely to increase their consumption or have a high consumption over the study period (odds ratio: 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83 and 0.61, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.70, respectively). The results showed that characteristics of the home environment are associated with the consumption of sweet beverages among children. Specifically, the availability of sweet beverages at home is associated with the child's sweet beverage consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  7. Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

  8. Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Primary School Students: Influence of the Schools' Vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Alexandre; Morin, Pascale; Robitaille, Éric; Lalonde, Benoit; Florina Fratu, Ramona; Bisset, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to explore the associations between the characteristics of schools' vicinity and the risk of sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in elementary students. Findings exposed an important variation in student's SSB consumption between schools. Schools with a lower socioeconomic status or in a densely built environment tend to have higher proportion of regular SSB drinkers. These characteristics of the school's vicinity partly explained the variation observed between them. We estimated that a student moving to a school with a higher proportion of SSB drinkers may increase his/her chances by 52% of becoming a daily consumer. Important changes in dietary preferences can occur when children are in contact with a new social environment. Findings also support the idea that dietary behaviors among children result from the complex interactions between biological, social, and environmental factors.

  9. Consumption of hot beverages and foods and the risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yawen; Tong, Yeqing; Yang, Chen; Gan, Yong; Sun, Huilian; Bi, Huashan; Cao, Shiyi; Yin, Xiaoxv; Lu, Zuxun

    2015-06-02

    Previous studies have mostly focused on the effects of specific constituents of beverages and foods on the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). An increasing number of studies are now emerging examining the health consequences of the high temperature of beverages and foods. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence and clarify the association between hot beverages and foods consumption and EC risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies, published before May 1, 2014, with the aim to estimate the association between hot beverage and food consumption and EC risk. A random-effect model was used to pool the results from the included studies. Publication bias was assessed by using the Begg test, the Egger test, and funnel plot. Thirty-nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, giving a total of 42,475 non-overlapping participants and 13,811 EC cases. Hot beverage and food consumption was significantly associated with EC risk, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.17). The risk was higher for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, with a pooled OR of 1.60 (95% CI, 1.29-2.00), and was insignificant for esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.53-1.16). Subgroup analyses suggests that the association between hot beverage and food consumption and EC risk were significant in Asian population (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.62-2.61) and South American population (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25-1.85), but not significant in European population (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.68-1.34). Hot beverage and food consumption is associated with a significantly increased risk of EC, especially in Asian and South American populations, indicating the importance in changing people's dietary habits to prevent EC.

  10. Food and beverage television advertising exposure and youth consumption, body mass index and adiposity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Khan, Tamkeen; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between exposure to food and beverage product television advertisements and consumption and obesity outcomes among youth. Individual-level data on fast-food and soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) for young adolescents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (1998-1999) and adiposity measures for children from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004) were combined with designated market area (DMA) Nielsen media advertising ratings data. To account for unobserved individual-level and DMA-level heterogeneity, various fixed- and random-effects models were estimated. The results showed that exposure to soft drink and sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements are economically and statistically significantly associated with higher frequency of soft drink consumption among youth even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, with elasticity estimates ranging from 0.4 to 0.5. The association between fast-food advertising exposure and fast-food consumption disappeared once we controlled for unobservables. Exposure to cereal advertising was significantly associated with young adolescents' BMI percentile ranking but exposures to fast-food and soft drink advertisements were not. The results on adiposity outcomes revealed that children's exposure to cereal advertising was associated with both percent body and trunk fatness; fast-food advertising was significantly associated with percent trunk fatness and marginally significantly associated with percent body fatness; and, exposure to SSB advertising was marginally significantly associated with percent body and trunk fatness. The study results suggest that continued monitoring of advertising is important and policy debates regarding the regulation of youth-directed marketing are warranted.

  11. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages: Combining self-templating process and in situ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy covers various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, and Fanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.

  12. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Deena; de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  13. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Elwan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods: Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7. SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69. Results: High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion: Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  14. Socio-economic inequalities in children's snack consumption and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the contribution of home environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke J C; van Lenthe, Frank J; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-08-14

    In the present study, we examined the association between maternal education and unhealthy eating behaviour (the consumption of snack and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) and explored environmental factors that might mediate this association in 11-year-old children. These environmental factors include home availability of snacks and SSB, parental rules about snack and SSB consumption, parental intake of snacks and SSB, peer sensitivity and children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Data were obtained from the fourth wave of the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study (2011), in which 1318 parent-child dyads completed a questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate regression models. Children of mothers with an intermediate educational level were found to consume more snacks than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 1·22, P= 0·02). This association was not mediated by environmental factors. Children of mothers with a low educational level were found to consume more SSB than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 0·63, Pconsumption was found to be mediated by parental intake of snacks and SSB and home availability of SSB. The home environment seems to be a promising setting for interventions on reducing socio-economic inequalities in children's SSB consumption.

  15. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are

  16. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Energy Beverage Consumption on Pistol Aiming Steadiness in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Taylor P; Jacobson, Bert H; Sellers, John H; Estrada, Carlos A

    2017-09-01

    Monaghan, TP, Jacobson, BH, Sellers, JH, and Estrada, CA. Effects of energy beverage consumption on pistol aiming steadiness in law enforcement officers. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2557-2561, 2017-The popularity of energy drinks (EDs)/shots (ESs) has grown steadily over the years resulting in billions of dollars of sales annually. Energy drink marketing focuses on the improved performance and alertness and a reduction in fatigue. Although caffeine comprises one of the ingredients, it is not fully known how the combination of the many remaining active ingredients affects physical performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercially available ES on pistol aiming steadiness. Subjects (N = 10) consisted of accredited police officers in the Midwest. A randomized, blinded, crossover design was used to evaluate the pistol aiming steadiness after the consumption of an ES or placebo. Pistol aiming steadiness was measured using a hole/stylus steadiness tester and laser attached to a training pistol before and 30 minutes after ES or placebo consumption. Analysis revealed that the ES significantly (p ≤ 0.05) impaired pistol steadiness, whereas the placebo yielded no significant difference in aiming steadiness. Based on these results, it was concluded that the consumption of an ES could compromise aiming accuracy and shot placement, thereby jeopardizing the health and welfare of law enforcement personnel.

  18. Preparation of Hulu-mur flavored carbonated beverage based on Feterita sorghum (Sorghum bicolor malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. A. Baidab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, sorghum Feterita malt extract was used to prepare carbonated beverages flavored with traditional Hulu-mur spices extract.  The beverages produced were assessed for their physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional qualities. Malting (3–5 days of the Feterita grains showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in proximate composition from that of unmalted grains. Protein and sugars increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increased the malting time (days, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05 reduction in oil and starch  content  during malting progress. The kilning temperature of 150°C for 20 minutes was found to produce the most acceptable Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue in terms of flavor and taste. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were observed in physicochemical and nutritional qualities between the Hulu-mur analogue carbonated beverage and commercial non-alcoholic beverage. The Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue was rich in Na, K, Ca, and Fe (26.45, 21.84, 24.00, and 0.57 mg /100 g, respectively compared to levels of the same minerals in the non-alcoholic beverage (22.31, 8.19, 22.00 and 0.15 mg/100 g, respectively. The Hulu-mur analogue also had a higher calorific value (35.85 kcal /100 mL compared to the non-alcoholic beverage (32.96 kcal/100 mL.

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  20. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  1. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  2. Sleep duration and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy drinks (EDs) among adolescents. Data on 9,473 adolescents aged 11-20 years were obtained from the 2015 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide and cross-sectional school based survey of students in middle and high school. Respondents self-reported their sleep duration and consumption of SSBs and EDs. Those who did not meet the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendation were considered short sleepers. Overall, 81.4% and 12.0% of respondents reported that they had at least one SSBs and EDs in the past week, respectively. Males were more likely than females to consume SSBs and EDs. High school students were more likely than those in middle school to report drinking EDs. After adjusting for multiple covariates, results from logistic regression analyses indicated that short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of SSB consumption in middle school students (odd ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.11), but not those in high school (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86-1.31). Short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of ED consumption in both middle (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and high school (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.38-2.30) students. Short sleep duration was associated with consumption of EDs in middle and high school students and with SSBs in middle school students only. Future studies are needed to establish causality and to determine whether improving sleep patterns can reduce the consumption of SSBs and EDs among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the microhardness of primary and permanent teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgou, Hamid R; Haghgoo, Roza; Asdollah, Fatemah Molla

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of carbonated beverages is one of the etiological factors that cause dental erosion. The purpose of this research was to compare changes in the microhardness of permanent and primary teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages. This investigation was done on 30 healthy permanent molars and 30 healthy primary canines. Each group of primary and permanent teeth was subdivided into three groups of 10 teeth. The teeth was immersed in 40 ml of each of the three beverages for 5 min. One subgroup was immersed in water (as a control). The next was immersed in Lemon Delster and the last subgroup was immersed in Coca-Cola. The microhardness of enamel was measured using the Vickers method before and after immersion. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and t-test. Microhardness reduction in the primary teeth was significant in both the Lemon Delster and Coca-Cola groups (P Coca-Cola and Lemon Delster caused a significant reduction of microhardness in tooth enamel. This reduction was greater in primary teeth than in permanent teeth, and was also greater after immersion in Coca-Cola than after immersion in Lemon Delster.

  4. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4?13 years in France: analyses of INCA 2 (?tude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006?2007) data

    OpenAIRE

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the consumption of plain water among children in France and compare total water intakes with guidelines issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Design Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group (4?8 years, 9?13 years), income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. Beverages were classified into nine groups: water (tap or bottled), milk, 100 % fruit juice, sodas, fruit drinks, hot beverage...

  5. Targeted Calorie Message Promotes Healthy Beverage Consumption Better than Charity Incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Peggy; Palm, Taylor; Schwartz, Janet; Chapman, Gretchen

    2017-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is cited as a major contributor to the U.S. obesity epidemic. The objective of this paper was to leverage insights from behavioral economics to examine whether nudges would entice college students to save meal calories by choosing water over SSBs. Three message-based nudge interventions, with washout periods between, were used during the 7-week study. Calorie savings (self-interest), charity (prosocial), or charity-plus-calorie message posters were displayed in a college-based food franchise. Multilevel logistic regressions compared the proportions of students choosing water during three experimental conditions. This study assessed whether the frequency of dining establishment visits over the study period moderated effects of the experimental conditions on beverage choices. Multiple data points from the same customer were treated as repeated measures. A total of 2,393 unique students purchased 6,730 meals. Posters displaying calorie information increased water choice relative to washout periods, while the poster without calorie information (charity only) had no effect. Controlling for fixed effects produced the same results. The calorie message poster influenced less frequent diners more than frequent diners. Food-service operations can nudge college students to substitute water for SSBs with a simple calorie-based message to save hundreds of calories per meal. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the progression of chronic kidney disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)123

    OpenAIRE

    Bomback, Andrew S; Katz, Ronit; He, Ka; Shoham, David A; Burke, Gregory L; Klemmer, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have examined sugar-sweetened soda consumption in relation to early markers of kidney disease, but to date there have been no investigations of whether sugar-sweetened beverage consumption affects preexistent chronic kidney disease (CKD).

  7. Dental erosion due to abuse of illicit drugs and acidic carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of illicit drugs and the abusive intake of acidic carbonated beverages (particularly soda) often are associated with similar types of damage to the human dentition, the most common of which is dental erosion. The dentitions of individuals who are addicted to methamphetamines or crack cocaine can be misdiagnosed as dental caries rather than generalized dental erosion, a condition that also is associated with chronic excessive consumption of soda. Failing to identify the causative etiology could lead to a wrongful diagnosis that could in turn adversely affect treatment planning and misdirect a specified prevention protocol. This article seeks to identify the unique clinical features of each one of these conditions, highlight the resemblances between them, and recognize the unambiguous differences in their fundamental characteristics. Three representative cases-involving a methamphetamine user, a crack cocaine addict, and an avid consumer of diet soda-are presented. In each case, the patient has admitted to the cause of their poor oral health. The dental, oral, and paraoral manifestations of each case are documented and differentiated from one another, and the factors that contributed to the associated disease process are discussed.

  8. Amounts of artificial food colors in commonly consumed beverages and potential behavioral implications for consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are widely used to color foods and beverages. The amount of AFCs the Food and Drug Administration has certified over the years has increased more than 5-fold since 1950 (12 mg/capita/day) to 2012 (68 mg/capita/day). In the past 38 years, there have been studies of adverse behavioral reactions such as hyperactivity in children to double-blind challenges with AFCs. Studies that used 50 mg or more of AFCs as the challenge showed a greater negative effect on more children than those which used less. The study reported here is the first to quantify the amounts of AFCs in foods (specifically in beverages) commonly consumed by children in the United States. Consumption data for all foods would be helpful in the design of more challenge studies. The data summarized here should help clinicians advise parents about AFCs and beverage consumption.

  9. Effect of iron supplementation on the erosive potential of carbonated or decarbonated beverage

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    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated, in vitro, the effect of iron (previously exposed with enamel powder or added directly to the beverage on the erosive potential of carbonated or decarbonated beverage. Four sets of experiments were done. For groups E1 and E3, a solution containing 30 mmol/L FeSO4 was added to bovine enamel powder (particles between 75-106 mm before exposure to the carbonated or decarbonated beverage (Sprite Zero®, respectively. For groups E2 and E4, 15 mmol/L FeSO4 was added directly to the carbonated or decarbonated beverage, respectively. Control groups were included for comparison. In controls C1 and C3, the experiments E1 and E3 were repeated, but the iron solution was replaced by deionized water. For controls C2 and C4, the carbonated and decarbonated beverage, respectively, was used, without addition of iron. After addition of the beverage to the powdered enamel (40 mg enamel powder/400 mL of final volume, the sample was vortexed for 30 s and immediately centrifuged for 30 s (11,000 rpm. The supernatant was removed after 1 min 40 s. This procedure was repeated in quintuplicate and the phosphate released was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test (p<0.05. E2 presented the best results with a significant inhibition (around 36% of phosphate released. For E3 and E4 a non-significant inhibition (around 4 and 12%, respectively, was observed. For E1 an increase in phosphate loss was detected. Thus, the protective effect of iron seems to be better when this ion is directly added to the carbonated beverage.

  10. Piloting "Sodabriety": A School-Based Intervention to Impact Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Rural Appalachian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laureen H.; Holloman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the largest source of added sugar in the US diet. In adolescents aged 12-19, these drinks account for 13% to 28% of total daily calories. Compared with other adolescents, those residing in Appalachia have the highest consumption rates of SSBs. Methods: Using a Teen Advisory Council (TAC), a…

  11. Consumption profile and factors associated with the ingestion of beer and distilled beverages among elderly Brazilians: Gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Fonseca, Adelia Dayane Guimarães; de Barros Lima Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of the consumption of beer and distilled beverages and associated factors among Brazilian older adults residing in a highly populated city in Brazil, highlighting the factors associated with frequent consumption and differences in consumption between men and women. It was a cross-sectional, analytic study carried out by means of probability samples of conglomerates of older adults (aged 65-74 years). Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis and estimates of multivariate models through logistic regression (OR, 95% CI) were realized. 500 of the 736 evaluated seniors were included in the present analysis. 128 (27.3%), 103 (21.3%) and 167 (34.9%) of the seniors indicate past or current use of beer, distilled beverages and frequent use of alcohol, respectively. The consumption of beer was associated with use of tobacco between women; and with marital status and schooling between men. The consumption of distilled beverages was associated with schooling and use of tobacco between women; and age and use of tobacco in men. Daily or weekly use was associated with schooling and use of tobacco between women; age and the use of tobacco between men. In the elderly population studied, a noteworthy prevalence of the consumption of beer and distilled beverages was identified, and this use was associated with personal and behavioral determinants. Similar associations related to frequent (daily or weekly) consumption were also identified. Significant differences in the profile of consumption were identified between men and women, with more abusive use among men. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 810-820. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    King, Melony G; Olson, Sara H; Paddock, Lisa; Chandran, Urmila; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Parekh, Niyati; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the US. The consumption of refined sugars has increased dramatically over the past few decades, accounting for almost 15% of total energy intake. Yet, there is limited evidence on how sugar consumption affects ovarian cancer risk. Methods We evaluated ovarian cancer risk in relation to sugary foods and beverages, and total and added sugar intakes in a population-based case?control study. Cases were women with newly diagnosed epi...

  13. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

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    Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011 of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.ResultsMean age of participants (43%, men was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45 and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58, respectively (P for trend=0.03. The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05.ConclusionHigher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities.

  14. Energy efficiency, carbon emissions, and measures towards their improvement in the food and beverage sector for six European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Steven; Schmitt, Bastian; Chester-Jones, Mae; Sturm, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Basic and detailed audits of small and medium sized food and beverage enterprises were conducted in six European Union countries to determine product specific energy consumption and measures to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Collected results showed that the companies’ products had similar specific energy consumption as prior studies, but due to no standard metrics, the range was rather large. Auditors primarily recommended energy savings measures (process optimization and heat recovery), due to their low payback periods. Lower carbon energy sources were also recommended (solar thermal and combined heat/power), but often at higher costs, supported through government incentive programs. Through these measures, energy savings of up to 45% and carbon to 30% (∼30,000 t CO_2 equivalent in the audited companies) were possible, dependent on the type, size of company, and fuel choice. Typically, very small companies and those using coal showed the greatest margin for improvement, though it varied greatly depending on the type of product produced and the installed heating and cooling equipment. Auditors noted significant barriers toward the implementation of measures, e.g. companies found the costs too high, did not know of efficient technologies and their performance, or did not have managerial support to implement efficiency measures. - Highlights: • The Food and Beverage sector in Europe was assessed for carbon reduction potential. • Significant emission reductions can be achieved by energy efficiency and renewables. • The Bakery and Meat branches can reduce energy consumption by 30–40%. • Small and coal burning companies have the greatest potential for emission reduction. • Financial barriers remain the hardest obstacle to realize reduction potential.

  15. Price and convenience: The influence of supermarkets on consumption of ultra-processed foods and beverages in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Priscila Pereira; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Canella, Daniela Silva; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of convenience and price of ultra-processed foods and beverages on purchases at supermarkets. The study used data on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, performed in a random sample of 55,970 households between 2008 and 2009. Foods and beverages were categorized into four groups, according to characteristics of food processing. Retail stores were grouped into supermarkets and other food stores. Proportion of calories from foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets and other food stores, and respective mean prices (R$/1000 kcal), were calculated according to households' geographical and socioeconomic characteristics. Effect of convenience in household purchases at retail stores was expressed by the acquisition of several food items at the same store. The influence of convenience and prices of ultra-processed products on purchases at supermarkets was analyzed using log-log regression model with estimation of elasticity coefficients. The mean prices of foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets were 37% lower in comparison to other food stores. The share of ultra-processed foods and beverages in purchases made at supermarkets was 25% higher than at other food stores. An increase of 1% in prices of ultra-processed food items led to a 0.59% reduction in calorie acquisition at supermarkets (R 2  = 0.75; p food items purchased at supermarkets resulted in 1.83% increase in calorie acquisition of ultra-processed foods and beverages (p food items purchased at supermarkets, in comparison to other food stores, are relevant to explain higher share of purchases of ultra-processed foods and beverages at supermarkets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Substantial decline in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among California’s children and adolescents

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    Lu Shi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lu Shi, Jeroen van MeijgaardUCLA Health Forecasting, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USAIntroduction: Few studies have looked at changes among risk factors that might help explain why childhood obesity prevalence in the US has leveled off in recent years. We present an analysis of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS that examines trends in childhood and adolescent obesity as well as trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption.Method: We compared 3 separate cross-sectional samples (2003, 2005, and 2007 from biennial CHIS for 3 age groups, age 2–5, age 6–11 and age 12–17. We calculated the prevalence of high SSB consumption (defined as having more than one SSB during the previous day. 2 measures of obesity were used – weight-for-age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for children aged 2–11, and body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for adolescents aged 12–17. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate adjusted odds ratios of high SSB consumption in 2005 and 2007 compared with the baseline year of 2003.Results: From 2003 to 2007, each age group experienced a substantial decline in high SSB consumption (16.4%–5.0% for age 2–5, P < 0.001; 22.5%–9.9% for age 6–11, P < 0.001; 35.7%–25.7% for age 12–17, P < 0.001. Declines in the prevalence of children’s obesity were significant among children age 2–5 (P < 0.001 and age 6–11 (P < 0.05 but not among adolescents (P = 0.42. Children and teenagers in 2005 and 2007 were significantly less likely than those surveyed in 2003 to have high SSB consumption after adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, and parental education (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Policy actions may have impacted the prevalence of SSB consumption in the population. Further research is needed to examine the contribution of declining SSB consumption on the leveling off of obesity trends and the

  17. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom

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    Florent Vieux

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. Methods Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4–13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008–2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled, milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements. Consumption patterns were examined by age group, gender, household incomes, time and location of consumption, region and seasonality. Total water consumption from drinking water, beverages, and foods, and the water-to-calorie ratios (L/kcal were compared to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority adequate intake standards. Results Total water intake (1338 ml/d came from plain water (19%, beverages (48%, and food moisture (33%. Plain drinking water provided 258 g/d (241 g/d for children aged 4–8 years; 274 g/d for 9–13 years, mostly (83.8% from tap. Water and beverages supplied 901 g /d of water. Tap water consumption increased with income and was highest in the South of England. The consumption of bottled water, soda, tea and coffee increased with age, whereas milk consumption declined. About 88.7% of children did not meet EFSA adequate intake standards. The daily water shortfall ranged from 322 ml/d to 659 ml/d. Water-to-calorie ratio was 0.845 L/1000 kcal short of desirable levels of 1.0–1.5 L/1000 kcal. Conclusion Total water intake were at 74.8% of EFSA reference values. Drinking water consumption among children in the UK was well below US and French estimates.

  18. Weight loss strategies: association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Cross-sectional analysis of 24-h dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9440). Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (pPrice (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (psnack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  20. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R(2)>0.99), accuracy (94-104% recovery) and precision (RSD canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology.

  1. Sweet-beverage consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Wark, Petra A; Romaguera, Dora; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Michaud, Dominique; Molina-Montes, Esther; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Rylander, Charlotta; Parr, Christine L; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-09-01

    The consumption of sweet beverages has been associated with greater risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which may be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that sweet beverages may increase pancreatic cancer risk as well. We examined the association between sweet-beverage consumption (including total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink and juice and nectar consumption) and pancreatic cancer risk. The study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 477,199 participants (70.2% women) with a mean age of 51 y at baseline were included, and 865 exocrine pancreatic cancers were diagnosed after a median follow-up of 11.60 y (IQR: 10.10-12.60 y). Sweet-beverage consumption was assessed with the use of validated dietary questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were obtained with the use of multivariable Cox regression models that were stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for educational level, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Associations with total soft-drink consumption were adjusted for juice and nectar consumption and vice versa. Total soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.08), and artificially sweetened soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10) were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Juice and nectar consumption was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 100 g/d: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); this association remained statistically significant after adjustment for body size, type 2 diabetes, and energy intake. Soft-drink consumption does not seem to be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Juice and nectar consumption might be associated with a modest decreased pancreatic cancer risk. Additional studies with specific information on juice and

  2. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Adult Caregivers and Their Children: The Role of Drink Features and Advertising Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Mallya, Giridhar; Jordan, Amy

    2015-10-01

    To examine how parents' beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising are associated with parents' and their children's SSB consumption. Cross-sectional representative telephone survey of Philadelphia parents in households with children between the ages of 3 and 16 years. Three hundred and seventy-one randomly selected survey respondents. The response rate was 27% using the American Association for Public Opinion Research RR3 formula. SSB consumption, health ratings of SSBs, exposure to SSB ads, and exposure to anti-SSB public service advertisements. Seemingly unrelated regression was used to correct for Type I error and significance levels were set at .05 or less. Assessment of SSB "healthiness" was associated with the increased adult consumption of SSBs for three of the five SSBs and associated with children's consumption for all four SSBs with child consumption data. For both groups, ratings of SSB sugar and caloric content were not related to consumption. Adult exposure to SSB-specific advertising was related to consumption for three of five SSBs and two of four SSBs consumed by children. These results suggest that sugar and calories are not relevant to consumption, absent an explicit connection to a healthiness evaluation of SSBs. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  4. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages from childhood to adulthood in relation to socioeconomic status - 15 years follow-up in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt-Evensen, Kathrine; Vik, Frøydis N; Stea, Tonje Holte; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling

    2018-01-17

    In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood. This study uses data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) longitudinal cohort, including participants (n = 437) from 20 random schools from two Norwegian counties. Data from the first survey in 2001 (mean age 11.8) and follow-up surveys in 2005 (mean age 15.5) and 2016 (mean age 26.5) were used. Consumption of SSB and ASB were measured using a food frequency questionnaire, which the participants completed at school in 2001 and 2005, and online in 2016. Various indicators of SES were included; in 2001, parental education and income were measured, in 2005, participants' educational intentions in adolescence were measured, and in 2016, participants' own education and income were measured. The main analyses conducted were linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated measures. Between 2001 and 2016, a decrease in frequency of consumption of SSB (2.8 v 1.3 times/week; p = consumption of ASB (1.1 v 1.6 times/week; p = 0.002) were observed. Participants with a higher educational level in adulthood and higher educational intentions in adolescence had a significantly lower frequency of consumption of SSB at all time points (2001, 2005 and 2016). No significant widening (or narrowing) of inequalities were observed from childhood to adulthood. A decrease in consumption of SSB and an increase in consumption of

  5. Association between overweight and consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages among vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Augusto Cardoso da SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages and to identify the association of this consumption with overweight among vegetarians. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling method was conducted. Data were collected using an online questionnaire from 8/24/2015 to 10/8/2015. Subjects were male and female vegetarians aged >16 years. Using a food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the weekly consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages and described the frequency of daily consumption overall and according to type of vegetarianism. The association between overweight and excessive daily intake of ultra-processed food was analyzed by multiple logistic regression (OR [95CI%]. Results: Information was retrieved from 503 individuals (29.8±8.5 years old; 83.7% were women. The most frequent types of vegetarianism in our sample were ovo-lacto (45.5% and vegan (41.7%, and the median time of vegetarianism was 5.3 years. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (≥2x/day and ultra-processed food (≥3x/day was 21.0% and 16.0%, respectively, and regarding the different vegetarianism types, vegans showed the lowest frequency of excessive daily sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed food consumption. In the multivariable analysis, consumption of ultra-processed food ≥3x/day (2.33 [1.36-4.03], male sex (1.73 [1.01-2.96], age ≥35 years (2.03 [1.23-3.36] and not preparing one’s food (1.67 [0.95-2.94] were independently associated with overweight. Conclusion: Although vegetarianism is frequently associated with a healthier diet and, consequently, prevention of poor health outcomes, this study found that the excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed food was associated with overweight.

  6. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p students with short sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p sleep duration. Although these findings do not support causal relationships, they suggest that screen time is associated with EDS, but not with sleep duration, and that consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness.

  7. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  8. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  9. Sensitivity to reward is associated with snack and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Vangeel, Jolien; Maes, Lea; Eggermont, Steven; Braet, Caroline; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Goossens, Lien; Beullens, Kathleen; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-06-01

    High intake of palatable foods, such as energy-dense snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), is common among adolescents. An individual's sensitivity to reward (SR) may influence these intakes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between SR and both snack and SSB intake among adolescents. A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 14- to 16-year-olds (mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 50.9 % boys; 18.0 % overweight) in Flanders. Daily intakes were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. SR was assessed using the behavioral activation system (BAS) scales. Multilevel regression analyses (two level: adolescent school) were conducted using STATA version 13. BAS drive was positively associated with daily intakes of SSBs (13.79 %, p snacks (5.42 %, p snacks (p snacks (3.85 %, p snacks (6.41 %, p snacks. Interaction effects of gender and BAS RR (p snacks (6.48 %, p snacks (7.22 %, p snack and SSB consumption in adolescents, especially in girls. These findings suggest that SR should be taken into account when designing interventions to improve the snack and SSB intake of adolescents.

  10. Sociodemographic, behavioural and environmental correlates of sweetened beverage consumption among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate

    2012-08-01

    To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age. Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week. Edmonton region, Canada. Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007. Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice. Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.

  11. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  12. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  13. Water and Beverage Consumption: Analysis of the Australian 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Zheng, Miaobing; Zhang, Man; Rangan, Anna

    2016-10-26

    Water consumption as a vital component of the human diet is under-researched in dietary surveys and nutrition studies. To assess total water and fluid intakes and examine demographic, anthropometric, and dietary factors associated with water consumption in the Australian population. Dietary intake data from the 2011 to 2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Usual water, fluid and food and nutrient intakes were estimated from two days of dietary recalls. Total water includes plain drinking water and moisture from all food and beverage sources; total fluids include plain drinking water and other beverages, but not food moisture. The mean (SD) daily total water intakes for children and adolescents aged 2-18 years were 1.7 (0.6) L for males and 1.5 (0.4) L for females, and for adults aged 19 years and over were 2.6 (0.9) L for males and 2.3 (0.7) L for females. The majority of the population failed to meet the Adequate Intake (AI) values for total water intake (82%) and total fluids intake (78%) with the elderly at highest risk (90%-95%). The contributions of plain drinking water, other beverages and food moisture to total water intake were 44%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, among children and adolescents, and 37%, 37% and 25% among adults. The main sources of other beverages were full-fat plain milk and regular soft drinks for children and adolescents, and tea, coffee, and alcoholic drinks for adults. For adults, higher total water intake was associated with lower percent energy from fat, saturated fat, and free sugars, lower sodium and energy-dense nutrient poor food intakes but higher dietary fibre, fruit, vegetable, caffeine, and alcohol intakes. No associations were found between total water consumption and body mass index (BMI) for adults and BMI z -score for children and adolescents. Reported water consumption was below recommendations. Higher water intakes were suggestive of better diet quality.

  14. Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine content among Dutch students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the

  15. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  16. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  17. Effectiveness and safety of 1-year ad libitum consumption of a high-catechin beverage under nutritional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Shoji, Kentaro; Takase, Hideto; Hibi, Masanobu; Hase, Tadashi; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Kambe, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    It has been reported that a continuous intake of a catechin beverage will reduce body fat. Traditionally, improvement of eating and exercise habits has been the basis for prevention and reduction of obesity. In this study, we conducted a trial involving human subjects who ingested a catechin beverage for 1 year under nutritional guidance. This study was conducted based on a comprehensive cohort design using a catechin beverage (containing 588 mg of tea catechins) and a control beverage (containing 126 mg of tea catechins). At both the start and the end of the trial, the subjects underwent an annual health check and computer tomography for measurement of their abdominal fat. In addition, a food intake survey was conducted and all subjects were provided nutritional guidance by a registered dietitian every 3 months. Data were analyzed using per protocol samples of 134 subjects (catechin group, n = 77; control group, n = 57). Body weight and body mass index were reduced significantly in the catechin group compared to the control group. Changes in body weight during the study period were -1.1 kg in the catechin group and 0.2 kg in the control group. In the catechin group, the visceral fat areas at the start of the trial were significantly correlated with the magnitude of fat reduction at the end of the trial. Under the guidance of a registered dietitian, subjects in the catechin group who showed a reduction in their fat-derived energy percentage during the test period tended to reduce more body weight than those with an increase in this percentage, although no difference in total energy intake was noted between the two groups. One-year ad libitum consumption of a catechin beverage posed no health risks and resulted in a reduction in body weight. An overall improvement in dietary habits might enhance the weight-reduction effect of the beverage.

  18. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  19. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption among children and adolescents: effect on energy, beverage, and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators, and beverage consumption. Individual-level fixed-effects estimation based on 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Nationally representative data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children aged 2 to 11 years (n = 4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n = 4699). Daily total energy intake in kilocalories; intake of grams of sugar, total fat, saturated fat, and protein and milligrams of sodium; and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages, regular soda, and milk consumed. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126.29 kcal and 160.49 kcal for children and 309.53 kcal and 267.30 kcal for adolescents and with higher intake of regular soda (73.77 g and 88.28 g for children and 163.67 g and 107.25 g for adolescents) and sugar-sweetened beverages generally. Fast-food consumption increased intake of total fat (7.03-14.36 g), saturated fat (1.99-4.64 g), and sugar (5.71-16.24 g) for both age groups and sodium (396.28 mg) and protein (7.94 g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were (1) adverse effects on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents and (2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality.

  20. Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Adults with Gout or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Murphy

    Full Text Available Current guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes and gout recommend that people with these conditions limit their sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake. We examined self-reported SSB intake among New Zealand adults with gout or type 2 diabetes, including those on hemodialysis.1023 adults with gout and 580 adults (including 206 receiving hemodialysis with type 2 diabetes, participated in this study of between 2009 and 2012. Participants completed an interviewer-administered SSB intake question "how many sugar sweetened drinks (including fruit juice, but not including diet drinks, do you normally drink per day?" SSB consumption was recorded as a circled number 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or >5, cans or large glasses (300 mL per day.Consuming one or more SSB per day was reported by 64% (622/1023 of subjects with gout, 49% (176/374 with type 2 diabetes without dialysis, and 47% (96/206 with diabetes on dialysis. Consuming four or more SSBs per day was reported by 18% (179/1023, 9% (31/374 and 9% (18/206, respectively. Such high consumers of SSB were characterized after multivariable analysis to be more likely to be male (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.9, younger in age (40 vs 65 years: 1.6; 1.1-2.3, current smoker (5.2; 2.7-10.1, obese (BMI 41 vs 26 kg/m(2: 1.4; 1-1.9, and report Māori (1.8; 1.2-2.8 or Pacific (1.6; 1.1-2.5 ancestry, compared to Caucasian. People with gout were more likely to report heavy SSB intake compared to people with diabetes (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.9. Heavy SSB consumption reported by people with diabetes was similar if they did or did not require dialysis.A high proportion of patients with gout and type 2 diabetes, including those on haemodialysis, are not responding to health messages to abstain from SSB consumption.

  1. Drink-driving and the alcohol beverage industry: will reducing per capita consumption solve the problem in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D

    1987-12-01

    The impact of drinking and driving is one focus of the mounting concern in the West over the widespread incidence of alcohol-related problems. Conventional wisdom, in the United Kingdom as well as in other countries, suggests that reducing average consumption levels will diminish the impact of the negative effects of alcohol including drinking and driving. But whether policies designed to achieve changes in per capita consumption by increasing alcohol taxes across the board constitute the most effective strategy to reduce drinking and driving is called into question. A number of competing interventions directed at the alcohol beverage industry are analysed and new directions for producers and policymakers are proposed.

  2. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  3. Assessment of Phthalate Esters in A Variety of Carbonated Beverages Bottled in PET

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    Mojtaba Moazzen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalate esters are polymeric compounds usually used as a plasticizer. These materials can enter to the human body through various ways the main way could be food packaging. Chronic contact with these materials could result cancer, including breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men as well as other endocrine problems. The objective of this study was to assess the concentration of phthalate esters in carbonated beverages. Methods: In this study, a magnetic nano-scale adsorbent, made from carbon nanotubes and Fe3O4. Deposition of Fe3O4 on the adsorbent could result in improvement of adsorption and desorption as well as extraction procedure. Then, by means of adsorbent and solvent extraction, phthalate esters were extracted from the beverage matrices and determined using GC-MS analysis. Results: amongst studied ingredients, BEP or DEHP, that have been found to be carcinogenic, had highest concentration in beverages, and also the brand of A and taste of C had the highest average concentration. Except one sample, the total amounts of these ingredients were below than international standards. Conclusion: Based on the results, consumers can use these beverages without any concern regarding phthalate esters amounts. The results also demonstrated that this synthesized adsorbent has good performance for extraction of phthalates from studied matrices.

  4. Racial Disparities in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Change Efficacy Among Male First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Thorpe, Roland J; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-11-01

    Racial disparities in weight-related outcomes among males may be linked to differences in behavioral change efficacy; however, few studies have pursued this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which self-efficacy associated with changing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption intake varies by race among male first-year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen males (N = 203) at a medium-sized southern university. Key variables of interest were SSB intake and self-efficacy in reducing consumption of sugared beverages. African American and Whites had similar patterns of SSB intake (10.2 ± 2.8 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6); however, African Americans had lower proportions of individuals who were sure they could substitute sugared beverages with water (42.2% vs. 57.5%, p obesity-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Comparison of beverage consumption in adult populations from three different countries: do the international reference values allow establishing the adequacy of water and beverage intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-07-13

    Recommendations of adequate total water intake (aTWI) have been proposed by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)of the United States of America. However, there are differences in the approach used to support them: IOM recommendation is based on average intakes observed in NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and EFSA recommendation on a combination of observed intakes from 13 different European countries. Despite these recommendations of aTWI, the currently available scientifi c evidence is not sufficient to establish a cut-off value that would prevent disease, reduce the risk for chronic diseases or improve health status. To compare the average daily consumption of fluids (water and other beverages) in selective samples of population from Mexico, US and Spain, evaluating the quantity of fluid intake and understanding the contribution of each fluid type to the total fl uid intake. We also aim to determine if they reached adequate intake (AI) values, as defi ned by three different criteria: IOM, EFSA and water density. Three studies were compared: from Mexico, the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2012 (NHNS 2012); from US, the NHANES III 2005-2010 and from Spain the ANIBES study leaded in 2013. Different categories of beverages were used to establish the pattern of energy intake for each country. Only adult population was selected. TWI of each study was compared with EFSA and IOM AI recommendations, as well as applying the criterion of water density (mL/kcal). The American study obtained the higher value of total kcal/day from food and beverages (2,437 ± 13). Furthermore, the percentage of daily energy intake coming from beverages was, for American adults, 21%. Mexico was slightly behind with 19% and Spain ANIBES study registered only 12%. ANIBES showed signifi cantly low AI values for the overall population, but even more alarming in the case of males. Only 12% of men, in

  6. Fast Foods, Sweets and Beverage Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Takruri, Hamed; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Heath, Dennis D

    2018-01-27

    Background: The effects of consuming fast foods, sweets and beverages on the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible associations between the consumption of different fast foods, sweets and beverages and CRC risk in a Jordanian population. Methods: Two hundred and twenty diagnosed CRC cases and 281 controls were enrolled. Diet history was obtained using a validated quantitative questionnaire. Results: Consumption of some types of fast food, and particularly falafel, was associated with an increased risk of developing CRC. Elevated risk was found for potato and corn chips with an AOR of 4.36 (95%CI: 1.24-15.28) for daily consumption and 3.33 (95%CI: 1.00-11.11) for ≥5 servings/week. Consuming 1-2 or >5 servings per week of fried potatoes or 2-3 servings per week of chicken in sandwiches also increased the risk while exposure to fresh tomato juice and hot pepper sauce on a monthly basis appeared to exert a protective effect. Conclusions: Consumption of fried fast food items was significantly linked with an increased risk of developing CRC in Jordan. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. The consumption of canned food and beverages and urinary Bisphenol A concentrations in NHANES 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C.; Navas-Acien; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and includes dietary and environmental pathways. BPA is rapidly glucuronidated in the body, and both BPA and its conjugates can be readily measured in urine. Objectives To investigate the contribution of canned food and beverages, known sources of BPA contamination, to BPA biomarkers of exposure using dietary and urinary BPA concentration information in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods We evaluated 7,669 NHANES 2003–2008 participants 6 years and older with 24-hour dietary recall information and urinary BPA concentrations available. Using linear regression models, we evaluated the associations between recent canned food and beverage consumption and urinary BPA concentrations, adjusting for potential confounders. Results We found 9% of our participants consumed one canned food in the past 24 hours and 2% consumed two or more canned foods. The consumption of one canned food vs. none was associated with 24% (95% CI 1.11, 1.38) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of two or more canned foods vs. none was associated with 54% (95% CI 1.27, 1.88) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of one or more of some specific types of canned foods vs. none were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations: 41% (95% CI 1.23, 1.63) higher BPA for vegetable and fruit, 70% (95% CI 1.18, 2.44) higher for canned pasta, and 229% (95% CI 1.22, 4.30) higher for canned soup. Canned beverages were not associated with urinary BPA concentrations. Conclusions Canned food, including some specific types such as canned vegetable and fruit, canned pasta, and canned soup were associated with higher levels of urinary BPA concentrations. PMID:27362993

  8. The consumption of canned food and beverages and urinary Bisphenol A concentrations in NHANES 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and includes dietary and environmental pathways. BPA is rapidly glucuronidated in the body, and both BPA and its conjugates can be readily measured in urine. To investigate the contribution of canned food and beverages, known sources of BPA contamination, to BPA biomarkers of exposure using dietary and urinary BPA concentration information in a representative sample of the U.S. We evaluated 7669 NHANES 2003-2008 participants 6 years and older with 24-h dietary recall information and urinary BPA concentrations available. Using linear regression models, we evaluated the associations between recent canned food and beverage consumption and urinary BPA concentrations, adjusting for potential confounders. We found 9% of our participants consumed one canned food in the past 24h and 2% consumed two or more canned foods. The consumption of one canned food vs. none was associated with 24% (95% CI 1.11, 1.38) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of two or more canned foods vs. none was associated with 54% (95% CI 1.27, 1.88) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of one or more of some specific types of canned foods vs. none were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations: 41% (95% CI 1.23, 1.63) higher BPA for vegetable and fruit, 70% (95% CI 1.18, 2.44) higher for canned pasta, and 229% (95% CI 1.22, 4.30) higher for canned soup. Canned beverages were not associated with urinary BPA concentrations. Canned food, including some specific types such as canned vegetable and fruit, canned pasta, and canned soup were associated with higher levels of urinary BPA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between consumption of alcoholic beverages and healthy foods: the French supermarket cohort of 196,000 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Boris; Roussel, Ronan; Diguet, Vincent; Deplaude, Amandine; Chapman, M John; Bruckert, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Related dietary habits and lifestyle may bias assessment of the relationship between alcohol intake and health status. We examined the relationship between key features relating to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and individual profiles of objective food purchases. Data were collected on regular clients of a large supermarket chain implanted across France (n = 196,604). Food items purchased were classified into three categories: (1) healthy foods; (2) unhealthy foods; and (3) others. Wine consumers favoured purchase of healthy foods more often than others, whereas the lowest level of healthy food purchasers was associated with consumption of beer and aniseed-based beverages. Bordeaux wine purchasers spent less in their average budget than the whole population for nine out of the 11 unhealthy food categories. Conversely, the budget was markedly higher in non-alcohol purchasers as compared to the whole population for seven out of the 11 unhealthy foods. The ratio of the budget for healthy to that for unhealthy foods was also distinct between the groups, being highest for wine and lowest for beer. In the subgroup of non-alcohol consumers, this ratio was intermediate but significantly lower relative to values in the five subcategories of wine purchasers. Marked differences in the profile of the purchase of healthy versus unhealthy food products as a function of the subcategory of alcoholic beverage consumed were documented, revealing a critical unidentified confounding feature in analyses of the potential relationship between alcohol consumption and protection against cardiovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Beverage consumption patterns among 4-19 y old children in 2009-14 NHANES show that the milk and 100% juice pattern is associated with better diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Rehm, Colin D; Vieux, Florent; Rose, Chelsea M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2018-05-24

    Patterns of beverage consumption among children and adolescents can be indicative of food choices and total diet quality. Analyses of beverage consumption patterns among 8119 children aged 4-19 y were based on the first 24-h recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-14 NHANES). Four pre-defined beverage patterns were: 1) milk pattern; 2) 100% juice pattern; 3) milk and 100% juice pattern; and 4) other caloric beverages. Food- and nutrient-based diet quality measures included the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Most children drank other caloric beverages, as opposed to milk (17.8%), 100% juice (5.6%), or milk and 100% juice (13.5%). Drinkers of milk and 100% juice had diets that did not differ from each other in total calories, total and added sugars, fiber, or vitamin E. Milk drinkers consumed more dairy and had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D as compared to all other patterns. Juice drinkers consumed more total fruit, same amounts of whole fruit, and had higher intakes of vitamin C as compared to the other consumption patterns. Drinkers of both milk and 100% juice had the highest HEI 2010 scores of all the consumption patterns. Beverage consumption patterns built around milk and/or 100% juice were relatively uncommon. Promoting the drinking of milk and 100% juice, in preference to other caloric beverages, may be an effective strategy to improve children's diet quality. Restricting milk and 100% juice consumption may encourage the selection of other caloric beverages.

  11. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and discretionary foods among US adults by purchase location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Maurer, G

    2016-12-01

    Excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods occupies a significant proportion of Western diet. The aim of this study was to examine consumption of SSBs and discretionary foods in US adults by purchase location. Nationally representative 24-h dietary recall data came from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that do not necessarily contain essential nutrients but may add variety and enjoyment. Linear regressions were performed to estimate daily calorie intake from SSBs and discretionary foods by purchase location (supermarket/grocery store, convenience store, vending machine, fast-food restaurant, full-service restaurant and other source), adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. During 2011-2012, 46.3% and 88.8% of US adults consumed SSBs and discretionary foods on any given day, respectively. SSB consumers on average consumed 213.0 kcal from SSBs daily, of which 111.6 kcal (52.4%) were purchased from supermarkets/grocery stores, 33.0 kcal (15.5%) from fast-food restaurants, 23.9 kcal (11.2%) from convenience stores, 17.1 kcal (8.0%) from full-service restaurants, 8.5 kcal (4.0%) from vending machines and 19.0 kcal (8.9%) from other sources. Discretionary food consumers on average consumed 439.0 kcal from discretionary foods daily, of which 280.1 kcal (63.8%) were purchased from supermarkets/grocery stores, 45.8 kcal (10.4%) from fast-food restaurants, 30.0 kcal (6.8%) from full-service restaurants, 21.1 kcal (4.8%) from convenience stores, 4.1 kcal (0.9%) from vending machines and 58.0 kcal (13.2%) from other sources. Supermarkets/grocery stores were by far the single largest source for SSB and discretionary food purchases in US adults.

  12. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ≥2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ≥3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ≤0.043. Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 1.2-90.2 and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5 risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-∞ or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8 for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1 and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7 higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent

  13. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.Methods: Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages.Results: A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol included "I like the taste" (58.6%, “To keep me awake” (54.3%, “It gives me energy” (44.3%, "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%, "It increases alertness" (28.8%, “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%, and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%. A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group. The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%, “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%, and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%. No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6% reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions.Conclusion: The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol do so because they like the taste

  14. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors.

  15. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Plastow, Katrina

    2013-03-01

    We examined demographic and socioeconomic differences in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), its association with dental caries in children, and whether exposure to water fluoridation modifies this association. In a cross-sectional study, we used a stratified, clustered sampling design to obtain information on 16 508 children aged 5 to 16 years enrolled in Australian school dental services in 2002 to 2005. Dental staff assessed dental caries, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's residential history, sources of drinking water, toothbrushing frequency, socioeconomic status (SES), and SSB consumption. Children who brushed their teeth less often and were older, male, of low SES, from rural or remote areas consumed significantly more SSBs. Caries was significantly associated with greater SSB consumption after controlling for potential confounders. Finally, greater exposure to fluoridated water significantly reduced the association between children's SSB consumption and dental caries. Consumption of SSBs should be considered a major risk factor for dental caries. However, increased exposure to fluoridated public water helped ameliorate the association between SSB consumption and dental decay. These results reconfirm the benefits of community water fluoridation for oral health.

  16. Caffeine increases sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a free-living population: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Russell S J; Swinburn, Boyd A; Sayompark, Dhoungsiri; Whitelock, Susie; Riddell, Lynn J

    2015-01-28

    Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with overweight and obesity. Caffeine is a common additive to SSB, and through dependence effects, it has the potential to promote the consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence that caffeine has on the consumption of SSB. Participants (n 99) were blindly assigned to either a caffeinated SSB (C-SSB) or a non-caffeinated SSB (NC-SSB) group. Following randomisation, all participants completed a 9 d flavour-conditioning paradigm. They then completed a 28 d ad libitum intake intervention where they consumed as much or as little of C-SSB or NC-SSB as desired. The amount consumed (ml) was recorded daily, 4 d diet diaries were collected and liking of SSB was assessed at the start and end of the intervention. Participants (n 50) consuming the C-SSB had a daily SSB intake of 419 (sd 298) ml (785 (sd 559) kJ/d) over the 28 d intervention, significantly more than participants (n 49) consuming the NC-SSB (273 (sd 278) ml/d, 512 (sd 521) kJ/d) (P=0.05). However, participants who consumed the C-SSB liked the SSB more than those who consumed the NC-SSB (6.3 v. 6.0 on a nine-point hedonic scale, P= 0.022). The addition of low concentrations of caffeine to the SSB significantly increases the consumption of the SSB. Regulating caffeine as a food additive may be an effective strategy to decrease the consumption of nutrient-poor high-energy foods and beverages.

  17. Assessment of the frequency of snack and beverages consumption and stimulants intake in children grown up in orphanages in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kopeć, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a particular period of life, when nutritional habits are emerging, so much attention should be paid to proper dietary habits, which become a nutritional pattern copied in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected dietary habits and preferences in a group of children living in Krakow orphanages (supervising by the Social Welfare Centre in Krakow), by assessing the frequency of snacks and beverages consumptions as well as an intake of beverages with caffeine, alcohol and smoking cigarettes. Studies were performed in the years 2007-2008 in five orphanages located in Krakow. 181 children, 9 to 20 yrs of age, participated in this study. Assessment of dietary habits and preferences was performed based on anonymous questionnaire which included questions about snacking frequency, favorite and most frequently drank beverages without or with caffeine, alcohol and cigarettes smoking. The analysis of nutritional habits showed that the most popular high-calorie snacks were eaten by the youngest children. Children and adolescents asked for the most commonly consumed beverages indicated on fizzy drinks and fruits juice. Among the youngest children (9-12 years old), 5% reported drinking alcohol, 10% of boys smoked cigarettes, 10% of girls and 21% of boys drank coffee. Among the oldest respondents, about 35% declared drinking coffee, 39% girls and 65% boys declared smoking cigarettes, whereas drinking alcohol reported 22 and 38% subjects, respectively. Results obtained in this study, indicate the necessity of intervention, consisting on running training courses and workshops of the assessed population, i.e. children, adolescents and instructing their educators.

  18. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  19. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  20. Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Saadat, Saeed; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Shirali, Saeed

    The circadian system influences on health and metabolic function that can cause raising some risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Few studies have examined data that incorporate the full complexity of daily beverage intake pattern on lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate relation between daily water and beverage intake of adults working in day or shift work and lipid profile. Total beverages intake was estimated in shift and administrative staff of Ahvaz International Airport, Iran. Forty five male, aged 25-55 years, attending this institute were invited to participate in this study. They completed a three-day food records and all participants were measured plasma lipid profiles. Forty one of participants completed all aspects of the study. Two clusters were emerged, labeled descriptively as Conventional including "high Sugar-sweetened drinkers" and "low sugar drinkers". The highest intake of water was in cluster 1 (1170.9ml/day) even this amount is much less than the daily recommended amounts. There were significant differences in triglyceride levels among day and night shift workers. According to the results, there is inadequacy of water and high sugar beverage intake among the shift workers which it is a potential risk of some related chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome with high triglyceride level in the future. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  2. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn D; Ng, Shu Wen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta; Miles, Donna R; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-04-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and negative in independent corner stores and

  3. Beyond the French paradox: the impact of moderate beverage alcohol and wine consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Tedd M

    2003-08-01

    Alcohol beverages, particularly red wine, when consumed in moderation reduce the risk of acute CVD and death. Important questions and issues, however, still remain, including the role of beverage type, pattern of drinking, and the risk that moderate drinking can lead to problem drinking. The mechanism for alcohol beverage benefit is complex, and includes an independent benefit of ethyl alcohol. The multiplicity of effects identified for the non-alcohol components of red wine, play a role in improved endothelial physiology and enhance vascular homeostasis. CAD begins in early life, and it progresses over decades. As the complexity of vascular pathology changes with time, so may the healthful effects of alcohol and non-alcohol wine components also vary. Prospective studies of alcohol or wine consumption in the young, middle, and older aged persons would be interesting, but they are laden with obvious sociologic complexities. Meanwhile, it is prudent for physicians to discuss the harmful effects of alcohol with their patients, while at the same time, not discourage a potentially healthy practice of wine in moderation (e.g., with meals). The current literature is consistent in that heavy drinkers would be better off to reduce drinking or abstain, and abstainers or light drinkers, should be advised to avoid heavy drinking [13]. Whether moderate alcohol consumption can be characterized as a pharmacologic intervention or a dietary intercession may be a matter of opinion. I would rather like to believe that the growing scientific interest in wine and better health is a part of adopting a healthy lifestyle that connects our society with nature, to sustain and enhance human life.

  4. Ethics and obesity prevention: ethical considerations in 3 approaches to reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy; Hecht, Kenneth; Paul, Amy; Birnbach, Kerry

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence soared to unprecedented levels in the United States, with 1 in 3 adults and 1 in 6 children currently categorized as obese. Although many approaches have been taken to encourage individual behavior change, policies increasingly attempt to modify environments to have a more positive influence on individuals' food and drink choices. Several policy proposals target sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), consumption of which has become the largest contributor to Americans' caloric intake. Yet proposals have been criticized for unduly inhibiting choice, being overly paternalistic, and stigmatizing low-income populations. We explored the ethical acceptability of 3 approaches to reduce SSB consumption: restricting sale of SSBs in public schools, levying significant taxes on SSBs, and prohibiting the use of Supplemental Nutrition and Assistance Program (formerly food stamps) benefits for SSB purchases.

  5. Food Purchasing Behaviors and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Canadian Secondary School Students in the COMPASS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M; Chaurasia, Ashok; Hammond, David; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-02-23

    To examine whether several food purchasing behaviors (ie, sources of meals or snacks) are associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and whether these associations vary by province. Cross-sectional observational study. Alberta and Ontario, Canada. Secondary school students from Alberta (n = 3,300) and Ontario (n = 37,999) participating in year 2 (2013-2014) of the Cannabis Use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol Use, Smoking, Sedentary Behavior (COMPASS) study. Participants' self-reported frequency of consuming 3 SSB types (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, and energy drinks) in a typical week. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses. Participants from Alberta had a significantly (P purchasing meals or snacks from school food outlets compared with their Ontario counterparts. Most of the food purchasing behaviors were significantly (P purchases on weekends (vs weekdays) and from food outlets off school property (vs on school property) had a greater association with SSB consumption. Eating a home-packed lunch was protective against SSB consumption across models. Adolescents' food purchasing behaviors have a significant impact on their propensity for SSB consumption. These data demonstrate potentially important contexts for SSB consumption and have implications for possible settings and strategies for future interventions to reduce adolescents' SSB intake. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of the local retail food environment in fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; de Almeida, Samuel Luna; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the local retail food environment and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the moderation effects of income in the studied relationships. Cross-sectional study design that drew upon neighbourhood- and individual-level data. For each participant, community (density and proximity) and community food environment (availability, variety, quality and price) measures of FV and SSB were assessed in retail food stores and specialized fresh produce markets within 1·6 km of their homes. Poisson generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the associations of food consumption with food environment measures, adjusted by individual-level characteristics. São Paulo, Brazil. Adults (n 1842) residing in the same census tracts (n 52) in São Paulo, Brazil as those where the neighbourhood-level measures were taken. FV availability in neighbourhoods was associated with regular FV consumption (≥5 times/week; prevalence ratio=1·41; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·67). Regular FV consumption prevalence was significantly lower among lower-income individuals living in neighbourhoods with fewer supermarkets and fresh produce markets (P-interaction food environment is associated with FV and SSB consumption in a Brazilian urban sample.

  7. Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been found to be positively associated with weight gain among children and adolescents. In order to develop effective interventions aimed at reducing intake or preventing an increase in intake, a better understanding of the determinants of this dietary habit is needed. Objective To identify potential determinants of the intake of SSBs among children and adolescents. Design The study is based on a review of the liter...

  8. Association of the consumption of common food groups and beverages with mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus in Serbia, 1991-2010: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena; Stojanovic, Goran; Zivanovic-Macuzic, Ivana

    2016-01-05

    This paper reports association between mortality rates from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus and the consumption of common food groups and beverages in Serbia. In this ecological study, data on both mortality and the average annual consumption of common food groups and beverages per household's member were obtained from official data-collection sources. The multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between consumption of common food groups and beverages and mortality rates. Markedly increasing trends of cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus mortality rates were observed in Serbia in the period 1991-2010. Mortality rates from cancer were negatively associated with consumption of vegetable oil (p=0.005) and grains (p=0.001), and same was found for ischaemic heart disease (p=0.002 and 0.021, respectively), while consumption of other dairy products showed a significant positive association (pfood groups and beverages consumption was observed and should be assessed in future analytical epidemiological studies. Promotion of healthy diet is sorely needed in Serbia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Does Instruction to Eliminate Coffee, Tea, Alcohol, Carbonated, and Artificially Sweetened Beverages Improve Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?: A Prospective Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janis M; Garcia, Caroline E; Hortsch, Sarah Becker; Guo, Ying; Schimpf, Megan O

    2016-01-01

    Common advice for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, urgency, and related bother includes elimination of potentially irritating beverages (coffee, tea, alcohol, and carbonated and/or artificially sweetened beverages). The purpose of this study was to determine compliance with standardized instruction to eliminate these potentially irritating beverages, whether LUTS improved after instruction, and whether symptoms worsened with partial reintroduction. The 3-phase fixed sequence design was (1) baseline, (2) eliminate potentially irritating beverages listed above, and (3) reintroduce at 50% of baseline volume, with a washout period between each 3-day phase. We asked participants to maintain total intake volume by swapping in equal amounts of nonpotentially irritating beverages (primarily water). The study sample comprised 30 community-dwelling women recruited through newspaper advertisement. Quantification measures included 3-day voiding diaries and detailed beverage intake, and LUTS questionnaires completed during each phase. During Phase 2, we found significant reduction in potentially irritating beverages but complete elimination was rare. Despite protocol demands, total beverage intake was not stable; mean (± standard deviation) daily total intake volume dropped by 6.2 ± 14.9 oz (P = .03) during Phase 2. In Phase 3, the volume of total beverage intake returned to baseline, but the intake of potentially irritating beverages also returned to near baseline rather than 50% as requested by protocol. Despite this incomplete adherence to study protocols, women reported reduction in symptoms of urge, inability to delay voiding, and bother during both phases (P ≤ .01). The number of voids per day decreased on average by 1.3 and 0.9 voids during Phases 2 and 3, respectively (P = .002 and P = .035). Education to reduce potentially irritating beverages resulted in improvement in LUTS. However, eliminating potentially irritating beverages was difficult

  10. Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Adiposity-Related Cancer Risk in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Bandera, Elisa V; Lin, Yong; Jacques, Paul; Hayes, Richard B; Parekh, Niyati

    2018-04-19

    Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars(fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers. The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26-84y, from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diet data was first collected between 1991-1995 using a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of fructose, sucrose, sugary foods and sugary beverages (fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages) were derived. Participants were followed up until 2013 to ascertain cancer incidence; 565 doctor-diagnosed adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate and 68 colorectal cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations. Tests for interaction with BMI and waist circumference were conducted. No associations were observed between fructose, sucrose, sugary food consumption and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers or the examined site-specific cancers. While total consumption of sugary beverages was not associated with site-specific cancer risk, higher intakes of fruit juice were associated with 58% increased prostate cancer risk(HR:1.58;95%CI:1.04-2.41) in multivariable-adjusted models. In exploratory stratified analyses, higher sugary beverage intakes increased overall adiposity-related cancer risk by 59% in participants with excessive central adiposity(HR:1.59;95%CI:1.01-2.50)(p-trend=0.057). In this cohort of American adults, higher sugary beverage consumption was associated with increased cancer risk among participants with central adiposity. These analyses suggest that avoiding sugary beverages represents a simple dietary modification that may be used as an effective cancer control strategy. Copyright ©2018

  11. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seblewengel Lemma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females. In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.25–1.92, cigarette smoking (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63, and khat use (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.09–2.71 were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes. Cigarette smoking (OR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.11–2.73 and khat consumption (OR=1.91; 95% CI: 1.22–3.00 were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%, as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors.

  12. Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the US. The consumption of refined sugars has increased dramatically over the past few decades, accounting for almost 15% of total energy intake. Yet, there is limited evidence on how sugar consumption affects ovarian cancer risk. Methods We evaluated ovarian cancer risk in relation to sugary foods and beverages, and total and added sugar intakes in a population-based case–control study. Cases were women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer, older than 21 years, able to speak English or Spanish, and residents of six counties in New Jersey. Controls met same criteria as cases, but were ineligible if they had both ovaries removed. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed a phone interview, food frequency questionnaire, and self-recorded waist and hip measurements. Based on dietary data, we computed the number of servings of dessert foods, non-dessert foods, sugary drinks and total sugary foods and drinks for each participant. Total and added sugar intakes (grams/day) were also calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for food and drink groups and total and added sugar intakes, while adjusting for major risk factors. Results We did not find evidence of an association between consumption of sugary foods and beverages and risk, although there was a suggestion of increased risk associated with sugary drink intake (servings per 1,000 kcal; OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.83). Conclusions Overall, we found little indication that sugar intake played a major role on ovarian cancer development. PMID:23442818

  13. Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melony G; Olson, Sara H; Paddock, Lisa; Chandran, Urmila; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Parekh, Niyati; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-02-27

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the US. The consumption of refined sugars has increased dramatically over the past few decades, accounting for almost 15% of total energy intake. Yet, there is limited evidence on how sugar consumption affects ovarian cancer risk. We evaluated ovarian cancer risk in relation to sugary foods and beverages, and total and added sugar intakes in a population-based case-control study. Cases were women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer, older than 21 years, able to speak English or Spanish, and residents of six counties in New Jersey. Controls met same criteria as cases, but were ineligible if they had both ovaries removed. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed a phone interview, food frequency questionnaire, and self-recorded waist and hip measurements. Based on dietary data, we computed the number of servings of dessert foods, non-dessert foods, sugary drinks and total sugary foods and drinks for each participant. Total and added sugar intakes (grams/day) were also calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for food and drink groups and total and added sugar intakes, while adjusting for major risk factors. We did not find evidence of an association between consumption of sugary foods and beverages and risk, although there was a suggestion of increased risk associated with sugary drink intake (servings per 1,000 kcal; OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.83). Overall, we found little indication that sugar intake played a major role on ovarian cancer development.

  14. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Hollands, Gareth J; Pechey, Rachel; Jebb, Susan; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-04-07

    Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB) increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml) in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households' typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households) was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37) of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101) of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks) and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml). The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. The findings support the feasibility and acceptability of running a randomised controlled trial to

  15. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mantzari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Methods Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households’ typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Results Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37 of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101 of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml. The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility

  16. Maternal educational level and preschool children's consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages: mediation by the family food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal educational level and preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages, and to assess the mediating effects of variables relating to the family food environment. We analyzed data from 2814 native Dutch preschoolers enrolled in a birth cohort study in Rotterdam (the Netherlands), between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios of snacking ≥ 2 times/day and consuming sugar-containing beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day for children of mothers with low, mid-low, and mid-high educational levels (reference group: high educational level), before and after adjustment for mediators. Children of low and mid-low educated mothers were significantly more likely to consume excessive amounts of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages compared with children of high educated mothers, with the highest odds in children of low educated mothers (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.23 and OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.87, 3.24 respectively). Parental feeding practices, parental consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and children's television time partly explained these associations. Maternal educational level is inversely related to preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages. Targeting the family food environment may be an effective way of reducing educational inequalities in children's unhealthy dietary behaviors. © 2013.

  17. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  18. A pilot in corporate water footprint accounting and impact assessment: the water footprint of a sugar-containing carbonated beverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug; Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    All water use in the world is ultimately linked to final consumption by consumers. It is therefore interesting to know the specific water requirements of various consumer goods, particularly for goods that are water-intensive, like food products and beverages. This information is relevant not only

  19. Do Emotional Appeals in Public Service Advertisements Influence Adolescents' Intention to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael; Glanz, Karen; Strasser, Andrew; Vaala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are a commonly used approach to reduce sugary drink consumption, which is linked to obesity in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the direct and mediated effects of emotional appeals in public service advertisements (PSAs) that aired between 2010 and 2012 on adolescents' intention to reduce their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. An online randomized experiment was conducted with a national sample of adolescent respondents ages 13 to 17 years old (N = 805). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions. Three experimental conditions represented PSAs with different emotional appeals: humor, fear, and nurturance, plus a fourth control condition. The outcome was adolescents' intention to cut back on SSBs. The direct effect of fear appeals on intention was mediated through adolescents' perception of the PSAs' argument strength; perceived argument strength was also the key mediator for the indirect effects of humor and nurturance on intention. Several hypothesized mediators influenced by the appeals were not associated with intention. This is the first study to test the effect of persuasive emotional appeals used in SSB-related PSAs. The perceived strength of the PSAs' arguments is important to consider in the communication of messages designed to reduce SSB consumption.

  20. [Consumption of sweetened, energy and alcoholic beverages among college students in the México-US border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Caravalí-Meza, Nuris Yohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2014-09-28

    The consumption of sugary, energy and alcoholic drinks among college students might be a health risk factor. To assess the consumption of sugary, energy and alcoholic drinks and to determine their associations with body mass index (BMI) status among college students. Second and third year college students enrolled in five different majors at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California were evaluated. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. A frequency questionnaire of 19 drinks was administered. A total of 1138 students participated in the study. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity was 12 and 33% with 14 and 17% in women and men respectively. Fifty-five per cent of women and 68% of men consumed more than 25g of sugar drinks per day; 12% consumed more than 100g of sugar daily. The daily caloric intake from beverages was greater than 450kcal with 350kcal in men and women respectively. Ten per cent of women and 15% of men consumed more than 30g of alcohol daily. The sugary drinks more frequently consumed were fruit juices (90%), whole milk (69%), regular soft drinks (83%), beer (37%), liquor (27%) and energy drinks (12%). Consumption of sugary, energy, and alcoholic drinks is very high, which may be a health risk in this population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with consumption of caffeinated-beverage among Siriraj pre-clinical year medical students, A 2-year consecutive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandejpong, Denla; Paisansudhi, Supalerg; Udompunthurak, Suthipol

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies showed that significant proportion of medical students consumed caffeine to face sleep-deprived daily schedules. To monitor the trend of caffeinated-beverage consumption among Siriraj medical students as well as to study possible factors associated with caffeine dependency. The questionnaire was distributed to a class of medical students for 2 consecutive years. Statistical analysis was performed for descriptive purpose. 269 (89.7%) and 225 (74.5%) questionnaires were returned in year 1 and year 2, respectively 16.2% refused to take caffeine-beverages totally. 13% of those who consumed caffeinated-beverages developed caffeine dependence. From logistical analysis, positive history of smoking-family member and female sex were the only other two factors associated with caffeine dependency (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.04-4.61 and 1.76, 95% CI 1.01-3.07, respectively). Other investigated factors included: exercise (p = 0.08); sleep hours (p = 0.24); reading beverage labels (p = 0.87); alcohol consumption (p = 0.59); class performance (p = 0.87); family member coffee-drinking habits (p = 0.66);family member alcohol-drinking habits (p = 0.18); and family income (p = 0.06). Caffeinated-beverage consumption was common among Siriraj medical students. No significant change was detected in the pattern of caffeinated-beverage consumption within the study period. Positive history of smoking family members and female sex were found as the only other two factors correlated with caffeine dependency.

  2. Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    Access to foods and beverages on school campuses, at home, and other locations affects children's diet quality, energy intake, and risk of obesity. To describe patterns of consumption of "empty calories"--low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages--by eating location among National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants and nonparticipants. Cross-sectional study using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2004-2005 third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study. A nationally representative sample of 2,314 children in grades one through 12, including 1,386 NSLP participants. Comparisons, using t tests, of the proportion of children consuming low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, mean daily energy and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, and energy density by NSLP participation status. On a typical school day, children consumed 527 "empty calories" during a 24-hour period. Eating at home provided the highest mean amount of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods (276 kcal vs 174 kcal at school and 78 kcal at other locations). NSLP participants consumed less energy from sugar-sweetened beverages at school than nonparticipants (11 kcal vs 39 kcal in elementary schools and 45 kcal vs 61 kcal in secondary schools, Pkcal vs 127 kcal, Plunch participants' consumption at school was less energy-dense than nonparticipants' consumption at school (Pdaily and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods are consumed (especially from sugar-sweetened beverages, chips, and baked goods) is warranted. At schools, consumption of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods may be reduced by limiting access to competitive foods and beverages, enforcing strong school wellness policies, and minimizing the frequency of offering french fries and similar potato products and higher-fat baked goods in school meals or à la carte.

  3. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in European men and women: influence of beverage type and body size. The EPIC-InterAct study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The InterAct Consortium, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes, and determine whether this is modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and beverage type. Design: Multicentre prospective case–cohort study. Setting: Eight countries from the European Prospective Investigation

  4. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  5. ISLSCP II Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Consumption by Continental Erosion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Continental Atmospheric CO2 Consumption data set represents gridded estimates for the riverine export of carbon and of sediments based on empirical...

  6. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium

  7. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and

  8. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek; Mensah, George A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the

  9. Determination of free CO2 in emergent groundwaters using a commercial beverage carbonation meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryDissolved CO2 in groundwater is frequently supersaturated relative to its equilibrium with atmospheric partial pressure and will degas when it is conveyed to the surface. Estimates of dissolved CO2 concentrations can vary widely between different hydrochemical facies because they have different sources of error (e.g., rapid degassing, low alkalinity, non-carbonate alkalinity). We sampled 60 natural spring and mine waters using a beverage industry carbonation meter, which measures dissolved CO2 based on temperature and pressure changes as the sample volume is expanded. Using a modified field protocol, the meter was found to be highly accurate in the range 0.2-35 mM CO2. The meter provided rapid, accurate and precise measurements of dissolved CO2 in natural waters for a range of hydrochemical facies. Dissolved CO2 concentrations measured in the field with the carbonation meter were similar to CO2 determined using the pH-alkalinity approach, but provided immediate results and avoided errors from alkalinity and pH determination. The portability and ease of use of the carbonation meter in the field made it well-suited to sampling in difficult terrain. The carbonation meter has proven useful in the study of aquatic systems where CO2 degassing drives geochemical changes that result in surficial mineral precipitation and deposition, such as tufa, travertine and mine drainage deposits.

  10. Salt tea consumption and esophageal cancer: a possible role of alkaline beverages in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nabi, Sumaiya; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Salt tea is the most commonly used beverage in Kashmir, India, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common cancer. Salt tea is brewed in a unique way in Kashmir, usually with addition of sodium bicarbonate, which makes salt tea alkaline. As little information about the association between salt tea drinking and ESCC was available, we conducted a large-scale case-control study to investigate this association in Kashmir. We recruited 703 histologically confirmed cases of ESCC and 1664 controls individually matched to cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who consumed >1,250 ml day(-1) showed an increased risk of ESCC (OR = 2.60, 95% CIs = 1.68-4.02). Samovar (a special vessel for the beverage preparation) users (OR = 1.77, 95% CIs 1.25-2.50) and those who ate cereal paste with salt tea (OR = 2.14, 95% CIs = 1.55-2.94) or added bicarbonate sodium to salt tea (OR = 2.12, 95% CIs = 1.33-3.39) were at higher risk of ESCC than others. When analysis was limited to alkaline tea drinkers only, those who both consumed cereal paste with salt tea and used samovar vessel were at the highest risk (OR = 4.58, 95% CIs = 2.04-10.28). This study shows significant associations of salt tea drinking and some related habits with ESCC risk. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO₂, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  15. Children's sugar-sweetened beverages consumption: associations with family and home-related factors, differences within ethnic groups explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Gaar, V M; van Grieken, A; Jansen, W; Raat, H

    2017-02-14

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children's SSB consumption. We explored associations within ethnic background of the child. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n = 644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake. The family and home-related factors under study were: cognitive variables (e.g. parental attitude, subjective norm), environmental variables (e.g. availability of SSB, parenting practices), and habitual variables (e.g. habit strength, taste preference). Regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake (p ethnic background, with the explained variance of the full models ranging from 8.7% for children from Moroccan or Turkish ethnic background to 44.4% for children with Dutch ethnic background. Our results provide support for interventions targeting children's SSB intake focussing on the identified family and home-related factors, with active participation of parents. Also, the relationships between these factors and the child's SSB intake differed for children with distinct ethnic backgrounds. Therefore, we would recommend to tailor interventions taking into account the ethnic background of the family. Number NTR3400 ; date April 4th 2012; retrospectively registered.

  16. [Ecological correlation between consumption of alcoholic beverages and liver cirrhosis mortality in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro-Robles, J; Gutiérrez-Avila, J H

    1997-01-01

    To determine the correlation between alcohol consumption and mortality from liver cirrhosis in Mexico. Analysis of the ecological correlation between the patterns of alcohol consumption determined by the National Addiction Survey in 1993 and mortality by liver cirrhosis, in the period between 1971-1993, in the eight regions in which the country was divided. To determine level of correlation, the Pearson and Spearman coefficients were calculated. Significant correlations were only found with the prevalence of spirits and pulque drinkers; with beer drinkers the correlation was negative. The correlation with pulque is interesting, since pulque consumption is considered to be low scale in some rural areas. The negative correlation with beer may indicate that beer drinking is nor a good indicator of alcoholism. Results, though limited to the possibilities of an ecological study, reveal the necessity of effective actions in the regions where spirits and pulque are consumed in excess.

  17. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn D Silver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake.Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015 and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016 measures of (1 beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2 point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3 a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1 the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2 sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3 consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4 self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce, beverage sales (ounces, consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day. Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001 and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004, partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03, and negative in independent corner stores and

  18. Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Diane; Moultrie, Nicolette M; Sites, Elsbeth; Crawford, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant threat to America's children. Health care leaders have increasingly called upon oral health professionals to integrate healthy weight promotion and enhanced sugar-sweetened beverage counseling into their professional practices. The aim of this scoping review is to examine recent evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary care childhood obesity interventions that have potential for adoption by oral health professionals. Medine, and PubMed were searched from 2010 to 2016 for review articles and studies reporting patient outcomes or policy outcomes relevant to primary care childhood obesity interventions for children ages 2-11 years. Additional articles were accessed through relevant websites, journals, and references. Our screening criteria included interventions that could be adopted by oral health professionals. Forty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions fell into four domains: family-based programs, motivational interviewing, office-based practice tools, and policy interventions. Despite strong evidence linking the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to childhood obesity, our review did not find evidence of primary care programs effectively targeting and reducing childhood sugary drinks. Effective primary care interventions for addressing childhood obesity have been identified, although only short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated. Dissemination of these practices as well as further research and advocacy are needed. Childhood obesity and poor oral health share many common risk factors. Additional research should focus on the benefits and feasibility of widespread interdisciplinary medical-oral health collaboration in addressing the two most prevalent diseases of childhood. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Effiong Akpan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.

  20. Controls on carbon consumption during Alaskan wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric S. Kasischke; Elizabeth E. Hoy

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate carbon consumed during wildland fires in interior Alaska based on medium-spatial scale data (60 m cell size) generated on a daily basis. Carbon consumption estimates were developed for 41 fire events in the large fire year of 2004 and 34 fire events from the small fire years of 2006-2008. Total carbon consumed during the large fire...

  1. Changes in Sugary Beverage Consumption and Public Perceptions in Upstate New York After Implementation of a Community Awareness Campaign and Healthier Vending Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Danielle J; Lowenfels, Ann; Ren, Jia; Brissette, Ian; Martin, Erika G

    2018-02-23

    We evaluated the impact of a community-based healthy beverage procurement and serving practices program, and educational media campaign, on residents' behaviors and beliefs regarding sugary beverages. Repeated cross-sectional population surveys in 2013 and 2014 were conducted, as well as semistructured interviews with key informants. We employed multivariate differences-in-differences regression analysis, adjusting for demographics and weight status, using the survey data. Key informant interviews were reviewed for common themes. Three rural counties in upstate New York with high prevalence of children living in poverty and childhood obesity. Residents of Broome, Cattaraugus, and Chautauqua, with Chemung as a control, reached through cross-sectional random-digit-dial landline and cellular telephones, and practitioners involved in intervention implementation. Community organizations were encouraged through presentations to leadership to adopt healthier vending policies, providing more low- and no-sugar options, and were provided assistance with implementation. In addition, a media campaign supported by presentations to the public aimed to educate residents regarding the health consequences of sugary beverage consumption. The survey measured population demographics and sugary beverage consumption frequency, availability, beliefs about harmfulness, and support for regulation, pre- and postintervention. Key informant interviews elicited perceived program challenges and successes. Compared with temporal trends in the control county, availability of regular soda in the intervention counties decreased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = -.341, P = .04) and support for regulation increased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = .162, P = .02). However, there were no differences regarding beliefs about harmfulness or consumption. Practitioners confirmed that the intervention increased awareness but was insufficient to spur action. Although public education on

  2. The influence of family functioning on the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages among 1- to 12-y-old children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Dau, Atemthi; Cyril, Sheila; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2014-09-01

    Family functioning, which reflects how well family members communicate and interact with each other, is associated with childhood overweight and obesity, but its association with children's eating behaviors remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family functioning and unhealthy food and beverage consumption among children ages 1 to 12 y old. As part of the Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing study, a random sample of 4602 caregivers of children completed an interview during a single telephone interview in 2006. Caregivers reported on their child's consumption of three types of unhealthy foods and beverages, and responses were recoded into weekly consumption of potato crisps and chips, monthly consumption of takeaway foods, and daily consumption of sweet beverages. Family functioning included general functioning (α = 0.89) and parental psychological distress (α = 0.78). Consumption of potato crisps and chips occurred, on average, twice a week, while takeaway foods were consumed an average of three times per month. Consistently and controlling for other covariates, male caregivers had children who consumed takeaway foods more frequently and who drank more daily cups of sweet beverages. Caregiver education and living in a single-parent household were consistently associated with poorer eating habits. In all models, general family functioning and parental psychological distress were associated with poorer eating habits. In addition to traditional methods for improving diet, family-based interventions need to target more general aspects of the family's and caregiver's functioning to improve dietary intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary intake of tin in Japan, and the effects on intake of canned food and beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, S; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Sakurai, K; Date, C; Nishimura, A; Nakatsuka, H; Saito, H; Arisawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2007-05-01

    The study reported herein was initiated to examine dietary tin intake (Sn-D) in Japan to elucidate the possible effects of consumption of canned food (including beverages) on Sn-D, and to compare the intake among regions and between the two sexes in reference to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake and intake in other countries. Urinary tin levels (Sn-U) were also studied. Duplicate diet samples (24 h) together with records of food intake were collected in 1999-2004 from 111 adult residents in four areas of Japan. After exclusion of incomplete samples, 95 valid samples were subjected to determination of tin by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion. Among the 95 cases, 37 women additionally provided urine samples. Distribution of Sn-D was markedly skewed. Median Sn-D was 5.6 microg day(-1) for total subjects, which was about one-tenth of the values previously reported for the Japanese population; the difference was most probably attributable to the difference in the methods of determination. Consumption of canned foods led to a substantial increase in Sn-D. Thus, the median Sn-D for canned food consumers of 35.7 microg day(-1), was eight-fold higher than the median Sn-D for non-consumers of 4.5 microg day(-1). Sn-U (as corrected for creatinine concentration) distributed log-normally with a geometric mean of 2.0 microg (g cr)(-1). No effect of canned food consumption was evident on Sn-U. When compared internationally, Sn-D for the Japanese population was substantially lower than Sn-D for populations in other industrialized countries.

  4. Traditional production, consumption and storage of Kunu--a non alcoholic cereal beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffa, T; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the production, consumption and storage of Kunu was carried out. Some of the information included consumption rate, processing techniques and equipment, producer's status and grains used. About 73% consume Kunu daily, 26% occasionally; 1% know it is produced but may or may not be consuming it. Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and acha (Digitalis exilis) were used in its production in decreasing order of preference. The grains were used singly or combined; sorghum/millet was the most common combination in a ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Steeping was done in ordinary water for 12-72 h, depending on the grain type, in local clay pots, plastic buckets, calabashes or basins or 5-7 h in warm water (60-70 degrees C). The grains were dry or wet milled with or without spices such as ginger, red pepper, black pepper, clove and garlic. Other ingredients introduced included: sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and Cadaba farinosa crude extract. Both dry and wet milling was done with grinding mills, mill stones or mortar and pestle, depending on locality. The product was then cooked into a thin free flowing gruel. The various types of kunu were: Kunun zaki, Kunun gyada, Kunun akamu, Kunun tsamiya, Kunun baule, Kunun jiko, Amshau and Kunun gayamba. Kunun zaki was the most commonly consumed. Production and consumption cut across all social classes of the society.

  5. Effect of Heavy Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages on the Perception of Sweet and Salty Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Relating Emissions of Carbon to Characteristics of Consumption in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumati Dutta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine how the average Indian’s emissions may be reduced, one needs to understand the consumption basket and the implications of various categories of household consumption (such as cereals or durables on emissions. With this in mind, this paper looks at consumption choices in India and calculates per capita carbon dioxide emissions of the different categories of consumption during 1987-1988 to 2007-2008. It is seen that both the increase in per person consumption and a change in the product basket have led to an increase in emissions per person. Further, the urban or higher class Indian emits more, not only because he consumes more of everything (compared, respectively, to the rural or lower class Indian, but also because of differences in the composition of consumption. Four products/product groups – fuel for cooking, fuel for lighting, durables and housing – are further explored to identify several problem products.

  7. Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Constant, Florence

    2013-06-19

    Few studies have examined water consumption patterns among U.S. children. Additionally, recent data on total water consumption as it relates to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are lacking. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and other beverages among US children by age group, gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Comparisons were made to DRI values for water consumption from all sources. Data from two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from 3 cycles of NHANES (2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to assess water and beverage consumption among 4,766 children age 4-13y. Beverages were classified into 9 groups: water (tap and bottled), plain and flavored milk, 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks (regular and diet), fruit drinks, sports drinks, coffee, tea, and energy drinks. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to DRIs for the U.S. Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined. Water and other beverages contributed 70-75% of dietary water, with 25-30% provided by moisture in foods, depending on age. Plain water, tap and bottled, contributed 25-30% of total dietary water. In general, tap water represented 60% of drinking water volume whereas bottled water represented 40%. Non-Hispanic white children consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-American children consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. No group of U.S. children came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. At least 75% of children 4-8y, 87% of girls 9-13y, and 85% of boys 9-13y did not meet DRIs for total water intake. Water volume per 1,000 kcal, another criterion of adequate hydration, was 0.85-0.95 L/1,000 kcal, short of the desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1,000 kcal. Water intakes at below-recommended levels may be a cause for concern. Data on water and beverage intake for the population and by socio-demographic group provides

  8. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Background Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods and findings Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015–29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers’ spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and

  10. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  11. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study.

  12. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  13. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamis Jomaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates total water intake (TWI from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs. In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752. Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%. Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

  14. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yach Derek; Alexander Eleanore; Mensah George A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely...

  15. Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trumbo, Paula R.; Rivers, Crystal R.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity was conducted. This review focused specifically on the role of sugar-sweetened beverages in obesity risk, taking into account energy balance. For the purpose of this review, scientific conclusions could not be drawn from the intervention studies that evaluated the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and obesity risk. Results of observational studies that examined the r...

  16. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valisa E. Hedrick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories, yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER or a physical activity group (MoveMore. Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149 (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7, p ≤ 0.001 and MoveMore (n = 143 (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2, p ≤ 0.001 participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05, over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01. Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  17. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-04

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  18. Associations between food and beverage consumption and different types of sedentary behaviours in European preschoolers: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Berges, María L; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Mouratidou, Theodora; Androutsos, Odysseas; de Craemer, Marieke; Pinket, An-Sofie; Birnbaum, Julia; Koletzko, Berthold; Iotova, Violeta; Usheva, Natalia; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Gozdz, Magdalena; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between food and beverage consumption and time spent in different sedentary behaviours such as watching TV and DVDs, playing computer/video games and quiet play/activities in preschoolers. A sample of 6431 (51.8 % males) European preschoolers aged 3.5-5.5 years from six survey centres was included in the data analyses. Data on dietary habits and sedentary behaviours [watching TV, playing computer and quiet play (both during weekdays and weekend days)] were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. One-way analysis of covariance and general linear model (adjusted for sex, maternal education, body mass index and centre) were conducted. The results of the generalized linear model showed that the more strong associations in both males and females who were watching TV for > 1 h/day during weekdays were positively associated with increased consumption of fizzy drinks (β = 0.136 for males and β = 0.156 for females), fresh and packed juices (β = 0.069, β = 0.089), sweetened milk (β = 0.119, β = 0.078), cakes and biscuits (β = 0.116, β = 0.145), chocolate (β = 0.052, β = 0.090), sugar-based desserts and pastries (β = 0.234, β = 0.250), salty snacks (β = 0.067, β = 0.056), meat/poultry/processed meat (β = 0.067, β = 0.090) and potatoes (β = 0.071, β = 0.067), and negative associations were observed for the consumption of fruits (β = -0.057, β = -0.099), vegetables (β = -0.056, β = -0.082) and fish (β = -0.013, β = -0.013). During weekend days, results were comparable. In European preschoolers, sedentary behaviours were associated with consumption of energy-dense foods and fizzy drinks. The present findings will contribute to improve the strategies to prevent overweight, obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases from early childhood.

  19. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available. PMID:20976298

  20. The association between the availability of sugar-sweetened beverage in school vending machines and its consumption among adolescents in California: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  1. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving vehicles, a balance of dry law, Brazil 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the trend in frequency of adults who drive under the influence of alcohol in major Brazilian cities after the passing of laws, which prohibit drunk driving. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. The frequency of adults who drove after abusive alcohol consumption was reduced by 45.0% during this period (2.0% in 2007 to 1.1% in 2013. Between 2007 and 2008 (-0.5% and between 2012 and 2013 (-0.5%, significant reductions were observed in the years immediately after the publication of these laws that prohibit drunk driving. These improvements towards the control of drunk driving show a change in the Brazilian population’s lifestyle.

  2. Poor weight control, alcoholic beverage consumption and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers: A preliminary pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Luca Rosso; Cristina Montomoli; Stefano M. Candura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, alcoholic beverage consumption, unhealthy alcohol use and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers. In addition to prevalence rates, this study also aimed at investigating potential predictors for sudden-onset sleepiness and obesity. Material and Methods: A sample of truck drivers was extracted from the database of the High Risk Professional Driver Study. Data concerning demographics, anthropome...

  3. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  4. Consumo de bebidas para una vida saludable: recomendaciones para la población mexicana Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rivera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El secretario de Salud convocó al Comité de Expertos para la elaboración de las "Recomendaciones sobre el consumo de bebidas para la población mexicana"; la finalidad fue desarrollar lineamientos basados en evidencia científica para los consumidores, los profesionales de la salud y el sector gubernamental. Las prevalencias de sobrepeso, obesidad y diabetes han aumentado con rapidez en México y las bebidas representan la quinta parte de la energía que consumen los mexicanos. La evidencia señala que las bebidas con aporte energético incrementan el riesgo de obesidad. Considerando los beneficios y riesgos para la salud y nutrición, así como el patrón de consumo de las bebidas en México, el Comité clasificó las bebidas en seis categorías de acuerdo con su contenido energético, valor nutricio y riesgos a la salud en una escala que clasifica las bebidas de la más (nivel 1 a la menos (nivel 6 saludable. Nivel 1: agua potable; nivel 2: leche baja en grasa (1% y sin grasa y bebidas de soya sin azúcar; nivel 3: café y té sin azúcar; nivel 4: bebidas no calóricas con edulcorantes artificiales; nivel 5: bebidas con alto valor calórico y beneficios a la salud limitados (jugos de fruta, leche entera, licuados de fruta con azúcar o miel, bebidas alcohólicas y bebidas deportivas; y nivel 6: bebidas con azúcar y bajo contenido de nutrimentos (refrescos y otras bebidas con altas cantidades de azúcares agregadas como jugos, aguas frescas, café y té. El Comité recomienda el consumo de agua en primer lugar, seguido de bebidas sin o con bajo aporte energético y leche descremada. Éstas deben tener prioridad sobre las de mayor aporte energético o endulzadas, incluso con edulcorantes artificiales. Se presentan cantidades recomendadas para cada categoría de bebidas y se ilustran patrones de consumo saludable para adultos de ambos sexos.The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican

  5. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Sleep quality and sleep patterns in relation to consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among Thai college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-09-01

    Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on the sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1 %. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0 %). Stimulant use (odds ratios (OR) 1.50; 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.02-1.98) also had a statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health.

  7. Food photographs in nutritional surveillance: errors in portion size estimation using drawings of bread and photographs of margarine and beverages consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; De Maeyer, Mieke; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2011-04-01

    Food photographs are widely used as instruments to estimate portion sizes of consumed foods. Several food atlases are available, all developed to be used in a specific context and for a given study population. Frequently, food photographs are adopted for use in other studies with a different context or another study population. In the present study, errors in portion size estimation of bread, margarine on bread and beverages by two-dimensional models used in the context of a Belgian food consumption survey are investigated. A sample of 111 men and women (age 45-65 years) were invited for breakfast; two test groups were created. One group was asked to estimate portion sizes of consumed foods using photographs 1-2 d after consumption, and a second group was asked the same after 4 d. Also, real-time assessment of portion sizes using photographs was performed. At the group level, large overestimation of margarine, acceptable underestimation of bread and only small estimation errors for beverages were found. Women tended to have smaller estimation errors for bread and margarine compared with men, while the opposite was found for beverages. Surprisingly, no major difference in estimation error was found after 4 d compared with 1-2 d. Individual estimation errors were large for all foods. The results from the present study suggest that the use of food photographs for portion size estimation of bread and beverages is acceptable for use in nutrition surveys. For photographs of margarine on bread, further validation using smaller amounts corresponding to actual consumption is recommended.

  8. Added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, dietary carbohydrate index and depression risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Zazpe, Itziar; Santiago, Susana; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    The association between added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of depression, as well as the role of carbohydrate quality in depression risk, remains unclear. Among 15 546 Spanish university graduates from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective cohort study, diet was assessed with a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. Cumulative average consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and an overall carbohydrate quality index (CQI) were calculated. A better CQI was associated with higher whole-grain consumption and fibre intake and lower glycaemic index and consumption of solid (instead of liquid) carbohydrates. Clinical diagnoses of depression during follow-up were classified as incident cases. Multivariable time-dependent Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and CQI. We observed 769 incident cases of depression. Participants in the highest quartile of added sugars consumption showed a significant increment in the risk of depression (HR=1·35; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·67, P=0·034), whereas those in the highest quartile of CQI (upper quartile of the CQI) showed a relative risk reduction of 30 % compared with those in the lowest quartile of the CQI (HR=0·70; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·88). No significant association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and depression risk was found. Higher added sugars and lower quality of carbohydrate consumption were associated with depression risk in the SUN Cohort. Further studies are necessary to confirm the reported results.

  9. Controlled cohort evaluation of the LiveLighter mass media campaign’s impact on adults’ reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda C; Niven, Philippa H; Dixon, Helen G; Swanson, Maurice G; McAleese, Alison B; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the LiveLighter ‘Sugary Drinks’ campaign impact on awareness, knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Design Cohort study with population surveys undertaken in intervention and comparison states at baseline (n=900 each), with 78% retention at follow-up (intervention: n=673; comparison: n=730). Analyses tested interactions by state (intervention, comparison) and time (baseline, follow-up). Setting and participants Adults aged 25–49 years residing in the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. Intervention The 6-week mass media campaign ran in Victoria in October/November 2015. It focused on the contribution of SSBs to the development of visceral ‘toxic fat’, graphically depicted around vital organs, and ultimately serious disease. Paid television advertising was complemented by radio, cinema, online and social media advertising, and stakeholder and community engagement. Primary outcome measure Self-reported consumption of SSBs, artificially sweetened drinks and water. Secondary outcome measures Campaign recall and recognition; knowledge of the health effects of overweight and SSB consumption; perceived impact of SSB consumption on body weight and of reduced consumption on health. Results A significant reduction in frequent SSB consumption was observed in the intervention state (intervention: 31% compared with 22%, comparison: 30% compared with 29%; interaction pconsumers. This group also showed increased knowledge of the health effects of SSB consumption (intervention: 60% compared with 71%, comparison: 63% compared with 59%; interaction padvertising promoting increased SSB consumption. PMID:29695387

  10. Analyzing the effect of selected control policy measures and sociodemographic factors on alcoholic beverage consumption in Europe within the AMPHORA project: statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Michela; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the methods used to investigate variations in total alcoholic beverage consumption as related to selected control intervention policies and other socioeconomic factors (unplanned factors) within 12 European countries involved in the AMPHORA project. The analysis presented several critical points: presence of missing values, strong correlation among the unplanned factors, long-term waves or trends in both the time series of alcohol consumption and the time series of the main explanatory variables. These difficulties were addressed by implementing a multiple imputation procedure for filling in missing values, then specifying for each country a multiple regression model which accounted for time trend, policy measures and a limited set of unplanned factors, selected in advance on the basis of sociological and statistical considerations are addressed. This approach allowed estimating the "net" effect of the selected control policies on alcohol consumption, but not the association between each unplanned factor and the outcome.

  11. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.A.T.; Higgins, Millicent

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions possible in the United States if (1) obese and overweight conditions were eliminated from the adult population through the use of walking or biking for transportation, and (2) individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 adopted previously recommended levels of daily exercise by walking or biking instead of driving. Substantial co-benefits accompany widespread adoption of physical activity. Assuming substitution of cycling for driving, the reduction in gasoline demand is equivalent to 34.9% of current domestic oil consumption. This constitutes considerably more oil than is recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The concomitant reduction in US carbon dioxide emissions would constitute approximately 10.9% relative to 1990 net US emissions and would be a substantial step toward satisfying the Kyoto Protocol

  12. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Higgins, M. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions possible in the United States if (1) obese and overweight conditions were eliminated from the adult population through the use of walking or biking for transportation, and (2) individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 adopted previously recommended levels of daily exercise by walking or biking instead of driving. Substantial co-benefits accompany widespread adoption of physical activity. Assuming substitution of cycling for driving, the reduction in gasoline demand is equivalent to 34.9% of current domestic oil consumption. This constitutes considerably more oil than is recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The concomitant reduction in US carbon dioxide emissions would constitute approximately 10.9% relative to 1990 net US emissions and would be a substantial step toward satisfying the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  13. Impact of beverage consumption, age, and site dependency on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements in perimenopausal women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Huan-Chu; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best site for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements based on T -scores, age, and beverage consumption. In this prospective study, 271 women stratified by age (average age: 61.9 years) underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning of their lumbar spine, hips, and forearms. Osteoporosis was defined as a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass based on a reference population of adult women (translated as a T -score ≤ -2.5), as measured by DEXA. Participants were also evaluated regarding alcohol and caffeine consumption by a semiquantitative questionnaire. A significant discrepancy was observed in the classification of osteoporosis at different locations, with hip and forearm showing the best correlation (Pearson's r = 0.627, p consumption. In the group ≤ 50 years of age, lumbar spine and forearm T -scores were only associated with alcohol consumption. In the group over 50 years of age, hip and forearm T -scores were only associated with caffeine consumption. Bone mineral density measurements at the hip and forearm correlated with caffeine consumption in elderly Taiwanese women. This is an important finding since age and caffeine consumption are known risk factors for osteoporosis.

  14. The effects of postexercise consumption of a kefir beverage on performance and recovery during intensive endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K V; Stewart, L K; Forney, L A; Aryana, K J; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Boeneke, C A

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether kefir accentuates the positive health benefits assessed by measures in fitness, body composition, or both, as a measure of cardiovascular disease risk as well as the biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty-seven adult males and females aged 18 to 24 yr were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) endurance training + control beverage, (2) endurance training +kefir beverage,(3) active control + control beverage, or (4) active control + kefir beverage. The exercise groups completed 15 wk of structured endurancetraining while the active control groups maintained their usual exercise routine. Additionally, each group was assigned to either a kefir or a calorie/macronutrient matched placebo beverage that was consumed twice per week. No significant interactions were found among groups with respect to outcome variables with the exception of serum CRP. The endurance training was effective in improving 1.5-mile (2.41 km) times and kefir supplementation may have been a factor in attenuating the increase in CRP that was observed over the course of the intervention period. This preliminary study suggests that kefir may be involved in improving the risk profile for cardiovascular disease as defined by CRP. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (<.05. Kernel-based propensity score matching shows the SSB consumption difference to be 0.158 on the prior day (<.05. This paper strengthens the evidence for the association between SSB availability via school vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  16. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  17. PROP taster status, food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among 6-year-old ethnically diverse children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2017-04-01

    A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  19. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as PAH exposure may pose an oesophageal cancer risk. Consumer education on risks associated with consumption of 'very hot' beverages and policy measures to threshold

  20. Tracking urban carbon footprints from production and consumption perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianyi; Hu, Yuanchao; Cui, Shenghui; Kang, Jiefeng; Ramaswami, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Cities are hotspots of socio-economic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to extend the research range of the urban carbon footprint (CF) to cover emissions embodied in products traded among regions and intra-city sectors. Using Xiamen City as a study case, the total urban-related emissions were evaluated, and the carbon flows among regions and intra-city sectors were tracked. Then five urban CF accountings were evaluated, including purely geographic accounting (PGA), community-wide infrastructure footprint (CIF), and consumption-based footprint (CBF) methods, as well as the newly defined production-based footprint (PBF) and purely production footprint (PPF). Research results show that the total urban-related emissions of Xiamen City in 2010 were 55.2 Mt CO 2 e/y, of which total carbon flow among regions or intra-city sectors accounted for 53.7 Mt CO 2 e/y. Within the total carbon flow, import and export respectively accounted for 59 and 65%, highlighting the importance of emissions embodied in trade. By regional trade balance, North America and Europe were the largest net carbon exported-to regions, and Mainland China and Taiwan the largest net carbon imported-from regions. Among intra-sector carbon flows, manufacturing was the largest emission-consuming sector of the total urban carbon flow, accounting for 77.4, and 98% of carbon export was through industrial products trade. By the PBF, PPF, CIF, PGA and CBF methods, the urban CFs were respectively 53.7 Mt CO 2 e/y, 44.8 Mt CO 2 e/y, 28.4 Mt CO 2 e/y, 23.7 Mt CO 2 e/y, and 19.0 Mt CO 2 e/y, so all of the other four CFs were higher than the CBF. All of these results indicate that urban carbon mitigation must consider the supply chain management of imported goods, the production efficiency within the city, the consumption patterns of urban consumers, and the responsibility of the ultimate consumers outside the city. (letter)

  1. Tracking urban carbon footprints from production and consumption perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyi; Hu, Yuanchao; Cui, Shenghui; Kang, Jiefeng; Ramaswami, Anu

    2015-05-01

    Cities are hotspots of socio-economic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to extend the research range of the urban carbon footprint (CF) to cover emissions embodied in products traded among regions and intra-city sectors. Using Xiamen City as a study case, the total urban-related emissions were evaluated, and the carbon flows among regions and intra-city sectors were tracked. Then five urban CF accountings were evaluated, including purely geographic accounting (PGA), community-wide infrastructure footprint (CIF), and consumption-based footprint (CBF) methods, as well as the newly defined production-based footprint (PBF) and purely production footprint (PPF). Research results show that the total urban-related emissions of Xiamen City in 2010 were 55.2 Mt CO2e/y, of which total carbon flow among regions or intra-city sectors accounted for 53.7 Mt CO2e/y. Within the total carbon flow, import and export respectively accounted for 59 and 65%, highlighting the importance of emissions embodied in trade. By regional trade balance, North America and Europe were the largest net carbon exported-to regions, and Mainland China and Taiwan the largest net carbon imported-from regions. Among intra-sector carbon flows, manufacturing was the largest emission-consuming sector of the total urban carbon flow, accounting for 77.4, and 98% of carbon export was through industrial products trade. By the PBF, PPF, CIF, PGA and CBF methods, the urban CFs were respectively 53.7 Mt CO2e/y, 44.8 Mt CO2e/y, 28.4 Mt CO2e/y, 23.7 Mt CO2e/y, and 19.0 Mt CO2e/y, so all of the other four CFs were higher than the CBF. All of these results indicate that urban carbon mitigation must consider the supply chain management of imported goods, the production efficiency within the city, the consumption patterns of urban consumers, and the responsibility of the ultimate consumers outside the city.

  2. Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: findings from the Healthy Choices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn; Greaney, Mary L; Wang, Monica L; Mezegebu, Solomon; Peterson, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school students in 47 Massachusetts schools participating in Healthy Choices, an obesity prevention program. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association of individual race/ethnicity and daily SSB consumption and the potential mediating effect of the density of food outlets (the number of fast food outlets and convenience stores in a 1500 m buffer area surrounding the school) on this association adjusting for individual and school demographics. More SSB consumption was reported by students of all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to their White peers except Asians. The density of fast food restaurants and convenience stores was not associated with individual SSB consumption (β=0.001, p=0.875) nor did it mediate the association of race/ethnicity and SSB consumption. Racial and ethnic differences in SSB consumption among MA middle school students cannot be fully explained by the location of fast food restaurants and convenience stores. © 2013.

  3. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  4. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  5. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforc...

  6. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods in response to consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sugar and non-nutritive sweetener on regulation of appetite and energy intake remain controversial. Using a behavioral economic choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a sugar-sweetened (S) or a non-nutritive sweetened (NNS) beverage on appetite and the relati...

  7. Improvements in concentration, working memory and sustained attention following consumption of a natural citicoline-caffeine beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Steven E; Werner, Kimberly B; Preston, Brittany F; Baker, Laurie M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the neurocognitive and electrophysiological effects of a citicoline-caffeine-based beverage in 60 healthy adult participants enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of electrical brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuropsychological measures examining attention, concentration and reaction time were administered. Compared to placebo, participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited significantly faster maze learning times and reaction times on a continuous performance test, fewer errors in a go/no-go task and better accuracy on a measure of information processing speed. EEG results examining P450 event-related potentials revealed that participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited higher P450 amplitudes than controls, suggesting an increase in sustained attention. Overall, these findings suggest that the beverage significantly improved sustained attention, cognitive effort and reaction times in healthy adults. Evidence of improved P450 amplitude indicates a general improvement in the ability to accommodate new and relevant information within working memory and overall enhanced brain activation.

  8. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  9. Controlled cohort evaluation of the LiveLighter mass media campaign's impact on adults' reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda C; Niven, Philippa H; Dixon, Helen G; Swanson, Maurice G; McAleese, Alison B; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the LiveLighter 'Sugary Drinks' campaign impact on awareness, knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Cohort study with population surveys undertaken in intervention and comparison states at baseline (n=900 each), with 78% retention at follow-up (intervention: n=673; comparison: n=730). Analyses tested interactions by state (intervention, comparison) and time (baseline, follow-up). Adults aged 25-49 years residing in the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. The 6-week mass media campaign ran in Victoria in October/November 2015. It focused on the contribution of SSBs to the development of visceral 'toxic fat', graphically depicted around vital organs, and ultimately serious disease. Paid television advertising was complemented by radio, cinema, online and social media advertising, and stakeholder and community engagement. Self-reported consumption of SSBs, artificially sweetened drinks and water. Campaign recall and recognition; knowledge of the health effects of overweight and SSB consumption; perceived impact of SSB consumption on body weight and of reduced consumption on health. A significant reduction in frequent SSB consumption was observed in the intervention state (intervention: 31% compared with 22%, comparison: 30% compared with 29%; interaction pinteraction p=0.09) among overweight/obese SSB consumers. This group also showed increased knowledge of the health effects of SSB consumption (intervention: 60% compared with 71%, comparison: 63% compared with 59%; interaction pinteraction p=0.06). The findings provide evidence of reduced SSB consumption among adults in the target age range following the LiveLighter campaign. This is notable in a context where public health campaigns occur against a backdrop of heavy commercial product advertising promoting increased SSB consumption. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial

  10. A Carbon Consumption Comparison of Rural and Urban Lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable consumption has been addressed from different perspectives in numerous studies. Recently, urban structure-related lifestyle issues have gained more emphasis in the research as cities search for effective strategies to reduce their 80% share of the global carbon emissions. However, the prevailing belief often seen is that cities would be more sustainable in nature compared to surrounding suburban and rural areas. This paper will illustrate, by studying four different urban structure related lifestyles in Finland, that the situation might be reversed. Actually, substantially more carbon emissions seem to be caused on a per capita level in cities than in suburban and rural areas. This is mainly due to the higher income level in larger urban centers, but even housing-related emissions seem to favor less urbanized areas. The method of the study is a consumption-based life cycle assessment of carbon emissions. In more detail, a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA model, that is comprehensive in providing a full inventory and can accommodate process data, is utilized.

  11. Balance of emissions and consumptions of carbon dioxide in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, A.; Subiela, V.; Cortes, C.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere increase due to deforestation and anthropogenic emissions. The consumption of this gas in vegetal ecosystems must also be considered to know the net mass of CO 2 that gets into the atmosphere. This article summarizes the methodology, results and conclusions of the carbon dioxide balance in Spain by autonomous communities. The different fossil fuel consumer sectors (Thermal power plants, industry, transport, domestic and agricultural), forest biomass reduction due to fires and wood extractions for firewood are considered as sources. As sinks, natural and reforested forests, and the equivalent sea are noticed. Basically, the article presents a new methodology to estimate carbon dioxide consumption in forest biomass. The average emissions for 1981 to 1990 are presented. A per capita value of 5 t(CO 2 /year is obtained in contrast to the EC average of 8,6 t(CO 2 ) year. The resulting net balance shows that it is only consumed between 20 and 50% of the emitted CO 2 . (Author) 47 refs

  12. Studying the consumption and health outcomes of fiscal interventions (taxes and subsidies) on food and beverages in countries of different income classifications; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, Amaap; Townsend, Nick; Mytton, Oli; Scarborough, Pete; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike

    2015-09-14

    Governments use fiscal interventions (FIs) on food and beverages to encourage healthy food behaviour and positive health outcomes. The objective of this review was to study the behavioural and health outcomes of implemented food and beverage FIs in the form of taxes and subsidies in countries of different income classifications. The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane protocols. The search was carried out on academic and grey literature in English, for studies conducted in different countries on implemented FIs on food and non-alcoholic beverages and health outcomes, with a special focus on the income of those countries. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and 14 were from peer- reviewed journals. Thirteen studies came from high-income (HI) countries, four from upper middle-income (UMI) countries and only one came from a lower middle-income (LMI) country. There were no studies from lower-income (LI) countries. Of these 18 studies; nine focused on taxes, all of which were from HI countries. Evidence suggests that FIs on foods can influence consumption of taxed and subsidized foods and consequently have the potential to improve health. Although this review supports previous findings that FIs can have an impact on healthy food consumption, it also highlights the lack of evidence available from UMI, LMI and LI countries on such interventions. Therefore, evidence from HI countries may not be directly applicable to middle-income and LI countries. Similar research conducted in middle and low income countries will be beneficial in advocating policy makers on the effectiveness of FIs in countering the growing issues of non-communicable diseases in these countries.

  13. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  14. Do You Know What Your Kids Are Drinking? Evaluation of a Media Campaign to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Hennessy, Michael; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market. Philadelphia parents/primary caregivers with a child between the ages of 3 and 16. Linear regression analysis shows that exposure to the TV PSA was significantly associated with intention to substitute nonsugary drinks for SSBs for the parent ( P = .04) and the child ( P = .02). The effect of exposure on intention to reduce child's SSB consumption increased the longer the campaign was in the field. Exposure was also significantly associated with the belief that reducing SSB consumption decreases the risk of diabetes ( P = .04) and was significantly negatively related to the belief that reducing SSB consumption would make mealtimes less enjoyable ( P = .04). These findings suggest that a theory-based mass media campaign can achieve positive changes in intention related to SSB consumption by changing relevant and salient underlying beliefs.

  15. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    2016-01-01

    A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. The most frequent neutral motives reported for AMED consumption included "I like the taste" (66.5%), and "to celebrate a special occasion" (35.2%). 52.6% of AMED consumers reported consuming AMED for at least one of five negative motives, primarily "to get drunk" (45.6%). Despite these negative motives those students reported consuming significantly less alcohol and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions compared to alcohol-only (AO) occasions. Although the motives for consuming AMED and AMOB were comparable, more participants reported consuming AMED "to celebrate a special occasion", "to get drunk", because they "received the drink from someone else" or "because others drink it as well". However, significantly more students reported consuming AMOB than AMED because "It feels like I can drink more alcohol". Alcohol consumption was significantly less on AMED occasions compared to AMOB occasions, and both occasions significantly less than AO occasions. The majority of reasons for consuming AMED relate to neutral motives. Although 52.6% of students reported one or more negative motives for AMED consumption (predominantly "to get drunk") this had no differential effect on total alcohol consumption. The differences in motives suggest AMED is consumed more to enjoy special occasions and as a group-bonding experience, however alcohol consumption is significantly lower on such occasions in comparison to when AMOB or AO are consumed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  17. Design and methods for a community-based intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth: H2GO! study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents. Methods Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent–child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9–12 years and their parents will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition with 54 parent–child pairs (N = 108 enrolled per site (N = 216 total. The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children’s anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With

  18. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4-13 years in France: analyses of INCA 2 (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006-2007) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    To examine the consumption of plain water among children in France and compare total water intakes with guidelines issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group (4-8 years, 9-13 years), income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. Beverages were classified into nine groups: water (tap or bottled), milk, 100 % fruit juice, sodas, fruit drinks, hot beverages, sports drinks and flavoured waters. Total water volume in relation to energy intake (litres/kcal) was also examined. INCA 2 study (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006-2007). French children (n 835) aged 4-13 years. Total water intakes were accounted for by plain water (34 %), beverages (26 %) and food moisture (40 %). Plain water could be tap (18 %) or bottled (16 %). Older children drank more plain water than did younger children and boys drank more plain water than did girls. No socio-economic gradient for plain water consumption was observed. About 90 % of children did not meet the EFSA water intake recommendations. The daily water shortfall ranged from 367 to 594 ml/d. Water-to-energy ratio was 0·75-0·77 litres/1000 kcal (4184 kJ). Children drank milk at breakfast and plain water during lunch and dinner. Caloric beverages provided 10 % of dietary energy; consumption patterns varied by eating location. Total water intakes among young children in France were below EFSA-recommended levels. Analyses of beverage consumption patterns by eating occasion and location can help identify ways to increase water consumption among children.

  19. Age of first use of energy beverages predicts future maximal consumption among naval pilot and flight officer candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sather

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: A lower age of first energy drink use suggests higher risk of single-occasion heavy episodic consumption in this military population. Researchers should further explore the relationship of early onset energy drink consumption and potential future health risks.

  20. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    2017-08-01

    To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.

  1. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muñoz-Pareja

    Full Text Available Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components.Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders.Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001 and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI -7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05 and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001. Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions.OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  3. Caffeinated-beverage consumption and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and self-perceived academic stress in first and second year students at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Josué L; Betancourt, Jesmari; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Anaisa M; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    To determine the association between caffeinated-beverage consumption, self-perceived academic load, and self-perceived stress levels in first and second year students at UPR-MSC. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire given to a representative stratified sample of 275 students. Questions included information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, academic load and stress indicators, and caffeinated-beverage consumption. Chi2 was used to assess the associations between these variables. Most participants were women (68%), aged 21-30 years (88%), with low annual household incomes (43%). Most perceived their academic loads as being heavy (68%), and most perceived their academic stress levels as being moderate (37%). Academic load was significantly correlated with stress level (pstress, and many (49%) reported that these beverages were useful for coping with stress. Energy drinks, in particular, were consumed more often by men compared to women (pstress or load. Consuming caffeinated beverages is a popular practice among participants in this sample, with soft drinks and coffee being the ones that are the most frequently consumed. No associations were found between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and academic stress or load.

  4. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

  5. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Peschek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97 between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s. No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK levels (p = 0.31, or muscle soreness (p = 0.21 between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  6. Development and Evaluation of the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Media Literacy (SSB-ML) Scale and Its Relationship With SSB Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yvonnes; Porter, Kathleen J.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Zoellner, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how adults’ media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of marketing messages and thus improve their healthy beverage choices. However, a media literacy scale focusing on SSBs is lacking. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from a large randomized controlled trial to (a) describe the psychometric properties of an SSB Media Literacy Scale (SSB-ML) scale and its subdomains, (b) examine how the scale varies across demographic variables, and (c) explain the scale’s concurrent validity to predict SSB consumption. Results from 293 adults in rural southwestern Virginia (81.6% female, 94.0% White, 54.1% receiving SNAP and/or WIC benefits, average 410 SSB kcal daily) show that overall SSB-ML scale and its subdomains have strong internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.65 to 0.83). The Representation & Reality domain significantly predicted SSB kilocalories, after controlling for demographic variables. This study has implications for the assessment and inclusion of context-specific media literacy skills in behavioral interventions. PMID:27690635

  7. Development and Evaluation of the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Media Literacy (SSB-ML) Scale and Its Relationship With SSB Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yvonnes; Porter, Kathleen J; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how adults' media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of marketing messages and thus improve their healthy beverage choices. However, a media literacy scale focusing on SSBs is lacking. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from a large randomized controlled trial to (a) describe the psychometric properties of an SSB Media Literacy Scale (SSB-ML) scale and its subdomains, (b) examine how the scale varies across demographic variables, and (c) explain the scale's concurrent validity to predict SSB consumption. Results from 293 adults in rural southwestern Virginia (81.6% female, 94.0% White, 54.1% receiving SNAP and/or WIC benefits, average 410 SSB kcal daily) show that overall SSB-ML scale and its subdomains have strong internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.65 to 0.83). The Representation & Reality domain significantly predicted SSB kilocalories, after controlling for demographic variables. This study has implications for the assessment and inclusion of context-specific media literacy skills in behavioral interventions.

  8. Tipping the balance: use of advergames to promote consumption of nutritious foods and beverages by low-income African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, Tiffany A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2009-07-01

    To examine how advergames, which are online computer games developed to market a product, affect consumption of healthier and less healthy snacks by low-income African American children. Cross-sectional, between-subjects examination of an advergame in which children were rewarded for having their computer character consume healthier or less healthy foods and beverages. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 conditions: (1) the healthier advergame condition, (2) the less healthy advergame condition, or (3) the control condition. Urban public elementary schools. Thirty low-income, African American children aged 9 to 10 years. Main Exposure Children in the treatment conditions played a less healthy or a healthier version of an advergame 2 times before choosing and eating a snack and completing the experimental measures. Children in the control group chose and ate a snack before playing the game and completing the measures. The number of healthier snack items children selected and ate and how much children liked the game. Children who played the healthier version of the advergame selected and ate significantly more healthy snacks than did those who played the less healthy version. Children reported liking the advergame. Findings suggest that concerns about online advergames that market unhealthy foods are justified. However, advergames may also be used to promote healthier foods and beverages. This kind of social marketing approach could tip the scales toward the selection of higher-quality snacks, thereby helping to curb the obesity epidemic.

  9. Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.

  10. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, M; Nakamura, K; Miura, K; Takamura, T; Yoshita, K; Nagasawa, S Y; Morikawa, Y; Ishizaki, M; Kido, T; Naruse, Y; Suwazono, Y; Sasaki, S; Nakagawa, H

    2014-02-01

    This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors. During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62-1.78) and 1.70 (1.13-2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.

  12. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trendassociated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  13. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Dragos C; Hollands, Gareth J; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    "Nudging"-modifying environments to change people's behavior, often without their conscious awareness-can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown. We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA) received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a) via conscious processes; (b) via non-conscious processes; or (c) no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items. Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples. In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less acceptable than education. Contrary to prediction, we

  14. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhathlan, Khalid; Javid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship among economic growth, carbon emissions and energy consumption at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. For the aggregate energy consumption model, we use total energy consumption per capita and CO 2 emissions per capita based on the total energy consumption. For the disaggregate analysis, we used oil, gas and electricity consumption models along with their respective CO 2 emissions. The long-term income elasticities of carbon emissions in three of the four models are positive and higher than their estimated short-term income elasticities. These results suggest that carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income which supports the belief that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between per capita carbon emissions and per capita income for the aggregate model and for the oil and electricity consumption models. The long- and short-term income elasticities of carbon emissions are negative for the gas consumption model. This result indicates that if the Saudi Arabian economy switched from oil to gas consumption, then an increase in per capita income would reduce carbon emissions. The results also suggest that electricity is less polluting than other sources of energy. - Highlights: • Carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income in Saudi Arabia. • The income elasticity of CO 2 is negative for the gas consumption model. • The income elasticity of CO 2 is positive for the oil consumption model. • The results suggest that electricity is less polluting than oil and gas

  15. The CPP-ACP relieved enamel erosion from a carbonated soft beverage: an in vitro AFM and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C P; Huang, S B; Liu, Y; Li, J Y; Yu, H Y

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the CPP-ACP's effect on enamel against carbonated beverage erosion and explore the potential mechanism. A total of 30 enamel samples were prepared from sound bovine incisors, divided into 3 groups. Samples in the control group were kept in artificial saliva. Specimens' surfaces were smeared with a CPP-ACP agent (Tooth Mousse, TM) for 3 min, rinsed with distilled water for 10s, merged into cola (Coca Cola, CC) for 4 intervals of 2 min, rinsed again for the TM+CC group. In the CC group, specimens were treated solely with cola for 4 intervals (2 min each). The cycles were applied at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 h. The surface microhardness (SMH) alterations were measured using a microhardness tester, the surface profiles were analyzed using the atomic force microscope, and the surface crystalline amount (I%) and crystallinity (FWHM) were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. The SMH were significantly decreased in CC group, showing the largest SMH alteration; the reduction of SMH in TM+CC group was lower than that in CC group, still larger than control. After cycles, the TM+CC group showed rougher surfaces than control, while the CC group had the roughest surfaces. The TM+CC had an I% higher than the CC, and lower than the control. The TM+CC group had a FWHM lower than CC, higher than control. CPP-ACP was able to relieve the erosion on enamel from carbonated beverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

  18. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risks of Obesity and Hypertension in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Huan Gui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and its association with obesity and hypertension in a national sample of children and adolescents in China, where many low- and middle-income families live. Data were obtained from a 2014 national intervention program against obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Information of SSB consumption, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, screen time, and physical activity were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of SSB consumption with obesity and hypertension. A total of 66.6% of the 53,151 participants reported consuming SSB. The per capita and per consumer SSB intake were 2.84 ± 5.26 servings/week and 4.26 ± 5.96 servings/week, respectively. Boys, older children, and adolescents, and individuals with long screen time or high physical activity or low parental education level were more likely to consume SSB. Participants who were high SSB consumers had a higher odds ratio (1.133, 95% CI: 1.054–1.217 than non-consumers for having abdominal obesity after adjustment for age, sex, residence, socioeconomic status, diet, screen time, and physical activity. However, SSB consumption was not associated with general obesity or hypertension in children and adolescents. In conclusion, more than half of the children and adolescents in China consumed SSB, which was independently related to a high risk of abdominal obesity. The results of this study indicated that SSB reduction strategies and policies may be useful in preventing obesity among Chinese children and adolescents.

  20. Poor weight control, alcoholic beverage consumption and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers: A preliminary pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Rosso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, alcoholic beverage consumption, unhealthy alcohol use and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers. In addition to prevalence rates, this study also aimed at investigating potential predictors for sudden-onset sleepiness and obesity. Material and Methods: A sample of truck drivers was extracted from the database of the High Risk Professional Driver Study. Data concerning demographics, anthropometry, medical information and working conditions were collected using anonymous questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of the reported body mass index (BMI, alcohol consumption and sudden sleep onset with working conditions and general lifestyle factors. Results: Three hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were collected. According to their BMI, 45% of the participants were overweight and 21.4% of them were obese. Twenty-four point two percent declared they drank alcoholic beverages during working hours or work breaks and 21.3% of the drivers had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identyfication Test Consumption (AUDIT C score ≥ 5 (the threshold value for unhealthy alcohol use. Forty-one point six percent of the interviewees experienced one episode of sudden sleep onset at the wheel per month (5.5% per week and 0.9% daily. Predictive factors for obesity were: length of service (odds ratio (OR = 1.09, confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p 55 years old (OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 1.29–21.1, p = 0.020, driving more than 50 000 km per year (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.37–6.11, p = 0.006 and the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ score > 11 (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.22–7.21, p = 0.016. Conclusions: This study strongly emphasizes the need for intervention in order to reduce and prevent important risk factors for the sake of road safety and truck drivers’ health.

  1. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  2. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  3. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  4. Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves diet quality in Lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality.To simulate the effects of replacing SSBs with tap water on diet quality and total energy intake of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD adults.Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional dietary intake data using a representative sample of LMD adults (n=1,689. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 scores that were computed using the population ratio method. The effects of substituting SSBs with water on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with tap water's profile.Simulating the replacement of SSBs with tap water at 25, 50, and 100% levels resulted in 1-, 2.3-, and 3.8-point increases, respectively, in the HEI-2005 total score. Based on a mean daily intake of 2,011 kcal, 100% substitution of SSBs with tap water would result in 11% reduction in energy intake.Replacing SSBs with water could substantially improve the diet quality of the LMD adult population and potentially lead to significant weight loss overtime. Prioritizing intervention efforts to focus on the replacement of SSBs with energy-free drinks may be the most efficacious approach for conveying potentially substantial health benefits in this and similar disadvantaged populations.

  5. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  6. Gender Differences in the relationship between carbonated sugar-sweetened beverage intake and the likelihood of hypertension according to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong Ji; Paek, Yu Jin; Choi, Min Kyu; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between hypertension and carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) intake according to gender and obesity. The study used data from 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 9869 subjects (men = 3845 and women = 6024) were included. SSB intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for hypertension were assessed using survey logistic regression and multivariable adjusted models. A total of 14.5 % of individuals were classified as having hypertension. The likelihood of hypertension in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles for SSB intake increased to OR 1.00, 1.20 and 1.42 respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Compared to the participants in the lowest tertile for SSB intake, participants in the third tertile showed an increased likelihood of hypertension with ORs (CI) of 2.00 (1.21-3.31) and 1.75 (1.23-2.49) for obese women and non-obese men, respectively. The present study showed gender differences in the relationship between carbonated SSB intake and the hypertension according to obesity.

  7. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaki, Katerina; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jiménez-Pavón, David; De Henauw, Stefaan; González-Gross, Marcela; Sjöstrom, Michael; Gottrand, Frédéric; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Kafatos, Anthony; Gilbert, Chantal; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of selected food groups and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present research is a large multicentre European study in adolescents, the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study). Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Several anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Dietary assessment was conducted by using a short FFQ. The participants were a subset of the original sample (n 546) with complete data on glucose, insulin and FFQ. All participants were recruited at schools. Median (25th, 75th percentile) HOMA-IR was 0.62 (0.44, 0.87). Mean HOMA-IR was significantly higher among adolescents consuming brown bread ≤1 time/week than among those consuming 2-6 times/week (P = 0·011). Mean values of HOMA-IR were also higher in adolescents consuming SSB >5 times/week compared with those consuming less frequently, although a statistically significant difference was detected between those consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and 2-4 times/week (P = 0.049). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the frequency of SSB consumption was significantly associated with HOMA-IR after controlling for potential confounders. In particular, it was found that HOMA-IR levels were higher among adolescents consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and ≥1 time/d compared with those consuming ≤1 time/week by 0.281 and 0.191 units, respectively (P = 0.009 and 0.046, respectively). The present study revealed that daily consumption of SSB was related with increased HOMA-IR in adolescents.

  8. Factors associated with daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adult patients at four federally qualified health centers, Bronx, New York, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal, Ross B; Blank, Arthur E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-08

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities.

  9. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Dragos C.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “Nudging”—modifying environments to change people’s behavior, often without their conscious awareness—can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown. Methods We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA) received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a) via conscious processes; (b) via non-conscious processes; or (c) no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items. Results Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples. Conclusion In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less

  10. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos C Petrescu

    Full Text Available "Nudging"-modifying environments to change people's behavior, often without their conscious awareness-can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown.We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA, of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a via conscious processes; (b via non-conscious processes; or (c no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items.Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples.In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less acceptable than education. Contrary to

  11. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  12. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m 2 ) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all

  13. Application of an Activated Carbon-Based Support for Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Followed by Spectrophotometric Determination of Tartrazine in Commercial Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez, Jos? A.; Escamilla-Lara, Karen A.; Guevara-Lara, Alfredo; Miranda, Jose M.; P?ez-Hern?ndez, Ma. Elena

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for magnetic solid phase extraction of tartrazine from nonalcoholic beverages. The method involves the extraction and clean-up by activated carbon covered with magnetite dispersed in the sample, followed by the magnetic isolation and desorption of the analyte by basified methanol. The tartrazine eluted from the magnetic support was determined by spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 3 to 30?mg?L?1, with a limit...

  14. Students' Attitudes to Paper Consumption in relation to Carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubanga Kapuka, Riverine Zambia Limited; Overson Shumba, School of ... Keywords: Climate change, paper consumption, education for sustainable ..... International Conference on Future Computational Technologies, Singapore. Buis, A.

  15. Nativity is associated with sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food meal consumption among mexican-origin women in Texas border colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Cassandra M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trends of increasing obesity are especially pronounced among Mexican-origin women. There is little understanding of dietary patterns among U.S.- and Mexico-born Mexican-origin individuals residing in new-destination immigrant communities in the United States, especially behaviors related to obesity, such as consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and fast-food meals (FFM. Methods The study used survey data of 599 adult Mexican-origin women from the 610 women who completed the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA, which was completed in person by trained promotora-researchers in 44 colonias near the Texas border towns of Progreso and La Feria. Data included demographic characteristics (age, education, nativity or country of birth, household income, household composition, and employment status, access to transportation, self-reported height and weight, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and consumption of SSB and FFM. Descriptive statistics were calculated by nativity (U.S.-born vs. Mexico-born; multivariable linear regression models were estimated for correlates of consumption of SSB and FFM. Results There are three major findings related to nativity. First, U.S.-born women consumed more SSB and FFM than Mexican-born counterparts in the same areas of colonias. Second, in the combined sample and controlling for other population characteristics, being born in Mexico was independently associated with FFM (fewer FFM, but not with SSB. Third, in analyses stratified by nativity, FFM and SSB were associated with each other among both nativity groups. Among Mexico-born women only, age, presence of a child, or being a lone parent was significantly associated with SSB; full-time employment, being a lone parent, and SSB consumption were each independently associated with increased frequency of FFM. Conclusions Our analyses revealed differences in prevalence and correlates of SSB

  16. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-01-21

    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  17. Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Jackson, Matthew J; Squillace, Cesare; Shepherd, Anthony; Moore, Jonathan P; Ayer, Donald E; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-01

    Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures. Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes. SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (-0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05). Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.

  18. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  19. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  20. Fast microextraction of phthalate acid esters from beverage, environmental water and perfume samples by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-02-15

    In this work, magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by mixing the magnetic particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed solutions. Due to their excellent adsorption capability towards hydrophobic compounds, the magnetic CNTs were used as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to extract phthalate acid esters (PAEs), which are widely used in many consumable products with potential carcinogenic properties. By coupling MSPE with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for the analysis of PAEs was established. Our results showed that the limits of detection (LODs) of 16 PAEs ranged from 4.9 to 38 ng L(-1), which are much lower compared to the previously reported methods. And good linearities of the detection method were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) between 0.9821 and 0.9993. In addition, a satisfying reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 11.7% and 14.6%, respectively. Finally, the established MSPE-GC/MS method was successfully applied to the determination of PAEs from bottled beverages, tap water and perfume samples. The recoveries of the 16 PAEs from the real samples ranged from 64.6% to 125.6% with the RSDs less than 16.5%. Taken together, the MSPE-GC/MS method developed in current study provides a new option for the detection of PAEs from real samples with complex matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Increase of Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasana, Hadi; Putri, Annisa Eka

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, the increase of energy consumption that has multiplied carbondioxide emissions becomes world problems, especially in the developing countries undergoing industrialization to be developed ones like Indonesia. This aim of this study was to analyze the effect of fossil energy consumption, population growth, and consumption of renewable energy on carbon dioxide emission. The method used was multiple linear regression analysis with Ordinary Least Square approach using time series in the period of 1990 - 2014. The result showed that fossil energy consumption and population growth have a positive influence on carbon dioxide emission in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the consumption variable of renewable energy has a negative effect on the level of carbon dioxide emissions produced.

  2. Rehydration beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.

  3. Decree No 73-138 of 12 February 1973 in implementation of the Act of 1 August 1905 on repression of fraud concerning chemical products in human foodstuffs and articles in contact with food and beverages for human and animal consumption, as well as processes and products used for cleaning such articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    For purposes of health protection, this Decree prescribes detailed conditions governing trade in foods and beverages containing chemical products for human and animal consumption, including irradiated food. (NEA) [fr

  4. Influence of fire frequency on carbon consumption in Alaskan blackspruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures and drier conditions within the boreal forests of Alaska have resulted in increases in burned area and fire frequency, which alter carbon storage and emissions. In particular, analyses of satellite remote sensing data showed that >20% of the area impacted by fires in interior Alaska occurred in areas that had previously burned since 1950 (e.g., short to intermediate interval fires). Field studies showed that in immature black spruce forests ~ 35 to 55 years old organic layers experienced deep burning regardless of topographic position or seasonality of burning, factors that control depth of burning in mature black spruce forests. Here, refinements were made to a carbon consumption model to account for variations in fuel loads and fraction of carbon consumed associated with fire frequency based on quantifying burned area in recently burned sites using satellite imagery. An immature black spruce (Picea mariana) fuel type (including stands of ~0-50 years) was developed which contains new ground-layer carbon consumption values in order to more accurately account for differences between various age classes of black spruce forest. Both versions of the model were used to assess carbon consumption during 100 fire events (over 4.4 x 10^6 ha of burned area) from two recent ultra-large fire years (2004 and 2005). Using the improved model to better attribute fuel type and consumption resulted in higher ground-layer carbon consumption (4.9% in 2004 and 6.8% in 2005) than previously estimated. These adjustments in ground-layer burning resulted in total carbon consumption within 2004 and 2005 of 63.5 and 42.0 Tg of carbon, respectively. Results from this research could be incorporated into larger scale modeling efforts to better assess changes in the climate-fire-vegetation dynamics in interior Alaskan boreal forests, and to understand the impacts of these changes on carbon consumption and emissions.

  5. The Impact of Energy Consumption and Productivity Growth on Carbon Emissions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ishmael Ackah

    2014-01-01

    The environment plays two vital roles for mankind. It provides food and raw materials for production and consumption and also accepts the wastes generated through man’s activities and renders them harmless. This calls for sustainable environmental management. This study examines the impact of productivity growth, forest depletion, renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption on carbon emissions in Ghana. The findings suggest that productivity growth is the most important ...

  6. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Saes Sartorelli, Daniela; Lajous, Martin; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2013-03-01

    It has been extensively shown, mainly in US populations, that sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but less is known about the effects of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). We evaluated the association between self-reported SSB, ASB, and 100% fruit juice consumption and T2D risk over 14 y of follow-up in the French prospective Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 66,118 women were followed from 1993, and 1369 incident cases of T2D were diagnosed during the follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for T2D risk. The average consumption of sweetened beverages in consumers was 328 and 568 mL/wk for SSBs and ASBs, respectively. Compared with nonconsumers, women in the highest quartiles of SSB and ASB consumers were at increased risk of T2D with HRs (95% CIs) of 1.34 (1.05, 1.71) and 2.21 (1.56, 3.14) for women who consumed >359 and >603 mL/wk of SSBs and ASBs, respectively. Strong positive trends in T2D risk were also observed across quartiles of consumption for both types of beverage (P = 0.0088 and P < 0.0001, respectively). In sensitivity analyses, associations were partly mediated by BMI, although there was still a strong significant independent effect. No association was observed for 100% fruit juice consumption. Both SSB consumption and ASB consumption were associated with increased T2D risk. We cannot rule out that factors other than ASB consumption that we did not control for are responsible for the association with diabetes, and randomized trials are required to prove a causal link between ASB consumption and T2D.

  7. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO 2 emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  8. SVR-based prediction of carbon emissions from energy consumption in Henan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the advantage of support vector regression (SVR) in the prediction of carbon emission and establishes the SVR-based carbon emission prediction model. The model is established using the data of Henan’s carbon emissions and influence factors from the 1991 to 2016 to train and test and then predict the carbon emissions from 2017 to 2021. The results show that: from the perspective of carbon emission from energy consumption, it raised 224.876 million tons of carbon dioxide from 1991 to 2016, and the predicted increment from 2017 to 2021 is 30.5563million tons with an average annual growth rate at 3%. From the perspective of growth rate among the six factors related to carbon emissions it is proved that population urbanization rate per capital GDP and energy consumption per unit of GDP influences the growth rate of carbon emissions less than the proportion of secondary industry and coal consumption ratio of carbon. Finally some suggestions are proposed for the carbon emission reduction of Henan Province.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO 2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO 2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  10. Carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis of the Indian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zhao, Yuhuan; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Bano, Sadia; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Song; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the long and short run relationships among carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in India at the aggregated and disaggregated levels during 1971–2014. The autoregressive distributed lag model is employed for the cointegration analyses and the vector error correction model is applied to determine the direction of causality between variables. Results show that a long run cointegration relationship exists and that the environmental Kuznets curve is validated at the aggregated and disaggregated levels. Furthermore, energy (total energy, gas, oil, electricity and coal) consumption has a positive relationship with carbon emissions and a feedback effect exists between economic growth and carbon emissions. Thus, energy-efficient technologies should be used in domestic production to mitigate carbon emissions at the aggregated and disaggregated levels. The present study provides policy makers with new directions in drafting comprehensive policies with lasting impacts on the economy, energy consumption and environment towards sustainable development. - Highlights: •Relationships among carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth are investigated. •The EKC exists at aggregated and disaggregated levels for India. •All energy resources have positive effects on carbon emissions. •Gas energy consumption is less polluting than other energy sources in India.

  11. Carbon emission, energy consumption and intermediate goods trade: A regional study of East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Using country level panel data from East Asia over the period 1998–2011, this paper examines the implications of international production fragmentation-induced intermediate goods trade on the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution. The paper focuses on the interaction effect between energy consumption and trade in intermediate goods on carbon emission. The empirical results presented suggest that international trade in intermediate goods decreases the positive impact on carbon emission of energy consumption. When compared with the trade in final goods, intermediate goods trade contributes to a greater decrease in carbon pollution resulting from energy consumption. These results confirm that the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution in East Asia is significantly affected by international production fragmentation-induced trade in intermediate goods. The results presented in this paper have some important policy implications. - Highlights: • This paper tests the role of intermediates trade in energy-development nexus. • Empirical study is based on data of East Asia. • International trade can reduce the carbon pollution caused by energy use. • Intermediates trade has higher moderating effect than non-intermediate trade.

  12. Children’s sugar-sweetened beverages consumption: associations with family and home-related factors, differences within ethnic groups explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. van de Gaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children’s SSB consumption. We explored associations within ethnic background of the child. Methods Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n = 644 of primary school children (6-13 years completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, family and home-related factors and child’s SSB intake. The family and home-related factors under study were: cognitive variables (e.g. parental attitude, subjective norm, environmental variables (e.g. availability of SSB, parenting practices, and habitual variables (e.g. habit strength, taste preference. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between family and home-related factors and child’s SSB intake (p < 0.05. Results Mean age of the children was 9.4 years (SD: 1.8 and 54.1% were girls. The child’s average SSB intake was 0.9 litres (SD: 0.6 per day. Child’s age, parents’ subjective norm, parenting practices, and parental modelling were positively associated with the child’s SSB intake. The availability of SSB at home and school and parental attitude were negatively associated with the child’s SSB intake. The associations under study differed according to the child’s ethnic background, with the explained variance of the full models ranging from 8.7% for children from Moroccan or Turkish ethnic background to 44.4% for children with Dutch ethnic background. Conclusions Our results provide support for interventions targeting children’s SSB intake focussing on the identified family and home-related factors, with active participation of parents. Also, the relationships between these factors and the child’s SSB intake differed for children with distinct ethnic backgrounds

  13. Development and Evaluation of the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Media Literacy (SSB-ML) Scale and Its Relationship With SSB Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonnes; Porter, Kathleen J.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Zoellner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how adults’ media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of marketing messages and thus improve their healthy beverage choices. However, a media literacy scale focusing on SSBs is lacking. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from a large randomized controlled trial to (a) describe the psychometric properties of an SSB Media Literacy Scale (SSB-ML) ...

  14. Survival of enteric pathogens in common beverages: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, N K; Wisniewski, T R; Franson, T R

    1988-06-01

    This in vitro study was undertaken to determine the potential for survival of enteric pathogens in common drinking beverages. Three carbonated soft drinks, two alcoholic beverages, skim milk, and water were inoculated with Salmonella, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and quantitative counts were performed over 2 days. Our studies showed poorest survival of all three organisms in wine, and greatest growth in milk and water. Beer and cola allowed survival of small numbers of Salmonella and E. coli at 48 h, whereas sour mix and diet cola were sterile by 48 h. Survival features may correlate with pH of the beverages. These observations may be useful in guiding travellers for appropriate beverage consumption while visiting areas endemic for "traveller's diarrhea."

  15. Scenarios Analysis of the Energies’ Consumption and Carbon Emissions in China Based on a Dynamic CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanying Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development trends and variation characteristics of China’s economy, energy consumption and carbon emissions from 2007 to 2030, and the impacts on China’s economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon emissions under the carbon tax policy scenarios, based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model. The results show that during the simulation period, China’s economy will keep a relatively high growth rate, but the growth rate will slow down under the benchmark scenario. The energy consumption intensity and the carbon emissions intensity per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP will continually decrease. The energy consumption structure and industrial structure will gradually optimize. With the economic growth, the total energy consumption will constantly increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions are still large, and the situation of energy-saving and emission-reduction is still serious. The carbon tax is very important for energy-saving and emission-reduction and energy consumption structure optimization, and the effect of the carbon tax on GDP is small. If the carbon tax could be levied and the enterprise income tax could be reduced at the same time, the dual goals of reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions and increasing the GDP growth can be achieved. Improving the technical progress level of clean power while implementing a carbon tax policy is very meaningful to optimize energy consumption structure and reduce the carbon emissions, but it has some offsetting effect to reduce energy consumption.

  16. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. Methods The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. Results The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a ‘red’ (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Conclusions Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. PMID:28186923

  17. The carbon footprint of French people's consumption: evolution from 1990 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, Jean-Louis; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Boitard, Corinne

    2012-03-01

    The carbon footprint calculated by the statistical service of the French ministry in charge of sustainable development represents the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in order to satisfy French consumption, including emissions connected to imports. In 2007, the carbon footprint per capita in France amounted to 12 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per year, compared to 8 tons per person emitted from the French metropolitan territory. From 1990 to 2007, the carbon footprint per capita increased by 5%, whereas the average per capita emissions on the territory decreased by 15%. During this period, emissions connected to imports increased by 64%, reaching almost 50% of the French carbon footprint in 2007. (author)

  18. Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Platania

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants.

  19. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A. (Environmental Sciences Div., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)), e-mail: andresrj@ornl.gov; Gregg, J. S. (Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Losey, L. (Dept. of Space Studies, Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    2011-07-15

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models

  20. Measurement and communication of greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. food consumption via carbon calculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Brent; Neff, Roni

    2009-01-01

    Food consumption may account for upwards of 15% of U.S. per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Online carbon calculators can help consumers prioritize among dietary behaviors to minimize personal 'carbon footprints', leveraging against emissions-intensive industry practices. We reviewed the fitness of selected carbon calculators for measuring and communicating indirect GHG emissions from food consumption. Calculators were evaluated based on the scope of user behaviors accounted for, data sources, transparency of methods, consistency with prior data and effectiveness of communication. We found food consumption was under-represented (25%) among general environmental impact calculators (n = 83). We identified eight carbon calculators that accounted for food consumption and included U.S. users among the target audience. Among these, meat and dairy consumption was appropriately highlighted as the primary diet-related contributor to emissions. Opportunities exist to improve upon these tools, including: expanding the scope of behaviors included under calculations; improving communication, in part by emphasizing the ecological and public health co-benefits of less emissions-intensive diets; and adopting more robust, transparent methodologies, particularly where calculators produce questionable emissions estimates. Further, all calculators could benefit from more comprehensive data on the U.S. food system. These advancements may better equip these tools for effectively guiding audiences toward ecologically responsible dietary choices. (author)

  1. Analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Granel, R.; Vaquer, E.; Escrig, A.; Miralles, A.; Zaera, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic tile manufacturing process is energy intensive since it contains several stages in which the product is subject to thermal treatment. The thermal energy used in the process is usually obtained by combustion of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel whose oxidation produces emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Energy costs account for 15% of the average direct manufacturing costs, and are strongly influenced by the price of natural gas, which has increased significantly in the last few years. Carbon dioxide emissions are internationally monitored and controlled in the frame of the Kyoto Protocol. Applicable Spanish law is based on the European Directive on emissions trading, and the assignment of emissions rights is based on historical values in the sectors involved. Legislation is scheduled to change in 2013, and the resulting changes will directly affect the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing industry, since many facilities will become part of the emissions trading system. The purpose of this study is to determine current thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process. A comprehensive sectoral study has been carried out for this purpose on several levels: the first analyses energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the entire industry; the second determines energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in industrial facilities over a long period of time (several months); while the third level breaks down these values, determining energy consumption and emissions in terms of the product made and the manufacturing stage. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Detection of target staphylococcal enterotoxin B antigen in orange juice and popular carbonated beverages using antibody-dependent antigen-capture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principato, MaryAnn; Njoroge, Joyce M; Perlloni, Andrei; O' Donnell, Michael; Boyle, Thomas; Jones, Robert L

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need for qualitative and quantitative methodologies that provide the rapid and accurate detection of food contaminants in complex food matrices. However, the sensitivity of the assay can be affected when antigen-capture is applied to certain foods or beverages that are extremely acidic. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of orange juice and popular carbonated soft drink upon the fidelity of antibody-based antigen-capture assays and to develop simple approaches that could rescue assay performance without the introduction of additional or extensive extraction procedures. We examined the effects of orange juice and a variety of popular carbonated soft drink beverages upon a quantitative Interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay system and a lateral flow device (LFD) adapted for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in foods. Alterations in the performance and sensitivity of the assay were directly attributable to the food matrix, and alterations in pH were especially critical. The results demonstrate that approaches such as an alteration of pH and the use of milk as a blocking agent, either singly or in combination, will partially rescue ELISA performance. The same approaches permit lateral flow to efficiently detect antigen. Practical Application: The authors present ways to rescue an ELISA assay compromised by acidity in beverages and show that either the alteration of pH, or the use of milk as a blocking agent are not always capable of restoring the assay to its intended efficiency. However, the same methods, when employed with lateral flow technology, are rapid and extremely successful.

  3. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80......% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly...

  4. [Cardiovascular repercussion of lodenafil carbonate, a new PDE5 inhibitor, with and without alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adauto Carvalho; Toffoletto, Odaly; Lucio, Luiz Antonio Galvão; Santos, Paula Ferreira Dos; Afiune, Jorge Barros; Massud Filho, João; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    Millions of men around the world suffer from erectile dysfunction, for which phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5 inhibitors) are currently the first treatment option. Sexual activity and alcohol consumption are closely related, and the simultaneous use of alcohol and PDE-5 inhibitors can happen. Lodenafil carbonate is a new PDE-5 inhibitor, developed by a Brazilian pharmaceutical company. This work aimed at evaluating the cardiovascular safety of lodenafil carbonate, with and without simultaneous alcohol consumption. Fifteen male volunteers received 160 mg lodenafil carbonate (LC), in three different moments. Participants were assigned to three groups, treated with LC in fasting condition, with alcohol or receiving only placebo. The volunteers were continuously monitored during 24 hours for physical impairment, blood pressure, heart rate, QT interval and lodenafil's pharmacokinetic parameters. Lodenafil carbonate alone or with alcohol did not induce clinically relevant modifications in arterial blood pressure or heart rate. A statistically significant decrease in blood pressure was seen four hours after LC and alcohol intake, and an increase in heart rate six hours after intake of lodenafil carbonate alone. The QTc interval was not significantly modified. Lodenafil carbonate bioavailability was increased in 74% when drug intake was associated with alcohol. These results show that the use of lodenafil carbonate did not have clinically relevant effects on blood pressure or heart rate, and was not associated with QT interval prolongation. The association of lodenafil carbonate and alcohol affected its pharmacokinetic properties, increasing the bioavailability of the drug.

  5. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW) becomes a new entrant in the Philippine be...

  6. Carbon emission coefficient of power consumption in India: baseline determination from the demand side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Barnali; Parikh, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Substantial investments are expected in the Indian power sector under the flexibility mechanisms (CDM/JI) laid down in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. In this context it is important to evolve a detailed framework for baseline construction in the power sector so as to incorporate the major factors that would affect the baseline values directly or indirectly. It is also important to establish carbon coefficients from electricity generation to help consider accurate project boundaries for numerous electricity conservation and DSM schemes. The objective of this paper is to provide (i) time series estimates of indirect carbon emissions per unit of power consumption (which can also be thought of as emission coefficient of power consumption) and (ii) baseline emissions for the power sector till 2015. Annual time series data on Indian electricity generating industry, for 1974-1998, has been used to develop emission projections till 2015. The impacts of generation mix, fuel efficiency, transmission and distribution losses and auxiliary consumption are studied in a Divisia decomposition framework and their possible future impacts on baseline emissions are studied through three scenarios of growth in power consumption. The study also estimates and projects the carbon emission coefficient per unit of final consumption of electricity that can be used for conducting cost benefit of emission reduction potential for several electricity conserving technologies and benchmarking policy models

  7. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and retained energy to calculate dietary ME intake by beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d feeding experiment to determine if ME intake can be determined from carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates. Steers were housed in a pen equipped with individual feed bunks and animal access w...

  8. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  9. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  10. Mechanistic understanding of the effect of PPIs and acidic carbonated beverages on the oral absorption of itraconazole based on absorption modeling with appropriate in vitro data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Nikoletta; Klein, Sandra

    2013-11-04

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are potent gastric acid suppressing agents and are among the most widely sold drugs in the world. However, even though these antisecretory agents are regarded as safe, they can alter the pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. Due to the suppression of gastric acid secretion, they can significantly alter the intragastric pH conditions and are thus likely to affect the bioavailability of coadministered drugs requiring an acidic gastric environment for dissolution and subsequent absorption. Among these drugs can be found itraconazole, a poorly soluble triazole-type antifungal compound. Based on observations reported in the literature, gastric pH alterations due to the coadministration of PPIs or acidic beverages can significantly decrease (PPI) or increase (e.g., Coca-Cola) the bioavailability of this compound. In the present work we estimated the fraction of itraconazole that can be absorbed (fabs) from Sporanox capsules or an itraconazole-HBenBCD complex formulation after oral administration with and without coadministration of a PPI or an acidic (carbonated) beverage. For this purpose, the sensitivity of the two formulations toward the impact of various gastric variations (pH, volume, and emptying rate) as they can result from such administration conditions was studied using solubility and dissolution experiments and a physiologically based absorption model. Simulating coadministration of the two formulations with a PPI resulted in a significant (∼ 10-fold) decrease in itraconazole fabs, indicating the pH to be essential for in vivo dissolution and subsequent absorption. The fabs of itraconazole after coadministration of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) was far lower than the fabs obtained for itraconazole alone and did not support the observations reported in the literature. These results clearly indicate that in contrast to PPIs, which seem to affect itraconazole bioavailability mainly via intragastric pH changes, coadministered

  11. Can carbon footprint serve as proxy of the environmental burden from urban consumption patterns?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Karmakar, Subhankar

    2017-01-01

    (covering consumption of materials for the construction of dwellings) and use of energy in terms of thermal energy, and electricity. The results for the individual consumption components showed a strong correlation between CFP and nearly all other impact indicators for all the applied LCIA methods However...... urbanized areas. Applying four different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods environmental impact profiles were determined for the consumption patterns of 1281 Danish urban residents. Six main consumption components were distinguished including road transport, air travel, food, accommodation......Carbon footprint (CFP) is widely applied as an indicator when assessing environmental sustainability of products and services. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the validity of CFP as overall environmental indicator for representing the environmental burden of residents from...

  12. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo, E-mail: jukka.heinonen@aalto.fi, E-mail: riikka.kyro@aalto.fi, E-mail: seppo.junnila@aalto.fi [School of Engineering, Department of Surveying, Aalto University, PO Box 11200, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes

  14. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  15. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Cointegration and dynamic causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir Alam, Mohammad; Ara Begum, Ismat; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the possible existence of dynamic causality between energy consumption, electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Bangladesh. First, we have tested cointegration relationships using the Johansen bi-variate cointegration model. This is complemented with an analysis of an auto-regressive distributed lag model to examine the results' robustness. Then, the Granger short-run, the long-run and strong causality are tested with a vector error correction modelling framework. The results indicate that uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth both in the short and the long-run while a bi-directional long-run causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth but no causal relationship exists in short-run. The strong causality results indicate bi-directional causality for both the cases. A uni-directional causality runs from energy consumption to CO 2 emission for the short-run but feedback causality exists in the long-run. CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run. An important policy implication is that energy (electricity as well) can be considered as an important factor for the economic growth in Bangladesh. Moreover, as higher energy consumption also means higher pollution in the long-run, policy makers should stimulate alternative energy sources for meeting up the increasing energy demand. - Highlights: ► Dynamic causality among energy and electricity consumption, CO 2 and economic growth. ► Uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth. ► Bi-directional causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth. ► Feedback causality exists between CO 2 emission to energy consumption. ► CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run.

  16. In Situ Determination of Bisphenol A in Beverage Using a Molybdenum Selenide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongguang Shi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the endocrine disturbing effects of bisphenol A (BPA on organisms, rapid detection has become one of the most important techniques for monitoring its levels in the aqueous solutions associated with plastics and human beings. In this paper, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with molybdenum selenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe2/rGO was fabricated for in situ determination of bisphenol A in several beverages. The surface area of the electrode dramatically increases due to the existence of ultra-thin nanosheets in a flower-like structure of MoSe2. Adding phosphotungstic acid in the electrolyte can significantly enhance the repeatability (RSD = 0.4% and reproducibility (RSD = 2.2% of the electrode. Under the optimized condition (pH = 6.5, the linear range of BPA was from 0.1 μM–100 μM and the detection limit was 0.015 μM (S/N = 3. When using the as-prepared electrode for analyzing BPA in beverage samples without any pretreatments, the recoveries ranged from 98–107%, and the concentrations were from below the detection limit to 1.7 μM, indicating its potential prospect for routine analysis of BPA.

  17. In Situ Determination of Bisphenol A in Beverage Using a Molybdenum Selenide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Liang, Jing; Zhao, Zongshan; Liu, Yi; Liu, Aifeng

    2018-05-22

    Due to the endocrine disturbing effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on organisms, rapid detection has become one of the most important techniques for monitoring its levels in the aqueous solutions associated with plastics and human beings. In this paper, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molybdenum selenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe₂/rGO) was fabricated for in situ determination of bisphenol A in several beverages. The surface area of the electrode dramatically increases due to the existence of ultra-thin nanosheets in a flower-like structure of MoSe₂. Adding phosphotungstic acid in the electrolyte can significantly enhance the repeatability (RSD = 0.4%) and reproducibility (RSD = 2.2%) of the electrode. Under the optimized condition (pH = 6.5), the linear range of BPA was from 0.1 μM⁻100 μM and the detection limit was 0.015 μM (S/ N = 3). When using the as-prepared electrode for analyzing BPA in beverage samples without any pretreatments, the recoveries ranged from 98⁻107%, and the concentrations were from below the detection limit to 1.7 μM, indicating its potential prospect for routine analysis of BPA.

  18. Influence of price discounts and skill-building strategies on purchase and consumption of healthy food and beverages: outcomes of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Gold, Lisa; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Abbott, Gavin; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David

    2015-05-01

    Fiscal strategies are increasingly considered upstream nutrition promotion measures. However, few trials have investigated the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of pricing manipulations on diet in real-world settings. We assessed the effects on fruit, vegetable, and beverage purchasing and consumption of a 20% price-reduction intervention, a tailored skills-based behavior-change intervention, and a combined intervention compared with a control condition. The Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life trial was a randomized controlled trial conducted over 3 mo [baseline (time 1) to postintervention (time 2) with a 6-mo follow-up (time 3)]. Female primary household shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, were randomly assigned to a 1) skill-building (n = 160), 2) price-reduction (n = 161), 3) combined skill-building and price-reduction (n = 160), or 4) control (n = 161) group. Supermarket transaction data and surveys were used to measure the following study outcomes: fruit, vegetable, and beverage purchases and self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption at each time point. At 3 mo (time 2), price reduction-alone participants purchased more total vegetables and frozen vegetables than did controls. Price reduction-alone and price reduction-plus-skill-building participants purchased more fruit than did controls. Relative to controls, in the price-reduction group, total vegetable consumption increased by 233 g/wk (3.1 servings or 15% more than at baseline), and fruit purchases increased by 364 g/wk (2.4 servings; 35% more than at baseline). Increases were not maintained 6 mo postintervention (time 3). Price reduction-alone participants showed a tendency for a slight increase in fruit consumption at time 2 (P = 0.09) that was maintained at time 3 (P = 0.014). No intervention improved purchases of bottled water or low-calorie beverages. A 20% price reduction in fruit and vegetables resulted in increased purchasing per household of 35% for fruit and 15% for vegetables over the

  19. The implications of China’s investment-driven economy on its energy consumption and carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Feng; Ma, Linwei; Li, Zheng; Polenske, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy implications of China’s investment-driven (ID) economy are analyzed. • An expenditure-approach-based framework is applied to define the ID energy consumption. • An input–output model is built to identify the volume of China’s ID energy consumption. • Insights are gained for determining the saving potentials of China’s ID energy consumption. - Abstract: In this paper, we aim to fill the research gap by analyzing the relationship between China’s domestic investment and energy consumption, as well as related carbon emissions. First, we use an expenditure-approach-based framework to qualitatively examine the effects of China’s domestic investment on its energy consumption. Based on this framework, we define and differentiate the investment-driven energy consumption and carbon emissions from that which is driven by other economic activities. Second, we establish an allocation model to quantify China’s investment-driven energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results reveal that in 2007, China’s domestic investment contributed one third of both its energy consumption and carbon emissions. Further results show that a majority of this investment-driven energy consumption and carbon emissions, namely nine tenths of the total, is attributable to the construction and manufacturing sectors. Finally, we use the construction sector as a case to discuss how to determine the energy-saving and emission-reduction potential of improving investment-driven energy consumption practices

  20. Differences in temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption among lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, N. L.

    2005-01-01

    1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams with or w......1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams...... the exponential increase of oxygen consumption rate between 4 and 20 °C averaged 0.121 °C-1 (Q10 of 3.35) in 70 measurements and showed no significant variations between seasons and stream sites or correlations with ambient temperature and organic content. 5. Oxygen consumption rate was enhanced downstream...... at ambient temperature by 30-40% and 80-130%, respectively. Faster consumption of organic matter and dissolved oxygen downstream of point sources should increase the likelihood of oxygen stress of the stream biota and lead to the export of less organic matter but more mineralised nutrients to the coastal...

  1. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Li, E-mail: lfly2004@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Dong Suocheng; Xue Li [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liang Quanxi [Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Wangzhou [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort. - Research Highlights: {yields} The long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption in China is examined. {yields} GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions is estimated. {yields} Economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and relies on the consumption of the energy more than the west China.

  2. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Li; Dong Suocheng; Xue Li; Liang Quanxi; Yang Wangzhou

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort. - Research Highlights: → The long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption in China is examined. → GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions is estimated. → Economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and relies on the consumption of the energy more than the west China.

  3. Causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission for Malaysia using maximum entropy bootstrap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sehrish; Zou, Xiang; Hassan, Che Hashim; Azam, Muhammad; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.

  4. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  5. Application of an Activated Carbon-Based Support for Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Followed by Spectrophotometric Determination of Tartrazine in Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for magnetic solid phase extraction of tartrazine from nonalcoholic beverages. The method involves the extraction and clean-up by activated carbon covered with magnetite dispersed in the sample, followed by the magnetic isolation and desorption of the analyte by basified methanol. The tartrazine eluted from the magnetic support was determined by spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 3 to 30 mg L−1, with a limit of detection of 1 mg L−1. The method was validated by comparing the results with those obtained by HPLC. A precision of <5.0% was obtained in all cases and no significant differences were observed (P<0.05.

  6. Application of an activated carbon-based support for magnetic solid phase extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination of tartrazine in commercial beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José A; Escamilla-Lara, Karen A; Guevara-Lara, Alfredo; Miranda, Jose M; Páez-Hernández, Ma Elena

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for magnetic solid phase extraction of tartrazine from nonalcoholic beverages. The method involves the extraction and clean-up by activated carbon covered with magnetite dispersed in the sample, followed by the magnetic isolation and desorption of the analyte by basified methanol. The tartrazine eluted from the magnetic support was determined by spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 3 to 30 mg L(-1), with a limit of detection of 1 mg L(-1). The method was validated by comparing the results with those obtained by HPLC. A precision of <5.0% was obtained in all cases and no significant differences were observed (P < 0.05).

  7. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  8. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great. PMID:24977216

  9. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiekun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  10. Prediction model of energy consumption in Jiangsu Province based on constraint condition of carbon emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Z. G.; Xue, T. T.; Chen, Y. J.; Chao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    In order to achieve the targets for energy conservation and economic development goals in Jiangsu Province under the constraint of carbon emission, this paper uses the gray GM (1,1) model to predict and optimize the consumption structure of major energy sources (coal, oil, natural gas, etc.) in Jiangsu province in the "13th Five-Year" period and the next seven years. The predictions meet the requirement of reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP of China by 50%. The results show that the proposed approach and model is effective. Finally, we put forward opinions and suggestions on the way of energy-saving and emission-reduction, the adjustment of energy structure and the policy of coal consumption in Jiangsu Province.

  11. Role of carboxydobacteria in consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz, Germany); Meyer, O.; Seiler, W.

    1981-08-01

    The carbon monoxide consumption rates of the carboxydobacteria Pseudomonas (Seliberia) carboxydohydrogena, P. carboxydovorans, and P. carboxydoflava were measured at high (50%) and low (0.5 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/) mixing ratios of CO in air. CO was only consumed when the bacteria had been grown under CO-autotrophic conditions. At low cell densities the CO comsumption rates measured at low CO mixing ratios were similar in cell suspensions and in mixtures of bacteria in soil. CO consumption observed in natural soil (loess, eolian sand, chernozem) as well as in suspensions or soil mixtures of carboxydobacteria showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Considering the difference of the K/sub m/, values and the observed V/sub max/ values, carboxydobacteria cannot contribute significantly to the consumption of atmospheric CO.

  12. Significados culturalmente construidos para el consumo de bebidas azucaradas entre escolares de la Ciudad de México Culturally constructed meanings for consumption of sweetened beverages among schoolchildren in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Théodore

    2011-10-01

    necesidad de considerarlos también en el diseño de las intervenciones con escolares. Resalta asimismo la necesidad de transformar la concepción actual de los niños con respecto a lo que beben, guiándolos y estimulándolos para que identifiquen el agua como una bebida que se toma a lo largo del día y no exclusivamente después de un esfuerzo físico. Finalmente, es perentorio en México que se garantice el acceso libre al agua potable dentro de las escuelas y se regule la publicidad alimentaria dirigida a los niños.OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the importance of the cultural factors that currently motivate Mexican children to consume sweetened beverages and examine their implications for the design of programs for the promotion of healthy lifestyles. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological study involving nine peer interviews and four discussion groups was conducted among children aged 9 and 10 years in four public schools in southern Mexico City. The interviews employed nine photographs of beverages that are available in schools and homes. The aim was to identify the culinary rules associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and the different views held by the children about the beverages. The complete interviews and group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Matrixes were developed for analysis of the subject categories identified during the study. The analysis was based on "continuous comparison" of the statements made by boys and girls, and among students from the four schools. RESULTS: Two main sociocultural elements, constructed in a given cultural framework, partly explain the children's current consumption patterns. The first, the nearly nonexistent concept that water is for drinking, with water consumption being limited to engagement in physical activity, in contrast to the wide range of circumstances and occasions found for the consumption of a sweetened beverage. Secondly, the identification of three principles that appear to underlie beverage

  13. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Shoukri Mohammed; Al-Rubeaan Khalid; Subhani Shazia N; Zaidi Marya Z; Collison Kate S; Al-Mohanna Futwan A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine th...

  14. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Li; Dong, Suocheng; Xue, Li; Yang, Quanxi [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liang [Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wangzhou

    2011-02-15

    This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort. (author)

  15. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  16. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  17. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and

  18. Photosynthate consumption and carbon turnover in the rhizosphere depending on plant species and growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerbeck, D.R.; Helal, H.M.; Nonnen, S.; Allard, J.-l.

    1982-01-01

    The root tissue which can be isolated from soils represents only part of the total plant carbon incorporation. Between 20 and 40% of the photosynthetic production of plants is expended for root growth and root metabolism. This indicates a striking turnover of energy in the rhizosphere, because relatively litle root-derived organic matter remains there until harvest time. Plant species and variety, soil conditions and temperature were shown to be the most decisive factors governing the assimilate consumption of plant root systems. A special technique is described which enables to study how this extensive turnover affects the surrounding soil depending on its proximity to the roots. Plant-derived carbon can be detected up to 20mm away from the roots. A priming effect has been found on the decomposition of soil organic matter. This explains why, in spite of the rhizo-deposition mentioned, no net-accumulation of carbon in the rhizosphere has been found. (Author) [pt

  19. A Pathway to Reduce Energy Consumption in the Thermal Stabilization Process of Carbon Fiber Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nunna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Process parameters, especially in the thermal stabilization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN fibers, play a critical role in controlling the cost and properties of the resultant carbon fibers. This study aimed to efficiently handle the energy expense areas during carbon fiber manufacturing without reducing the quality of carbon fibers. We introduced a new parameter (recirculation fan frequency in the stabilization stage and studied its influence on the evolution of the structure and properties of fibers. Initially, the progress of the cyclization reaction in the fiber cross-sections with respect to fan frequencies (35, 45, and 60 Hz during stabilization was analyzed using the Australian Synchrotron-high resolution infrared imaging technique. A parabolic trend in the evolution of cyclic structures was observed in the fiber cross-sections during the initial stages of stabilization; however, it was transformed to a uniform trend at the end of stabilization for all fan frequencies. Simultaneously, the microstructure and property variations at each stage of manufacturing were assessed. We identified nominal structural variations with respect to fan frequencies in the intermediate stages of thermal stabilization, which were reduced during the carbonization process. No statistically significant variations were observed between the tensile properties of fibers. These observations suggested that, when using a lower fan frequency (35 Hz, it was possible to manufacture carbon fibers with a similar performance to those produced using a higher fan frequency (60 Hz. As a result, this study provided an opportunity to reduce the energy consumption during carbon fiber manufacturing.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions due to Swedish imports and consumption: estimates using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Assefa, Getachew; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-04-01

    Global trade of products and services challenges the traditional way in which emissions of carbon dioxide are declared and accounted for. Instead of only considering territorial emissions there are now strong reasons to determine how the carbon dioxide emitted in the production of imports are partitioned around the world and how the total emissions change for a country's final consumption compared to final production. In this report results from four different methods of calculating the total carbon dioxide emissions from Sweden's overall consumption are presented. Total carbon dioxide emissions for Sweden's final consumption vary from 57 to 109 M tons during one year depending on the methodology. The four methods used for estimating these emissions give results of 57, 61, 68 and 109 Mton of carbon dioxide. Two methods are based on information concerning Sweden's imports and our national production of goods and services excluding production that is exported while two methods are based on final consumer expenditures. Three of the methods use mainly emission data from Sweden while one method depends entirely upon emission data from Sweden's trading partners. The last method also gives the highest emissions level, 109 Mton of carbon dioxide. The calculations performed here can be compared to the emissions reported by Sweden, 54 Mton of carbon dioxide per year. Our estimates give per capita emission levels of between 6,3 and 12 tons of carbon dioxide per year. The estimate of 12 tons per capita is a result of using emissions data from Sweden's trading partners. The total emissions as a result of Sweden's imports are 26 or 74 M tons of carbon dioxide depending on how they are calculated. The lower figure is based upon the imports of today but with emissions as if everything was produced as in Sweden. The higher level is based upon using existing but partly inadequate international emission statistics. These levels can be compared to the about 35 M tons of carbon dioxide

  1. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of organic carbon respired by plankton communities has been found in summer in the East China Sea (ECS, and this rate has been significantly correlated with fluvial discharge from the Changjiang River. However, respiration data has rarely been collected in other seasons. To evaluate and reveal the potential controlling mechanism of organic carbon consumption in spring in the ECS, two cruises covering almost the entire ECS shelf were conducted in the spring of 2009 and 2010. These results showed that although the fluvial discharge rates were comparable to the high riverine flow in summer, the plankton community respiration (CR varied widely between the two springs. In 2009, the level of CR was double that of 2010, with mean (± SD values of 111.7 (±76.3 and 50.7 (±62.9 mg C m−3 d−1, respectively. The CR was positively correlated with concentrations of particulate organic carbon and/or chlorophyll a (Chl a in 2009 (all p 2 (fCO2 in the surface waters, even with a significant amount of inorganic carbon regenerated via CR. In 2010, even more riverine runoff nutrients were measured in the ECS than in 2009. Surprisingly, the growth of phytoplankton in 2010 was not stimulated by enriched nutrients, and its growth was likely limited by low water temperature and/or low light intensity. Low temperature might also suppress planktonic metabolism, which could explain why the CR was lower in 2010. During this period, lower surface water fCO2 may have been driven mainly by physical process(es. To conclude, these results indicate that high organic carbon consumption (i.e. CR in the spring of 2009 could be attributed to high planktonic biomasses, and the lower CR rate during the cold spring of 2010 might be likely limited by low temperature in the ECS. This further suggests that the high inter-annual variability of organic carbon consumption needs to be kept in mind when budgeting the annual carbon balance.

  2. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Corporate water footprint accounting and impact assessment: the case of the water footprint of a sugar-containing carbonated beverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug; Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    All water use in the world is ultimately linked to final consumption by consumers. It is therefore interesting to know the specific water requirements of various consumer goods, particularly the water-intensive ones. This information is relevant not only for consumers, but also for food processors,

  4. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages Análise isotópica do carbono em néctar de maçã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram utilizar o método de análise isotópica para quantificar o carbono do ciclo fotossintético C3 em néctares de maçã comerciais e mensurar o limite de legalidade para identificar as bebidas em inconformidade com o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Essa bebida foi produzida em laboratório, conforme a legislação brasileira. Também foram produzidos néctares adulterados com quantidade de suco polposo abaixo do permitido. Os δ13C dos néctares de maçã e de suas frações (polpa e açúcar purificado foram mensurados para quantificar a porcentagem de fonte C3. Para determinar a existência de adulteração, foi calculado o limite de legalidade de acordo com a legislação brasileira. Todos os néctares comerciais de maçã analisados foram classificados como legais. O limite de legalidade possibilitou identificar as bebidas

  5. The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro

    2017-10-24

    Breastfeeding, infant formula and cow's milk are basic foods in infant nutrition. However, they are being increasingly replaced either totally or partially by plant-based beverages.The composition of 164 plant-based beverages available in Spain was reviewed based on the nutritional labeling of the package and the manufacturers' webpages. This was compared to the composition of cow's milk and infant formula. In addition, the nutritional disease associated with consumption of plant-based beverages in infants and children was reviewed by means of a literature search in Medline and Embase since 1990 based on the key words "plant-based beverages" or "rice beverages" or "almond beverages" or "soy beverages" and "infant" or "child".The nutritional composition of 54 soy beverages, 24 rice beverages, 22 almond beverages, 31 oat beverages, 6 coconut beverages, 12 miscellaneous beverages and 15 mixed beverages was described. At least 30 cases of nutritional disease in children associated with nearly exclusive consumption of plant-based beverages have been published. A characteristic association has been observed between soy beverage and rickets, rice beverage and kwashiorkor, and almond-based beverage and metabolic alkalosis.The nutritional quality of plant-based beverages is lower than that of cow's milk and infant formula, therefore they are not a nutritional alternative. Predominant or exclusive use of these beverages in infant feeding can lead to serious nutritional risks. In the case of nonexclusive feeding with these beverages, the pediatrician should be aware of the nutritional risks and limitations of these beverages in order to complement their deficiencies with other foods.

  6. Proper Estimation of the Energy Consumption in A Carbon Dioxide-MEA Stripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeddu, Claudio; Errico, Massimiliano; Baratti, Roberto

    In the field of CCS, the chemical absorption/desorption using amines represents one of the most easily implemented process for the reduction of the carbon dioxide generated by combustion plants. The high energy consumption in the solvent regeneration section represents the major concern for its...... fully industrial application. In the design of a carbon dioxide-MEA stripper, once the process targets are fixed, the estimation of the reboiler duty represents a crucial point for what concerns the quantification of the energy requirement. Furthermore, the vapor flow produced in the reboiler influences...... in simultaneous multicomponent material transfer, energy transfer and chemical reactions, is fundamental for an accurate design of the system. In this work the solvent regeneration section of a pilot-plant post-combustion CO2 capture facility was modeled using a rate-based approach, focusing on some key...

  7. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D

    2013-10-01

    To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown.

  8. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Recent findings Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Summary Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown. PMID:23974767

  9. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  10. A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet followed by injector port silylation coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of nine bisphenols in bottled carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrah, Kapil; Satyanarayana, G N V; Roy, Somendu Kumar

    2017-12-15

    In the present study, a method has been efficiently developed for the first time to determine nine bisphenol analogues [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol C (BPC), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol G (BPG), bisphenol M (BPM), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol Z (BPZ)] together in bottled carbonated beverages (collected from the local market of Lucknow, India) using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction process. This is based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) followed by injector port silylation coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The process investigated parameters of DLLME-SFO (including the type of extraction and disperser solvents with their volumes, effect of pH, ionic strength, and the sample volume), factors influencing to injection port derivatization like, collision energy, injector port temperature, derivatizing reagent with sample injection volume, and type of organic solvent. BPA, BPF, BPZ, and BPS were detected in each sample; whereas, other bisphenols were also detected in some carbonated beverage samples. After optimizing the required conditions, good linearity of analytes was achieved in the range of 0.097-100ngmL -1 with coefficients of determination (R 2 )≥0.995. Intra-day and inter day precision of the method was good, with relative standard deviation (% RSD)≤10.95%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) values of all bisphenols were ranged from 0.021 to 0.104ngmL -1 and 0.070 to 0.343ngmL -1 , respectively. The recovery of extraction was good (73.15-95.08%) in carbonated beverage samples and good enrichment factors (96.36-117.33) were found. Thus, the developed method of microextraction was highly precise, fast, and reproducible to determine the level of contaminants in bottled carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardio-metabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes, and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, who together control 34 percent of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the US, Brazil, and China) from 2000-2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kilojoules per 100 milliliters) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the US, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. PMID:22070346

  12. Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, S; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2012-03-01

    Carbonated soft drinks and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardiometabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc., who together control 34% of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the United States, Brazil and China) from 2000 to 2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL(-1) ) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Provincial Carbon Emissions Reduction Allocation Plan in China Based on Consumption Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecheng Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available China is a country with substantial differences in economic development, energy consumption mix, resources, and technologies, as well as the development path at the provincial level. Therefore, China’s provinces have different potential and degrees of difficulty to carry out carbon emission reduction (CER requirements. In addition, interprovincial trade, with a large amount of embodied carbon emissions, has become the fastest growing driver of China’s total carbon emissions. A reasonable CER allocation plan is, therefore, crucial for realizing the commitment that China announced in the Paris Agreement. How to determine a fair way to allocate provincial CER duties has become a significant challenge for both policy-makers and researchers. In this paper, ecological network analysis (ENA, combined with a multi-regional input-output model (MRIO, is adopted to build an ecological network of embodied emissions across 30 provinces. Then, by using flow analysis and utility analysis based on the ENA model, the specific relationships among different provinces were determined, and the amount of responsibility that a certain province should take quantified, with respect to the embodied carbon emission (ECE flows from interprovincial trade. As a result, we suggest a new CER allocation plan, based on the detailed data of interprovincial relationships and ECE flows.

  14. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not 100% fruit juice, is associated with fasting high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations in U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia, characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL concentrations, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreasing dietary sugar consumption is one dietary modification that may influence dyslipidemia risk to reduce the risk for CVD. Two major sources of di...

  15. Evaluating the Determinants of Sugary Beverage Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adults: An Application of the Integrative Model of Behavioural Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Rivera, Maria; Branscum, Paul; Larson, Daniel; Gao, Haijuan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of sugary drink consumption among overweight and obese adults attempting to lose weight using the Integrative Model of Behavioural Prediction (IMB). Design: Cross-sectional design. Method: Determinants of behavioural intentions (attitudes, perceived norms and perceived…

  16. Milk Options Observation (MOO): A Mixed-Methods Study of Chocolate Milk Removal on Beverage Consumption and Student/Staff Behaviors in a Rural Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M.; Spurlock, Margaret; Ramsey, Katrina; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    Providing flavored milk in school lunches is controversial, with conflicting evidence on its impact on nutritional intake versus added sugar consumption and excess weight gain. Nonindustry-sponsored studies using individual-level analyses are needed. Therefore, we conducted this mixed-methods study of flavored milk removal at a rural primary…

  17. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The carbon consumption pattern of the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis in synthetic wine-like medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brendan D; Divol, Benoit

    2018-08-01

    The wine matrix contains limited carbon compounds to sustain microbial life. Brettanomyces bruxellensis is one of very few yeast species that has adapted to this environment. Indeed, the presence of growth-inhibiting compounds and conditions do not prevent its proliferation. Literature regarding the nutritional requirements of this yeast is surprisingly poor, given the observation that B. bruxellensis produces biomass with apparently less nutrients than other yeasts. In this study, various carbon sources were screened in a synthetic wine medium, under anaerobic and semi-aerobic growth conditions, in order to determine which compounds B. bruxellensis assimilates. Slight differences were observed between strains but overall, B. bruxellensis produced biomass from limited nutrients consumed in a specific order regardless of the oxygen conditions. Upon initial consumption of the simple sugars, B. bruxellensis was able to remain viable, by concurrently utilising ethanol (only in the presence of oxygen) and malic acid. Although initially beneficial, oxygen was found detrimental in the long term. Formation of volatile phenols occurred during the consumption of the sugars but not as a mechanism to help correct the redox imbalance. The study confirms that B. bruxellensis is able to survive using limited amount of nutrients, making this yeast a challenge for winemakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impacts of China’s household consumption expenditure patterns on energy demand and carbon emissions towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how China’s household consumption patterns over the period 2005–2050 influence the total energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in two baseline scenarios, and how it influences carbon prices as well as the economic cost in the corresponding carbon mitigation scenarios. To this end we first put forward two possible household consumption expenditure patterns up to 2050 using the Working–Leser model, taking into account total expenditure increase and urbanization. For comparison, both expenditure patterns are then incorporated in a hybrid recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The results reveal that as income level increases in the coming decades, the direct and indirect household energy requirements and CO 2 emissions would rise drastically. When household expenditure shifts from material products and transport to service-oriented goods, around 21,000 mtce of primary energy and 45 billion tons of CO 2 emissions would be saved over the 45-year period from 2005 to 2050. Moreover, carbon prices in the dematerialized mitigation scenario would fall by 13% in 2050, thus reducing the economic cost. - Highlights: ► Propose two household expenditure patterns considering income rise and urbanization. ► Much energy and CO 2 emissions would be saved in low-carbon consumption scenario. ► Carbon prices would reduce a lot in low-carbon consumption scenario.

  20. The role of trade and investment liberalization in the sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages market: a natural experiment contrasting Vietnam and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ronald; Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-10-12

    Trade and investment liberalization may facilitate the spread of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (SSCBs), products associated with increased risk factors for obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (Circulation 121:1356-1364, 2010). Apart from a limited set of comparative cross-national studies, the majority of analyses linking liberalization and the food environment have drawn on case studies and descriptive accounts. The current failure of many countries to reverse the obesity epidemic calls for investigation into both individual and systemic factors, including trade and investment policies. Using a natural experimental design we tested whether Vietnam's removal of restrictions on foreign direct investment (FDI) subsequent to its accession to the World Trade Organization in 2007 increased sales of SSCBs compared with a matched country, the Philippines, which acceded in 1995. Difference-in-difference (DID) models were used to test pre/post differences in total SSCB sales and foreign company penetration covering the years 1999-2013. Following Vietnam's removal of restrictions on FDI, the growth rate of SSCB sales increased to 12.1 % per capita per year from a prior growth rate of 3.3 %. SSCB sales per capita rose significantly faster pre- and post-intervention in Vietnam compared with the control country the Philippines (DID: 4.6 L per annum, 95 % CI: 3.8 to 5.4 L, p investment liberalization.

  1. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  2. Biomarker discovery and applications for foods and beverages: proteomics to nanoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bansal, Vipul; Shukla, Ravi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-11-20

    Foods and beverages have been at the heart of our society for centuries, sustaining humankind - health, life, and the pleasures that go with it. The more we grow and develop as a civilization, the more we feel the need to know about the food we eat and beverages we drink. Moreover, with an ever increasing demand for food due to the growing human population food security remains a major concern. Food safety is another growing concern as the consumers prefer varied foods and beverages that are not only traded nationally but also globally. The 21st century science and technology is at a new high, especially in the field of biological sciences. The availability of genome sequences and associated high-throughput sensitive technologies means that foods are being analyzed at various levels. For example and in particular, high-throughput omics approaches are being applied to develop suitable biomarkers for foods and beverages and their applications in addressing quality, technology, authenticity, and safety issues. Proteomics are one of those technologies that are increasingly being utilized to profile expressed proteins in different foods and beverages. Acquired knowledge and protein information have now been translated to address safety of foods and beverages. Very recently, the power of proteomic technology has been integrated with another highly sensitive and miniaturized technology called nanotechnology, yielding a new term nanoproteomics. Nanoproteomics offer a real-time multiplexed analysis performed in a miniaturized assay, with low-sample consumption and high sensitivity. To name a few, nanomaterials - quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires - have demonstrated potential to overcome the challenges of sensitivity faced by proteomics for biomarker detection, discovery, and application. In this review, we will discuss the importance of biomarker discovery and applications for foods and beverages, the contribution of proteomic technology in

  3. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumo de bebidas e refrigerantes por adolescentes de uma escola pública Consumo de bebidas y refrescos en adolescentes de una escuela pública Beverage and soft drink consumption by adolescents from a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Chermont P. Estima

    2011-03-01

    escuela (22,1%. El principal factor señalado para el consumo de refrescos fue el sabor (75,4%. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de bebidas con azúcar, especialmente los refrescos, fue frecuente entre adolescentes. Esas bebidas son disponibles y consumidas tanto en casa como en la escuela y son consideradas sabrosas. Los programas de educación nutricional deben pensar en cómo priorizar el consumo de otras bebidas, además de controlar la comercialización de esos productos en las escuelas, con el objetivo de estimular el consumo de bebidas más sanas para esa franja de edad.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of beverage and soft drinks by adolescents of a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 71 adolescents (aged between 14 to 17 years old from both genders, attending a technical school in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, answered the following questions: the kind of beverage taken during meals, the places where soft drinks were consumed and the main reason related to this intake. RESULTS: The most frequent consumed beverage was the industrialized fruit juice (38.1%, followed by regular soft drinks (28.6% and natural fruit juices (22.2%. The main place where soft drinks were consumed was home (38.2%, followed by school (22.1%. The main reason associated with soft drink intake was the flavor (75.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet beverage intake was frequent among adolescents, specially soft drinks. These beverages are available and consumed at home and at school, and they were considered tasteful. Nutritional education programs should discuss how to prioritize the intake of other beverages and how to control the sale of these products at schools, aiming to stimulate the intake of more healthy beverages by adolescents.

  5. Carbon fiber monocoque for a hydrogen prototype for low consumption challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airale, A.; Scattina, A. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Carello, M.

    2011-05-15

    Weight reduction and high mechanics performance are one of the challenges of the automotive industries future. A particular and interesting field is the application of carbon fibres in combination with structural foams. These allow to realize creative shapes for the car body but also strength and tough elements for the chassis, according to the necessity to combine style with design and engineering aspects. Nowadays, the problem of carbon fibre technology is the cost of production and the recyclability, so the major applications are in the racing field. One interesting application is the body of the prototype called IDRA, a low consumption vehicle which participated in the European Shell Eco-marathon. The chassis is a structural frame made with structural foam, the body is a part of the chassis and it is made of carbon fibre. The result is a well made car body integrated with all the sub-systems: steering, brakes, wheels, cockpit, electric wiring, controls, fuel cell, electric motor and transmission. The different design and production steps, from the concept phase and structural analysis made by means of finite element techniques to the production and the assembling of the monocoque, are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Energy consumption and net CO2 sequestration of aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2006-12-01

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in dependence of various process variables using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. For wollastonite, the maximum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency within the ranges of process conditions studied was 75% at 200C, 20 bar CO2, and a particle size of <38μm. The main energy-consuming process steps were the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2 feed. At these process conditions, a significantly lower efficiency was determined for steel slag (69%), mainly because of the lower Ca content of the feedstock. The CO2 sequestration efficiency might be improved substantially for both types of feedstock by, e.g., reducing the amount of process water applied and further grinding of the feedstock. The calculated energetic efficiencies warrant a further assessment of the (energetic) feasibility of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation on the basis of a pilot-scale process

  7. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  8. The effects of regular consumption of a multiple micronutrient fortified milk beverage on the micronutrient status of school children and on their mental and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thankachan, Prashanth; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Srinivasan, K; Kamath-Jha, Shilpa; Vinoy, Sophie; Misra, Situn; Finnegan, Yvonne; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-02-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in school going children in India and bridging the gap between nutrient intake and requirements is an effective way to combat the deficiencies. This study aimed to test the effect of a multi-micronutrient fortified malt and cocoa based milk beverage on the micronutrient status, cognition, physical performance and nutritional deficiencies of 7-10 years old south Indian children. A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study design was used with normal healthy children from low to middle income families, aged 7-10 years randomly assigned to receive either a multi-micronutrient fortified or an unfortified milk based control drink. The drinks were provided 6 days/week for 5 months. Assessments included anthropometry, blood biochemistry, physical performance and cognition at baseline and endline. The baseline characteristics of the study groups were similar. The changes in body weight and height were similar between the groups at the end of the study. Levels of vitamin B12, red cell folate and vitamin B2 significantly improved in the intervention group, while vitamin D, selenium and body iron showed no difference. The Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin levels of the control group decreased at endline, while those in the intervention group maintained their levels. The serum transferrin receptor levels increased in both the groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency and Vitamin B2 deficiency were significantly lower in the intervention group at endline. Overall improvement in cognitive and physical performance was seen in both the groups at endline, with no significant differences between the groups. The micronutrient fortified milk based drink was efficacious in improving the micronutrient status of Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12 and red cell folate and in preventing a decline in Hb level compared to an unfortified milk based drink. It also reduced anemia and the risk of deficiencies of iron, and B12, in apparently healthy children

  9. Health, Wellness, and Safety Aspects of the Consumption of Kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindani I. Watawana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods have been identified as whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced products which have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. As consumer awareness on functional food escalates, the interest towards conducting scientific studies in this field has also proportionately increased. Many of the traditional food products are known to possess bioactive components, thus qualifying as functional food. Kombucha tea is produced by fermenting sugared black tea with a mixed culture of yeast and bacteria. Kombucha tea has gained immense popularity in recent times due to many associated health benefits. The therapeutic effects of this beverage are thought to be derived from the chemical composition of this beverage, mainly the polyphenols and secondary metabolites which are produced during fermentation. However, the safety aspects of the beverage also need to be taken into account when qualifying the beverage as a functional food. Nevertheless, Kombucha tea could be easily recognized as a beverage which is able to replace the consumption of carbonated beverages due to its possession of health benefits and therapeutic properties.

  10. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  11. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p -trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  12. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  13. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  14. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

    2013-05-10

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.

  15. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  16. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of synthetic colorants in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampasa, Sakda; Siangproh, Weena; Duangmal, Kiattisak; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-11-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (ERGO-SPCE) for the simultaneous determination of sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TZ) was proposed. An ERGO film was coated onto the electrode surface using a cyclic voltammetric method and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In 0.1M phosphate buffer at a pH of 6, the two oxidation peaks of SY and TZ appeared separately at 0.41 and 0.70V, respectively. Surprisingly, the electrochemical response remarkably increased approximately 90- and 20-fold for SY and TZ, respectively, using the modified electrode in comparison to the unmodified electrode. The calibration curves exhibited linear ranges from 0.01 to 20.0µM for SY and from 0.02 to 20.0µM for TZ. The limits of detection were found to be 0.50 and 4.50nM (at S/N=3) for SY and TZ, respectively. Furthermore, this detection platform provided very high selectivity for the measurement of both colorants. This electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine the amount of SY and TZ in commercial beverages. Comparison of the results obtained from this proposed method to those obtained by an in-house standard technique proved that this developed method has good agreement in terms of accuracy for practical applications. This sensor offers an inexpensive, rapid and sensitive determination. The proposed system is therefore suitable for routine analysis and should be an alternative method for the analysis of food colorants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluid intake from beverages across age groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, A E; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Pons, A; Tur, J A

    2015-10-01

    Fluid intake, especially water, is essential for human life and also necessary for physical and mental function. The present study aimed to assess beverage consumption across age groups. A systematic review was conducted. Original research in English language publications and available studies (or abstracts in English) from 2000 to 2013 was searched for by using the medical subheading (MeSH) terms: ('beverage' OR 'fluid' [Major]) AND ('consumption' [Mesh] OR 'drinking' [Mesh] OR 'intake' [Mesh]) AND ('child' [Mesh] OR 'adolescent' [Mesh] OR 'adult' [Mesh]). Article selection was restricted to those papers covering healthy populations of all age groups in a nationwide sample, or from a representative sample of the population of a city or cities, which examined the trends or patterns of beverage intake and the determinants of beverage intake. Sixty-five studies were identified with respect to beverage consumption across age groups. The papers were screened by thoroughly reading titles or abstracts. Full-text articles were assessed by three investigators. Total beverage intake varied between 0.6 and 3.5 L day(-1) among all age groups (males more than females). Plain water contributed up to 58%, 75% and 80% of the total beverage intake in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Milk consumption was higher among children; consumption of soft drinks was higher among adolescents; and the consumption of tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages was higher among adults. Plain water is the main water source for all age groups and the consumption of other beverages varies according to age. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. 36 CFR 702.8 - Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.8 Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings. Consumption of food and beverages in Library buildings is prohibited except at point of purchase or other authorized eating places. Under no circumstances may food or beverages be carried to the bookstacks or other...

  19. Pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption and academic performance among college students Padrão de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e desempenho acadêmico entre universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.CONTEXTO: Bebidas alcoólicas estão amplamente disponíveis no ambiente universitário, principalmente nas festas. Há poucos estudos abordando a relação entre o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e o desempenho acadêmico entre estudantes universitários. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento de estudantes universitários quanto ao padrão de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e sua consequência acadêmica. MÉTODOS: Os voluntários (343 estudantes responderam a um questionário sobre o padrão de consumo de álcool e possível comportamento relacionado a esse consumo, especialmente sobre o desempenho acadêmico. Os participantes foram classificados como não bebedores (ND, bebedores não em binge (nBD, bebedores em binge

  20. Distributions of carbon pricing on extraction, combustion and consumption of fossil fuels in the global supply-chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Jonas; Peters, Glen

    2018-01-01

    Pricing carbon is one of the most important tools to reduce emissions and mitigate climate change. Already, about 40 nations have implemented explicit or implicit carbon prices, and a carbon price was explicitly stated as a mitigation strategy by many nations in their emission pledges submitted to the Paris Agreement. The coverage of carbon prices varies significantly between nations though, often only covering a subset of sectors in the economy. We investigate the propagation of carbon prices along the global supply-chain when the carbon price is applied at the point where carbon is removed from the ground (extraction), is combusted (production), or where goods and services are consumed (consumption). We consider both the regional and sectoral effects, and compare the carbon price income and costs relative to economic output. We find that implementation using different accounting systems makes a significant difference to revenues and increased expenditure, and that domestic and global trade plays a significant role in spreading the carbon price between sectors and countries. A few single sectors experience the largest relative price increases (especially electricity and transport), but most of the carbon price is ultimately paid by households for goods and services due to the large expenditure and indirect supply chain impacts. We finally show that a global carbon price will generate a larger share of revenue relative to GDP in non-OECD nations than OECD nations, independent on the point of implementation.

  1. [On alcoholic beverage taxation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni

    Review the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages to identify the characteristics we should take into account to make a tax policy proposal. Systematic review of articles in EBSCOhost that include in their abstract and title the words alcohol and elasticity and alcohol and tax, over the last 20 years in academic journals in English. We found 11 references. Although price elasticity is quite similar across countries, it is heterogeneous with regard togender, age, consumption level and type of beverage. Ad-hoc policies proved ineffective due to the substitution effect, and regressive in their impact on populations with lower levels of income and consumption. Tax policies should be applied to all alcoholic beverages based on their volume of alcohol and all measures, such as the minimum price per unit, should be complemented with other policies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Five propositions to harmonize environmental footprints of food and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, Tommie; Werf, Van Der H.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Several attempts have been made to harmonize guidelines for environmental footprints of food and beverages. For example, the food Sustainable Consumption and Production Roundtable, the Leap partnership, and the Environmental Footprint project, in particular within the Cattle Model Working Group.

  3. Beverage and water intake of healthy adults in some European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.

  4. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn McGibbon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a university’s carbon footprint may be attributed to electricity consumption and as the portion of energy used inefficiently by bui