WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbonate reservoir quarterly

  1. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...

  2. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.E.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:

  3. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The work reported here is on the reservoir characterization and project design objective. This objective is scheduled to be completed in early 1996 at which time work on the field demonstration phase is scheduled to begin.

  4. Fate of Organic Carbon Deposited in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T. G.; Rhoton, F. E.; Bennett, S. J.; Hudnall, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    Sedimentation of soil organic carbon (SOC) eroded from uplands and deposited in reservoirs could be an important mechanism for carbon sequestration provided that it is conserved during transport and burial and that uplands are not experiencing net loss. There are uncertainties in both these assumptions and gaining a better understanding of these processes is a key objective of ongoing carbon-cycle investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Louisiana State University Agricultural Center are collaborating on an investigation of soils and sediments in the Yalobusha River Basin in Mississippi. Sediment cores were collected from upland soils and from Grenada Lake, a flood control reservoir, in the basin. Suspended sediments have been collected from the Yalobusha River and one of its tributaries upstream of the lake. We are measuring carbon mineralization potential in conjunction with carbon and nitrogen concentrations, 13C, mineralogy, and texture on sediments and upland soils to determine whether eroding SOC is conserved or oxidized during transport and burial. Differences in mineralization potential and other chemical and physical properties are used to infer net changes in the original eroding SOC. Autochthonous production of SOC within reservoirs could replace labile SOC oxidized during transport and burial thereby masking losses due to oxidation. Autochthonous sources can be evaluated by chemical and physical characterization of the sediments. Stable carbon isotope (13C) geochemistry provides a tool for distinguishing the two primary sources of organic carbon incorporated in lake sediments because allochthonous SOC from the surrounding watershed is, in general, less depleted in stable 13C than autochthonous SOC produced in the lake by aquatic organisms such as macrophytes and phytoplankton. The integration of the 13C signature recorded in the organic fraction of the lake sediments with total organic carbon, C/N ratio

  5. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the quarterly report dated January 1-March 31, 1997 for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project. Topics covered in this report include AVOA modeling using paraxial ray tracing, AVOA modeling for gas- and water-filled fractures, 3-D and 3-C processing, and technology transfer material. Several presentations from a Geophysical Applications Workshop workbook, workshop schedule, and list of workshop attendees are also included.

  6. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions. Quarterly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-27

    This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  7. An integrated study of a Campeche Bay fractured carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, D.W.; Hernandez, J.G.; Vasques, G.A.V.; Aquino, E.V.; Barton, C.; Laude, L.; Lockhart, A.M.E.; Peebles, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a case study in the reservoir description of a fractured carbonate by a multi-disciplinary team. It illustrates how the synergistic interaction of team members during data analysis and model building resulted in: (1) the identification of previously unrecognized links between several reservoir characteristics; (2) produced a superior reservoir model; and (3) increased the likelihood of successful development. In summary, identification, characterization, and delineation of fractured intervals within the deepwater carbonate succession resulted in a preliminary 3-D model of both the static and dynamic properties for the Cretaceous reservoir of the Yum Field which, through reservoir simulation, will provide a predictive tool for development planning.

  8. Thermal recovery of bitumen from carbonate reservoirs: formation damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, about a third of bitumen resources are located in carbonate reservoirs but none of it is considered as a reserve by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). In fact no pilot has been successful in recovering bitumen from carbonate reservoirs due to formation damage problems. Carbonate rock is chemically active at the high temperatures reached in thermal recovery processes, carbon dioxide is generated and carbonate minerals are precipitated. The aim of this paper is to find methods to control the phenomenon. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls were used. Results showed that formation damage is due to aqueous carbon dioxide attacking the reservoir rock. They found that a reduction of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide could inhibit the initial dissolution of rock material by reducing the concentration of aqueous carbon dioxide. A method to overcome the formation damage problem was found and a co-injection of gas and steam process was developed to apply it.

  9. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

  10. Development of Acidizing Techniques for Low-permeability Carbonate Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Tongbin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Geological Background In accordance with gas reservoir occurrence, reserve type and trap type, the discovered and developed carbonate reservoirs in Sichuan Basin can be classified into the following three types: the first type is the layered porous gas reservoir (including porous and fractured porous gas reservoir), mainly distributed in East Sichuan area; the second is the block vug bottom water drive gas reservoir; the third is the irregular gas reservoir with fracture system, mainly distributed in the areas of South Sichuan and Southwest Sichuan. The reservoirs of these gas pools are mainly of carbonatite. The matrix porosity and permeability of carbonatite are very low, the porosity being below 1% - 3% and the permeability, 0.1×10-3-8× 10-3 μm2. Also the throat capillary resistance force is considerable with the mid-value width of the throat (γ50)of 0.1 - 4 μm, most below 2 μm. Owing to the low permeability and porosity as well as the serious heterogeneity of the reservoir, the productivi ty of gas wells changes greatly.

  11. Exploring cyclic changes of the ocean carbon reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pinxian; TIAN Jun; CHENG Xinrong; LIU Quanlian; XU Jian

    2003-01-01

    A 5-Ma record from ODP Site 1143 has revealed the long-term cycles of 400-500 ka in the carbon isotope variations. The periodicity is correlatable all over the global ocean and hence indicative of low-frequency changes in the ocean carbon reservoir. As the same periodicity is also found in carbonate and eolian dust records in the tropical ocean, it may have been caused by such low-latitude processes like monsoon. According to the Quaternary records from Site 1143 and elsewhere, major ice-sheet expansion and major transition in glacial cyclicity (such as the Mid-Brunhes Event and the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution ) were all preceded by reorganization in the ocean carbon reservoir expressed as an episode of carbon isotope maximum (δ 13Cmax), implying the role of carbon cycling in modulating the glacial periodicity. The Quaternary glacial cycles, therefore, should no more be ascribed to the physical response to insolation changes at the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes alone; rather, they have been driven by the "double forcing", a combination of processes at both high and low latitudes, and of processes in both physical (ice-sheet) and biogeochemical (carbon cycling) realms. As the Earth is now passing through a new carbon isotope maximum, it is of vital importance to understand the cyclic variations in the ocean carbon reservoir and its climate impact. The Pre-Quaternary variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes are characterized by their co-variations at the 400-ka eccentricity band, but the response of δ 13C and δ 18O to orbital forcing in the Quaternary became diverged with the growth of the Arctic ice-sheet. The present paper is the second summary report of ODP Leg 184 to the South China Sea.

  12. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1996-04-30

    On February 18, 1992, Louisiana State University with two technical subcontractors, BDM, Inc. and ICF, Inc., began a research program to estimate the potential oil and gas reserve additions that could result from the application of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery technologies and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones in the Gulf of Mexico oil fields that are related to piercement salt domes. This project is a one year continuation of this research and will continue work in reservoir description, extraction processes, and technology transfer. Detailed data will be collected for two previously studies reservoirs: a South Marsh Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and one additional Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil. Additional reservoirs identified during the project will also be studied if possible. Data collected will include reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data will be used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation will provide additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and water compatibility. Geological investigations will be conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. Research on advanced reservoir simulation will also be conducted. This report describes a review of fine-grained submarine fans and turbidite systems.

  13. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  14. Matrix acidification in carbonate reservoirs; Acidificacoes matriciais em reservatorios carbonaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcio de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are characterized by great diversity of its properties, including permeability and porosity. When submitted to matrix acidification, if no effort is employed, acid will tend to consume carbonates where permeability and porosity are higher, further increasing conductivity of these sites and also increasing permeability and porosity contrast existing before acid effects on formation. That would give limited production as result of small effective producer zone extent, with probable underutilization of potential reservoirs productivity. To overcome this effect and to achieve greater coverage of treatments, divergence techniques should be applied, including associations of them. This paper presents divergence techniques performed in matrix acidification of Campos and Espirito Santo basins wells, which represent great structural diversity and, as consequence, a significant range of situations. Formations tests results are analyzed to verify diversion systems effectiveness, and how they contribute to the growth of productive potential. (author)

  15. Estimation of soil organic carbon reservoir in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper respectively adopted physio-chemical properties of every soil stratum from 2473 soil profiles of the second national soil survey. The corresponding carbon content of soils is estimated by utilizing conversion coefficient 0.58. In the second soil survey, the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 924.18×108t and carbon density is about 10.53 kgC/m2 in China according to the area of 877.63×106 hm2 surveyed throughout the country. The spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in China is that the carbon storage increases when latitude increases in eastern China and the carbon storage decreases when longitude reduces in northern China. A transitional zone with great variation in carbon storage exists. Moreover, there is an increasing tendency of carbon density with decrease of latitude in western China. Soil circle is of great significance to global change, but with substantial difference in soil spatial distribution throughout the country. Because the structure of soil is inhomogeneous, it could bring some mistakes in estimating soil carbon reservoirs. It is necessary to farther resolve soil respiration and organic matter conversion and other questions by developing uniform and normal methods of measurement and sampling.

  16. Laboratory investigation of novel oil recovery method for carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, A.A.; Al-Saleh, S.; Al-Kaabi, A.; Al-Jawfi, M. [Saudi Aramco, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a core flooding laboratory study conducted using composite rock samples from a carbonate reservoir. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of salinity and ionic composition on oil, brine and rock interactions. Experimental parameters and procedures were designed to replicate reservoir conditions and current field injection practices. Results of the study demonstrated that alterations in the salinity and ionic composition of injected water can have a significant impact on the wettability of the rock surface. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed that injecting different salinity slugs of seawater in carbonate core samples can cause a significant alteration in the surface charges of the rock, and lead to increased interactions with water molecules. The constant reduction of pressure drop across the composite cores with the injection of different diluted versions of water also provided proof of brine, oil and rock alterations. Results of the study indicated that the driving mechanism for waterflooding recovery processes is wettability alteration, which can be triggered by alterations in carbonate rock surface charges, and improvements in the connectivity between rock pore systems that coexist in carbonate rock samples. 41 refs., 8 tabs., 16 figs.

  17. Characterization of Ordovician carbonate reservoirs, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Hai-ruo

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the prolific Ordovician Red River reservoirs in 1995 in southeastern Saskatchewan was the catalyst for extensive exploration activity which resulted in the discovery of more than 15 new Red River pools. The best yields of Red River production to date have been from dolomite reservoirs. Understanding the processes of dolomitization is, therefore, crucial for the prediction of the connectivity, spatial distribution and heterogeneity of dolomite reservoirs.The Red River reservoirs in the Midale area consist of 3~4 thin dolomitized zones, with a total thickness of about 20 m, which occur at the top of the Yeoman Formation. Two types of replacement dolomite were recognized in the Red River reservoir: dolomitized burrow infills and dolomitized host matrix. The spatial distribution of dolomite suggests that burrowing organisms played an important role in facilitating the fluid flow in the backfilled sediments. This resulted in penecontemporaneous dolomitization of burrow infills by normal seawater. The dolomite in the host matrix is interpreted as having occurred at shallow burial by evaporitic seawater during precipitation of Lake Almar anhydrite that immediately overlies the Yeoman Formation. However, the low δ18O values of dolomited burrow infills (-5.9‰~ -7.8‰, PDB) and matrix dolomites (-6.6‰~ -8.1‰, avg. -7.4‰ PDB) compared to the estimated values for the late Ordovician marine dolomite could be attributed to modification and alteration of dolomite at higher temperatures during deeper burial, which could also be responsible for its 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7084~0.7088) that are higher than suggested for the late Ordovician seawaters (0.7078~0.7080). The trace amounts of saddle dolomite cement in the Red River carbonates are probably related to "cannibalization" of earlier replacement dolomite during the chemical compaction.

  18. Anisotropic rock physics models for interpreting pore structures in carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sheng-Jie; Shao Yu; Chen Xu-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We developed an anisotropic effective theoretical model for modeling the elastic behavior of anisotropic carbonate reservoirs by combining the anisotropic self-consistent approximation and differential effective medium models. By analyzing the measured data from carbonate samples in the TL area, a carbonate pore-structure model for estimating the elastic parameters of carbonate rocks is proposed, which is a prerequisite in the analysis of carbonate reservoirs. A workfl ow for determining elastic properties of carbonate reservoirs is established in terms of the anisotropic effective theoretical model and the pore-structure model. We performed numerical experiments and compared the theoretical prediction and measured data. The result of the comparison suggests that the proposed anisotropic effective theoretical model can account for the relation between velocity and porosity in carbonate reservoirs. The model forms the basis for developing new tools for predicting and evaluating the properties of carbonate reservoirs.%♦Corresponding author: Li Sheng-Jie (Email: Richard@cup.edu.cn)

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1995-07-24

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Technical progress is described for the following tasks: physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; mechanisms of in situ gelation; and mathematical modelling of the gel systems.

  20. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Influence of Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds in Tarim Basin by faulting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The quality of the Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds in the Tarim Basin is closely related to the development of secondary pores,fractures and cavities. Karstification is important in improving the properties of reservoir beds,and karstification related to unconformity has caught wide attention. Compared with the recent research on the unconformity karst reservoir bed improvement,this paper shows a new way of carbonate reservoir bed transformation. Based on field survey,core and slices observation,transformation of Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds by faulting can be classified into three types: (1) Secondary faults and fracturs generated by faulting improved carbonate reservoir bed properties,which were named the Lunnan or Tazhong82 model; (2) upflow of deep geothermal fluids caused by faulting,with some components metasomatizing with carbonate and forming some secon-dary deposit,such as fluorite. It can improve carbonate reservoir bed properties obviously and is named the Tazhong 82 model; and (3) the faulting extending up to the surface increased the depth of supergene karstification and the thickness of reservoir bed. It is named the Hetianhe model. Trans-formation effect of carbonate reservoir beds by faulting was very significant,mainly distributed on the slopes or on the edge or plunging end of the uplift.

  2. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  3. Carbonate reservoir characterization. An integrated approach. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, F. Jerry [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    What would the oil barons of Texas really like to know? Well, in the pages of this book they might find some answers. This hugely experienced author working in Texas, America's main oil-rich state, has produced a work that goes after one of the holy grails of oil prospecting. One main target in petroleum recovery is the description of the three-dimensional distribution of petrophysical properties on the interwell scale in carbonate reservoirs. Doing so would improve performance predictions by means of fluid-flow computer simulations. Lucia's book focuses on the improvement of geological, petrophysical, and geostatistical methods, describes the basic petrophysical properties, important geology parameters, and rock fabrics from cores, and discusses their spatial distribution. A closing chapter deals with reservoir models as an input into flow simulators. Not only does this book provide a hugely practical approach that uses geostatistical as well as petrophysical methods, it can also be used as course material to integrate geology, geophysics and engineering. (orig.)

  4. Carbon reservoirs in temperate South American Nothofagus forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böswald, Klaus; Lencinas, José D; Loguercio, Gabriel

    2002-01-08

    Humans are influencing the global carbon (C) cycle due to the combustion of fossil fuels and due to changes in land use management. These activities are fostering the manmade greenhouse effect and thus global climate change. Negative effects for life on earth are accounted for. Among others the international climate debate focused attention on forests and forestry, knowing about their considerable influence on global climate change. Whilst the global C budget is described fairly well, there is a lack of regional data describing the C reservoirs and flows in detail. This has to be constituted especially for forests in developing countries. This paper presents an investigation at regional scale of the C reservoirs in a South American forest ecosystem. The investigation puts emphasis on the area and stand volume estimation and the development of expansion and reduction factors. Vegetation types are classified and stratified, determining the corresponding areas and estimating the stand volume. Converting factors are developed to calculate C in branches and roots as a percentage of standing wood measured by inventories.

  5. The formation of the ocean’s anthropogenic carbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudicone, Daniele; Rodgers, Keith B.; Plancherel, Yves; Aumont, Olivier; Ito, Takamitsu; Key, Robert M.; Madec, Gurvan; Ishii, Masao

    2016-11-01

    The shallow overturning circulation of the oceans transports heat from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. This overturning also influences the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon (Cant). We demonstrate this by quantifying the relative importance of ocean thermodynamics, circulation and biogeochemistry in a global biochemistry and circulation model. Almost 2/3 of the Cant ocean uptake enters via gas exchange in waters that are lighter than the base of the ventilated thermocline. However, almost 2/3 of the excess Cant is stored below the thermocline. Our analysis shows that subtropical waters are a dominant component in the formation of subpolar waters and that these water masses essentially form a common Cant reservoir. This new method developed and presented here is intrinsically Lagrangian, as it by construction only considers the velocity or transport of waters across isopycnals. More generally, our approach provides an integral framework for linking ocean thermodynamics with biogeochemistry.

  6. Research consortium on fractured petroleum reservoirs. Third quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, A.; Markeset, T.

    1993-11-22

    Our 1993 third quarter report discusses the results of our work on: (1) gas-oil gravity drainage in layered media; and, (2) the influence of viscous forces on gas-oil flow in fractured porous media. For sometime, we have been working on the incorporation of reinfiltration and capillary continuity concepts in a dual-porosity model. A simple and accurate technique has been developed for this purpose. The experiments on gas-oil gravity drainage in layered media are intended to: (1) verify our theoretical analysis; (2) provide more insight; and, (3) provide a guide for the simulation of gas-oil gravity drainage at field scale. On the first objective, the experiments confirm that gas-oil gravity drainage could result in a downward gas fingering phenomenon. Without capillary pressure, downward gas fingering could not realize. The experiments also show that drainage from a less permeable layer would be an extremely slow process. This is similar to the drainage performance of matrix blocks in fractured porous media. Apparently, relative permeability to gas (i.e. gas mobility) may be important for flow in layered porous media. The project on the effect of viscous forces on gas-oil displacement in fractured porous media has taken longer than anticipated. For the first time, in gravity drainage experiments of the matrix-fracture configuration used in this project, we could not obtain reproducible results. After several tests, we teamed that the surface tension of the normal-decane/air system changes in the presence of the coating cover which was used in the experimental assembly of this project. We removed the coating. The experiments can now be reproduced. The data show that there is a strong effect of viscous forces on matrix/fracture flow. A small imposed pressure gradient results in a substantial amount of oil recovery. After performing 3-4 more tests, the data will be analyzed and an appropriate model will be developed to relate experimental data to field conditions.

  7. Simulation research on carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas underground reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yu-fei; LIN Tao

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of mixing working gas and cushion gas in carbon sequestration technology, the feasibility of using cation dioxide as the cushion gas in reservoirs is discussed firstly. At the usual condition of reservoirs, carbon dioxide is a kind of supercritieal fluid with high condensability, high viscosity and high density. Secondly, this article studies the laws of formation and development of mixing zone by numerical simulation and analyses the impact on mixing zone brought by different injection modes and rational ratios of cushion gas in reservoirs. It is proposed that the appropriate injection ratio of cushion gas is 20% - 30%. Using carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas reservoirs is able to make the running of natural gas reservoirs economical and efficient.

  8. Methane production by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus to recover energy from carbon dioxide sequestered in geological reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sakuma, Takahiro; Nakata, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Hajime; Endo, Keita; Sato, Kozo

    2010-07-01

    To recover energy from carbon dioxide sequestered in geological reservoirs, the geochemical effects of acidic and substrate- and nutrient-limiting conditions on methane production by the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were investigated in a simulated deep saline aquifer environment using formation water media retrieved from petroleum reservoirs.

  9. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be constructed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and petrophysical characterization of the fluvial-deltaic Ferron Sandstone: (1) evaluation of the Ivie Creek and Willow Springs Wash case-study areas and (2) technology transfer.

  10. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    additional oil recovery can be achieved when successively flooding composite carbonate core plugs with various diluted versions of seawater. The experimental data on carbonates is very limited, so more data and better understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed to utilize this method for carbonate...... reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil...... of experimental results, discussions are made about possible mechanisms for improving oil recovery in carbonate reservoir as a function of change in brine salinity. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers....

  11. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  12. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  13. Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarab field is an analog for the deep marine slope channels in Nile Delta of Egypt. It is one of the Pliocene reservoirs in West delta deep marine concession. Channel-1 and channel-2 are considered as main channels of Scarab field. FMI log is used for facies classification and description of the channel subsequences. Core data analysis is integrated with FMI to confirm the lithologic response and used as well for describing the reservoir with high resolution. A detailed description of four wells penetrated through both channels lead to define channel sequences. Some of these sequences are widely extended within the field under study exhibiting a good correlation between the wells. Other sequences were of local distribution. Lithologic sequences are characterized mainly by fining upward in Vshale logs. The repetition of these sequences reflects the stacking pattern and high heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoir. It also refers to the sea level fluctuation which has a direct influence to the facies change. In terms of integration of the previously described sequences with a high resolution seismic data a depositional model has been established. The model defines different stages of the channel using Scarab-2 well as an ideal analog.

  14. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small

  15. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    I. Mazarrasa; N. Marbà; Lovelock, C.E.; SERRANO, O; P. S. Lavery; J. W. Fourqurean; H. Kennedy; Mateo, M.A.; D. Krause-Jensen; A. D. L. Steven; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and...

  16. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    I. Mazarrasa; N. Marbà; Lovelock, C.E.; SERRANO, O; P. S. Lavery; J. W. Fourqurean; H. Kennedy; Mateo, M.A.; D. Krause-Jensen; A. D. L. Steven; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and be...

  17. Study of Deep Carbonate Reservoirs in the Desert Areas by Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhanxiang; LiuZebin; SongQunhui; gangXianghao; LuJiangnan

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the TZ- 162 well in Tazhong area of the Tarim basin hit the lower Paleozoic dolomite reservoir at a depth of 5,900 m. The distribution of the dolomite reservoir, however,was very difficult to delineate due to the complex surface conditions and poor seismic properties. High-precision transient electromagnetic sounding (TEM) was conducted and good results obtained in this area. This paper discussed the principle,data processing and interpretation of this method. The resultsof studying the dolomite reservoirs demonstrated the effectiveness of the method in studying the low-resistance dolomite reservoirs in the high-resistance carbonates. This method should be an effective one to study reservoirs in areas with similar physical properties as well.

  18. Calculation of hydrocarbon-in-place in gas and gas-condensate reservoirs - Carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2), requiring estimation of hydrocarbon-in-place volumes and formation volume factors for all the oil, gas, and gas-condensate reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins. The procedures to calculate in-place volumes for oil and gas reservoirs have already been presented by Verma and Bird (2005) to help with the USGS assessment of the undiscovered resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, but there is no straightforward procedure available for calculating in-place volumes for gas-condensate reservoirs for the carbon sequestration project. The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for calculating the hydrocarbon-in-place volume of a condensate reservoir to help estimate the hydrocarbon pore volume for potential CO2 sequestration.

  19. Major influencing factors of water flooding in abnormally high-pressure carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingying, Hou; Kaiyuan, Chen; Zifei, Fan; Libing, Fu; Yefei, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The higher pressure coefficient is the major characteristics of the abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoirs, which the pressure coefficient generally exceeds 1.2 and the initial formation pressure is higher than normal sandstone reservoirs. Due to the large pressure difference between initial formation and saturated pressure, oil wells are capable to production with high flow rate by the natural energy at early production stage. When the formation pressure drops to the saturation pressure, the water or gas is usually injected to stabilize the well productivity and sustain the formation pressure. Based on the characteristics of Kenkiak oilfield, a typical abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoir, a well group model is designed to simulate and analyze the influence factors on water flooding. The conclusion is that permeability, interlayer difference and reserve abundance are the main three factors on the water flooding development in these reservoirs.

  20. Seasonal Changes in Plankton Food Web Structure and Carbon Dioxide Flux from Southern California Reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Adamczyk

    Full Text Available Reservoirs around the world contribute to cycling of carbon dioxide (CO2 with the atmosphere, but there is little information on how ecosystem processes determine the absorption or emission of CO2. Reservoirs are the most prevalent freshwater systems in the arid southwest of North America, yet it is unclear whether they sequester or release CO2 and therefore how water impoundment impacts global carbon cycling. We sampled three reservoirs in San Diego, California, weekly for one year. We measured seasonal variation in the abundances of bacteria, phytoplankton, and zooplankton, as well as water chemistry (pH, nutrients, ions, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], which were used to estimate partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2, and CO2 flux. We found that San Diego reservoirs are most often undersaturated with CO2 with respect to the atmosphere and are estimated to absorb on average 3.22 mmol C m(-2 day(-1. pCO2 was highest in the winter and lower in the summer, indicating seasonal shifts in the magnitudes of photosynthesis and respiration associated with day length, temperature and water inputs. Abundances of microbes (bacteria peaked in the winter along with pCO2, while phytoplankton, nutrients, zooplankton and DOC were all unrelated to pCO2. Our data indicate that reservoirs of semi-arid environments may primarily function as carbon sinks, and that carbon flux varies seasonally but is unrelated to nutrient or DOC availability, or the abundances of phytoplankton or zooplankton.

  1. Study of Controll over Karstification of Buried Carbonate Hill Reservoir in Renqiu Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊吉; 韩宝平; 罗承建

    2004-01-01

    Based on boreholes and dynamic development data, the control over karstification of buried carbonate hill reservoir in Renqiu oil field was studied. The result shows that 1) Karstific caves, fissures, and pores in dolomite of Wumishan Formation are the most important reservoir voids, 2) the barrier of argillaceous dolomite can result in the existence of residual oil areas under oil-water interface, and 3) the mosores located on the surface of buried hill are also potential areas of residual oil.

  2. Probe imaging studies of magnetic susceptibility and permeability for sensitive characterisation of carbonate reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Bigaliyeva, Akmaral; Dubinin, Vladislav

    2016-04-01

    In this study were disclosed the main principals of identifying petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs such as porosity, permeability and magnetic susceptibility. While exploring and developing reservoir there are significant diversity of tasks that can be solved by appropriate knowledge of properties which are listed above. Behavior of fluid flow, distribution of hydrocarbons and other various industrial applications can be solved by measuring areal distribution of these petrophysical parameters. The results demonstrate how magnetic probe and hysteresis measurements correlate with petrophysical parameters in carbonate reservoirs. We made experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of how much magnetic susceptibility depends on the porosity of the rocks and analyzed data with graphics. In theoretical model of the carbonate rocks we considered calcite, dolomite, quartz and combinations of calcite and dolomite, calcite and Fe-dolomite, calcite and quartz, calcite and aragonite with increasing concentrations of the dolomite, Fe-dolomite, quartz and aragonite up to 50% with step of 5%. Here we defined dependence of magnetic susceptibility from the porosity: the higher porosity measurements, the less slope of magnetic susceptibility, consequently mass magnetization is higher for diamagnetic and lower for paramagnetic carbonate rocks, but in the both cases magnetic susceptibility tries to reach zero with increasing of the total porosity. Rock measurements demonstrate that reservoir zones of the low diamagnetic magnetic susceptibility are generally correlated with higher permeability and also porosity distribution. However for different carbonate reservoirs we establish different relationships depending on the complexity of their mineralogy and texture. Application of integral understanding in distribution of permeability, porosity and mineral content in heterogeneous carbonates represented by this approach can be useful tool for carbonate reservoir

  3. Preliminary Rock Physics Characterization of Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.; Kim, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Mississippian formations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin are known to have large hydrocarbon resources. The Lodgepole formation is the most important reservoir for oil production in Daly and Virden fields. In this study, we performed preliminary reservoir characterization using rock physics modeling. We first delineated the Lodgepole formation by geological information, well-logs and core analysis data. Then, we conducted rock physics analyses such as GR-AI, DEM modeling, porosity-Vp, density-Vp, and porosity-permeability. We identified the Lodgepole formation has different porosity types, volume of shale, and the degree of fractures in difference intervals. In the upper part of the formation, we found that vuggy pores are well developed. Inter-particular porosity and fractures become significant as the depth increases. We found that the lower part can be divided into two groups by acoustic impedance. The prospective reservoir interval, one of the two groups, has higher fracture density, which can be identified by lower acoustic impedance. This result also implies that we could also use AVO analyses to delineate good reservoir intervals. In conclusion, rock physics modeling can be effectively applied to characterize the Lodgepole formation quantitatively with well-log and core analysis data. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A).

  4. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. Second quarterly technical progress report, [January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Production from the Marg Area 1 at Port Neches is averaging 392 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) for this quarter. The production drop is due to fluctuation in both GOR and BS&W on various producing well, coupled with low water injectivity in the reservoir. We were unable to inject any tangible amount of water in the reservoir since late January. Both production and injection problems are currently being evaluated to improve reservoir performance. Well Kuhn (No. 6) was stimulated with 120 MMCF of CO{sub 2}, and was placed on production in February 1, 1995. The well was shut in for an additional month after producing dry CO{sub 2} initially. The well was opened again in early April and is currently producing about 40 BOPD. CO{sub 2} injection averaged 11.3 MMCFD including 4100 MMCFD purchased from Cardox, while water injection averaged 1000 BWPD with most of the injection occurring in the month of January.

  5. Research on Microscopic Characteristics of Carbonate Reservoir Fracture fillings Based on Microscopic Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hole and seepage of carbonate rocks depend on the structural components of carbonate rocks and the combination relationship with these structural components under multi-scale. The quality of filling in reservoir fracture is an important part of fracture description. In this paper, the method of microscopic infrared spectral imaging was used, and the spectra cubic database was established by means of spectral imaging experiment. Each single band image which characterizes the related substances was extracted and the microcosmic characters of the filling in carbonate reservoirs fracture from Wumishan formation in Renqiu oilfield were studied. The spatial distribution maps of different chemical composition and groups in the core sample were obtained. The distribution of different hydrocarbon in the fracture of the reservoir and the connectivity of the pores etc. were better revealed

  6. Logging Evaluation of the Ordovician Carbonate Reservoir Beds in the Lungudong Region,Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wenjing; XIAO Chengwen; LIU Luofu; QI Guangzhong; JIANG Zhenxue; YUAN Yunchun; WANG Weili; YANG Song

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,great progress has been made constantly in oil and gas exploration in the Lungudong region of the Tarim Basin.However,progress has been slow in the evaluation of its main oil-producing horizons-the Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds.Based on previous researches and on the various data such as drilling,geology and oil test,in combination with the interpretation of each single-well imaging and conventional logging data,and through analysis and comparison,the identification methods in imaging and conventional logging for four types of carbonate reservoir beds in this region are summarized in this paper.Calculation formulas for four reservoir bed parameters,i.e.shale content,porosity,permeability and oil saturation in this region are proposed;and reservoir beds in this region are divided into three levels (Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ) by combining oil test data and logging data,The lower limits of the effective porosity of reservoir beds and the fracture porosity of effective reservoir beds are determined as 1.8% and 0.04%,respectively.The physical property parameters are calculated by conventional logging curves,and the most advantageous areas for reservoir development are predicted comprehensively.On the plane,the high-value zones of reservoir bed parameters are mainly concentrated in the N-S-trending strike-slip fault,the Sangtamu fault horst zone and near the LG38 well area;vertically,the reservoir bed parameters of the Yijianfang Formation are better than those of the Yingshan and Lianglitage formations.

  7. Diagenesis and Restructuring Mechanism of Oil and Gas Reservoir in the Marine Carbonate Formation, Northeastern Sichuan: A Case Study of the Puguang Gas Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Chunguo; WANG Jianjun; ZOU Huayao; ZHU Yangming; WANG Cunwu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the technology of balanced cross-section and physical simulation experiments associated with natural gas geochemical characteristic analyses, core and thin section observations, it has been proven that the Puguang gas reservoir has experienced two periods of diagenesis and restructuring since the Late lndo-Chinese epoch. One is the fluid transfer controlled by the tectonic movement and the other is geochemical reconstruction controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The middle Yanshan epoch was the main period that the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR. TSR can recreate the fluid in the gas reservoir, which makes the gas drying index higher and carbon isotope heavier because C_(2+) (ethane and heavy hydrocarbon) and ~(12)C (carbon 12 isotope) is first consumed relative to CH_4 and ~(13)C (carbon 13 isotope). However, the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon, sulfureted hydrogen (H_2S), and water) and reservoir rock results in reservoir rock erosion and anhydrite alteration, which increases porosity in reservoir, thereby improving the petrophysical properties. Superimposed by later tectonic movement, the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment, one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch, after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  8. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-03-06

    There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentration and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, mean PIC accumulation rates in seagrass sediments is 126.3 ± 0.7 g PIC m-2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  9. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m-2 yr-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrated by the comparison of carbon (PIC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  10. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazarrasa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p -2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2, these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  11. Introduction to the special section: Recent advancement on integrated carbonate reservoirs prediction with complex secondary storage space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs in Western China show tremendous exploration and development potential.These have become the key area for oil and gas reserves addition and sustainable resource development for China.Compared to conventional carbonate reservoirs,prediction of this kind of reservoir predominated by secondary storage is much more difficult and presents significant challenges.Seismic detection of dissolution pores and fractures always requires a high standard of technology,which puts further serious challenges on exploration and creates many technological issues for field development plans.The key geophysical problems are tackled based on a detailed analysis of exploration issues for such complex carbonate reservoirs.

  12. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this quarter, work continued on the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement. Most of the work concentrated on the representation of the three-phase flow in terms of a double-drainage process. Work continued on the optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optimal control methods. The effort at present is concentrating in fine-tuning the optimization algorithm as well as in developing control methodologies with different constraints. In parallel, we continued experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell with two controlled injection wells and one production well. In the area of chemical additives work continued on the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  13. 3D Geostatistical Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis in a Carbonate Reservoir, SW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of geostatistical reservoir characterization is to utilize wide variety of data, in different scales and accuracies, to construct reservoir models which are able to represent geological heterogeneities and also quantifying uncertainties by producing numbers of equiprobable models. Since all geostatistical methods used in estimation of reservoir parameters are inaccurate, modeling of “estimation error” in form of uncertainty analysis is very important. In this paper, the definition of Sequential Gaussian Simulation has been reviewed and construction of stochastic models based on it has been discussed. Subsequently ranking and uncertainty quantification of those stochastically populated equiprobable models and sensitivity study of modeled properties have been presented. Consequently, the application of sensitivity analysis on stochastic models of reservoir horizons, petrophysical properties, and stochastic oil-water contacts, also their effect on reserve, clearly shows any alteration in the reservoir geometry has significant effect on the oil in place. The studied reservoir is located at carbonate sequences of Sarvak Formation, Zagros, Iran; it comprises three layers. The first one which is located beneath the cap rock contains the largest portion of the reserve and other layers just hold little oil. Simulations show that average porosity and water saturation of the reservoir is about 20% and 52%, respectively.

  14. Characterization of a Miocene carbonate reservoir analog in Southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeginste, V.; Camoin, G.; Eisenhauer, A.; Pézard, P.; Lapointe, P.

    2009-04-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain more than half the world's oil reserves, including highly productive reservoirs in Cretaceous and Cenozoic carbonates from the Middle East and Southeastern Asia. They are usually characterized by the complexity both of their internal architecture and of the distribution of their diagenetic fabrics which hampers crosshole correlations at various scales, and predictions regarding flow paths and volumes of fluids. Reservoir analogs can have the advantage of easier accessibility and sampling and less severe diagenetic alteration. Their study often provides information complementary to the knowledge of hydrocarbon reservoirs and it leads to a better understanding of carbonate systems, important to make better predictions on other potential reservoirs. Significant advances can be made from joint research in natural laboratories integrating outcrops and shallow boreholes, with extensive control on geophysical, geological and petrophysical parameters. The southern part of the island of Mallorca appears as a natural laboratory where a direct comparison between outcrop and shallow subsurface datasets is the objective of the current study. This region is characterized both by spectacular outcrops, especially in the Cabo Blanco area, which were previously studied [e.g. 1], and by shallow holes, 100 m deep on average, that have been drilled especially at Can Roses, Ses Pastores and Ses Sitjoles, from west to east. This geographical extension of the study area provides the opportunity to better explore and understand the Miocene carbonate complex which comprises the Llucmajor platform. This study incorporates a wide range of analytical techniques to characterize the reservoir aspects, such as conventional microscopy of thin sections, XRD analysis, isotopic carbon and oxygen analysis, isotopic strontium dating analysis, petrophysical measurements, high-resolution borehole images and CT scan data. These techniques are used to unravel the sedimentology

  15. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-08-24

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  16. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  17. Carbon stock estimation in the catchment of Kotli Bhel 1A hydroelectric reservoir, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Sharma, M P

    2016-12-01

    Constructions of dams/reservoirs all over the world are reported to emit significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and are considered as environmental polluters. Organic carbon is contributed by the forest in the catchment, part of soil organic carbon is transported through the runoffs to the reservoir and undergoes aerobic and anaerobic degradation with time to release GHGs to the atmosphere. Literature reveals that no work is available on the estimation of 'C' stock of trees of forest catchment for assessing/predicting the GHGs emissions from the reservoirs to atmosphere. To assess the GHGs emission potential of the reservoir, an attempt is made in the study to estimate the 'C' stock in the forest catchment of Kotli Bhel 1A hydroelectric reservoir located in Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India. For this purpose, the selected area was categorized into the site-I, II and III along the Bhagirathi River based on type of forest available in the catchment. The total carbon density (TCD) of tree species of different forest types was calculated using diameter at breast height (dbh) and trees height. The results found that the TCD of forest catchment was found 76.96MgCha(-1) as the highest at the site-II and 29.93MgCha(-1) as lowest at site-I with mean of 51.50MgCha(-1). The estimated forest 'C' stock shall be used to know the amount of carbon present before and after construction of the dam and to predict net GHGs emissions. The results may be helpful to study the potential of a given reservoir to release GHG and its subsequent impacts on global warming/climate challenges.

  18. Application of Carbonate Reservoir using waveform inversion and reverse-time migration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kim, H.; Min, D.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Recent exploration targets of oil and gas resources are deeper and more complicated subsurface structures, and carbonate reservoirs have become one of the attractive and challenging targets in seismic exploration. To increase the rate of success in oil and gas exploration, it is required to delineate detailed subsurface structures. Accordingly, migration method is more important factor in seismic data processing for the delineation. Seismic migration method has a long history, and there have been developed lots of migration techniques. Among them, reverse-time migration is promising, because it can provide reliable images for the complicated model even in the case of significant velocity contrasts in the model. The reliability of seismic migration images is dependent on the subsurface velocity models, which can be extracted in several ways. These days, geophysicists try to obtain velocity models through seismic full waveform inversion. Since Lailly (1983) and Tarantola (1984) proposed that the adjoint state of wave equations can be used in waveform inversion, the back-propagation techniques used in reverse-time migration have been used in waveform inversion, which accelerated the development of waveform inversion. In this study, we applied acoustic waveform inversion and reverse-time migration methods to carbonate reservoir models with various reservoir thicknesses to examine the feasibility of the methods in delineating carbonate reservoir models. We first extracted subsurface material properties from acoustic waveform inversion, and then applied reverse-time migration using the inverted velocities as a background model. The waveform inversion in this study used back-propagation technique, and conjugate gradient method was used in optimization. The inversion was performed using the frequency-selection strategy. Finally waveform inversion results showed that carbonate reservoir models are clearly inverted by waveform inversion and migration images based on the

  19. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Progress reports are presented by Task 3 conduct full-scale experimental field test and Task 4 data processing studies. For Task 3, interwell seismic experiments were conducted in the month of September at the University of Oklahoma Gypsy test site which is located in Pawnee County, Oklahoma. During the field test a full suite of interwell seismic data were acquired and will be used to extract rock porosity and permeability. In particular, interwell seismic experiments were conducted using two borehole hydrophone arrays (streamers) consisting of twelve detector channels (i.e., simultaneous source-to-detector measurements were made in two boreholes pairs having different separation distances) for source-independent seismic attenuation and dispersion studies.

  20. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-Term -- Class 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-07-08

    This report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  1. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS--NEAR TERM--CLASS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    1999-06-01

    This annual report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  2. Quarterly Report for LANL Activities: FY12-Q2 National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Rajesh J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-17

    This report summarizes progress of LANL activities related to the tasks performed under the LANL FWP FE102-002-FY10, National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program. This FWP is funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Overall, the NRAP activities are focused on understanding and evaluating risks associated with large-scale injection and long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in deep geological formations. One of the primary risks during large-scale injection is due to changes in geomechanical stresses to the storage reservoir, to the caprock/seals and to the wellbores. These changes may have the potential to cause CO{sub 2} and brine leakage and geochemical impacts to the groundwater systems. While the importance of these stresses is well recognized, there have been relatively few quantitative studies (laboratory, field or theoretical) of geomechanical processes in sequestration systems. In addition, there are no integrated studies that allow evaluation of risks to groundwater quality in the context of CO{sub 2} injection-induced stresses. The work performed under this project is focused on better understanding these effects. LANL approach will develop laboratory and computational tools to understand the impact of CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical stress by creating a geomechanical test bed using inputs from laboratory experiments, field data, and conceptual approaches. The Geomechanical Test Bed will be used for conducting sensitivity and scenario analyses of the impacts of CO{sub 2} injection. The specific types of questions will relate to fault stimulation and fracture inducing stress on caprock, changes in wellbore leakage due to evolution of stress in the reservoir and caprock, and the potential for induced seismicity. In addition, the Geomechanical Test Bed will be used to investigate the coupling of stress-induced leakage pathways with impacts on groundwater quality. LANL activities are performed under two tasks

  3. Tectonic control of the crustal organic carbon reservoir during the Precambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D J

    1994-01-01

    Carbon isotopic trends indicate that the crustal reservoir of reduced, organic carbon increased during the Proterozoic, particularly during periods of widespread continental rifting and orogeny. No long-term trends are apparent in the concentration of organic carbon in shales, cherts and carbonates. The age distribution of 261 sample site localities sampled for well-preserved sedimentary rocks revealed a 500-700-Ma periodicity which coincided with tectonic cycles. It is assumed that the numbers of sites are a proxy for mass of sediments. A substantial increase in the number of sites in the late Archean correlates with the first appearance between 2.9 and 2.5 Ga of extensive continental platforms and their associated sedimentation. It is proposed that the size of the Proterozoic crustal organic carbon reservoir has been modulated by tectonic control of the volume of sediments deposited in environments favorable for the burial and preservation of organic matter. Stepwise increases in this reservoir would have caused the oxidation state of the Proterozoic environment to increase in a stepwise fashion.

  4. Tectonic control of the crustal organic carbon reservoir during the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon isotopic trends indicate that the crustal reservoir of reduced, organic carbon increased during the Proterozoic, particularly during periods of widespread continental rifting and orogeny. No long-term trends are apparent in the concentration of organic carbon in shales, cherts and carbonates. The age distribution of 261 sample site localities sampled for well-preserved sedimentary rocks revealed a 500-700-Ma periodicity which coincided with tectonic cycles. It is assumed that the numbers of sites are a proxy for mass of sediments. A substantial increase in the number of sites in the late Archean correlates with the first appearance between 2.9 and 2.5 Ga of extensive continental platforms and their associated sedimentation. It is proposed that the size of the Proterozoic crustal organic carbon reservoir has been modulated by tectonic control of the volume of sediments deposited in environments favorable for the burial and preservation of organic matter. Stepwise increases in this reservoir would have caused the oxidation state of the Proterozoic environment to increase in a stepwise fashion.

  5. Carbon Reservoirs in Temperate South American Nothofagus Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Baswald

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are influencing the global carbon (C cycle due to the combustion of fossil fuels and due to changes in land use management. These activities are fostering the manmade greenhouse effect and thus global climate change. Negative effects for life on earth are accounted for.

  6. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer

  7. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  8. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  9. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, June 13--September 12, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 500 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,800 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 17,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on core analysis, gas-oil/oil-gas permeability tests, water-oil/oil-water permeability tests, water-gas permeability tests, electrical resistivity measurements, capillary pressure tests, reservoir surveillance, and paleontologic analysis.

  10. Effect of Faulting on Ordovician Carbonate Buried-Hill Reservoir Beds in Hetianhe Gas Field,Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Xiuxiang; Bai Zhongkai; Li Jianjiao; Wang Weiguang; Fu Hui; Wang Qinghua

    2008-01-01

    Ordovician carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds in the Hetianhe (和田河) gas field,located in the Mazhatage (玛扎塔格) structural belt on the southern margin of the Bachu (巴楚) faulted uplift,southwestern Tarim basin,were studied.Based on field survey,core and slice observation,the general characteristics of carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds and specifically Ordovician carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds in the Hetianhe gas field were discussed.The karst zone of the reservoir beds in Hetianhe gas field was divided into superficial karst zone,vertical infiltration karst zone,lower subsurface flow karst zone,and deep sluggish flow zone from top to bottom.The effects of faulting on Ordovician carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds in the Hetianhe gas field were obvious.The faulting intensified the karstification and increased the depth of denudation.Faulting and subsequent fracture growth modified the reservoir beds and improved the physical property and quality of the reservoir beds.Moreover,faulting enhanced the development of the dissolution holes and fractures and increased the thickness of the effective reservoir beds.Meanwhile,faulting made the high porosity-permeability carbonate belts,which created conditions for the hydrocarbon accumulation,develop near the fault zone.

  11. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  12. Modelling the effect of wettability distributions on oil recovery from microporous carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, W.; van Dijke, M. I. J.; Sorbie, K. S.; Wood, R.; Jiang, Z.; Harland, S.

    2016-09-01

    Carbonate-hosted hydrocarbon reservoirs are known to be weakly- to moderately oil-wet, but the pore-scale wettability distribution is poorly understood. Moreover, micropores, which often dominate in carbonate reservoirs, are usually assumed to be water-wet and their role in multi-phase flow is neglected. Modelling the wettability of carbonates using pore network models is challenging, because of our inability to attribute appropriate chemical characteristics to the pore surfaces and over-simplification of the pore shapes. Here, we implement a qualitatively plausible wettability alteration scenario in a two-phase flow network model that captures a diversity of pore shapes. The model qualitatively reproduces patterns of wettability alteration recently observed in microporous carbonates via high-resolution imaging. To assess the combined importance of pore-space structure and wettability on petrophysical properties, we consider a homogeneous Berea sandstone network and a heterogeneous microporous carbonate network, whose disconnected coarse-scale pores are connected through a sub-network of fine-scale pores. Results demonstrate that wettability effects are significantly more profound in the carbonate network, as the wettability state of the micropores controls the oil recovery.

  13. Simulated experiment evidences of the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate reservoirs: an example of Feixianguan Formation, east Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir of Feixianguan Formation of the Lower Triassic in the Sichuan Basin is the deepest buried carbonate reservoir in China, with developed secondary corrosion holes, high quantities carbonate reservoir, maximum effective carbonate reservoir thickness. Also Feixianguan gas reservoir has the highest quantities of H2S. Research discovers that there are close relationships between the formation of reservoir and H2S. The mutual actions between acidity fluid and carbonate promoted the forming of secondary carbonate holes. Through the experiment of corrosion of the samples of Feixianguan carbonate reservoir in saturated aqueous solution of hydrogen sulfide, the porosity and permeability increased greatly, porosity increased 2% and permeability increased nearly two quantity degrees, also the density became light, which confirm the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate.

  14. Quantifying Fracture Heterogeneity in Different Domains of Folded Carbonate Rocks to Improve Fractured Reservoir Analog Fluid Flow Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Gauthier, B.D.M.; Hardebol, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs is largely controlled by multiscale fracture networks. Significant variations of fracture network porosity and permeability are caused by the 3D heterogeneity of the fracture network characteristics, such as intensity, orientation and size. Characterizing fracture

  15. Growth and activity of reservoir microorganisms under carbon capture and storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a technology to decelerate global warming by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. To ensure safe long-term storage of CO2 in the underground a number of factors need to be considered. One of them is microbial activity in storage reservoirs, which can lead to the formation of acidic metabolites, H2S or carbonates which then might affect injectivity, permeability, pressure build-up and long-term operability. Our research focused on the effect of high CO2 concentrations on growth and activity of selected thermophilic fermenting and sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from deep reservoirs. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a certain sterilizing effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. However, when provided with a surface for attachment, CO2-inhibited cells restarted growth after CO2 release. The same was observed for organisms able to form spores. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

  16. Mechanisms controlling the carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton in karst reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to systematically understand the mechanisms controlling the carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton (δ13CPHYin freshwater ecosystems, seasonal changes in δ13CPHY and related environmental factors were determined in karst reservoirs from the Wujiang river basin, China. Substantial and systematic differences within seasons and reservoirs were observed for δ13CPHY, which ranged from -39.2‰ to -15.1‰. An increase in water temperature triggered fast growth of phytoplankton which assimilated more dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, resulting in the increase of δ13CPHY, δ13CDIC and pH. When the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2 was less than 10 mmol L–1, phytoplankton shifted to using HCO3– as a carbon source. This resulted in the sharp increase of δ13CPHY. The carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton tended to decrease with the increase of Bacillariophyta, which dominated in January and April, but tended to increase with the increase of Chlorophyta and Dinophyta, which dominated in July. Multiple regression equations suggested that the influence of biological factors such as taxonomic difference on δ13CPHY could be equal or more important than that of physical and chemical factors. Thus, the effect of taxonomic differences on δ13CPHY must be considered when explaining the δ13C of organic matter in lacustrine ecosystem.

  17. [Preliminary research on the feature of dissolved inorganic carbon in Wulixia Reservoir in summer, Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Pu, Jun-Bing; Yu, Shi; Zhang, Cheng; Au, Yik-Yu; Yuan, Dao-Xian; Yang, Hui; Tang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To gain more knowledge on the transformation process of dissolved inorganic carbon in a karst reservoir, in situ monitoring, sampling and lab experiments of water columns were carried out at various sampling sites along the flow line in Wulixia Reservoir, Guangxi, China during early July, 2013. Results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical characteristics of study areas were controlled by the carbonate equilibrium system and the hydrochemical type of all water samples was HCO3-Ca + Mg. (2) The DIC concentration decreased gradually (DIC(Average) : from 1.03 to 0.78 mmol x L(-1)) and the delta13C(DIC) increased gradually (delta13C(DIC(Average) : from -10.21per thousand to -6.62 per thousand) from the reservoir end area to dam area. Meanwhile, with the depth increase in water column, the DIC concentration increased gradually (DIC(Average) : from 0.86 to 1.05 mmol x L(-1)) and the delta13C(DIC) decreased gradually (delta13C(DIC(Average) : from -7.88 per thousand to -13.39 per thousand) from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir. Possible reasons for these research results were found as follows: (1) Dissolution-precipitation process of carbonate substance could be inhibited by other processes such as biogeochemical processes, which played little role in delta13C(DIC) variations. (2) Thermal stratification existed in the study areas which could influence the distribution of DIC and delta13C(DIC) by affecting the distribution of plankton and its orientation and strength of metabolism process, and the extent of organic matter decomposition, and so on.

  18. Organic Inclusions as an Indicator of Oil/Gas Potential Assessment of Carbonate Reservoir Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施继锡; 兰文波

    1993-01-01

    Organic inclusions could be formed at the stages of either primary or secondary migration of hydrocarbons so long as mineral crystallization or recrystallization takes place in the sediments, presenting a direct indicator of oil/gas evolution, migration and abundance.Based on the strdy of organic inclusions in carbonate-type reser voir beds of commercial importance from North China ,Xingjing ,North Jiangsu, Sichuan and Guizhou in China ,many inclusion parameters for oil/gas potential assessment of carbonate reservoir beds are summarized in this paper, including;1) Types of organic inclusion; Ccmmercially important oil beds are characterized by inclusions consisting of either pure liquid hydrocarbons or liquid plus minor gaseous hydrocarbons, while commercially important gas reservoirs are characterized by inclusions consisting of either pure gaseous hydrocarbons or gas plus minor liquid hydrocarbons.2)Quantity of organic inclusions:The num-ber of organic inclusions in commercially important oil/gas reservoirs is over 60% of the total inclusion percent-tage.3)Temperature of saline inclusions .The homogenization temperatures of contemporaneous saline inclu-sions in oil reservoirs range from 91-161℃, while in gas reservoirs from 150-250℃).4) Inclusion composition: In commercially important oil reservoirs, C1/C2=2-10,C1/C3=2-4,C1/C4=2-21,(C2-C4)/(C1-C4)(%)>20,(CH4+CO+H2)/CO2(molecules/g)=0.5-1.0,and in C2-C3-nC4 triangle diagram there should be an upside-down triangle with the apex within the ellipse, while in commercial gas reservoirs, C1/C2=10-35,C1/C3=14-82,C1/C4=21-200,(C2-C4)/(C1-C4)(%)1,and there would be an upright triangle with the apex within the ellipse.The abovementioned parameters have been used to evaluate a number of other unknown wells or regions and the results are very satisfactory.It is valid to use organic inclusions as an indicator to assess the oil/gas potential during oil/gas exploration and prospecting,This approach is effective

  19. Solid hydrocarbon: a migration-of-fines problem in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomando, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    The most familiar example of a migration-of-fines problem is authigenic kaolinite, which can detach, migrate through a pore system, and bridge pore throats, thus reducing permeability. under certain conditions, a similar problem is caused by solid hydrocarbon, independent of a mode of origin, which has precipitated in carbonate pore systems. Cores from several reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous of east Texas were used as the data base in this study. Three morphotypes of solid hydrocarbon have been identified from thin-section and scanning electron microscope observations: droplets, peanut brittle, and carpets. Droplets are small, individual, rounded particles scattered on pore walls. Peanut brittle ranges from a continuous to discontinuous thin coating with random rounded lumps that probably have droplet precursors. Carpets are thick, continuous coatings and, at the extreme, can effectively occlude whole pores. Initially, solid hydrocarbon reduces permeability without necessarily decreasing porosity significantly. Likewise, solid hydrocarbon cannot be detected directly from wireline logs. Acidizing to enhance communication to the well bore is a common completion procedure in limestone and calcareous sandstone reservoirs. In reservoirs containing solid hydrocarbon, acid etches the substrate and releases solid hydrocarbon, which migrates in the pore system and bridges pore throats. Differential well-bore pressure also may cause solid hydrocarbon to migrate. Therefore, wettability, which controls hydrocarbon adhesion to the pore walls, and the dominant morphotype are important factors in the extent of reservoir damage.

  20. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  1. Application of Polymeric Nanocomposites and Carbon Fiber Composites in the Production of Natural Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto João Pavani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is about the experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of reservoirs for storage of compressed natural gas (CNG consisting of a nanopolymeric liner coated with carbon fiber preimpregnated with epoxy resin applied by filament winding (FW. It addresses technical solutions adopted to optimize the reservoir as reinforcement with fiber, the process of healing and thermal analysis, as well as the hydrostatic testing to verify its resistance to the pressure required for CNG storage. Different nanoclays were incorporated to the polymer aiming to increase the strength of the liner and to reduce the thickness of its wall and the final weight of the reservoir as well as decreasing gas permeability. The obtained results were the basis for proposing an adaptation of the equation traditionally used for the dimensioning of the wall thickness of metallic pressure vessels to determine the number of layers needed to endure any internal pressure to which the reservoir is subjected. They indicate that the used methodology enables the production of pressure vessels for the storage of CNG, according to the ISO 11439:2013 Standard.

  2. A new laboratory method for evaluating formation damage in fractured carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Yan; Yan Jienian; Zou Shengli; Wang Shuqi; Lu Rende

    2008-01-01

    Natural carbonate core samples with artificial fractures are often used to evaluate the damage of fractured carbonate formations in the laboratory. It is shown that the most frequent error for evaluation results directly from the random width characterized by the artificial fractures. To solve this problem,a series of simulated fractured core samples made of stainless steel with a given width of fracture were prepared. The relative error for the width of artificial fracture decreased to 1%. The width of natural and artificial fractures in carbonate reservoirs can be estimated by image log data. A series of tests for formation damage were conducted by using the stainless steel simulated core samples flushed with different drilling fluids, such as the suifonate/polymer drill-in fluid and the solids-free drill-in fluid with or without ideal packing bridging materials. Based on the experimental results using this kind of simulated cores, a novel approach to the damage control of fractured carbonate reservoirs was presented. The effective temporary plugging ring on the end face of the simulated core sample can be observed clearly.The experimental results also show that the stainless steel simulated cores made it possible to visualize the solids and filtrate invasion.

  3. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  4. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  5. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  6. The stability of chalk during flooding of carbonated sea water at reservoir in-situ conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar I.; Madland, Merete V.

    2014-05-01

    Injection of CO2 into carbonate oil reservoirs has been proposed as a possible utilization of the captured CO2 due to its capability to enhance the oil recovery. For offshore reservoirs such as Ekofisk and Valhall it has been discussed to alternate the CO2 and sea water injection (WAG) to reduce costs and keep the beneficial effects of both sea water (SSW) and gas injection. Water and CO2 mix to form carbonic acids that enhance the solubility of carbonates, thus a serious concern has been raised upon the potential de-stabilization of the reservoirs during CO2 injection. In this study we focus on how carbonated sea water alters the mechanical integrity of carbonate rocks both to evaluate safety of carbon storage sites and in the planning of production strategies in producing oil fields since enhanced compaction may have both detrimental and beneficial effects. Here we will present results from long term experiments (approx. half year each) performed on Kansas outcrop chalk (38-41% porosity), which serves as model material to understand the physical and chemical interplaying processes taking place in chalk reservoirs. All tests are performed at uni-axial strain conditions, meaning that the confining radial stresses are automatically adjusted to ensure zero radial strain. The tests are performed at in-situ conditions and run through a series of stages that mimic the reservoir history at both Ekofisk and Valhall fields. We observe the strain response caused by the injected brine. The experimental stages are: (a) axial stress build-up by pore pressure depletion to stresses above yield with NaCl-brine which is inert to the chalk; (b) uni-axial creep at constant axial stresses with NaCl-brine; (c) sea water injection; and (d) injection of carbonated water (SSW+CO2) at various mixture concentrations. Two test series were performed in which the pore pressure was increased (re-pressurized) before stage (c) to explore the stress dependency of the fluid induced strain

  7. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1996-07-01

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. During this quarter, we focused on the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement. Two particular directions were pursued: One involves the derivation of relative permeabilities based on a recently completed work on the pore-level mechanics of steam displacement. Progress has been made to relate the relative permeabilities to effects such as heat transfer and condensation, which are specific to steam injection problems. The second direction involves the development of three-phase relative permeabilities using invasion percolation concepts. We have developed models that predict the specific dependence of the permeabilities of three immiscible phases (e.g. awe, water and gas) on saturations and the saturation history. Both works are still in progress. In addition, work continues in the analysis of the stability of phase change fronts in porous media using a macroscopic approach.

  8. The identification of multi-cave combinations in carbonate reservoirs based on sparsity constraint inverse spectral decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Di, Bangrang; Wei, Jianxin; Yuan, Sanyi; Si, Wenpeng

    2016-12-01

    Sparsity constraint inverse spectral decomposition (SCISD) is a time-frequency analysis method based on the convolution model, in which minimizing the l1 norm of the time-frequency spectrum of the seismic signal is adopted as a sparsity constraint term. The SCISD method has higher time-frequency resolution and more concentrated time-frequency distribution than the conventional spectral decomposition methods, such as short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) and S-transform. Due to these good features, the SCISD method has gradually been used in low-frequency anomaly detection, horizon identification and random noise reduction for sandstone and shale reservoirs. However, it has not yet been used in carbonate reservoir prediction. The carbonate fractured-vuggy reservoir is the major hydrocarbon reservoir in the Halahatang area of the Tarim Basin, north-west China. If reasonable predictions for the type of multi-cave combinations are not made, it may lead to an incorrect explanation for seismic responses of the multi-cave combinations. Furthermore, it will result in large errors in reserves estimation of the carbonate reservoir. In this paper, the energy and phase spectra of the SCISD are applied to identify the multi-cave combinations in carbonate reservoirs. The examples of physical model data and real seismic data illustrate that the SCISD method can detect the combination types and the number of caves of multi-cave combinations and can provide a favourable basis for the subsequent reservoir prediction and quantitative estimation of the cave-type carbonate reservoir volume.

  9. The controlling factors and distribution prediction of H2S formation in marine carbonate gas reservoir, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Generally, there are some anhydrites in carbonate reservoir, as H2S is also familiar in carbonate oil and gas reservoirs. Nowadays, natural gas with high H2S concentration is usually considered as TSR origin,so there is close relationship between H2S and anhydrite. On the contrary, some carbonate rocks with anhydrite do not contain H2S. Recently, researches show that H2S isonly a necessary condition of H2S formation. The reservoir porosity, sulfate ion content within formation water, reservoir temperature,oil/gas and water interface, hydrocarbon and some elements of reservoir rock have great controlling effects on the TSR occurrence. TSR deoxidizes hydrocarbon into the acidic gas such as H2S and CO2,and the H2S formation is controlled by TSR occurrence, so the relationship among reaction room, the contact chance of sulfate ion and hydrocarbon, the reservoir temperature has great influence on the TSR reaction. H2S has relatively active chemical quality, so it is still controlled by the content of heavy metal ion. Good conditions of TSR reaction and H2S preservation are the prerequisite of H2S distribution prediction. This paper builds a predictive model based on the characteristic of natural gas reservoir with high H2S-bearing. In the porosity reservoir with anhydrite, the formation water is rich in sulfate and poor in heavy metal ion. Oil and gas fill and accumulate in the gas reservoir with good preservation conditions, and they suffered high temperature later, which indicates the profitable area of natural gas with high H2S-bearing.

  10. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2015-10-26

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, reservoir-simulation toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, whereas the MD simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Technologies from several different fields are used to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large-scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in subsurface geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the few attractive and practical solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and address the global-warming threat. Fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures under geological conditions are essential for accurate simulations. In this work, CO2 sequestration is presented as a first example for coupling reservoir simulation and MD, although the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical processes in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability is observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well-demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to one billion cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to couple reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large-scale modeling. Because of the complexity of

  11. Reservoir uncertainty, Precambrian topography, and carbon sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; McBride, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration sites are evaluated by studying the local geological structure and confirming the presence of both a reservoir facies and an impermeable seal not breached by significant faulting. The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone is a blanket sandstone that underlies large parts of Midwest United States and is this region's most significant carbon sequestration reservoir. An assessment of the geological structure of any Mt. Simon sequestration site must also include knowledge of the paleotopography prior to deposition. Understanding Precambrian paleotopography is critical in estimating reservoir thickness and quality. Regional outcrop and borehole mapping of the Mt. Simon in conjunction with mapping seismic reflection data can facilitate the prediction of basement highs. Any potential site must, at the minimum, have seismic reflection data, calibrated with drill-hole information, to evaluate the presence of Precambrian topography and alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding the thickness or possible absence of the Mt. Simon at a particular sequestration site. The Mt. Simon is thought to commonly overlie Precambrian basement granitic or rhyolitic rocks. In places, at least about 549 m (1800 ft) of topographic relief on the top of the basement surface prior to Mt. Simon deposition was observed. The Mt. Simon reservoir sandstone is thin or not present where basement is topographically high, whereas the low areas can have thick Mt. Simon. The paleotopography on the basement and its correlation to Mt. Simon thickness have been observed at both outcrops and in the subsurface from the states of Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of ``rock-typing`` to characterize carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikwuakor, K.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the project was to apply techniques of ``rock-typing`` and quantitative formation evaluation to borehole measurements in order to identify reservoir and non-reservoir rock-types and their properties within the ``C`` zone of the Ordovician Red River carbonates in the northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota areas of the Williston Basin. Rock-typing discriminates rock units according to their pore-size distribution. Formation evaluation estimates porosities and pore fluid saturation. Rock-types were discriminated using crossplots involving three rock-typing criteria: (1) linear relationship between bulk density and porosity, (2) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and porosity, and (3) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and bulk density. Each rock-type was quantitatively characterized by the slopes and intercepts established for different crossplots involving the above variables, as well as porosities and fluid saturations associated with the rock-types. All the existing production was confirmed through quantitative formation evaluation. Highly porous dolomites and anhydritic dolomites contribute most of the production, and constitute the best reservoir rock-types. The results of this study can be applied in field development and in-fill drilling. Potential targets would be areas of porosity pinchouts and those areas where highly porous zones are downdip from non-porous and tight dolomites. Such areas are abundant. In order to model reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, a more localized (e.g. field scale) study, expanded to involve other rock-typing criteria, is necessary.

  13. The impact of reservoir conditions on the residual trapping of carbon dioxide in Berea sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel C.

    2015-04-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in deep brine-filled permeable rocks is an important tool for CO2 emissions mitigation on industrial scales. Residual trapping of CO2 through capillary forces within the pore space of the reservoir is one of the most significant mechanisms for storage security and is also a factor determining the ultimate extent of CO2 migration within the reservoir. In this study we have evaluated the impact of reservoir conditions of pressure, temperature, and brine salinity on the residual trapping characteristic curve of a fired Berea sandstone rock. The observations demonstrate that the initial-residual characteristic trapping curve is invariant across a wide range of pressure, temperature, and brine salinities and is also the same for CO2-brine systems as a N2-water system. The observations were made using a reservoir condition core-flooding laboratory that included high-precision pumps, temperature control, the ability to recirculate fluids for weeks at a time, and an X-ray CT scanner. Experimental conditions covered pressures of 5-20 MPa, temperatures of 25-50°C, and 0-5 mol/kg NaCl brine salinity. A novel coreflooding approach was developed, making use of the capillary end effect to create a large range in initial CO2 saturation (0.15-0.6) in a single coreflood. Upon subsequent flooding with CO2-equilibriated brine, the observation of residual saturation corresponded to the wide range of initial saturations before flooding resulting in a rapid construction of the initial-residual curve. For each condition we report the initial-residual curve and the resulting parameterization of the Land hysteresis models.

  14. Petrophysical Clasification of Different Rocks in Carbonate Reservoirs of the Northern Cuban Heavy Oil Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Reyes Paredes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability is one of the main parameters to classify the porosity environment, this parametercan't be measured by log's tools, and it has no direct relation with the total porosity. It is closely relatedto the kind of rock (size and distribution of particles. In the Northern Cuban Heavy Oil Belt (FNCPC,the reservoirs are made up of carbonate rocks (mudstone / wackestone, with fracture porosity andother types of porosity such as: joins of dissolution and estilolitos formed from diagenetic processes.The different formations frequently show heterogeneities that can be noticeable hindering their owncharacterization. The cores present a very poor recuperation and on numerous occasions recoveringonly intervals that don't contribute anything to the flow of fluids. The analysis about different kinds ofrocks is done in this article; it is conceived throughout data of cores and thin sections. The petrophysicalclassification of different kinds of rocks for carbonate reservoirs are established from the porosity andpermeability relationships and porosity environment structure.

  15. The COS-Dwarfs Survey: The Carbon Reservoir Around sub-L* Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Werk, Jessica K; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Peeples, Molly S; Prochaska, J Xavier; Tripp, Todd M; Katz, Neal; Davé, Romeel; Fox, Andrew; Thom, Christopher; Ford, Amanda Brady; Weinberg, David H; Burchett, Joseph N; Kollmeier, Juna A

    2014-01-01

    We report new observations of circumgalactic gas from the COS-Dwarfs survey, a systematic investigation of the gaseous halos around 43 low-mass z $\\leq$ 0.1 galaxies using background QSOs observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. From the projected 1D and 2D distribution of C IV absorption, we find that C IV absorption is detected out to ~ 0.5 R$_{vir}$ of the host galaxies. The C IV absorption strength falls off radially as a power law and beyond 0.5 R$_{vir}$, no C IV absorption is detected above our sensitivity limit of ~ 50-100 m$\\AA$. We find a tentative correlation between detected C IV absorption strength and star formation, paralleling the strong correlation seen in highly ionized oxygen for L~L* galaxies by the COS-Halos survey. The data imply a large carbon reservoir in the CGM of these galaxies, corresponding to a minimum carbon mass of $\\gtrsim$ 1.2$\\times 10^6$ $M_\\odot$ out to ~ 110 kpc. This mass is comparable to the carbon mass in the ISM and more than the carbon mass currently in stars o...

  16. Characterization from borehole wall and X-ray scan images of heterogeneities in carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, V.; Pezard, P. A.; Garing, C.; Gouze, P.; Camoin, G.; Lapointe, P.

    2009-12-01

    Salt water intrusion in coastal reservoirs is highly influenced by geological and petrophysical structures. In particular, heterogeneities and anisotropy in porous media (karst, vug) control fluid transport and dispersion. To develop new strategies for the quantitative description and analysis of fluid flow and salt transport in coastal aquifers, a new experimental site was developed in SE Mallorca (Spain) in the context of the ALIANCE EC project (2002-2005). Multi-scalar quantitative and descriptive methods (from µm to m) are developed to identify and map microstructures, heterogeneities and their hydrogeological impact on the reservoir. The objective of this study is to better understand the link between geological and hydrogeological properties of heterogeneous reservoir. The Mallorcan site cuts the Miocene carbonate reef platform and is located 6 km inland, where a salt wedge transition is found from 60 to 80 m depth. The geological structure includes large multi-scale heterogeneities, often bound to lateral facies variations. This experimental site provides thus a unique laboratory to study saltwater intrusion processes and develop new downhole investigation methods. This study focuses on borehole geophysical measurements and images, and X-ray core scan images. New image analysis methods have been developed to better characterize heterogeneities in terms of size distribution, aspect ratio and porosity. Optical and acoustic borehole wall images offer a continuous insight into meso-scale porosity (such as karstic channels and megapores) from mm to 100 m scale. X-ray cores scans were obtained from a tomography scanner by TOTAL. These two methodologies from RX tomography scans and borehole wall images are compared and discussed. Petrophysical parameters were extracted from X-ray images with a dedicated 3D data analysis software. The scan images lead to the identification and quantification of the micro- and vuggy porosity. It is found that the distribution of

  17. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Work has been initiated during this first quarter under all four program tasks and by all major participants as described. Task 1.0 activity (establish power plant reference design) concentrated upon definition of user requirements and establishment of power plant subsystem alternatives and characteristics. Task 2.0 work (stack and cell design development and verification) was initiated with a heavy emphasis upon test facilities preparation. A total of 27 laboratory cells were operated during this reporting period and a total of nine cells continued on test at the end of the quarter. Investigation of alternative anode and cathode materials proceeded; a dual-porosity anode was fabricated and tested. Over 10,000 endurance hours on a state-of-the-art cell carried-over from a previous program has been achieved and 1500 hours endurance has been obtained with sheet metal cells. Results presented for electrolyte structure development include comparative data for spray-dried and modified aqueous slurry process powders. Shake-down tests with a rotating disc electrode apparatus for fundamental measurements are described. Concept designs for both prototype and subscale stacks have been identified. Task 3.0 effort (development capability for full-scale stack tests) included preparation of an overall test plan to commercialization for molten carbonate fuel cells and of a functional specification for the tenth-scale stack test facility; drafts of both documents were completed for internal review. Cost-effective manufacturing assessment of available designs and processes was initiated. Task 4.0 work (develop capabilities for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas) included gathering of available contaminants concentration and effects information and preparation of initial projections of contaminant ranges and concentrations. Accomplishments to date and activities planned for the next quarter are described.

  18. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  19. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  20. Seasonal patterns in carbon dioxide in 15 mid-continent (USA) reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John R.; Obrecht, Daniel V.; Graham, Jennifer; Balmer, Michelle B.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Downing, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lakes are important sites for atmospheric CO2 exchange and so play a substantial role in the global carbon budget. Previous research has 2 weaknesses: (1) most data have been collected only during the open-water or summer seasons, and (2) data are concentrated principally on natural lakes in northern latitudes. Here, we report on the full annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 exchanges of 15 oligotrophic to eutrophic reservoirs in the Glacial Till Plains of the United States. With one exception, these reservoirs showed an overall loss of CO2 during the year, with most values within the lower range reported for temperate lakes. There was a strong cross-system seasonal pattern: an average of 70% of total annual CO2 efflux occurred by the end of spring mixis; some 20% of annual flux was reabsorbed during summer stratification; and the remaining 50% of efflux was lost during autumnal mixing. Net annual flux was negatively correlated with depth and positively correlated with both water residence time and DOC, with the smallest annual CO2 efflux measured in shallow fertile impoundments. Strong correlations yield relationships allowing regional up-scaling of CO2 evasion. Understanding lacustrine CO2 uptake and evasion requires seasonal analyses across the full range of lake trophic states and morphometric attributes.

  1. Rock physics modeling of heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs:porosity estimation and hydrocarbon detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hao; Ba Jing; Carcione Jose; Li Jin-Song; Tang Gang; Zhang Xing-Yang; He Xin-Zhen; Ouyang Hua

    2014-01-01

    In heterogeneous natural gas reservoirs, gas is generally present as small patch-like pockets embedded in the water-saturated host matrix. This type of heterogeneity, also called“patchy saturation”, causes significant seismic velocity dispersion and attenuation. To establish the relation between seismic response and type of fluids, we designed a rock physics model for carbonates. First, we performed CT scanning and analysis of the fluid distribution in the partially saturated rocks. Then, we predicted the quantitative relation between the wave response at different frequency ranges and the basic lithological properties and pore fluids. A rock physics template was constructed based on thin section analysis of pore structures and seismic inversion. This approach was applied to the limestone gas reservoirs of the right bank block of the Amu Darya River. Based on poststack wave impedance and prestack elastic parameter inversions, the seismic data were used to estimate rock porosity and gas saturation. The model results were in good agreement with the production regime of the wells.

  2. Discrete Fracture Network Modelling in a Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoir in the Jingbei Oilfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach of discrete fracture network modelling for a naturally fractured buried-hill carbonate reservoir in the Jingbei Oilfield by using a 3D seismic survey, conventional well logs, and core data. The ant tracking attribute, extracted from 3D seismic data, is used to detect the faults and large-scale fractures. Fracture density and dip angle are evaluated by observing drilling cores of seven wells. The fracture density distribution in spatiality was predicted in four steps; firstly, the ant tracking attribute was extracted as a geophysical log; then an artificial neural network model was built by relating the fracture density with logs, e.g., acoustic, gamma ray, compensated neutron, density, and ant tracking; then 3D distribution models of acoustic, gamma ray, compensated neutron and density were generated by using a Gaussian random function simulation; and, finally, the fracture density distribution in 3D was predicted by using the generated artificial neural network model. Then, different methods were used to build the discrete fracture network model for different types of fractures of which large-scale fractures were modelled deterministically and small-scale fractures were modelled stochastically. The results show that the workflow presented in this study is effective for building discrete fracture network models for naturally fractured reservoirs.

  3. An integrated approach to remove and mitigate carbonate scale in a low temperature sandstone reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saiari, H.A.; Nasr-El-Din, H.A.

    2006-03-15

    Calcium carbonate and iron sulfide scales were detected in several wells in a low temperature sandstone reservoir. These scales were detected downhole; covering perforations and in-take of submersible pumps. The presence of scale has adversely affected well performance. The paper will present the results of detailed studies conducted to design and field test acid treatment to remove the scale and a new scale squeeze treatment to mitigate scale formation. The treatment has been successfully applied to more than 35 wells. Some of these wells were de scaled before the squeeze, while other wells were squeeze before scale detection. Field data indicated that the acid treatment resorted well productivity. The scale squeeze treatment which utilized a newly developed inhibitor was successfully applied in the field and has a life time that exceeded two years in most of the treated wells. (Author)

  4. Study of ionically modified water performance in carbonate reservoir system by multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    in other cases. Most of the published results attributed EOR to improved water wetness in initially oil-wet carbonates. Nevertheless, in a few studies EOR was observed without apparent wettability alteration. We undertake the analysis of a large set of published recovery experiments to try to identify...... the critical mechanisms at the pore scale. Better pore scale physico-chemical understanding will guide to formulate accurate reservoir-scale models. This paper presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of the proposed mechanisms using multivariate data analysis. Detailed review of the subject, including...... mechanisms with supporting and contradictory evidence has been presented by Sohal et al. (2016). In this study, the significance of each contributing factor to EOR was quantified and subjected to rigorous multivariate statistical analysis. The analysis was limited because there is no uniform methodology...

  5. Characterization and prevention of formation damage for fractured carbonate reservoir formations with low permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Yong; Yan Jienian

    2008-01-01

    Stress sensitivity and water blocking in fractured carbonate reservoir formations with low permeability were determined as the main potential damage mechanisms during drilling and completion operations in the ancient buried hill Ordovician reservoirs in the Tarim Basin. Geological structure,lithology, porosity, permeability and mineral components all affect the potential for formation damage.The experimental results showed that the permeability loss was 83.8%-98.6% caused by stress sensitivity,and was 27.9%-48.1% caused by water blocking. Based on the experimental results, several main conclusions concerning stress sensitivity can be drawn as follows: the lower the core permeability and the smaller the core fracture width, the higher the stress sensitivity. Also, stress sensitivity results in lag effect for both permeability recovery and fracture closure. Aimed at the mechanisms of formation damage, a modified low-damage mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid system was developed,which was mainly composed of low-fluorescence shale control agent, filtration control agent, lowfluorescence lubricant and surfactant. The results of experimental evaluation and field test showed that the newly-developed drilling fluid and engineering techniques provided could dramatically increase the return permeability (over 85%) of core samples. This drilling fluid had such advantages as good rheological and lubricating properties, high temperature stability, and low filtration rate (API filtration less than 5 ml after aging at 120 ℃ for 4 hours). Therefore, fractured carbonate formations with low permeability could be protected effectively when drilling with the newly-developed drilling fluid.Meanwhile, field test showed that both penetration rate and bore stability were improved and the soaking time of the drilling fluid with formation was sharply shortened, indicating that the modified MMH drilling fluid could meet the requirements of drilling engineering and geology.

  6. Characterisation of epeiric ''layer-cake'' carbonate reservoirs: Upper Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic), the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkhataria, R.; Aigner, T.; Poeppelreiter, M.C.; Pipping, J.C.P. [Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Upper Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) carbonates produce natural gas at Coevorden field in the NE Netherlands. This is currently the only field that produces gas from this succession although several other prospects have been identified nearby. In order to help develop these hydrocarbons, this study proposes a facies and reservoir model of the Upper Muschelkalk in the NE Netherlands together with a regional framework intended to assist in further evaluation. Distribution of facies and reservoir properties of the Upper Muschelkalk carbonates in the NE Netherlands indicate deposition on a storm-dominated epeiric ramp with a very low gradient. The predominantly muddy and marly lithofacies types in proximal and distal parts of the ramp gradually interfinger with a shoreline-detached ''shoal''-like ooidal grainstone complex. The best reservoir quality (permeability up to 60 mD) is recognised within dolomitised peloid ooid grainstones. These are interpreted as high-energy backshoal deposits. Reservoir quality decreases in the limestone-dominated ''shoal'' facies and the muddier foreshoal facies. A four-fold hierarchy of depositional cycles describes the systematic and thus predictable vertical variation in reservoir quality (permeability) and quantity (net-to-gross). High-resolution correlation suggests that medium-scale cycles (5 to 15 metres thick) can be traced for hundreds of kilometres. Small-scale cycles (1 to 3 metres thick) are persistent for several tens of kilometres and have sheet-like geometries. Individual reservoir units (several decimetres thick) appear to be laterally continuous over a maximum of a few kilometres although internal flow barriers might be expected. Mapping of Upper Muschelkalk thickness and facies has clearly defined backshoal, ''shoal'' and foreshoal facies belts with distinctly different reservoir characteristics. Typically, reservoir quality and quantity decrease with increasing

  7. the COS-Dwarfs survey: the carbon reservoir around sub-L* galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Tumlinson, Jason; Peeples, Molly S.; Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95140 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Burchett, Joseph N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Ford, Amanda Brady [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kollmeier, Juna A., E-mail: bordoloi@stsci.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We report new observations of circumgalactic gas from the COS-Dwarfs survey, a systematic investigation of the gaseous halos around 43 low-mass z ≤ 0.1 galaxies using background QSOs observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. From the projected one-dimensional and two-dimensional distribution of C IV absorption, we find that C IV is detected out to ≈100 kpc (corresponding roughly to ≈0.5 R {sub vir}) of the host galaxies. The C IV absorption strength falls off radially as a power law, and beyond ≈0.5 R {sub vir}, no C IV absorption is detected above our sensitivity limit of ≈50-100 mÅ. We find a tentative correlation between detected C IV absorption strength and star formation, paralleling the strong correlation seen in highly ionized oxygen for L ∼ L* galaxies by the COS-Halos survey. The data imply a large carbon reservoir in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of these galaxies, corresponding to a minimum carbon mass of ≳ 1.2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} out to ∼110 kpc. This mass is comparable to the carbon mass in the interstellar medium and exceeds the carbon mass currently in the stars of these galaxies. The C IV absorption seen around these sub-L* galaxies can account for almost two-thirds of all W{sub r} ≥ 100 mÅ C IV absorption detected at low z. Comparing the C IV covering fraction with hydrodynamical simulations, we find that an energy-driven wind model is consistent with the observations whereas a wind model of constant velocity fails to reproduce the CGM or the galaxy properties.

  8. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996 (fifth quarter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program--based on advanced reservoir management methods--can significantly improve oil recovery. The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques while comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program, can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the US oil and gas industry. Results so far are described on geology, engineering, 3-D seismic, reservoir characterization and simulation, and technology transfer.

  9. Wettability evaluation of a carbonate reservoir rock from core to pore level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Yousef, H.Y.; Lichaa, P.M.; Al-Kaabi, A.U.; Alpustun, H.

    1995-10-01

    Wettability evaluation was performed during stags of as received, cleaned, and restored states on core samples form a Saudi Arabian carbonate reservoir. The wettability behavior from the chemistry of brine-oil-carbonate rock interaction was found to be neutral to slightly oil-wet. The pore-size distribution obtained from mercury injection data indicated that about 15--20 percent of the pore volume is not accessible to asphaltene particles in the crude oil. Therefore a mixed-wettability state can exist. These results were confirmed by the evaluation of the wettability of the cores using USBM and Amott techniques. The wettability at the pore level was studied using Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy. Rock samples were examined at irreducible water and residual oil saturations during cleaned and restored states. At irreducible water saturation, both oil and brine were present in the intergranular macroporosity and intragranular macropores and micropores. At residual oil saturation,oil was found in the form of isolated globules in the cleaned case. After aging, the oil is more loosely distributed in the porosity and generally contacts the pore walls. This indicates an evolution toward oil wetness with aging. These results are in agreement with the changes of wettability indices obtained using USBM technique.

  10. Identification and evaluation of fluvial-dominated deltaic (class 1 oil) reservoirs in Oklahoma. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankin, C.J. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States); Banken, M.K. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    1994-04-28

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS), the Geological Information Systems department, and the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma are engaging in a program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program includes the systematic and comprehensive collection and evaluation of information on all of Oklahoma`s FDD reservoirs and the recovery technologies that have been (or could be) applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. This data collection and evaluation effort will be the foundation for an aggressive, multifaceted technology transfer program that is designed to support all of Oklahoma`s oil industry, with particular emphasis on smaller companies and independent operators in their attempts to maximize the economic producibility of FDD reservoirs. Specifically, this project will identify all FDD oil reservoirs in the State; group those reservoirs into plays that have similar depositional and subsequent geologic histories; collect, organize and analyze all available data; conduct characterization and simulation studies on selected reservoirs in each play; and implement a technology transfer program targeted to the operators of FDD reservoirs to sustain the life expectancy of existing wells with the ultimate objective of increasing oil recovery.

  11. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    2001-10-30

    The focus of this project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent.

  12. 3D modeling of gas/water distribution in water-bearing carbonate gas reservoirs: the Longwangmiao gas field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chenghua; Li, ChaoChun; Ma, Zhonggao

    2016-10-01

    A water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir is an important natural gas resource being developed worldwide. Due to the long-term water/rock/gas interaction during geological evolution, complex gas/water distribution has formed under the superposed effect of sedimentary facies, reservoir space facies and gravity difference of fluid facies. In view of these challenges, on the basis of the conventional three-stage modeling method, this paper presents a modelling method controlled by four-stage facies to develop 3D model of a water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir. Key to this method is the reservoir property modelling controlled by two-stage facies, and the fluid property modelling controlled by another two-stage facies. The prerequisite of this method is a reliable database obtained from solid geological investigation. On the basis of illustrating the principles of the modelling method controlled by four-stage facies, this paper further implements systematically modeling of the heterogeneous gas/water distribution of the Longwangmiao carbonate formation in the Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan basin, China.

  13. Carbonate mound reservoirs in the paradox formation: An outcrop analogue along the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T. C. Jr.; Morgan, C.D. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eby, D.E. [Eby Petrography & Consulting, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Carbonate mound reservoirs within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation are major producers of oil and gas in the Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Outcrops of the Paradox Formation along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah provide small-scale analogues of reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, lithofacies, and geometry. These characteristics can be used in reservoir simulation models for secondary/tertiary recovery of oil from small fields in the basin. Exposures of the Paradox Formation Ismay zone in the Wild Horse Canyon area display lateral facies changes from phylloid algal mounds to off-mound detrital wedges or fans bounded at the top by a flooding surface. The phylloid mounds are composed of bafflestone, skeletal grainstone, packstone, and cementstone. Algal plates, brachiopods, bryozoans, and rugose corals are commonly found in the phylloid mounds. The mound wall is composed of rudstone, lumpstone, and cementstone. The detrital fan consists of transported algal material, grainstone, and mudstone with open-marine fossils. Within the mound complex is an inter-mound trough tentatively interpreted to be a tidal channel. The geometry and composition of the rocks in the trough significantly add to the overall heterogeneity of the mound. Reservoir models are being developed for possible water- and carbon-dioxide floods of small Paradox basin fields to determine the most effective secondary/tertiary recovery method. The models will include lithologic fabrics, flooding surfaces, and inter-mound troughs, based on the mound complex exposed at Wild Horse Canyon. This project may also provide reservoir information for simulation models in small Paleozoic carbonate mound fields in other basins worldwide.

  14. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  15. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring

  16. Determination of porosity and facies trends in a complex carbonate reservoir, by using 3-D seismic, borehole tools, and outcrop geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, T.G. Jr.; Comet, J.N.; Murillo, A.A. [Respol Exploracion, S.A., Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Mesozoic carbonate reservoirs are found in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain. A wide variation of porosities are found in the core samples and logs: vuggy, breccia, fractures, and cavern porosity. In addition, complex Tertiary carbonate geometries include olistostromes, breccia bodies, and reef buildups, which are found on top of Mesozoic carbonates. Predicting the porosity trends within these oil productive reservoirs requires an understanding of how primary porosity was further enhanced by secondary processes, including fractures, karstification, and dolomitization in burial conditions. Through an extensive investigation of field histories, outcrop geology, and seismic data, a series of basic reservoir styles have been identified and characterized by well log signature and seismic response. The distribution pattern of the different reservoirs styles is highly heterogeneous, but by integrating subsurface data and outcrop analogs, it is possible to distinguish field-scale and local patterns of both vertical and local variations in reservoir properties. Finally, it is important to quantify these reservoir properties through the study of seismic attributes, such as amplitude variations, and log responses at the reservoir interval. By incorporating 3-D seismic data, through the use of seismic inversion, it is possible to predict porosity trends. Further, the use of geostatistics can lead to the prediction of reservoir development within the carbonate facies.

  17. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoo, J.N.D.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A.

    1998-08-01

    Oxidation studies of coal fly ash have been carried out at partial pressures in the range 1 atmosphere down to 400 torr. The studies have also been carried out at 1 atmosphere for different temperatures in the range 500 to 750 C. The equipment used was a state-of-the-art Cann Thermogravimetric analyzer having sensitive microbalance that permitted measurements to .1 {micro}g. The analyzer is part of a GC/MS/TG setup in this laboratory. The fly ash was supplied by Delmarva Power Indian River Plant, DE. The samples were dried and stored in a desiccator to ensure that they remained dry prior to combustion. The combustion process inside the TGA is continuous and the heat released can be related to the percent of carbon consumed. The setup provided easy identification of the elements in the fly ash. The elemental analysis was also augmented by use of an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In the X-ray analysis the carbon in the fly ash was compared with that in a dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) standard obtained from the US Bureau of Mines (USBOM). Preliminary data show encouraging results in the rate of reduction of the residual carbon. Both analyses show reduction of carbon after burning.

  18. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Farrar, C.D.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Hausback, B.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values

  19. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  20. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  1. Sedimentary record of water column trophic conditions and sediment carbon fluxes in a tropical water reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero-Bravo, Vladislav; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2015-03-01

    Valle de Bravo (VB) is the main water reservoir of the Cutzamala hydraulic system, which provides 40% of the drinking water consumed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and exhibits symptoms of eutrophication. Nutrient (C, N and P) concentrations were determined in two sediment cores to reconstruct the water column trophic evolution of the reservoir and C fluxes since its creation in 1947. Radiometric methods ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) were used to obtain sediment chronologies, using the presence of pre-reservoir soil layers in one of the cores as an independent chronological marker. Mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.56 g cm(-2) year(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes from 122 to 380 g m(-2) year(-1). Total N ranged 4.9-48 g m(-2) year(-1), and total P 0.6-4.2 g m(-2) year(-1). The sedimentary record shows that all three (C, N and P) fluxes increased significantly after 1991, in good agreement with the assessed trophic evolution of VB and with historic and recent real-time measurements. In the recent years (1992-2006), the TOC flux to the bottom of VB (average 250 g m(-2) year(-1), peaks 323 g m(-2) year(-1)) is similar to that found in highly eutrophic reservoirs and impoundments. Over 1/3 of the total C burial since dam construction, circa 70,000 t, has occurred in this recent period. These results highlight the usefulness of the reconstruction of carbon and nutrient fluxes from the sedimentary record to assess carbon burial and its temporal evolution in freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Depositional sequence analysis and sedimentologic modeling for improved prediction of Pennsylvanian reservoirs (annex I). Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) assist producers in locating and producing petroleum not currently being produced because of technological problems or the inability to identify details of reservoir compartmentalization, (2) to decrease risk in field development, and (3) accelerate the retrieval and analysis of baseline geoscience information for initial reservoir description. The interdisciplinary data sought in this research will be used to resolve specific problems in correlation of strata and to establish the mechanisms responsible for the Upper Pennsylvanian stratigraphic architecture in the Midcontinent. The data will better constrain ancillary problems related to the validation of depositional sequence and subsequence correlation, subsidence patterns, sedimentation rates, sea-level changes, and the relationship of sedimentary sequences to basement terrains. The geoscientific information, including data from field studies, surface and near-surface reservoir analogues, and regional data base development, will also be used for development of geologic computer process-based simulation models tailored to specific depositional sequences for use in improving prediction of reservoir characteristics.

  3. Reservoir Modeling of Carbonate on Fika Field: The Challenge to Capture the Complexity of Rock and Oil Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Fitriyani Adji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i2.181The carbonate on Fika Field has a special character, because it grew above a basement high with the thickness and internal character variation. To develop the field, a proper geological model which can be used in reservoir simulation was needed. This model has to represent the complexity of the rock type and the variety of oil types among the clusters. Creating this model was challenging due to the heterogeneity of the Baturaja Formation (BRF: Early Miocene reef, carbonate platform, and breccia conglomerate grew up above the basement with a variety of thickness and quality distributions. The reservoir thickness varies between 23 - 600 ft and 3D seismic frequency ranges from 1 - 80 Hz with 25 Hz dominant frequency. Structurally, the Fika Field has a high basement slope, which has an impact on the flow unit layering slope. Based on production data, each area shows different characteristics and performance: some areas have high water cut and low cumulative production. Oil properties from several clusters also vary in wax content. The wax content can potentially build up a deposit inside tubing and flow-line, resulted in a possible disturbance to the operation. Five well cores were analyzed, including thin section and XRD. Seven check-shot data and 3D seismic Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM were available with limited seismic resolution. A seismic analysis was done after well seismic tie was completed. This analysis included paleogeography, depth structure map, and distribution of reservoir and basement. Core and log data generated facies carbonate distribution and rock typing, defining properties for log analysis and permeability prediction for each zone. An Sw prediction for each well was created by J-function analysis. This elaborates capillary pressure from core data, so it is very similar to the real conditions. Different stages of the initial model were done i.e. scale-up properties, data analysis, variogram modeling

  4. Porosity and Permeability Development of the Deep-Water Late-Oligocene Carbonate Debris Reservoir in the Surroundings of the Paternoster Platform, South Makassar Basin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadjah E. Pireno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of gas within the carbonate debris reservoir of the late Oligocene Berai formation near the Paternoster Platform, South Makassar Basin, is a new exploration play in Indonesia. The carbonate was deposited in a deep-water environment and is a good example of a less well known carbonate play type. The carbonate debris reservoir in this area consists of re-deposited carbonate, originally located on a large carbonate platform that has been eroded, abraded and transported to the deep-water sub-basin. The limestone clasts range from pebble-size to boulders within a matrix of micrite and fine abraded bioclasts. This carbonate debris can be divided into clast-supported facies and matrix-supported facies. The matrix-supported facies have much better porosity and permeability than the clast-supported facies. Porosity in both the transported clasts and the matrix is generally mouldic and vuggy, resulting mostly from dissolution of foraminifera and other bioclastics after transportation. In the matrix intercrystal porosity has developed. The porosity and permeability development of this deep-water carbonate debris was controlled by a deep-burial diagenetic process contributed by the bathyal shales de-watering from the Lower Berai shales beneath the carbonate reservoir and the Lower Warukin shales above the carbonate reservoir during the burial process.

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon and its isotopic differentia-tion in cascade reservoirs in the Wujiang drainage basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU YuanXiu; LIU CongQiang; WANG FuShun; WANG BaoLi; LI Jun; LI SiLiang

    2008-01-01

    Three cascade reservoirs, built in different periods of time in the Wujiang drainage basin, were inves-tigated in this study. Samples were taken at the surface and also at 20, 40, 60, 80 m depths in front of the dams in April, July, October of 2006 and January of 2007. Chemical parameters were calculated and the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] and its isotopic composition (δ13CDIC) were de-termined. In surface waters, the δ13CDIC values are high in summer and autumn and low in winter and spring, while the DIC concentrations are relatively low in summer and autumn and relatively high in winter and spring. In the water column, the DIC concentrations increase while δ13CDICvalues decrease with water depth. DIC in various reservoirs is significantly different in isotopic composition from that in natural rivers, but is close to that in natural lakes. In addition, in surface waters, the δ13CDIC values tend to become lower whereas the nutrition level tends to become higher with increasing age of the reser-voirs. The conclusion is that after dam blocking, changes took place in the hydrochemical properties of river water, and the impounding rivers developed toward lakes and swamps. In addition, differentiation in DIC isotopic composition may be used to some extent to trace the evolution process of a reservoir.

  6. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  7. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  8. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas near term Class 2. Annual report, September 18, 1994--March 15, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, T.R.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1998-04-01

    This annual report describes progress during the second year of the project entitled {open_quotes}Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas{close_quotes}. This project funded under the Department of Energy`s Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, several tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated. These include: (1) a new approach to subsurface visualization using electric logs ({open_quotes}Pseudoseismic{open_quotes}); (2) a low-cost easy-to-use spreadsheet log analysis software (PfEFFER); and (3) an extension of the BOAST-3 computer program for full field reservoir simulation. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). These results include an outline of the reservoir description based on available and newly acquired data and reservoir simulation results. Detailed information is available on-line through the Internet. Based on the reservoir simulation, three infill wells will be drilled to validate the reservoir description and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies. The demonstration phase of the project has just begun and will be presented in the next annual report.

  9. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  10. Experimental and molecular modeling study of the three-phase behavior of (n-decane + carbon dioxide + Water) at reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    E. Forte; Galindo, A.; Trusler, JPM

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the phase behavior of mixtures of oil with carbon dioxide and water is essential for reservoir engineering, especially in the processes of enhanced oil recovery and geological storage of carbon dioxide. However, for a comprehensive understanding, the study of simpler systems needs to be completed. In this work the system (n-decane + carbon dioxide + water) was studied as a model (oil + carbon dioxide + water) mixture. To accomplish our aim, a new analytical apparatus to measure p...

  11. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 First Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Sanborn, Scott E.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Mathur, Raj N.; Sangid, Michael D.; Jin, Xiaoshi; Costa, Franco; Gandhi, Umesh N.; Mori, Steven; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2014-02-19

    The CRADA between PNNL, Autodesk, Toyota and Magna has been effective since October 28th, 2013. The whole team including CRADA and subcontract partners kicked off the project technically on November 1st, 2013. This report describes work performed during the first quarter of FY 2014. The following technical progresses have been made toward project milestones: 1) The project kickoff meeting was organized at PlastiComp, Inc. in Winona on November 13th, 2013 involving all the project partners. During this meeting the research plan and Gantt chart were discussed and refined. The coordination of the research activities among the partners was also discussed to ensure that the deliverables and timeline will be met. 2) Autodesk delivered a research version of ASMI to PNNL for process modeling using this tool under the project. PNNL installed this research version on a PNNL computer and tested it. Currently, PNNL is using ASMI to prepare the models for PlastiComp plaques. 3) PlastiComp has compounded long carbon-fiber reinforced polypropylene and polyamide 6,6 compounds for rheological and thermal characterization tests by the Autodesk laboratories in Melbourne, Australia. 4) Initial mold flow analysis was carried out by PlastiComp to confirm that the 3D complex part selected by Toyota as a representative automotive part is moldable. 5) Toyota, Magna, PlastiComp and PNNL finalized the planning for molding the Toyota 3D complex part. 6) Purdue University worked with PNNL to update and specify the test matrix for characterization of fiber length/orientation. 7) Purdue University developed tools to automate the data collection and analysis of fiber length and orientation measurements. 8) Purdue University designed and specified equipment to replace the need for equipment using the technology established by the University of Leeds at General Motors.

  12. Ranking of Texas reservoirs for application of carbon dioxide miscible displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J

    1996-04-01

    Of the 431 reservoirs screened, 211 projected revenue that exceeded cost, ie, were profitable. Only the top 154 reservoirs, however, showed a profit greater than 30%. The top 10 reservoirs predicted a profit of at least 80%. Six of the top ten were Gulf Coast sandstones. The reservoirs are representative of the most productive discoveries in Texas; they account for about 72% of the recorded 52 billion barrels oil production in the State. Preliminary evaluation in this study implied that potential production from CO{sub 2}-EOR could be as much as 4 billion barrels. In order to enhance the chances of achieving this, DOE should consider a targeted outreach program to the specific independent operators controlling the leases. Development of ownership/technical potential maps and an outreach program should be initiated to aid this identification.

  13. A novel viscoelastic surfactant suitable for use in high temperature carbonate reservoirs for diverted acidizing stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Stuart; Zhou, Jian; Gadberry, Fred [AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Nasr-El-Din, Hisham; Wang, Guanqun [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Due to the low permeability of many carbonate hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs, it is difficult to achieve economic hydrocarbon recovery from a well without secondary stimulation. Bullheading of strong acids, such as HCl is practiced in low temperature reservoirs, but as the bottom hole temperature (BHT) rises, the acid becomes increasingly corrosive, causing facial dissolution and sub-optimal wormhole network development. In the last decade, viscoelastic surfactants (VES) have been added to HCl acid systems to improve the stimulation of HT carbonate reservoirs. The VES form 'living polymers' or worm-like micelles as electrolyte concentration rises in the acid due to reaction with the reservoir. This leads to viscosification of the stimulation fluid. The viscosification slows further acid reaction in the region already contacted by the acid, and forces the acid to take an alternate path into the rock, leading to diversion of the acids further down the well to the harder to access toe or lower permeability zones. Until recently, the maximum BHT that such VES-based diverting systems could be used was up to about 250 deg F/120 deg C. Above that temperature, all viscous properties of the fluid are lost, destroying the mechanism of acid diversion. A recently developed novel viscoelastic surfactant provides nearly 100 deg F/55 deg C extension in the BHT range in which diverted acid treatments can be used. These fluids are able to maintain both viscosity up to about 375 deg F/190 deg C, with the elastic modulus predominating up to 350 deg F/175 deg C. It is the elasticity which is particularly important in acid diversion. These fluids can have their viscosity readily broken by in-situ hydrocarbons, dilution with water or by using a mutual solvent. The broken fluids are readily removed from the near-well bore, leaving the newly created wormhole network to produce the target hydrocarbons. The new VES is significantly more environmentally benign compared with current

  14. [Effects of biological regulated measures on active organic carbon and erosion-resistance in the Three Gorges Reservoir region soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Lin; He, Bing-Hui; Zhou, Li-Jiang; Yu, Chuan; Wang, Feng

    2013-07-01

    To gain a better knowledge of characteristics of soils and provide a scientific basis for soil erosion control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, contents of aggregates and total soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as soil active organic carbon fractions including particulate organic carbon (POC), readily oxidized organic carbon (ROC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in the 0-30 cm soil layer under seven different biological regulated measures were studied by the field investigation combined with the laboratory analysis. Results showed that the content of the SOC and active organic carbon fractions decreased with the increasing soil depth; the content of the SOC and active organic carbon fractions in 0-10 cm was significantly higher than that in 20-30 cm. The stability of soil aggregates were also significantly influenced by biological regulated measures, the content of > 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates in seven types of biological regulated measures was in the order of Koelreuteria bipinnata + Cassia suffruticasa > hedgerows > closed forest > natural restoration > economic forest > traditional planting > control plot, moreover, the content of 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates correlated positively with the content of SOC. Soils under different biological regulated measures all demonstrated fractal features, and soil under the measure of Koelreuteria bipinnata + Cassia suffruticasa was found to have the lowest value of fractal dimension and soil erodiable K, indicating a relatively strong structure stability and erosion-resistant capacity. Negative correlation was observed when compared the content of active organic carbon fractions with the soil erodiable K. It can be concluded that properties of soil can be managed through biological regulated measures; thence had an influence on the soil erosion-resistant capacity.

  15. EOS7C Version 1.0: TOUGH2 Module for Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen in Natural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Moridis, George J.; Spycher, Nicholas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    EOS7C is a TOUGH2 module for multicomponent gas mixtures in the systems methanecarbon dioxide (CH4-CO2) or methane-nitrogen (CH4-N2) with or without an aqueous phase and H2O vapor. EOS7C uses a cubic equation of state and an accurate solubility formulation along with a multiphase Darcy s Law to model flow and transport of gas and aqueous phase mixtures over a wide range of pressures and temperatures appropriate to subsurface geologic carbon sequestration sites and natural gas reservoirs....

  16. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneratin power plants. During this quarter, activity continued in all four task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - development of the capability to operate stacks on coal-derived gas.

  17. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  18. The hydrothermal karstification and its effect on Ordovician carbonate reservoir in Tazhong uplift of Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; MaoBing; WANG; Yi; ZHENG; MengLin; ZHANG; WeiBiao; LIU; ChunYan

    2007-01-01

    With a detailed study on petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of some important Ordovician carbonate well core samples in Tazhong uplift of Tarim Basin, the distinguishing symbols of hydrothermal karstification are first put forward as the phenomena of rock hot depigmentation, hot cataclasm and the appearance of typical hydrothermal minerals such as fluorite, barite, pyrite, quartz and sphalerite. The main homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions in fluorite are from 260 to 310℃, indicating the temperature of hydrothermal fluid. The fluid affected the dissolved rocks and showed typical geochemistry features with low contents of Na and Mg, and high contents of Fe, Mn and Si. The ratio of 3He/4He is 0.02Ra, indicating the fluid from the typical continental crust. The hydrothermal fluid karstification pattern may be described as follows: the hot fluid is from the Permian magma, containing dissolving ingredients of CO2 and H2S, and shifts along fault, ruptures and unconformity, and dissolves the surrounding carbonates while it flows. The mechanism of hydrothermal karstification is that the mixture of two or more fluids, which have different ion intensity and pH values, becomes a new unsaturated fluid to carbonates. The hydrothermal karstification is an important process to form hypo-dissolved pinholes in Ordovician carbonates of Tazhong uplift of Tarim Basin, and the forming of hydrothermal minerals also has favorable influence on carbonate reservoirs.

  19. Computer Modeling of the Displacement Behavior of Carbon Dioxide in Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Binshan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs is performed not only to improve oil recovery but also to store CO2 captured from fuel combustion. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulator to predict quantitatively supercritical CO2 flooding behaviors for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. A non-isothermal compositional flow mathematical model is developed. The phase transition diagram is designed according to the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and CO2 maximum solubility in oil phase. The convection and diffusion of CO2 mixtures in multiphase fluids in reservoirs, mass transfer between CO2 and crude and phase partitioning are considered. The governing equations are discretized by applying a fully implicit finite difference technique. Newton-Raphson iterative technique was used to solve the nonlinear equation systems and a simulator was developed. The performances of CO2 immiscible and miscible flooding in oil reservoirs are predicted by the new simulator. The distribution of pressure and temperature, phase saturations, mole fraction of each component in each phase, formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation and the improved oil recovery are predicted by the simulator. Experimental data validate the developed simulator by comparison with simulation results. The applications of the simulator in prediction of CO2 flooding in oil reservoirs indicate that the simulator is robust for predicting CO2 flooding performance.

  20. Impact of stylolitization on diagenesis of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir from a giant oilfield, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Matteo; Al Harthi, Amena; Morad, Daniel; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Mansurbeg, Howri; Al Suwaidi, Aisha; Al-Aasm, Ihsan S.; Ehrenberg, Stephen N.; Sirat, Manhal

    2016-04-01

    Bed-parallel stylolites are a widespread diagenetic feature in Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoirs, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Diagenetic calcite, dolomite, kaolin and small amounts of pyrite, fluorite, anhydrite and sphalerite occur along and in the vicinity of the stylolites. Petrographic observations, negative δ18OVPDB, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and enrichment in 87Sr suggest that these cements have precipitated from hot basinal brines, which migrated along the stylolites and genetically related microfractures (tension gashes). Fluid migration was presumably related to lateral tectonic compression events related to the foreland basin formation. The low solubility of Al3 + in formation waters suggests that kaolin precipitation was linked to derivation of organic acids during organic matter maturation, probably in siliciclastic source rocks. The mass released from stylolitization was presumably re-precipitated as macro- and microcrystalline calcite cement in the host limestones. The flanks of the oilfield (water zone) display more frequent presence and higher amplitude of stylolites, lower porosity and permeability, higher homogenization temperatures and more radiogenic composition of carbonates compared to the crest (oil zone). This indicates that oil emplacement retards diagenesis. This study demonstrates that stylolitization plays a crucial role in fluid flow and diagenesis of carbonate reservoirs during basin evolution.

  1. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY13 Fourth Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2013-12-02

    This quarterly report summarizes the status of the project planning to obtain all the approvals required for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Autodesk, Inc., Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America (Toyota), and Magna Exterior and Interiors Corporation (Magna). The final CRADA documents processed by PNNL’s Legal Services were submitted to all the parties for signatures.

  2. Application of Spectral Decomposition to Detection of Fracture-Cavity Carbonate Reservoir Beds in the Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoping; YANG Xiaolan; ZHANG Yazhong; HAN Long

    2008-01-01

    Ordovician fracture-cavity carbonate reservoir beds are the major type of producing formations in the Tahe oilfieid, Tarim Basin. The seismic responses of these beds clearly changes depending on the different distance of the fracture-cavity reservoir bed from the top of the section. The seismic reflection becomes weak or is absent when the fracture-cavity reservoir beds are less than 20 ms below the top Ordovician. The effect on top Ordovician reflection became weaker with deeper burial of fracture-cavity reservoir beds but the developed deep fracture-cavity reservoir beds caused stronger reflection in the interior of the Ordovician. This interior reflection can be divided into strong long-axis, irregular and bead string reflections, and was present 80 ms below the top Ordovician. Aimed at understanding reflection characteristics, the spectral decomposition technique, which uses frequency to "tune-in" bed thickness, was used to predict Ordovician fracture-cavity carbonate formations in the Tahe oilfield. Through finely adjusting the processing parameters of spectral decomposition, it was found that the slice at 30 Hz of the tuned data cube can best represent reservoir bed development. Two large N-S-trending strong reflection belts in the mid-western part of the study area along wells TK440- TK427-TK417B and in the eastern part along wells TK404-TK409 were observed distinctly on the 30 Hz slice and 4-D time-frequency data cube carving. A small N-S trending reflection belt in the southern part along wells T403-TK446B was also clearly identified. The predicted reservoir bed development area coincides with the fracture-cavities connection area confirmed by drilling pressure testing results. Deep karst cavities occur basically in three reservoir bed-development belts identified by the Ordovician interior strong reflection. Spectral decomposition proved to be a useful technique in identifying fracture-cavity reservoir beds.

  3. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

  4. Laboratory measurements of large-scale carbon sequestration flows in saline reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Brine saturated with CO{sub 2} is slightly denser than the original brine causing it to sink to the bottom of a saline reservoir where the CO{sub 2} is safely sequestered. However, the buoyancy of pure CO{sub 2} relative to brine drives it to the top of the reservoir where it collects underneath the cap rock as a separate phase of supercritical fluid. Without additional processes to mix the brine and CO{sub 2}, diffusion in this geometry is slow and would require an unacceptably long time to consume the pure CO{sub 2}. However, gravity and diffusion-driven convective instabilities have been hypothesized that generate enhanced CO{sub 2}-brine mixing promoting dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine on time scale of a hundred years. These flows involve a class of hydrodynamic problems that are notoriously difficult to simulate; the simultaneous flow of mUltiple fluids (CO{sub 2} and brine) in porous media (rock or sediment). The hope for direct experimental confirmation of simulations is dim due to the difficulty of obtaining high resolution data from the subsurface and the high pressures ({approx}100 bar), long length scales ({approx}100 meters), and long time scales ({approx}100 years) that are characteristic of these flows. We have performed imaging and mass transfer measurements in similitude-scaled laboratory experiments that provide benchmarks to test reservoir simulation codes and enhance their predictive power.

  5. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir; Monitoring geochimique par couplage entre les gaz rares et les isotopes du carbone: etude d'un reservoir naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, E

    2008-12-15

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO{sub 2}. Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  6. North-south Differentiation of the Hydrocarbon Accumulation Pattern of Carbonate Reservoirs in the Yingmaili Low Uplift, Tarim Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Xiuxiang; LI Jianjiao; ZHAO Fengyun; YANG Ning; ZHANG Qiucha

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the characteristics of development, structural evolution and reservoir beds of the residual carbonate strata, this study shows that the residual carbonate strata in the Yingmaili low uplift are favorable oil and gas accumulation series in the Tabei (northern Tarim uplift) uplift. There are different patterns of hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern and southern slopes of the Yingmaili low uplift. The north-south differentiation of oil reservoirs were caused by different lithologies of the residual carbonate strata and the key constraints on the development of the reservoir beds. The Mesozoic terrestrial organic matter in the Kuqa depression and the Palaeozoic marine organic matter in the Manjiaer sag of the Northern depression are the major hydrocarbon source rocks for the northern slope and southern slope respectively. The hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern and southern slopes is controlled by differences in maturity and thermal evolution history of these two kinds of organic matter. On the southern slope, the oil accumulation formed in the early stage was destroyed completely, and the period from the late Hercynian to the Himalayian is the most important time for hydrocarbon accumulation. However, the time of hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern slope began 5 Ma B.P. Carbonate inner buried anticlines reservoirs are present on the southern slope, while weathered crust and paleo-buried hill karst carbonate reservoirs are present on the northern slope. The northern and southern slopes had different controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation respectively. Fracture growth in the reservoir beds is the most important controlling factor on the southern slope; while hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern slope is controlled by weathered crust and cap rock.

  7. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - Second FY 2015 Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kijewski, Seth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sangid, Michael D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Jin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Costa, Franco [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, III, Charles L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathur, Raj N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gandhi, Umesh N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mori, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-19

    During the second quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Autodesk reviewed 3D fiber orientation distribution (FOD) comparisons and provided support on improving accuracy. 2) Autodesk reviewed fiber length distribution (FLD) data comparisons and provided suggestions, assisted PNNL in FOD and FLD parameter settings optimization, and advised PNNL on appropriate through thickness thermal conductivity for improved frozen layer effect on FOD predictions. Autodesk also participated in project review meetings including preparations and discussions towards passing the go/no-go decision point. 3) Autodesk implemented an improved FOD inlet profile specification method through the part thickness for 3D meshes and provided an updated ASMI research version to PNNL. 4) The University of Illinois (Prof. C.L. Tucker) provided Autodesk with ideas to improve fiber orientation modeling 5) Purdue University re-measured fiber orientation for the fast-fill 50wt% LCF/PA66 edge-gated plaque, and delivered the fiber orientation data for this plaque at the selected locations (named A, B, and C, Figure 1) to PNNL. Purdue also re-measured fiber orientation for locations A on the fast-fill 30wt% LCF/PP and 50wt% LCF/PA66 center-gated plaques, which exhibited anomalous fiber orientation behavior. 6) Purdue University conducted fiber length measurements and delivered the length data to PNNL for the purge materials (slow-fill 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 purge materials) and PlastiComp plaques selected on the go/no-go list for fiber length model validation (i.e., slow-fill edge-gated 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 plaques, Locations A, B, and C). 7) PNNL developed a method to recover intact carbon fibers from LCF/PA66 materials. Isolated fibers were shipped to Purdue for length distribution analysis. 8) PNNL completed ASMI mid-plane analyses for all the PlastiComp plaques defined on the go/no-go list for fiber orientation (FO) model

  8. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada; relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the later part of the 1990s, a large die-off of desert shrubs occurred over an approximately 1 km2 area in the northwestern section of the Dixie Valley (DV) geothermal field. This paper reports results from accumulation-chamber measurements of soil CO2 flux from locations in the dead zone and stable isotope and chemical data on fluids from fumaroles, shallow wells, and geothermal production wells within and adjacent to the dead zone. A cumulative probability plot shows three types of flux sites within the dead zone: Locations with a normal background CO2 flux (7 g m-2 day-1); moderate flux sites displaying "excess" geothermal flux; and high flux sites near young vents and fumaroles. A maximum CO2 flux of 570 g m-2 day-1 was measured at a location adjacent to a fumarole. Using statistical methods appropriate for lognormally distributed populations of data, estimates of the geothermal flux range from 7.5 t day-1 from a 0.14-km2 site near the Stillwater Fault to 0.1 t day-1 from a 0.01 -km2 location of steaming ground on the valley floor. Anomalous CO2 flux is positively correlated with shallow temperature anomalies. The anomalous flux associated with the entire dead zone area declined about 35% over a 6-month period. The decline was most notable at a hot zone located on an alluvial fan and in the SG located on the valley floor. Gas geochemistry indicates that older established fumaroles along the Stillwater Fault and a 2-year-old vent in the lower section of the dead zone discharge a mixture of geothermal gases and air or gases from air-saturated meteoric water (ASMW). Stable isotope data indicate that steam from the smaller fumaroles is produced by ??? 100??C boiling of these mixed fluids and reservoir fluid. Steam from the Senator fumarole (SF) and from shallow wells penetrating the dead zone are probably derived by 140??C to 160??C boiling of reservoir fluid. Carbon-13 isotope data suggest that the reservoir CO2 is produced mainly by thermal decarbonation of

  9. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  10. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY13 Third Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2013-08-06

    This quarterly report summarizes the status for the project planning to obtain all the approvals required for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Autodesk, Inc., Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America (Toyota), and Magna Exterior and Interiors Corporation (Magna). The CRADA documents have been processed by PNNL Legal Services that is also coordinating the revision effort with the industrial parties to address DOE’s comments.

  11. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveshnikov, A. E.; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of the crust of weathering including redeposited one, were formed as a result of hypergenesis, during the continental stand of the area in the near-surface zone. A new geological prospecting unit has been suggested which underlies these crusts of weathering and formed during fracture tectonic processes with hydrothermal-metasomatic limestones reworking and the processes of hydrothermal leaching and dolomitization. So, in the carbonate platforms the system of fissure zones related to tectonic disturbance was formed. This has a dendrite profile where the series of tangential, more thinned fractures deviate from the stem and finish in pores and caverns. The carbonate platforms formation in the West Siberia tectonic depression has been analyzed, their dynamics and gradual increasing from the minimal in Ordovician and Silurian to maximal at the end of the Late Devonian has been shown.

  12. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  13. An Efficient Upscaling Procedure Based on Stokes-Brinkman Model and Discrete Fracture Network Method for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Guan

    2010-01-01

    Naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are characterized by various-sized solution caves that are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. These complex geologic features can not be fully resolved in reservoir simulations due to the underlying uncertainty in geologic models and the large computational resource requirement. They also bring in multiple flow physics which adds to the modeling difficulties. It is thus necessary to develop a method to accurately represent the effect of caves, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling of naturally fractured carbonate karst reservoirs.

  14. How the rock fabrics can control the physical properties - A contribution to the understanding of carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrast, H.; Siegesmund, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The correlation between microfabrics and physical properties will be illustrated in detail on three dolomitic carbonate reservoir rocks with different porosity. For this study core segments from the Zechstein Ca2-layer (Permian) of the Northwest German Basin were kindly provided by the Preussag Energie GmbH, Lingen. The mineral composition was determined by using the X-ray diffraction method. Petrographic and detailed investigation of the microfabrics, including the distribution and orientation of the cracks were done macroscopally (core segments) and microscopally with the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (thin sections in three orthogonally to each other oriented directions). Different kinds of petrophysical measurements were carried out, e.g. porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity, seismic velocities. (orig.)

  15. Seismic amplitude variation with offset: Its effects on weighted stacking, and its uses in characterization of sandstone and carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, Gislain Bolouvi

    An algorithm for weighted stacking, which is not particularly expensive in terms of computer time or memory and can be easily incorporated into routine processing is proposed. A comprehensive comparison of the proposed weighted stacking algorithm and the conventional stacking algorithm is conducted through testing on synthetics and a real data set from New Mexico, USA. This weighted stacking algorithm achieves the primary goal of signal-to-noise ratio improvement while at the same time providing better resolution, wider bandwidth, and a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the conventional stack. A novel hydrocarbon indicator [the water-filled porosity (S wv)], which is estimated from the ratio of P-velocity to S-velocity (Vp/Vs), is proposed and applied to characterize clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea. The separation between pore fluids and lithologies is enhanced by mapping from V p/Vs to Swv using an empirical crossplot-derived relationship. The Swv-V p/Vs plane still does not produce unique interpretations in many situations. However, the critical distinction, which is between hydrocarbon-bearing sands and all other geologic/reservoir configurations, is defined. Porosity is the dominant factor controlling reservoir signature for carbonate rocks. Acoustic impedance and seismic amplitudes are porosity and lithology indicators. Angle-dependent reflectivity effects are introduced for determination of fluid charactersitics by simultaneous elastic impedance inversion of three non-overlapping migrated common-angle stacked sections for P- and S-impedance (Ip and Is). Deviations of points from a water-filled baseline in the Ip-I s plane define a gas potential section that is used for direct identification of gas zones in the dolomitized limestone reservoirs of the Turner Valley Formation in southern Alberta, Canada. There is consistency with the known gas production at a well and agreement with gas index sections obtained through the use of Lame parameter

  16. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  17. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Susan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mansoor, Kayyum [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Zhenue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Yunwei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trainor-Guitton, Whitney [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  18. Black Cat Carbon Black Company's Net Profit of the First Three Quarters of this Year Doubled%Black Cat Carbon Black Company's Net Profit of the First Three Quarters of this Year Doubled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin You

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Jiangxi Black Cat publi- cized the financial statements of the first three quarters. The realized business in- come of this Company from January to September shall be RMB 2.847 billion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 32.32%; the realized business profit shall be RMB 108 million yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 150.14%; and the realized net profit attributable to the par- ent company shall be RMB 81,759,200 yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 110.51%.

  19. Capillary pressure-saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in limestone/dolomite sands: implications for geologic carbon sequestration in carbonate reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2015-06-16

    In geologic carbon sequestration, capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are needed to predict reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been extensively studied in oil-water and gas-water systems, but few measurements have been reported for supercritical (sc) CO2-water. Here, Pc-Sw relations of scCO2 displacing brine (drainage), and brine rewetting (imbibition) were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior under reservoir conditions. Hysteretic drainage and imbibition Pc-Sw curves were measured in limestone sands at 45 °C under elevated pressures (8.5 and 12.0 MPa) for scCO2-brine, and in limestone and dolomite sands at 23 °C (0.1 MPa) for air-brine using a new computer programmed porous plate apparatus. scCO2-brine drainage and imbibition curves shifted to lower Pc relative to predictions based on interfacial tension, and therefore deviated from capillary scaling predictions for hydrophilic interactions. Fitting universal scaled drainage and imbibition curves show that wettability alteration resulted from scCO2 exposure over the course of months-long experiments. Residual trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined at Pc = 0 during imbibition. Amounts of trapped scCO2 were significantly larger than for those for air, and increased with pressure (depth), initial scCO2 saturation, and time. These results have important implications for scCO2 distribution, trapping, and leakage potential.

  20. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  1. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  2. A Review of Recovery Mechanisms of Ionically Modified Waterflood in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    . This process has been evaluated as a wettability-modifying agent in carbonates and captured the global research focus in water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the published research to speed the process of further investigations in this field. The review...

  3. A Review of Recovery Mechanisms of Ionically Modified Waterflood in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    . This process has been evaluated as a wettability-modifying agent in carbonates and captured the global research focus in water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the published research to speed the process of further investigations in this field. The review...

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions from the tropical Dowleiswaram Reservoir on the Godavari River, Southeast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, M.H.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    for the Determination of Phytoplankton Chlorophyll Using N, N-Dimethylformamide,” Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1990, pp. 190-194. [40] A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet, “Hand Book of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide...

  5. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    1998-04-08

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO -) 2 flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) diagenetic characterization of project field reservoirs, and (2) technology transfer.

  6. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is common in the

  7. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  8. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  9. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng

    2009-01-01

    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  11. Dolomitization of carbonated reservoirs of platforms. From geologic data to modeling. Example of the great Bahama bank; La dolomitisation des reservoirs carbonates de plate-forme. Des donnees geologiques a la modelisation. Exemple du Grand Banc des Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspard, E.

    2002-09-01

    Dolomitization has long been one of the most studied geological processes because of its economic interest (dolomitic rocks form a significant share of hydrocarbon reservoirs) as well as its academic interest, based on the fact that dolomite scarcely forms in current and recent marine environments whereas seawater is highly over-saturated; and that it is still not possible to synthesize it in laboratory under the same conditions. We used data collected by the University of Miami (Bahamas Drilling Project, ODP Leg 166) to understand the geological context of complete dolomitization of a Messinian 60 m thick reef unit. Classical methods of petrographic analysis of thin sections (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, in situ isotopic analyze using ionic microprobe) showed that the intensity of dolomitization is not controlled by the initial texture of the sediment, that the key parameter for dolomitization is the conservation of the initial mineralogy of magnesian bio-clasts, and that redox conditions, salinity and/or temperature of the precipitation fluid varied significantly during the process. Hydrodynamic modelling showed that during periods of high sea-level, Kohout thermal convection is a viable mechanism for driving marine fluids through the sediments. The key parameter for fluid circulations is the permeability anisotropy on the platform scale. Geochemical modelling showed that seawater is able to induce a complete dolomitization over durations of around one million years. Sensitivity tests showed that the critical parameter (as well as one of the less well-known) to describe diagenetic processes in carbonates is the water/rock reactions kinetics and in particular the precipitation kinetics of carbonate minerals. We finally propose that the dolomitization of the reef unit of the Unda well took place during the high sea-level period which extended over 1,1 My in the early Pliocene, according to the Kohout thermal convection

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation Method for the Low Permeability Carbonate Reservoir%低渗碳酸盐岩油藏储层综合评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正明; 蒋帅; 张亚蒲; 朱光亚; 郭和坤

    2016-01-01

    The low permeability carbonate reservoir is an important oil reservoir type developed overseas by PetroChina. Due to the complex structures of microscopic pore-throat and apparent differences with low permeability sandstone reservoir,it is necessary to research on the evaluation method of the low permeability carbonate reservoirs. Based on the test of 550 low permeability carbonate cores,the mainstream throat radius,the movable fluid percentage,the threshold gradient and the crude oil viscosity are determined to be the four paramenters to evaluate the low permeability carbonate reservoir. The research shows that the throat radius changes largely at the low permeability carbonate cores with different permeability and the full diameter cores′gas permeability has a semi-logarithmic relationship with the percentage of movable fluid. Besides,under the condition of same permeability,most throat radius of low permeability carbonate cores is smaller than that of low permeability sandstone, while the movable fluid percentage of carbonate is larger than that of sandstone which is in agreement with the reservoir property. Based on the results,four-factor classification of low permeability carbonate reservoir is put forward and the comprehensive evaluation method is hence introduced,which is successfully applied to the evaluation of the layers in a typical low permeability carbonate reservoir overseas.%低渗碳酸盐岩油藏是中国石油在海外开发的重要油藏类型,该油藏储层微观孔喉结构复杂,与低渗砂岩油藏有明显的差异,急需进行低渗碳酸盐岩油藏储层评价方面的研究工作。在550块低渗碳酸盐岩岩芯测试的基础上,提出了用主流喉道半径、启动压力梯度、可动流体百分数和原油黏度4个参数作为低渗碳酸盐岩油藏储层评价参数。研究表明:不同渗透率的低渗碳酸盐岩岩芯,其喉道半径分布差异显著,全直径岩样的气测渗透率和可动流

  13. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this research project is to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data to observe changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 18 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and six monitor surveys clearly imaged changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators.

  14. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2001-04-01

    Among the accomplishments of this past reporting period are obtaining a complete landgrid for the State of Michigan and the digital processing of the high and medium resolution DEM files. We can now extract lineations from the DEMs automatically using machine algorithms. One tentative result that may be very significant is that we may be seeing manifestations of buried structures in the DEM data. We are looking at a set of extracted lineations in the northern lower peninsula that appear to follow the trend of the pinnacle reefs (Silurian) which had relief approaching 300 feet but are now buried to greater than 3000 feet. We have also extracted the dolomite alteration data from all fields and can show that this is mainly confined to the basin center. It may be related to the paleo-rift suggested by the paleomagnetic and gravity data. As reported last time, the acquisition of a 3D seismic dataset over Stoney Point Field from Marathon Oil Company, is complete and attention is being devoted to incorporating the data into the project database and utilizing it. The surface lineation study is focusing on Stoney Point Field using the high-resolution DEM data and plotting of subsurface formation top data for the main reservoir, the Trenton (Ordovician) Formation. The fault pattern at Stoney Point is well documented by Marathon and we are looking for any manifestations on the surface. The main project database is now about as complete as it will be for this project. The main goals have been met, although the scanning of the paper records will have to continue beyond the scheduled end of the project due to the sheer number of records and the increased donations of data from companies as word spread of the project. One of the unanticipated benefits of the project has been the cooperation of gas and oil companies that are or were active in the Michigan Basin in donating material to the project. Both Michigan Tech and Western Michigan continue to receive donations at an

  15. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion - Taking a closer look at the Karoo rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Michael; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa, which are nowadays characterized by badlands on the foot slopes of upland areas and complex gully systems in valley bottoms, have experienced a number of environmental changes. With the settlement of European farmers in the late 18th century agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing which probably acted as a trigger to land degradation. As a consequence of higher water demands and shifting rainfall patterns, many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods. Most of these dams are now filled with sediment and many have become breached, revealing sediment archives that can be used to analyse land use changes as well as carbon erosion and deposition during the last ca. 100 years. In this ongoing project, a combination of analytical methods that include drone imagery, landscape mapping, erosion modelling and sediment analysis have been employed to trace back the sediment origin and redistribution within the catchment, setting a special focus on the carbon history. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to analyse erosional and depositional patterns. A sharp decrease in total carbon content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after the post-European settlement most likely triggered erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils which presumably in-filled the reservoirs. It is assumed that the carbon-rich bottom layers of the dam deposits originate from these eroded surface soils. A combination of erosion modelling and sediment analysis will be used to determine the source areas of the depositional material and might clarify the question if land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in its return from being a net sink of carbon into a net source of carbon.

  16. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  17. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  18. Reservoir Potential of Silurian Carbonate Mud Mounds in the Southern Sichuan Basin, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; YANG Xiaoping; Steve KERSHAW; ZHANG Baomin

    2006-01-01

    Lower Silurian mud mounds of the Shinuilan Formation, located in the southern Sichuan Basin, China, have developed in open shelf settings in deeper water than shallow-water reef-bearing limestones that occur in the region. An integration of the outcrop, drill data and seismic profiles show that contemporaneous faults have controlled the boundary and distribution of the sedimentary facies of Lower Silurian rocks in the southern Sichuan Basin. Mounds appear to have developed in the topographic lows formed by synsedimentary faulting, on the shelf of the Yangtze Platform. Average mound thickness is 20 m, maximum 35 m. Mounds are composed mainly of micrite, possibly microbially bound, and are overlain by shales. Mound tops are preferentially dolomitized, with the Mg2+ source probably from the clay content of the mound-top carbonate. Microfacies analysis and reconstruction of the diagenetic history reveal that the mound tops have higher porosity, and are gas targets; in contrast, mound cores and limbs show pores filled by three generations of calcite cement, and therefore have a low gas potential.

  19. Topographic controls on the propagation of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegler, Sam; Huppert, Herbert; Neufeld, Jerome

    2014-05-01

    The propagation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in saline aquifers can be controlled by the topography of the caprock along which it flows. The influence of topographic trapping in basin-like structures, such as that of the Sleipner Field, is central to understanding the long-term flow and containment of CO2. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the flow of gravity currents in porous media with variations in the topography along which they flow. Our results provide a general assessment of the role of topography in the entrapment of CO2. We consider cases where the height of the topography forms an anticline from a line or point source. In all cases, it is found that the flow of CO2 transitions towards a long-term regime controlled by the shape of the caprock. We identify an intrinsic time scale before which the flow is controlled by gravitational spreading due to gradients in hydrostatic pressure, and beyond which the variations in topography are dominant. Our theoretical predictions compare well with data from a new series of laboratory experiments. Comparison between our mathematical solutions and seismic data gathered from the Sleipner Field indicates that topographic control is unlikely to explain the observed non-axisymmetric flow of CO2 plumes.

  20. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) FTS: Results From the 2012/13 Alaska Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight paths. Science operations started in 05/2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements and in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, an active/passive L-band radar for surface conditions (freeze/thaw state), and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, and interfering species (e.g., H2O). The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. Outstanding challenges include the need for improved spectral and radiometric calibration, as well as compensating for low signal-to-noise spectra acquired under Alaskan flight conditions. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns, including preliminary comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2

  1. Effect of reactive surface area of minerals on mineralization and carbon dioxide trapping in a depleted gas reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolourinejad, P.; Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Herber, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a long-term (up to 1000 years) geochemical modelling of subsurface CO2 storage was carried out on sandstone reservoirs of depleted gas fields in northeast Netherlands. It was found that mineral dissolution/precipitation has only a minor effect on reservoir porosity. In order to valida

  2. Diagenesis and application of LiDAR in reservoir analogue studies: karstification in the Cretaceous Apulia carbonate platform dolomitization in the Triassic Latemar carbonate buildup

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemyn, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for energy and hydrocarbons coincides with gradual depletion of currently producing conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Therefore new exploration plays are extended to more complex oil and gas plays, such as karstified limestones and hydrothermal dolomites. Furthermore production from currently producing reservoirs is optimized by revisiting or improving the geological knowledge of these reservoirs. These two perspectives are covered in this study on dolomitization...

  3. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Fourth Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathur, Raj N. [PlastiComp, Inc., Winona, MN (United States); Kijewski, Seth A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sangid, Michael D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Wang, Jin [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Jin, Xiaoshi [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Costa, Franco [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Gandhi, Umesh N. [MAGNA Exteriors and Interiors Corp, Aurora, ON (Canada); Mori, Steven [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Tucker, III, Charles L.

    2014-09-30

    During the last quarter of FY 2014, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Autodesk, Inc. (Autodesk) has implemented a new fiber length distribution (FLD) model based on an unbreakable length assumption with Reduced Order Modeling (ROM) by the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) approach in the mid-plane, dual-domain and 3D solvers. 2) Autodesk improved the ASMI 3D solver for fiber orientation prediction using the anisotropic rotary diffusion (ARD) – reduced strain closure (RSC) model. 3) Autodesk received consultant services from Prof. C.L. Tucker at the University of Illinois on numerical simulation of fiber orientation and fiber length. 4) PlastiComp, Inc. (PlastiComp) suggested to Purdue University a procedure for fiber separation using an inert-gas atmosphere in the burn-off furnace. 5) Purdue University (Purdue) hosted a face-to-face project review meeting at Purdue University on August 6-7, 2014. 6) Purdue conducted fiber orientation measurements for 3 PlastiComp plaques: fast-fill 30wt% LCF/PP edged-gated, slow-fill 50wt% LCF/PP edge-gated, and slow-fill 50wt% LCF/PP center-gated plaques, and delivered the orientation data for these plaques at the selected locations (named A, B, and C) to PNNL. 7) PNNL conducted ASMI mid-plane analyses for the above PlastiComp plaques and compared the predicted fiber orientations with the measured data provided by Purdue at Locations A, B, and C on these plaques. 8) PNNL planned the project review meeting (August 6-7, 2014) with Purdue. 9) PNNL performed ASMI analyses for the Toyota complex parts with and without ribs, having different wall thicknesses, and using the PlastiComp 50wt% LCF/PP, 50wt% LCF/PA66, 30wt% LCF/PP, and 30wt% LCF/PA66 materials to provide guidance for tool design and modifications needed for molding these parts. 10) Magna Exteriors and Interiors Corp. (Magna) molded plaques from the 50% LCF/PP and 50% LCF/PA66 materials received from Plasticomp in order to

  4. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - Fourth FY 2015 Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Fifield, Leonard S.; Wollan, Eric J.; Roland, Dale; Gandhi, Umesh N.; Mori, Steven; Lambert, Gregory; Baird, Donald G.; Wang, Jin; Costa, Franco; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2015-11-13

    During the last quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) PlastiComp used the PlastiComp direct in-line (D-LFT) Pushtrusion system to injection mold 40 30wt% LCF/PP parts with ribs, 40 30wt% LCF/PP parts without ribs, 10 30wt% LCF/PA66 parts with ribs, and 35 30wt% LCF/PA66 parts without ribs. In addition, purge materials from the injection molding nozzle were obtained for fiber length analysis, and molding parameters were sent to PNNL for process modeling. 2) Magna cut samples at four selected locations (named A, B, C and D) from the non-ribbed Magna-molded parts based on a plan discussed with PNNL and the team and shipped these samples to Virginia Tech for fiber orientation and length measurements. 3) Virginia Tech started fiber orientation and length measurements for the samples taken from the complex parts using Virginia Tech’s established procedure. 4) PNNL and Autodesk built ASMI models for the complex parts with and without ribs, reviewed process datasheets and performed preliminary analyses of these complex parts using the actual molding parameters received from Magna and PlastiComp to compare predicted to experimental mold filling patterns. 5) Autodesk assisted PNNL in developing the workflow to use Moldflow fiber orientation and length results in ABAQUS® simulations. 6) Autodesk advised the team on the practicality and difficulty of material viscosity characterization from the D-LFT process. 7) PNNL developed a procedure to import fiber orientation and length results from a 3D ASMI analysis to a 3D ABAQUS® model for structural analyses of the complex part for later weight reduction study. 8) In discussion with PNNL and Magna, Toyota developed mechanical test setups and built fixtures for three-point bending and torsion tests of the complex parts. 9) Toyota built a finite element model for the complex parts subjected to torsion loading. 10) PNNL built the 3D ABAQUS® model of the complex ribbed

  5. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Third Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Sanborn, Scott E.; Mathur, Raj N.; Sharma, Bhisham; Sangid, Michael D.; Wang, Jin; Jin, Xiaoshi; Costa, Franco; Gandhi, Umesh N.; Mori, Steven; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the technical progresses made during the third quarter of FY 2014: 1) Autodesk introduced the options for fiber inlet condition to the 3D solver. These options are already available in the mid-plane/dual domain solver. 2) Autodesk improved the accuracy of 3D fiber orientation calculation around the gate. 3) Autodesk received consultant services from Prof. C.L. Tucker at the University of Illinois on the implementation of the reduced order model for fiber length, and discussed with Prof. Tucker the methods to reduce memory usage. 4) PlastiComp delivered to PNNL center-gated and edge-fan-gated 20-wt% to 30-wt% LCF/PP and LCF/PA66 (7”x7”x1/8”) plaques molded by the in-line direct injection molding (D-LFT) process. 5) PlastiComp molded ASTM tensile, flexural and impact bars under the same D-LFT processing conditions used for plaques for Certification of Assessment and ascertaining the resultant mechanical properties. 6) Purdue developed a new polishing routine, utilizing the automated polishing machine, to reduce fiber damage during surface preparation. 7) Purdue used a marker-based watershed segmentation routine, in conjunction with a hysteresis thresholding technique, for fiber segmentation during fiber orientation measurement. 8) Purdue validated Purdue’s fiber orientation measurement method using the previous fiber orientation data obtained from the Leeds machine and manually measured data by the University of Illinois. 9) PNNL conducted ASMI mid-plane analyses for a 30wt% LCF/PP plaque and compared the predicted fiber orientations with the measured data provided by Purdue University at the selected locations on this plaque. 10) PNNL put together the DOE 2014 Annual Merit Review (AMR) presentation with the team and presented it at the AMR meetings on June 17, 2014. 11) PNNL built ASMI dual domain models for the Toyota complex part and commenced mold filling analyses of the complex part with different wall thicknesses in order to

  6. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2016 First Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lambert, Gregory [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Baird, Donald G. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Wang, Jin [Autodesk, Inc, Ithaca, NY (United States); Costa, Franco [Autodesk, Inc, Ithaca, NY (United States); Tucker, III, Charles L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Gandhi, Umesh N. [Toyota Research Inst. North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mori, Steven [MAGNA Exteriors and Interiors Corp., Aurora, ON (Canada); Wollan, Eric J. [PlastiComp, Inc., Winona, MN (United States); Roland, Dale [PlastiComp, Inc., Winona, MN (United States)

    2016-01-31

    During the first quarter of FY 2016, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Virginia Tech completed fiber orientation (FO) measurements for the samples taken at Locations A, B, C and D (Figure 1) from the 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 ribbed and non-ribbed complex parts using Virginia Tech’s established procedure. Virginia Tech delivered to PNNL all the measured fiber orientation data for validating ASMI fiber orientation predictions. 2)Virginia Tech performed fiber length distribution (FLD) measurements for the samples taken at Locations A, B, C and D from these complex parts using Virginia Tech’s established procedure. Virginia also re-assessed previous data and measured fiber length distributions in the corresponding nozzle purging materials and delivered to PNNL all the measured length data for validating ASMI fiber length predictions. 3)Based on measured fiber orientation data, Autodesk identified the parameters of the anisotropic rotary diffusion reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model [1] and provided PNNL with the values of these parameters that were used in ASMI analyses of the complex parts. 4) Magna provided Virginia Tech with additional samples cut out from the 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 ribbed parts (Figure 1) for fiber length and orientation measurements. 5) In discussion with Autodesk, PNNL performed 3D ASMI analyses of the 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 ribbed and non-ribbed complex parts to predict fiber orientations and length distributions in these parts. The issues observed through the analyses regarding fiber orientation distributions profiles and abnormal length distributions were reported to Autodesk. Autodesk is working to resolve these issues. 6) PNNL completed 3D ASMI analyses of the complex parts and compared predicted fiber orientation results at Locations A, B, and C on the non-ribbed parts, and at Locations A, B, C and D on the ribbed parts with the corresponding measured data. PNNL also

  7. The components and carbon isotope of the gases in inclusions in reservoir layers of Upper Paleozoic gas pools in the Ordos Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The components and carbon isotope of gases in inclusions are one of the most important geochemical indexes for gas pools.The analysis results of the components and carbon isotope of gases from inclusions in reservoir layers of Upper Palaeozoic gas pools in the Ordos Basin show that most inclusions grown in reservoir sandstone are primary inclusions.There is only a little difference about the components and carbon isotope between the well gases and the secondary inclusions gases.This indicated that the epigenetic change of gas pools is little.This difference between the well gases and the secondary inclusions gases is caused by two reasons:(i)The well gases come from several disconnected sand bodies buried in a segment of depth,while the inclusion gases come from a point of depth.(ii)The secondary inclusions trapped the gases generated in the former stage of source rock gas generation,and the well gases are the mixed gases generated in all the stages.It is irresponsible to reconstruct the palaeo-temperature and palaeo-pressure under which the gas pool formed using carbon dioxide inclusions.

  8. 碳酸盐岩油藏化学堵水工艺研究与评价%Chemical water plugging technology research and evaluation of carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚翔; 董杰; 杨慧; 杨雪

    2012-01-01

    In the process of developing the carbonate reservoir, water breakthrough resulted in a substantial reduction of the well production. For carbonate reservoirs, The water shutoff has become one of the most important measures to improve the effects of oilfield develop- ment and increase the production. Firstly, the commonly chemical water shutoff technology in the domestic and foreign has been described in detail. Currently, Chemical blocking is still based on polymer and Gel. Secondly, taking the M carbonate reservoir for exzample, The water shutoff of the M carbonate reservoir has been briefly introduced. Through the reservoir strata, the well completion method, the waterbreakthrough type, water control methods, the recovery degree and the moisture content before plugging in six aspects, we evaluated effec- tiveness of the water shutoff technology.%碳酸盐岩油藏在开发过程中,由于油井的出水造成了产量的大幅度减少。对于碳酸盐岩油藏,堵水已成为改善油田开发效果、增产稳油的重要措施之一。首先,对国内外常用的化学堵水工艺及其堵水机理进行了详细介绍,目前,化学堵荆依然以聚合物堵剂和凝胶堵剂为主。其次,以M碳酸盐岩油田为例,对M油藏的堵水情况进行了简单介绍,通过与堵水效果有关的碳酸盐岩储集层、完井方式、见水类型、堵水方式、采出程度和堵前含水率6个方面,对堵水有效性进行了评价。

  9. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-12-31

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  10. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion – Taking a closer look at the Karoo rangelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte

    The semi-arid rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa, which are nowadays characterized by badlands on the foot slopes of upland areas and complex gully systems in valley bottoms, have experienced a number of environmental changes. With the settlement of European farmers in the late ......th century agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing which probably acted as a trigger to land degradation. As a consequence of higher water demands and shifting rainfall patterns, many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle...... of analytical methods that include drone imagery, landscape mapping, erosion modelling and sediment analysis have been employed to trace back the sediment origin and redistribution within the catchment, setting a special focus on the carbon history. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir were analysed...

  11. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2015 First Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kijewski, Seth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sangid, Michael D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Jin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jin, Xiaoshi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Costa, Franco [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, III, Charles L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathur, Raj N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gandhi, Umesh N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mori, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    During the first quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Autodesk delivered a new research version of ASMI to PNNL. This version includes the improved 3D fiber orientation solver, and the reduced order model (ROM) for fiber length distribution using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) implemented in the mid-plane, dual-domain and 3D solvers. 2) Autodesk coordinated a conference paper with PNNL reporting ASMI mid-plane fiber orientation predictions compared with the measured data for two PlastiComp plaques. This paper was accepted for presentation at the 2015 Society for Plastics Engineers (SPE) ANTEC conference. 3) The University of Illinois (Prof. Tucker) assisted team members from Purdue with fiber orientation measurement techniques, including interpretation of off-axis cross sections. 4) The University of Illinois assisted Autodesk team members with software implementation of the POD approach for fiber length modeling, and with fiber orientation modeling. 5) The University of Illinois co-authored in the SPE ANTEC paper, participated with the team in discussions of plaque data and model results, and participated in the definition of go/no-go experiments and data. 6) Purdue University (Purdue) conducted fiber orientation measurements for 3 PlastiComp plaques: fast-fill 30wt% LCF/PP center-gated, fast-fill 50wt% LCF/PA66 edge-gated and fast-fill 50wt% LCF/PA66 center-gated plaques, and delivered the fiber orientation data for these plaques at the selected locations (named A, B, and C) to PNNL. However, the data for the fast-fill 50wt% LCF/PA66 edge-gated plaque exhibited unusual variations and could not be used for the model validation. Purdue will re-measure fiber orientation for this plaque. 7) Based on discussions with the University of Illinois Purdue explained the ambiguity in the measurements of the fiber orientation components. 8) PNNL discussed with team members to establish a go/no-go decision

  12. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliston, Anton Jaynand; Holmqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Viggen, Kjerstin Dahl; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Guren, Ingrid; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    Fourth quarter of 2011 was unusually mild and wet, resulting in high energy inflow to the Norwegian reservoirs. Total inflow for the year was 149.2 TWh, 26.7 TWh more than normal. This ensured record-high 80.3 percent load factor at the end of the quarter.The stored energy amount in the reservoirs was thus 29.5 TWh greater than at the end of 2010/2011. Norway had a power consumption of 34.1 TWh in the fourth quarter. Compared with the same quarter of 2010, a decrease of 4.2 TWh, which can be connected to the mild weather development. The total Norwegian electricity consumption in 2011 was 125.1 TWh, or 6.9 TWh less than in 2010. Electricity production in the fourth quarter of 2011 was 38.3 GWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from the same quarter the year before. The production increase were a result of the large volume of water in the system. Power production for the year 2011 was 128.1 TWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from 2010. Kraft surplus was therefore large, and it was Norwegian net export of 4.2 TWh in the fourth quarter, and 3.0 TWh total for the year. In comparison, in the fourth quarter of 2010 Norwegian net import of 0.8 TWh and 7.5 TWh annually. The good resource combined with the low consumption gave a unusually low price levels in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for fourth quarter, the price of power in the East and South-East Norway Nok 264 / MWh, in western Norway Nok 260 / MWh, in Central Norway Nok 270 / MWh (eb)

  13. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  14. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  15. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

  16. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface. Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, Peter [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Evans, James [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Formation reservoir/caprock interface in order to extend our work to a reservoir/caprock pair this is currently being assessed for long-term carbon storage. These analyses indicate that interface features similar to those observed at the Utah sites 3 were not observed. Although not directly related to our main study topic, one byproduct of our investigation is documentation of exceptionally high degrees of heterogeneity in the pore-size distribution of the Mount Simon Sandstone. This suggests that the unit has a greater-than-normal potential for residual trapping of supercritical CO2.

  17. DOE/FETC GASIS project. Quarterly report, September 1--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the GASIS [Gas AtlaS Information System] project during the quarter. During this period, work was performed on Task 3: Natural gas reservoir data system development, Task 4: Technology transfer, Task 8: Reservoir data system updates, and Task 9: Supplemental reservoir studies.

  18. Predictive engineering tools for injection-molded long-carbon-fiber thermoplastic composites - FY 2015 third quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mori, Steven [MAGNA Exteriors and Interiors Corp. Aurora, ON (Canada); Gandhi, Umesh N. [Toyota Research Institute North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wang, Jin [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Costa, Franco [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wollan, Eric J. [PlastiComp, Inc., Winona, MN (United States); Tucker, III, Charles L. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    During the third quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Magna oversaw the tool build and prepared the molding plan for the complex part of Phase II. 2) PlastiComp hosted a visit by Magna and Toyota on April 23rd to finalize the molding scope and schedule. The plan for molding trials including selection of molding parameters for both LFT and D-LFT for the U-shape complex part was established. 3) Toyota shipped the U-shape complex part tool to Magna on May 28th, 2015. 4) Plasticomp provided 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 compounded pellets to Magna for molding the complex part. 5) Magna performed preliminary molding trials on June 2nd, 2015 to validate wall thickness, fill profile, tool temperature and shot size requirements for the complex part. 6) Magna performed the first complex part run on June 16th and 17th, 2015 at Magna’s Composite Centre of Excellence in Concord, ON, Canada. Dale Roland of Plasticomp, and Umesh Gandhi of Toyota also attended the molding. 7) Magna discussed and finalized the plan with PNNL and the team for cutting samples from molded parts at selected locations for fiber orientation and length measurements. 8) Magna provided the computer-aided design (CAD) files of the complex parts with and without ribs to PNNL and Autodesk to build the corresponding ASMI models for injection molding simulations. Magna also provided the actual parameters used. 9) Plasticomp’s provided knowledge and experience of molding LCF materials essential to the successful molding of the parts including optimization of fill speed, tool temperatures, and plasticizing conditions for the 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 materials in both rib and non-rib versions. 10) Magna molded additional parts for evaluation of mechanical property testing including torsional stiffness on June 29th and 30th, 2015 at Magna’s Composite Center of Excellence. 11) Toyota began preparation for the torsion test of the specimens

  19. The applicability of C-14 measurements in the soil gas for the assessment of leakage out of underground carbon dioxide reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałupnik Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, due to the ratification of the Kioto Protocol, is obliged to diminish the emission of greenhouse gases. One of the possible solutions of this problem is CO2 sequestration (CCS - carbon capture and storage. Such an option is a priority in the European Union. On the other hand, CO2 sequestration may be potentially risky in the case of gas leakage from underground reservoirs. The most dangerous event may be a sudden release of the gas onto the surface. Therefore, it is very important to know if there is any escape of CO2 from underground gas reservoirs, created as a result of sequestration. Such information is crucial to ensure safety of the population in areas located above geological reservoirs. It is possible to assess the origin of carbon dioxide, if the measurement of radiocarbon 14C concentration in this gas is done. If CO2 contains no 14C, it means, that the origin of the gas is either geological or the gas has been produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, like coal. A lot of efforts are focused on the development of monitoring methods to ensure safety of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. A radiometric method has been tested for such a purpose. The main goal of the investigations was to check the application possibility of such a method. The technique is based on the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The gas sample is at first bubbled through the carbon dioxide adsorbent, afterwards the adsorbent is mixed with a dedicated cocktail and measured in a low-background liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus. The described method enables measurements of 14C in mine and soil gas samples.

  20. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recover processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase I of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1500--2100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activant. These high surface area chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25{degrees}C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation; both a high adsorption capacity and selectivity were achieved. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln.

  1. Study on EOR by carbon Dioxide Injection Process in R11 Carbonate Reservoir%任11碳酸盐岩油藏注CO2提高采收率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭平; 周耐强; 张茂林; 张晓辉

    2012-01-01

    许多碳酸盐岩油藏进入高含水开发期,如何挖潜,进一步提高采收率是目前的主要工作方向.目前任11碳酸盐岩油藏存在单井产油量低,注入水利用系数低,水驱效率越来越差的问题.因此需要探索新途径,以便进一步发挥油藏生产潜力.分析了任11油藏注CO2提高采收率的机理,开展了任11油藏注CO2提高采收率的数值模拟研究.针对研究区块的地质及开发特点,建立了相应的三维数值模型,在水驱历史拟合的基础上,应用数值模拟技术从注气强度、注气方式、注气部位,生产气油比控制等方面进行了优化研究.油藏注CO2方案模拟计算20年,产油量显著上升,采用注CO2可比目前开发方式提高采收率3.5%左右.%Many carbonate reservoir have been into high water-cut development stage. How to dig the remaining oil potential and enhancing oil recovery further is dominant work target now. There are many problems in carbonate reservoir of Rl 1, such as low oil production of single well, inefficient utilization of injected water, and worsening of the water-flood efficiency. Therefore it is necessary to find a new way to dig reservoir production potential. The EOR mechanism by Carbon dioxide injection process in Rl 1 is analyzed and the numerical simulation research on EQR by Carbon dioxide injection process in Rl 1 reservoir is completed. Aimed at reservoir properties and development characteristic the three-dimensional numerical model is setup. Based on the fitting history of water flooding, the gas injection rate, gas injection mode, gas injection position and the gas-oil ratio control are optimized. The plan of Carbon dioxide injection is predicted for 20 years and the result shows that oil production rise obviously and it can enhance oil recovery about 3.5% more than the current exploitation mode.

  2. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Migration Law of Gas Mixture Using Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas in Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuanKai Niu; YuFei Tan

    2014-01-01

    One of the major technical challenges in using carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) as part of the cushion gas of the underground gas storage reservoir ( UGSR) is the mixture of CO2 and natural gas. To decrease the mixing extent and manage the migration of the mixed zone, an understanding of the mechanism of CO2 and natural gas mixing and the diffusion of the mixed gas in aquifer is necessary. In this paper, a numerical model based on the three dimensional gas-water two-phase flow theory and gas diffusion theory is developed to understand this mechanism. This model is validated by the actual operational data in Dazhangtuo UGSR in Tianjin City, China. Using the validated model, the mixed characteristic of CO2 and natural gas and the migration mechanism of the mixed zone in an underground porous reservoir is further studied. Particularly, the impacts of the following factors on the migration mechanism are studied:the ratio of CO2 injection, the reservoir porosity and the initial operating pressure. Based on the results, the optimal CO2 injection ratio and an optimal control strategy to manage the migration of the mixed zone are obtained. These results provide technical guides for using CO2 as cushion gas for UGSR in real projects.

  3. Petrophysical approach for S-wave velocity prediction based on brittleness index and total organic carbon of shale gas reservoir: A case study from Horn River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoun; Hwang, Seho; Jang, Seonghyung

    2017-01-01

    When finding the "sweet spot" of a shale gas reservoir, it is essential to estimate the brittleness index (BI) and total organic carbon (TOC) of the formation. Particularly, the BI is one of the key factors in determining the crack propagation and crushing efficiency for hydraulic fracturing. There are several methods for estimating the BI of a formation, but most of them are empirical equations that are specific to particular rock types. We estimated the mineralogical BI based on elemental capture spectroscopy (ECS) log and elastic BI based on well log data, and we propose a new method for predicting S-wave velocity (VS) using mineralogical BI and elastic BI. The TOC is related to the gas content of shale gas reservoirs. Since it is difficult to perform core analysis for all intervals of shale gas reservoirs, we make empirical equations for the Horn River Basin, Canada, as well as TOC log using a linear relation between core-tested TOC and well log data. In addition, two empirical equations have been suggested for VS prediction based on density and gamma ray log used for TOC analysis. By applying the empirical equations proposed from the perspective of BI and TOC to another well log data and then comparing predicted VS log with real VS log, the validity of empirical equations suggested in this paper has been tested.

  4. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR; VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-01-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, a new field demonstration, Springdale Prospect in Manistee County, Michigan was begun to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path. The main news this reporting period is the confirmed discovery of producing hydrocarbons at the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 demonstration well in Manistee County. This well was spudded in late November, tested and put on production in December 2003. To date it is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. The surface geochemistry sampling at the Springdale demonstration site will be repeated this spring after the well has been on production for several months to see if the anomaly pattern changes. We expect that the anomaly will diminish as the original positive (apical) anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. This is the behavior that we observed at the Bear lake demonstration well reported last quarter.

  5. Role of sea-level change in deep water deposition along a carbonate shelf margin, Early and Middle Permian, Delaware Basin: implications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunli; Yu, Xinghe; Li, Shengli; Giles, Katherine A.

    2015-04-01

    The architecture and sedimentary characteristics of deep water deposition can reflect influences of sea-level change on depositional processes on the shelf edge, slope, and basin floor. Outcrops of the northern slope and basin floor of the Delaware Basin in west Texas are progressively exposed due to canyon incision and road cutting. The outcrops in the Delaware Basin were measured to characterize gravity flow deposits in deep water of the basin. Subsurface data from the East Ford and Red Tank fields in the central and northeastern Delaware Basin were used to study reservoir architectures and properties. Depositional models of deep water gravity flows at different stages of sea-level change were constructed on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. In the falling-stage system tracts, sandy debris with collapses of reef carbonates are deposited on the slope, and high-density turbidites on the slope toe and basin floor. In the low-stand system tracts, deep water fans that consist of mixed sand/mud facies on the basin floor are comprised of high- to low-density turbidites. In the transgression and high-stand system tracts, channel-levee systems and elongate lobes of mud-rich calciturbidite deposits formed as a result of sea level rise and scarcity of sandy sediment supply. For the reservoir architecture, the fan-like debris and high-density turbidites show high net-to-gross ratio of 62 %, which indicates the sandiest reservoirs for hydrocarbon accumulation. Lobe-like deep water fans with net-to-gross ratio of 57 % facilitate the formation of high quality sandy reservoirs. The channel-levee systems with muddy calciturbidites have low net-to-gross ratio of 30 %.

  6. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  7. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.

    1994-01-25

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Technical progress for this quarter is described.

  8. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1994-04-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  9. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  10. Reservoir-scale stratigraphic controls on the distribution of vertical fractures: insights from a 200-m thick carbonate platform exposure (Sorrento peninsula, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, Amerigo; Tavani, Stefano; Iannace, Alessandro; Vinci, Francesco; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio; Strauss, Christoph; Pignalosa, Antonio; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Through-going fractures cutting across numerous beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. Despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow simulations, there are only few field analogues allowing estimating many of their parameters, including spacing and vertical extent, which are instead required to populate reservoir models. This is mostly due to the fact that the study of these reservoir-scale fractures requires very wide outcrops that for several reasons, including logistics, are rarely analysed. Nevertheless, recent improvements in the construction of digital models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues. In this work, we present the results obtained from combined field and remote sensing observations of a 300-meters wide and 200-meters high carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolomites characterized by the presence of several vertical fractures of different size and hence with different vertical connectivity. In order to gather both stratigraphic and structural (i.e. fracture) data, we integrated field measurements and stratigraphic logs with a remote sensing study carried out on a digital model of the cliff, made by means of multi-view stereo-photogrammetry. This combined field and remote sensing study has allowed us to recognize that major bed-perpendicular through-going fractures are vertically discontinuous due to variable segmentation and fracture distribution within the country rock. In particular, we observed that large (i.e. tens of meters in height) fractures pass across medium to thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers of dolomites. In essence, through-going fractures arrest on weak levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages

  11. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 1. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 1. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Eliston, Anton Jaynanand; Guren, Ingri; Homqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Rasmussen, Kristian; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    The first quarter of 2012 was unusually mild and wetter than normal. Total inflow was 16.8 TWh, 7.5 TWh more than normal. This ensured a high reservoir levels and at the end of the quarter the filling was 50.5 percent. It is 12.5 percentage points over the normal for the time of year and 32.4 percentage points higher than the same time last year. Norway had a power consumption of 37.5 TWh in the first quarter, which is 2.3 percent less than in the same quarter last year. the past 12 months, consumption has been 124.2 TWh, compared with 129.7 TWh the preceding 12 months. Power production in Norway was 42.3 TWh in the first quarter - an increase of 32.3 percent compared with the same quarter last year. The last 12 months have the Norwegian production been 138.5 TWh compared to 117.7 TWh the the previous 12 months. The production increase is due to milder and wetter weather than normal over the past year. This involvement also high the exports abroad. In the first quarter, Norway had a net export of 4.8 TWh, compared with a net import of 6.4 TWh in the first quarter last year. The good resource, combined with a low consumption gave a low price level in wholesale market for electricity. On average for the fourth quarter was the average spot price in the South and West Norway, Nok 272 and 275 / MWh. In Eastern Norway, the average price of Nok 283 / MWh, while it was Nok 285 / MWh in the Middle and Northern Norway. (Author)

  12. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Eliston, Anton Jayanand; Vaeringstad, Thomas; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Langseth, Benedicte; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Rasmussen, Kristian; Guren, Ingri

    2012-07-01

    Second quarter of 2012 was cold. Total inflow was 47.0 TWh, 8.8 TWh less than normal. At the end of the quarter, the reservoir level 68.4 percent. It is 1.8 percentage points above normal for time of year and 1.2 percentage points higher than the same time last year. Norway had a power consumption of 28.2 TWh in the second quarter, which is 4.2 percent higher than in the same quarter last year. The last 12 months the consumption have been 125.7 TWh, compared with 128.7 TWh the preceding 12 months. The power production in Norway was 33.3 TWh in the second quarter - an increase of 26.1 percent compared with the same quarter last year. The last 12 months the Norwegian production has been 145.8 TWh, compared with 120.9 TWh the preceding 12 months. The production increase is due to that the last year has been much wetter than the preceding. This has also given high export abroad. In the second quarter Norway had a net export of 5.1 TWh, compared with a net import of 0.6 TWh in the second quarter last year. The good resource gave a low price level in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for the second quarter was the average spot price in West, Southwest and Eastern Norway, 201, 202 and 203 Nok / MWh. In Central and Northern Norway, the average price 218 and 213 Nok/ MWh. (eb)

  13. Experimental and molecular modeling study of the three-phase behavior of (n-decane + carbon dioxide + water) at reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Esther; Galindo, Amparo; Trusler, J P Martin

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the phase behavior of mixtures of oil with carbon dioxide and water is essential for reservoir engineering, especially in the processes of enhanced oil recovery and geological storage of carbon dioxide. However, for a comprehensive understanding, the study of simpler systems needs to be completed. In this work the system (n-decane + carbon dioxide + water) was studied as a model (oil + carbon dioxide + water) mixture. To accomplish our aim, a new analytical apparatus to measure phase equilibria at high pressure was designed with maximum operating temperature and pressure of 423 K and 45 MPa, respectively. The equipment relies on recirculation of two coexisting phases using a two-channel magnetically operated micropump designed during this work, with sampling and online compositional analysis by gas chromatography. The apparatus has been validated by comparison with published isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary system (n-decane + carbon dioxide). New experimental data have been measured for the system (n-decane + carbon dioxide + water) under conditions of three-phase equilibria. Data for the three coexisting phases have been obtained on five isotherms at temperatures from 323 to 413 K and at pressures up to the point at which two of the phases become critical. The experimental work is complemented here with a theoretical effort in which we developed models for these molecules within the framework of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR). The phase behavior of the three binary subsystems was calculated using this theory, and where applicable, a modification of the Hudson and McCoubrey combining rules was used to treat the systems predictively. The experimental data obtained for the ternary mixture are compared to the predictions of the theory. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the ternary mixture is carried out based on comparison with available data for the constituent binary

  14. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model v2.0.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Zeebe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. LOSCAR's configuration of ocean geometry is flexible and allows for easy switching between modern and paleo-versions. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  15. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water samples......, aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...

  16. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Doukas, M.P.

    2002-01-01

     We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d−1) for the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Kīlauea's total CO2 output (∼9000 t d−1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2emission and magma supply rate data is ∼0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

  17. 欢北低渗透油藏二氧化碳驱可行性研究%Feasibility Study on carbon dioxide flooding for HuanBei low permeability reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周君

    2015-01-01

    欢北低渗透油藏在注水开发中存在油层纵向动用不均、水驱开发驱油效率低等问题.为解决以上问题,在该块开展了二氧化碳驱可行性研究,最后认为该油藏适合注二氧化碳驱开发.%There are some problems in the water injection development of HuanBei low permeability reservoir,such as unequal oil reservoir development,low oil displacement efficiency.In order to solve these problems,the feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in this reservoir was studied and it was considered suitable for carbon dioxide flooding.

  18. Quarterly report for the electricity market; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliston, Anton Jaynand; Waeringstad, Thomas; Holmqvist, Erik; Lund Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Willumsen, Mats Oivind; Vik, Martin Andreas; Rasmussen, Kristian; Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Weir, David Edward; Thorsen, Kjell; Langseth, Benedicte; Skau, Seming Haakon

    2013-02-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2012 the total inflow was 20.4 TWh, 2.8 TWh less than normal and 11.3 TWh less than in the same quarter than in 2011. Meanwhile the weather was slightly colder than normal, which contributed to high production and normalization of reservoir fillings. At the end of the quarter, the reservoir level was 0.8 percentage points below normal for the season, while it was 4.5 percentage points over the beginning of the quarter. At the end of 2012 it was 9.9 percent landfill units lower than the same time in 2011. Norway had a power consumption of 37.2 TWh in the fourth quarter, an increase of 9 percent from last year. In 2012, consumption was 130.0 TWh, an increase of around 5 TWh from 2011. Power production in Norway was 39.2 TWh in the fourth quarter - an increase of 2.4 percent from last year. In 2012, production was 147.9 TWh, compared to 128.1 TWh in 2011. The production increase is due to high reservoir levels at the beginning of 2012, and more than normal inflow. This gave high exports abroad. In the quarter, Norway had a net export of 2 TWh of electricity and was 17.9 TWh in 2012. It is the highest since 2000. The good resource gave a relatively low price level in the wholesale market for electricity. The average spot price in the Norwegian market areas were NOK 268-277 / MWh in the fourth quarter. In 2012 the price was 217-236 NOK/ MWh.(eb)

  19. Diagenesis and development of reservoir capacity in the Stassfurt Carbonate of Southern Brandenburg; Diagenese und Speicherraumentwicklung des Stassfurtkarbonats am Zechsteinbeckenrand Suedbrandenburgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judersleben, G. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Bodenforschung, Weimar (Germany); Voigt, E. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In southern Brandenburg, the Upper Permian Stassfurt Carbonate sediments deposited on the platform slope in front of a regional sand bar, which mainly consists of oncolitic grainstones, show considerable facies variation. Areas of still-water facies alternate with those of the deeper shallow-water zone. From the platform edge as well as from local shoals, slumped masses of debris slide downwards into deeper water. The course of diagenetic processes affecting the carbonates of the platform margin and those of the platform slope varies, but the individual phenomena are interrelated forming a single paleohydrodynamic system. In the grainstones of the carbonate sand bar, the primary pore space is considerably increased by eodiagenetic, mainly meteoric solution. Subsequent processes such as compaction, accretive crystallization and cementation by dolomite, gypsum and, especially, by anhydrite and halite, as well as the partial replacement of carbonate by calcium sulfate and halite caused extensive reduction, partly even complete elimination, of the pore space. The mesodiagenetic solution phase preceding the halite cementation is, in contrast to the conditions on the platform slope, less intense than the eodiagenetic solution phase. Only locally is a considerable part of the pore space preserved due to early accumulation of hydrocarbons. As a result of the above diagenetic processes, the primarily highly porous platform-edge carbonates now rarely show favourable reservoir characteristics. On the other hand, the platform-slope carbonates having unfavourable primary reservoir properties due to the presence of a matrix are locally transformed into good reservoir rocks under the influence of mesodiagenetic solution in close association with hydrocarbon generation. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Suedbrandenburg ist im Niveau des Stassfurtkarbonats der vor einer regionalen, meist von onkolithischen grainstones aufgebauten Karbonatsandbarre liegende Plattformhang differenziert

  20. Comparative modeling of fault reactivation and seismicity in geologic carbon storage and shale-gas reservoir stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cappa, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The potential for fault reactivation and induced seismicity are issues of concern related to both geologic CO2 sequestration and stimulation of shale-gas reservoirs. It is well known that underground injection may cause induced seismicity depending on site-specific conditions, such a stress and rock properties and injection parameters. To date no sizeable seismic event that could be felt by the local population has been documented associated with CO2 sequestration activities. In the case of shale-gas fracturing, only a few cases of felt seismicity have been documented out of hundreds of thousands of hydraulic fracturing stimulation stages. In this paper we summarize and review numerical simulations of injection-induced fault reactivation and induced seismicity associated with both underground CO2 injection and hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. The simulations were conducted with TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modeling. In this case we employed both 2D and 3D models with an explicit representation of a fault. A strain softening Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model a slip-weakening fault slip behavior, enabling modeling of sudden slip that was interpreted as a seismic event, with a moment magnitude evaluated using formulas from seismology. In the case of CO2 sequestration, injection rates corresponding to expected industrial scale CO2 storage operations were used, raising the reservoir pressure until the fault was reactivated. For the assumed model settings, it took a few months of continuous injection to increase the reservoir pressure sufficiently to cause the fault to reactivate. In the case of shale-gas fracturing we considered that the injection fluid during one typical 3-hour fracturing stage was channelized into a fault along with the hydraulic fracturing process. Overall, the analysis shows that while the CO2 geologic sequestration in deep sedimentary formations are capable of producing notable events (e

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate cements of different phases in terrigenous siliciclastic reservoirs and significance for their origin: A case study from sandstones of the Triassic Yanchang Formation, southwestern Ordos Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; ZHUO Xizhun; CHEN Guojun; LI Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Early carbonate cements in the Yanchang Formation sandstones are composed mainly of calcite with relatively heavier carbon isotope (their δ18O values range from -0.3‰-0.1‰) and lighter oxygen isotope (their ‰18O values range from -22.1‰--19.5‰). Generally, they are closely related to the direct precipitation of oversaturated calcium carbonate from alkaline lake water. This kind of cementation plays an important role in enhancing the anti-compaction ability of sandstones, preserving intragranular volume and providing the mass basis for later dissolution caused by acidic fluid flow to produce secondary porosity. Ferriferous calcites are characterized by relatively light carbon isotope with δ13C values ranging from -8.02‰ to -3.23‰, and lighter oxygen isotope with δ18O values ranging from -22.9‰ to -19.7‰, which is obviously related to the decarboxylation of organic matter during the late period of early diagenesis to the early period of late diagenesis. As the mid-late diagenetic products, ferriferous calcites in the study area are considered as the characteristic authigenic minerals for indicating large-scaled hydrocarbon influx and migration within the clastic reservoir. The late ankerite is relatively heavy in carbon isotope with δ13C values ranging from -1.92‰ to -0.84‰, and shows a wide range of variations in oxygen isotopic composition, with δ18O values ranging from -20.5‰ to -12.6‰. They are believed to have nothing to do with decarboxylation, but the previously formed marine carbonate rock fragments may serve as the chief carbon source for their precipitation, and the alkaline diagenetic environment at the mid-late stage would promote this process.

  2. EOS7C Version 1.0: TOUGH2 Module for Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen inNatural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Moridis,George J.; Spycher, Nicholas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-06-29

    EOS7C is a TOUGH2 module for multicomponent gas mixtures in the systems methane carbon dioxide (CH4-CO2) or methane-nitrogen (CH4-N2) with or without an aqueous phase and H2O vapor. EOS7C uses a cubic equation of state and an accurate solubility formulation along with a multiphase Darcy s Law to model flow and transport of gas and aqueous phase mixtures over a wide range of pressures and temperatures appropriate to subsurface geologic carbon sequestration sites and natural gas reservoirs. EOS7C models supercritical CO2 and subcritical CO2 as a non-condensible gas, hence EOS7C does not model the transition to liquid or solid CO2 conditions. The components modeled in EOS7C are water, brine, non-condensible gas, gas tracer, methane, and optional heat. The non-condensible gas (NCG) can be selected by the user to be CO2 or N2. The real gas properties module has options for Peng-Robinson, Redlich-Kwong, or Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations of state to calculate gas mixture density, enthalpy departure, and viscosity. Partitioning of the NCG and CH4 between the aqueous and gas phases is calculated using a very accurate chemical equilibrium approach. Transport of the gaseous and dissolved components is by advection and Fickian molecular diffusion. We present instructions for use and example problems to demonstrate the accuracy and practical application of EOS7C.

  3. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial: Dominated deltaic reservoir. First quarterly technical progress report, Fiscal year 1994, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-15

    Production from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} project was initiated on December 6, 1993 after having been shut-in since the start of CO{sub 2} injection on September 22, 1993 to allow reservoir pressure to build. Rates were established at 236 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) from two wells in the 235 acre waterflood project area, which before project initiation had produced only 80 BOPD from the entire area. These wells are flowing large amounts of fluid due to the high reservoir pressure and their oil percentages are increasing as a result of the CO{sub 2} contacting the residual oil. One well, the H. J. Kuhn No. 15-R is flowing 217 BOPD, 1139 BWPD, and 2500 MCFPD of CO{sub 2} at a flowing tubing pressure (FTP) of 890 psi. The other producing well, the H. J. Kuhn No. 33, is currently flowing 19 BOPD, 614 BWPD, and 15 MCFPD at a FTP of 400 psi. Unexpectedly high rates of CO{sub 2} production are being made from Well No. 15-R and from the W. R. Stark ``B`` No. 8. This No. 8 well produced 7 BOPD, 697 BWPD, and 15 MCFPD prior to being shut-in during September to allow for the reservoir pressure to build by injecting CO{sub 2}, but when opened on December 6, the well flowed dry CO{sub 2} at a rate of 400 MCFPD for a two day test period. More sustained production tests will be obtained after all wells are tied into the new production facility. Many difficulties occurred in the drilling of the horizontal CO{sub 2} injection well but a successful completion across 2501 of sand has finally been accomplished. A formation dip of 11--14 degrees in the area where the well was being drilled made the proposed 1500{prime} horizontal sand section too difficult to accomplish. The shale section directly above the sand caused sticking problems on two separate occasions resulting in two sidetracks of the well around stuck pipe. The well will be tied into the facility and CO{sub 2} injection into the well will begin before February 1, 1994.

  4. Characterization of heterogeneities from core X-ray scans and borehole wall images in a reefal carbonate reservoir: influence on the porosity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, V.; Garing, C.; Pezard, P. A.; Gouze, P.; Maria-Sube, Y.; Camoin, G.; Lapointe, P.

    2009-04-01

    Petrophysical properties of rocks can be largely influenced by heterogeneities. This is particularly true in reefal carbonates, with heterogeneities due to the primary structure of the reef, the degradation of that structure into a fossil form, and fluid circulations with associated dissolutions and recrystallization. We report here a study conducted on Miocene reefal carbonates drilled in the context of salt water intrusion in coastal reservoirs. Salt water intrusion along coastlines is highly influenced by geological and petrophysical structures. In particular, heterogeneities and anisotropy in porous media (karsts, vugs…) control fluid flow and dispersion. A new experimental site has been developed in the South East of Mallorca Island (Spain) in the context of the ALIANCE EC project (2002-2005). This project aimed at developing a strategy for the quantitative analysis and description of fluid flow and salt transport in coastal carbonate aquifers. The site drilled the Miocene carbonate reef platform at Ses Sitjoles, 6 km inland, near the city of Campos. Sea water is found there at 60 to 80 m depth. The geological structure present multi-scale heterogeneities, often bound to either lateral variations of geological facies, or dissolution patterns. The Campos site provides a unique laboratory to study the heterogeneities of carbonate rocks with a saltwater intrusion and develop new borehole investigation methods in this context. The present study focuses on borehole geophysical measurements and images, and core scans. New image analysis methods have been developed to better characterize the presence of heterogeneities in terms of grain-size distribution, formation factor changes and porosity. Cores scans from RX tomography can lead to the extraction of petrophysical parameters from 3D images. For this, the AVIZO software was used here to represent the micro-porosity and vuggy porosity structure. Beyond core analyses, the optical and acoustic borehole wall images

  5. Hybrid ANFIS with ant colony optimization algorithm for prediction of shear wave velocity from a carbonate reservoir in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Fattahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocity (Vs data are key information for petrophysical, geophysical and geomechanical studies. Although compressional wave velocity (Vp measurements exist in almost all wells, shear wave velocity is not recorded for most of elderly wells due to lack of technologic tools. Furthermore, measurement of shear wave velocity is to some extent costly. This study proposes a novel methodology to remove aforementioned problems by use of hybrid adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS with ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO based on fuzzy c–means clustering (FCM and subtractive clustering (SCM. The ACO is combined with two ANFIS models for determining the optimal value of its user–defined parameters. The optimization implementation by the ACO significantly improves the generalization ability of the ANFIS models. These models are used in this study to formulate conventional well log data into Vs in a quick, cheap, and accurate manner. A total of 3030 data points was used for model construction and 833 data points were employed for assessment of ANFIS models. Finally, a comparison among ANFIS models, and six well–known empirical correlations demonstrated ANFIS models outperformed other methods. This strategy was successfully applied in the Marun reservoir, Iran.

  6. The use of the terrestrial snails of the genera Megalobulimus and Thaumastus as representatives of the atmospheric carbon reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Kita D; Alves, Eduardo Q; Carvalho, Carla; Oliveira, Fabiana M; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Chivall, David; Souza, Rosa; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L; Cavallari, Daniel C

    2016-06-08

    In Brazilian archaeological shellmounds, many species of land snails are found abundantly distributed throughout the occupational layers, forming a contextualized set of samples within the sites and offering a potential alternative to the use of charcoal for radiocarbon dating analyses. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this alternative, one needs to prove that the mollusk shells reflect the atmospheric carbon isotopic concentration in the same way charcoal does. In this study, 18 terrestrial mollusk shells with known collection dates from 1948 to 2004 AD, around the nuclear bombs period, were radiocarbon dated. The obtained dates fit the SH1-2 bomb curve within less than 15 years range, showing that certain species from the Thaumastus and Megalobulimus genera are reliable representatives of the atmospheric carbon isotopic ratio and can, therefore, be used to date archaeological sites in South America.

  7. The use of the terrestrial snails of the genera Megalobulimus and Thaumastus as representatives of the atmospheric carbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Kita D.; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Carvalho, Carla; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Chivall, David; Souza, Rosa; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L.; Cavallari, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazilian archaeological shellmounds, many species of land snails are found abundantly distributed throughout the occupational layers, forming a contextualized set of samples within the sites and offering a potential alternative to the use of charcoal for radiocarbon dating analyses. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this alternative, one needs to prove that the mollusk shells reflect the atmospheric carbon isotopic concentration in the same way charcoal does. In this study, 18 terrestrial mollusk shells with known collection dates from 1948 to 2004 AD, around the nuclear bombs period, were radiocarbon dated. The obtained dates fit the SH1-2 bomb curve within less than 15 years range, showing that certain species from the Thaumastus and Megalobulimus genera are reliable representatives of the atmospheric carbon isotopic ratio and can, therefore, be used to date archaeological sites in South America.

  8. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  9. Wettability of supercritical carbon dioxide/water/quartz systems: simultaneous measurement of contact angle and interfacial tension at reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Soheil; Goual, Lamia; Piri, Mohammad; Plancher, Henry

    2013-06-11

    Injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers is considered as a method of carbon sequestration. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions inside the porous media. For instance, the final storage capacity and total amount of capillary-trapped CO2 inside an aquifer are affected by the interfacial tension between the fluids and the contact angle between the fluids and the rock mineral surface. A thorough study of these parameters and their variations with temperature and pressure will provide a better understanding of the carbon sequestration process and thus improve predictions of the sequestration efficiency. In this study, the controversial concept of wettability alteration of quartz surfaces in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. A novel apparatus for measuring interfacial tension and contact angle at high temperatures and pressures based on Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis with no-Apex (ADSA-NA) method was developed and validated with a simple system. Densities, interfacial tensions, and dynamic contact angles of CO2/water/quartz systems were determined for a wide range of pressures and temperatures relevant to geological sequestration of CO2 in the subcritical and supercritical states. Image analysis was performed with ADSA-NA method that allows the determination of both interfacial tensions and contact angles with high accuracy. The results show that supercritical CO2 alters the wettability of quartz surface toward less water-wet conditions compared to subcritical CO2. Also we observed an increase in the water advancing contact angles with increasing temperature indicating less water-wet quartz surfaces at higher temperatures.

  10. 深层碳酸盐质砾岩储层酸压技术%ACIDIZING-FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR DEEP CARBONATE CONGLOMERATE RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春明; 郭建春; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    针对深层碳酸盐质砾岩储层酸压存在的问题,提出了自转向酸分流转向技术、酸蚀裂缝导流能力优化技术、预处理酸解堵降温技术等,并与限压不限排量的施工策略、重复射孔技术、快速返排技术、防应力敏感的排液生产技术以及风险应急预案设计相结合,最终形成了适合于深层低渗裂缝性碳酸盐质砾岩储层的酸压技术.在华北油田进行了先导性试验,无产量的兴9-4x井经酸化压裂改造后,日产油量19.18 t、日产气量69 915 m3,取得了较好效果.%In view of the acidizing-fracturing problems for deep carbonate conglomerate reservoir, the following techniques; VES acid distributary diversion, conductivity optimization of acid etched fractures, acidizing pre-process for plugging removal and temperature reduction and so on are presented; and moreover connecting with the treating strategy of restraining pressure without constraining displacement, re-perforating technique, quick-flow-back technique, liquid discharging-producing stress-sensitivity-proof technique and the design of risk emergency plan, the acidizing-fracturing technique adapting for the deep, low-permeability fractured carbonate conglomerate reservoir is developed at last. The pilot test has conducted in Huabei Oilfield, after the treatment of the above technique for Well Xing 9-4x with no production, much better results are obtained; daily oil production is up to 19. 18 t and the gas production has reached 69 915 m3.

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  12. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  13. Classification and features of single-well flow units in a carbonate reservoir - Taking the NT oil field at the eastern edge of Pre-Caspian Basin as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zifei; Wang, Shuqin; Liu, Lingli; Li, Jianxin; Zhao, Wenqi; Sun, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the carbonate reservoirs has always been a challenge to geological exploration, while reasonable classification of flow units is the bottleneck in this exploitation. While taking the NT oil field at the eastern edge of Pre-Caspian Basin as an example, this paper proposes the classification of flow units into five categories based on previous flow-unit classification theory and actual oilfield features by using the pore throat radius at the mercury injection saturation of 35% as the main judging criterion. In this paper, the features of various flow units have also been analyzed. The type-I flow units, mainly found in dolomite and algal reef limestone reservoirs, have the highest production capacity. Given the existence of corrosion and dolomitization, they are mainly fracture-cave composite reservoirs or fracture pore reservoirs. As far as the type-I flow units are concerned, the flow index is > 1.42 for KT-I stratum and > 1.55 for KT-II stratum. The production capacity and reservoir quality of type-II-IV flow units would decline in turn. The type-V flow units are argillaceous limestone, with a very low production capacity and a flow index being 0.01-0.05 for KT-I and 0.03-0.05 for KT-II.

  14. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  15. Polyurethane-derived N-doped porous carbon with interconnected sheet-like structure as polysulfide reservoir for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suo; Liu, Songhang; Zhang, Jianqiu; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Environmental pollution and energy deficiency are two key issues for the sustainable development of the modern society. Polyurethane foam is a typical commercial polymer with a large production quantity and its waste needs to be recycled. Lithium-sulfur battery is a promising energy-storage device with high energy density and low cost, but its demerits such as poor conductivity of the sulfur and severe capacity degradation due to the soluble lithium polysulfides are still a big challenge. This work reports a facile method to prepare nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) from the polyurethane foam (PUF) waste and use it as a reservoir to impregnate sulfur for lithium-sulfur batteries. The obtained NPC has a unique interconnected sheet-like porous morphology with a large surface area of 1315 m2 g-1. The NPC-S composite delivers a large reversible capacity of 1118 mAh g-1 with good cycling performances and excellent high-rate capabilities. A large reversible capacity of 460 mAh g-1 can be retained at a large current of 5C (8.35 A g-1) after 100 cycles.

  16. Relationship between fracturing and porogenesis in a carbonate reservoir: Example from the Middle Turonian Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila, Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Ali, Hajer; Belghithi, Hanen; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the Middle Turonian carbonate Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila area (Central Tunisia). This member mainly consists of dolostones. The sampling of the dolomitic rocks was carried out on both sides of the several fractures affecting the Bireno Member. We also measured the directions and dips of the fractures. The Studied dolomites basically consist of subhedral to euhedral dolospar. The porosity associated to the dolomites show a gradual variation both laterally and vertically. In fact, porosity increases respectively, laterally while going toward the fractures and vertically from the bottom to the top of the dolomitic member. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses of dolomite, carried out respectively by X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption, show that the studied dolomites broadly range from a sub-stoechiometric dolomite (48% CaCO3) far from the fractures to a dolomitic calcite (84% CaCO3) near the fractures. In the same way, the MgCO3 contents vary from 35% to 11%. Such high contents in Ca against low contents in Mg could probably related to the dilution of the dolomitizing marine waters by meteoric waters which would have been introduced within the platform during the Middle Turonian sea-level fall and the subsequent subaerial exposure of the Bireno platform. The Sr and Na contents (respectively, 4 ppm and 15 ppm in average) are rather low and they gradually decrease while approaching the fractures. Such a gradual decrease in Sr and Na concentrations may be the result of salinity lowering caused by the meteoric waters that would have circulated through the existing fractures networks. The previous analyses were supplemented by the SEM examination of the dolomite and the measurement of porosity and permeability. The SEM allowed us to identify the dolomite petrographic phases and the associated diagenetic products (solution, cementing, dedolomitization.), whereas the porosity and permeability evaluation highlights the

  17. Improved efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhanced prospects for CO2 flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report, April 17, 1991--May 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    From 1986 to 1996, oil recovery in the US by gas injection increased almost threefold, to 300,000 bbl/day. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection projects make up three-quarters of the 191,139 bbl/day production increase. This document reports experimental and modeling research in three areas that is increasing the number of reservoirs in which CO{sub 2} can profitably enhance oil recovery: (1) foams for selective mobility reduction (SMR) in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) low interfacial tension (97) processes and the possibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in naturally fractured reservoirs. CO{sub 2} injection under miscible conditions can effectively displace oil, but due to differences in density and viscosity the mobility of CO{sub 2} is higher than either oil or water. High CO{sub 2} mobility causes injection gas to finger through a reservoir, causing such problems as early gas breakthrough, high gas production rates, excessive injection gas recycling, and bypassing of much of the reservoir oil. These adverse effects are exacerbated by increased reservoir heterogeneity, reaching an extreme in naturally fractured reservoirs. Thus, many highly heterogeneous reservoirs have not been considered for CO{sub 2} injection or have had disappointing recoveries. One example is the heterogeneous Spraberry trend in west Texas, where only 10% of its ten billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) are recoverable by conventional methods. CO{sub 2} mobility can be reduced by injecting water (brine) alternated with CO{sub 2} (WAG) and then further reduced by adding foaming agents-surfactants. In Task 1, we studied a unique foam property, selective mobility reduction (SMR), that effectively reduces the effects of reservoir heterogeneity. Selective mobility reduction creates a more uniform displacement by decreasing CO{sub 2} mobility in higher permeability zones more than in lower permeability zones.

  18. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  19. Modeling the Injection of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen into a Methane Hydrate Reservoir and the Subsequent Production of Methane Gas on the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, N.; McGuire, P. C.; Liu, Y.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    HydrateResSim (HRS) is an open-source finite-difference reservoir simulation code capable of simulating the behavior of gas hydrate in porous media. The original version of HRS was developed to simulate pure methane hydrates, and the relationship between equilibrium temperature and pressure is given by a simple, 1-D regression expression. In this work, we have modified HydrateResSim to allow for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates made from gas mixtures. This modification allows one to model the ConocoPhillips Ignik Sikumi #1 field test performed in early 2012 on the Alaska North Slope. The Ignik Sikumi #1 test is the first field-based demonstration of gas production through the injection of a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases into a methane hydrate reservoir and thereby sequestering the greenhouse gas CO2 into hydrate form. The primary change to the HRS software is the added capability of modeling a ternary mixture consisting of CH4 + CO2 + N2 instead of only one hydrate guest molecule (CH4), therefore the new software is called Mix3HydrateResSim. This Mix3HydrateResSim upgrade to the software was accomplished by adding primary variables (for the concentrations of CO2 and N2), governing equations (for the mass balances of CO2 and N2), and phase equilibrium data. The phase equilibrium data in Mix3HydrateResSim is given as an input table obtained using a statistical mechanical method developed in our research group called the cell potential method. An additional phase state describing a two-phase Gas-Hydrate (GsH) system was added to consider the possibility of converting all available free water to form hydrate with injected gas. Using Mix3HydrateResSim, a methane hydrate reservoir with coexisting pure-CH4-hydrate and aqueous phases at 7.0 MPa and 5.5°C was modeled after the conditions of the Ignik Sikumi #1 test: (i) 14-day injection of CO2 and N2 followed by (ii) 30-day production of CH4 (by depressurization of the well). During the

  20. Imagerie sismique d'un réservoir carbonaté : le dogger du Bassin parisien Seismic Imaging a Carbonate Reservoir: the Paris Basin Dogger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mougenot D.

    2006-11-01

    inversion, 3D interpretation through automatic picking and horizon attributes. The combined use of all these techniques on the Villeperdue (Total operator and Fontaine-au-Bron fields (EAP, operator illustrates the appropriateness of surface seismic for describing the characteristics of the thin reservoir (30 m lying at the top of the Dogger carbonate, at a depth of 1900 m. Widening the frequency content of the seismic comes into conflict with the limitations imposed by the attenuation of the high frequencies as they are propagated in the subsurface. An evaluation of this attenuation, made by VSP, indicates that the filtering related to propagation as far as the Dogger (1. 3 s twt is sharply amplified beyond 90 Hz. High-resolution seismic (2D-HR is used to record this transition frequency at the level of the target, since it provides sufficiently adequate vertical resolution for the reflections at the top and at the base of the reservoir not to interfere (lambda/2 = 26 m. The amplitude of these reflectors is therefore representative of the impedance contrasts on either limit of the reservoir and their lateral variations reveal heterogeneities, such as porosity changes, which are expressed well acoustically. The high frequency content of the 3D seismic (70 Hz was more difficult to enhance. As a result of careful static corrections, which are related to a geological database and uphole surveys, the time-image of the reservoir, at the location of the syncline described by the 3D, is not influenced by the topographic variations and the associated strong surface heterogeneities. Yet the essential contribution made by the 3D, thanks to the continuity of its spatial sampling, is to evidence, via the picking of the reservoir and the corresponding horizon attributes, submeridian lineaments corresponding to faults with throw of several meters which is too weak to be detected on vertical sections. The distribution of these faults, via which water tends to invade the reservoir, and the

  1. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  2. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  3. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  4. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  5. Effects of land use, climate, topography and soil properties on regional soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufang Wang; Xiaoke Wang; Zhiyun Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon(SOC)and total nitrogen(TN)contents as well as their relationships with site characteristics are of profound importance in assessing current regional,continental and global soil C and N stocks and potentials for C sequestration and N conservation to offset anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases.This study investigated contents and distribution of SOC and TN under different land uses,and the quantitative relationships between SOC or TN and site characteristics in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir,North China.Overall,both SOC and TN contents in natural secondary forests and grasslands were much higher than in plantations and croplands.Land use alone explained 37.2% and 38.4% of variations in SOC and TN contents,respectively.The optimal models for SOC and TN,achieved by multiple regression analysis combined with principal component analysis(PCA)to remove the multicollinearity among site variables,showed that elevation,slope,soil clay and water contents were the most significant factors controlling SOC and TN contents,jointly explaining 70.3% of SOC and 67.1% of TN contents variability.Only does additional 1.9% and 3% increase in the interpretations of SOC and TN contents variability respectively when land use was added to regressions,probably due to environment factors determine land use.Therefore,environmental variables were more important for SOC and TN variability than land use in the study area,and should be taken into consideration in properly evaluating effects of future land use changes on SOC and TN on a regional scale.

  6. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the biodiversity and biogeochemical processes in the sediments above these reservoirs. Whilst a number of impact assessment studies have been conducted, no information is available on the specific responses of viruses and virus-host interactions. In the present study, we tested the impact of a simulated CO2 leakage on the benthic microbial assemblages, with specific focus on microbial activity and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM). We found that exposure to levels of CO2 in the overlying seawater from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm for a period up to 140 days, resulted in a marked decrease in heterotrophic carbon production and organic matter degradation rates in the sediments, associated with lower rates of VIPM, and a progressive accumulation of sedimentary organic matter with increasing CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in seawater pCO2 levels that may result from CO2 leakage, can severely reduce the rates of microbial-mediated recycling of the sedimentary organic matter and viral infections, with major consequences on C cycling and nutrient regeneration, and hence on the functioning of benthic ecosystems.

  7. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G. [VEBA OEL AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  8. Fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonated and sandstone reservoirs in the fronts and fore-lands of folded chains: the Salt Range case - Poswar (Pakistan); Circulation des fluides et diagenese des reservoirs carbonates et greseux dans les fronts de chaines plissees et leur avant pays: le cas du Salt Range - Poswar (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchilla, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Salt Range-Poswar Province is located in the western foothills of the Himalayas, in northern Pakistan. It extends over 170 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north to the Salt Range in the south. The Salt Range itself is dominantly an ENE-trending structure, but it comprises also a NNW-trending lateral ramp which connects to the west with the Surghar Range. The Salt Range constitutes the frontal part of a detached allochthonous thrust sheet. The sedimentary cover is indeed entirely detached from its substratum along Infracambrian salt horizons. Palaeozoic to Eocene platform series are well exposed in the hanging wall, whereas Neogene molasse has been extensively under-thrust in the footwall of this large over-thrust. The North Potwar Basin is bordered by the Khari-Murat Ridge and coeval back-thrusts in the south, by the northern flank of the Soan syncline in the southeast, and by the MBT in the north. In addition to Neogene outcrops, it also comprises a number of surface anticlines and thrust fronts along which the Eocene platform carbonates are exposed. The Datta Formation is the main Jurassic oil reservoir in the Potwar Basin. It is a fluvio-deltaic deposit which comprises large porous and permeable channels associated to many-calcareous interbeds. The formations crop out well in both the Nammal and Chichali Gorges. The oil field of Toot, located in the western part of the basin, is producing from this reservoir. The petrographic observations show that diagenesis occurred mainly early and was controlled by the fluvio-deltaic environment. (author)

  9. Main controlling factors of distribution and genetics of marine reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Marine reservoirs are mainly made up of clastics and carbonate reservoirs, which are distributed widely in central Tarim, Sichuan, Ordos basins from the Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic, mainly in Palaeozoic. Marine clastic reservoirs are developed in foreshore and nearshore, tidal flat and delta environment. The sedimentary facies are important controlling factors for reservoir quality. Compaction, pressolution and cementation are factors of decreasing porosity, and low palaeo-temperature gradient, early emplacement of oil and gas and dissolution are favorable for preservation of pore. Carbonate reservoirs are divided into reef and bank, karst, dolomite and fracture reservoirs. Dolomitization, dissolution, TSR and fracture are important factors of controlling carbonate reservoirs' quality.

  10. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  11. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data presented in this constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and merged into the database during the first quarter of 1999. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during first quarter 1999 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  12. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  13. Soil organic carbon sequestration in protection forest in Three Gorges reservoir area%三峡库区防护林土壤有机碳的累积

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志霖; 田耀武; 肖文发; 马德举

    2013-01-01

    退耕还林等土地利用变化影响着土壤有机碳(SOC)的累积.笔者设置LA(天然马尾松林地)、LB(桤木林地,2002年营造,之前为玉米地)、LC(玉米地)3类采样区,将土样按粒径分为3类,再分离为8种土壤团聚体组分,测定所有组分SOC和δ13C值.利用土壤团聚体组分和稳定性碳同位素(13C)技术探讨三峡库区农地造林后SOC的动态累积机制.结果表明:农耕使0~10 cm土层的SOC密度降低了57.2%,≥10~30 cm土层的降低了32.2%;而退耕造林11 a后的桤木林0~10 cm土层的SOC密度增加了34.5%,≥10 ~ 30 cm土层的增加了42.9%;其中源自桤木林的“新碳”在0~10 cm土层中占48%,≥10 ~30 cm土层占52%,土壤原先存储的“旧碳”仅损失了9.2%,造林增加SOC含量的原因可能是增加了“新碳”的固定能力,加强了对原存贮的“旧碳”的物理保护.%Land use change such as conversion of cropland to forest strongly affects the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The objective of this paper was to assess the dynamics mechanism of SOC sequestration in protection forest in Three Gorges reservoir area by means of organic matter fractionation and stable C isotopes (δI3C) technology. The soil of three land use patterns (LA. a permanent Pinus massoniana forestland, LB. a deciduous Sycamore maple forestland was planted on continuous maize field in 2002, LC. a continuous maize field) were sampled. Soil samples were separated into three aggregate size classes. And inter-vs. intra-aggregate paniculate organic matter were isolated into eight soil aggregate fractionations by density method. All fractions were analyzed for their SOC content and δ13C. Results showed that long-term agricultural used land significantly decreased SOC content by 57.2% and 32.2% in the top 10 cm and in the ≥10-30 cm depth layer, respectively. But after 11 years afforestation, the total amount of soil C increased by 34.5% and 42. 9% in the 0

  14. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  15. Ordovician Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiangbin; LI Tiejun; ZHANG Tao

    2004-01-01

    Ordovician marine carbonate basement traps are widely developed in the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes in the Tarim Basin. Reservoirs are mainly altered pore-cavity-fissure reservoirs. Oil sources are marine carbonate rocks of the Lower Paleozoic. Thus, the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes have good reservoiring conditions and they are the main areas to explore giant and large-scale oil reservoirs. The main factors for their reservoiring are: (1) Effective combination of fenestral pore-cavity-fracture reservoirs, resulting from multi-stage, multi-cyclic karstification (paleo-hypergene and deep buried) and fracturing, with effective overlying seals, especially mudstone and gypsum mudstone in the Carboniferous Bachu Formation, is essential to hydrocarbon reservoiring and high and stable production; (2) Long-term inherited large rises and multi-stage fracture systems confine the development range of karst reservoirs and control hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and reservoiring; (3) Long-term multi-source hydrocarbon supply, early reservoiring alteration and late charging adjustment are important reservoiring mechanisms and determine the resource structure and oil and gas properties. Favorable areas for exploration of Ordovician carbonate basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are the Akekule rise, Katahe uplift, Hetianhe paleo-high and Yakela faulted rise.

  16. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  17. T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2011-02-14

    At its most basic level, the injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites involves a system comprising the wellbore and the target reservoir. The wellbore is the only conduit available to emplace CO{sub 2} into reservoirs for long-term storage. At the same time, wellbores in general have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. We have developed a coupled wellbore and reservoir model for simulating the dynamics of CO{sub 2} injection and leakage through wellbores. The model describes the following processes: (1) upward or downward wellbore flow of CO{sub 2} and variable salinity water with transition from supercritical to gaseous CO{sub 2} including Joule-Thomson cooling, (2) exsolution of CO{sub 2} from the aqueous phase as pressure drops, and (3) cross flow into or interaction with layers of surrounding rock (reservoirs). We use the Drift-Flux Model and related conservation equations for describing transient two-phase non-isothermal wellbore flow of CO{sub 2}-water mixtures under different flow regimes and interacting with surrounding rock. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission to the surrounding rock handled either semi-analytically or numerically. The momentum balance equation for the flow in the wellbore is solved numerically with a semi-explicit scheme. This manual provides instructions for compilation and use of the new model, and presents some example problems to demonstrate its use.

  18. The K/T-boundary carbonate breccia succession at the Cantarell Field, Campeche Bay area: a representative example of the influence of the Chicxulub meteorite-impact event on the formation of extraordinary petroleum reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; García-Hernández, J.

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, intense petroleum exploration and exploitation activities have been conducted in the Campeche Bay area. Detailed stratigraphic studies in this region based on seismic, well logs, and core data have allowed the documentation of numerous deep-water carbonate breccia deposits throughout the Cretaceous stratigraphic column. However, the uppermost carbonate breccia succession is very distinctive in terms of its sedimentological properties compared to the underlying and older calcareous breccia layers. The unique characteristics of this deposit include: its unusual thickness, stratigraphic position, distribution, and content of impact-metamorphic constituents. At the Cantarell field, this carbonate breccia sedimentary package is a representative example of how the Chuxulub meteorite-impact event influenced the formation of a remarkable carbonate reservoir. This deposit was the most important oil-producing stratigraphic horizon for long time in that field. Nevertheless, this reservoir is still important not only in that field but also in other fields in offshore Campeche. The K/T boundary carbonate breccia succession is a typical fining-upward deposit made up, from base to top, of three units. The 50 to 300-m thick, basal Unit 1 consists of a coarse-grained carbonate breccia. Unit 2 is a 10 to 20 m-thick, fine-grained carbonate breccia. The 25 to 30 m-thick, uppermost Unit 3 is a greenish interval of friable sand, silt and clay-sized constituents with abundant ejecta material. In some wells, a 10 to 20 m-thick, non-oil producing fine-grained calcareous breccia occurs interbedded within Unit 3. The K/T boundary carbonate sedimentary package is underlain and overlain by deep-water shaly calcareous facies of Upper Maastrichtian and Lower Paleocene age, respectively. Studies of cronostratigraphic-equivalent outcrop analogs of this K/T boundary carbonate reservoir carried out by the authors in the Sierra de Chiapas (El Guayal, Tabasco and Bochil, Chiapas

  19. 二氧化碳驱油藏沥青质沉淀量测量装置的实验研究%Experimental Study on Measuring Asphaltene Precipitation Volume in Carbon Dioxide Flooding Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杰; 何岩峰; 李栋; 王红梅; 李华明; 李森林

    2011-01-01

    设计了一套二氧化碳驱油藏沥青质沉淀量测量装置,该装置采用全密闭流程,借助计算机实现控制并做数据采集,对产出的气体进行同步气相色谱分析.使用该装置对某油田的二氧化碳驱进行实验分析,最终得出了地层温度、驱替压力对二氧化碳驱沥青质沉淀的影响关系.%A device boasting of a fully-enclosed process, and computer control and data acquisition was designed to measure asphaltene precipitation volume in carbon dioxide flooding reservoir and analyze the gas with gas chromatography. The designed device can withstand high pressures and temperatures and acid. The experimental analysis shows that this device helps obtain effects of both ground temperature and displacement pressure on the asphaltene precipitation in carbon dioxide flooding reservoir.

  20. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when...

  1. 塔河油田碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏堵水效果地质影响因素%Geological factors influencing water shutoff effects of fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs in Tahe oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣元帅; 高艳霞; 李新华

    2011-01-01

    塔河油田主力油藏是受多期岩溶作用叠加改造、多期油气充注形成的碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏,储集体非均质性极强,油水关系复杂,堵水效果整体较差.通过对塔河油田碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏堵水效果地质影响因素分析后认为,油井储集体类型和油水分布模式是影响堵水效果最关键的地质因素.由于大型溶洞特别是高角度裂缝的存在,碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏剩余油分布复杂,且分别易造成工艺上封堵难度大和堵死的现象,堵水效果较差.而裂缝-孔洞型储集体类似砂岩油藏,储层呈“似均质”状,堵水效果相对较好.与储集体类型相对应的似均质型油水关系模式以及表现出来的缓升型、台阶式上升型的含水率上升类型的油井,堵水效果好;同时致密段的存在提高了堵水效果.%The major reservoirs of Tahe oilfield consist of fractured-vuggy carbonates which underwent multiple stages of karstification and hydrocarbon charging. These reservoirs are of strong heterogeneity, complex oil-water contact and poor water shutoff effect. This study indicates that reservoir types and oil-water distribution patterns are the two key geological factors affecting water shutoff. The remaining oil distribution of the carbonate reservoirs of fractured-vuggy type is quite complicated due to the existence of big solution cavities, especially the high-angle fractures. The big solution cavities can make plugging water diffcult , while the high-angle fractures can easily result in complete shutoff, leading to poor shutoff effects. The fracture-vuggy reservoirs show quasi-homogeneity similar to sandstone reservoirs, thus their water shutoff effects are fair. Oil-water relationship pattern of quasi-homogeneous type corresponding to the reservoir types and wells with slowly-increasing or step-wise increasing water cuts have better water shutoff effects. Moreover, the existence of tight sections also can improve the

  2. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  3. 玉北地区碳酸盐岩储层地震响应特征研究%Study on seismic response characteristics of carbonate reservoir in Yubei area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭光

    2012-01-01

    Carbonate is one of the most important targets of hydrocarbon exploration in Tarim. Ordovician carbonate in Yubei area distributes widely with large thickness,and its exploration prospect is excellent. However, the exploration degree is low. The surface is desert with rugged sand dunes and deep buried target intervals, which is characterized by strong heterogeneity,rapid longitudinal and lateral variation,unclear seismic response, so the reservoir is difficult to predict. Therefore, by integrating multi-logging and core data, the reservoirs were classified. By crossplot analysis, the petrophysi-cal characteristics of reservoirs and host rock were analyzed. By seismic attributes extraction and forward modeling, the seismic responses of carbonate reservoirs were studied, and some seismic attributes were identified as the sensitive parameters for reservoir prediction (wave impedance, amplitude, amplitude variation ratio, coherence). Caves larger than 10 m shows strong-amplitude string reflection, which can be predicted by using conventional seismic data volume for extracting amplitude and its variation ratio. Fractured and cavern reservoirs to some thickness and scale may lead to obvious variation of seismic amplitude, which can be effectively predicted by utilizing conventional seismic data volume for extracting amplitude , its variation ratio and coherent attribute combining with wave impedance inversion.%玉北地区奥陶系碳酸盐岩分布范围广、厚度大,油气勘探前景良好,但目的层埋藏深,储层非均质性强,纵、横向变化快,储层地震响应特征不清晰,预测难度大.为此,应用该区测井数据和岩心、录井等资料对储层进行了分类,利用交会分析技术分析了储层与围岩的岩石物理特征,通过地震属性提取与模型正演,研究了碳酸盐岩储层的地震响应特征,确定了波阻抗、振幅、振幅变化率、相干等地震属性参数为储层预测的敏感参数.其中波阻抗对

  4. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...... of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications...

  5. Determination of Shale Volume and Distribution Patterns and Effective Porosity from Well Log Data Based On Cross-Plot Approach for A Shaly Carbonate Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Siyamak; Moeini, Mohammad; Kamal Ghassem al-Askari, Mohammad; Hamed Mahvelati, Elaheh

    2016-10-01

    Determination of shale volume distribution is one of the most important factors that has to be considered in formation evaluation, since existence of shale reduces effective porosity and permeability of the reservoir. In this paper, shale volume and distribution (dispersed, laminar and structural) and formation effective porosity are estimated from well log data and cross-plots. Results show that distribution of shale is mainly dispersed with few of laminar ones, and the quality of reservoir (effective porosity) decreases with depth resulting in low productivity of gas wells drilled in lower zones. Good agreement of estimated shale volumes and effective porosities from neutron-density cross-plot with the values determined from gamma ray log (CGR) and core analysis demonstrates the accuracy and applicability of these plots in determination of petrophysical parameters from conventional log data.

  6. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand...... years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites...

  7. STUDY ON THE PERMEABILITY OF CARBONATE ROCK GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR IN BEIJING%北京地区碳酸盐岩热储渗透性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树芳; 庞忠和; 何铁柱; 林沛; 刘凯; 刘久荣

    2014-01-01

    Beijing as capital of China is located in North China.The geothermal field in Beijing is mainly medium-low temperature conductive type,in which the Wumishan Formation with a thickness of more than 2000m of the Jixian System is the main reservoir and the rock of the Wumishan Formation is dolomite.Conductivity of the reservoir was usually calculated to understand reservoir characteristics, which could not accurately reflect permeability of the reservoir due to density variation of geothermal water.In order to understand permeability of the reservoir to direct geothermal resources development,porosity and permeability data of 34 dolomite rock cores collected from field outcrop and down-hole were compared and analyzed.The results indicated that permeability of outcrop and down-hole ranges are (10.0001 158 ~0.33333 )×10-3 μm2 and (0.0088 ~0.334 )×10-3 μm2 respectively,and the average value are 0.0622321×10-3μm2 and 0.385316×10-3μm2.The porosity ranges from 0.25%to 3.00%.The permeability of the rock cores are so low that geothermal energy could not be exacted without factures and fissures generated from tectonic movement and karstification.Therefore,permeability calculated from pump test could reflect total permeability of rock matrix,fractures and fissures.The calculated permeability of reservoir from 110 pump tests ranges from 13.74×10-3μm2 to 104474.00×10-3μm2,and the average is 4797.58× 10-3μm2.The cumulated percentage of permeability values between 100×10-3μm2 and 1000×10-3μm2 are more than 75%,the values less than 100×10-3μm2 are only 13.64%,and the permeability values greater than 100000× 10-3μm2 are 0.91 percent.In order to demonstrate relationship between reservoir buried depth and permeability, the buried depth were divided into 500m,500~1000m,1000~1500m,1500~2000m,2000~2500m,2500~3000m and 3000~3500m.The average permeability and average buried depth were plotted together in x,y coordi-nates.The results indicated that the average

  8. 碳酸盐岩油藏非均质性对蚓孔扩展的影响%Effect of Heterogeneity in Carbonate Reservoirs on Worm - hole Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳明; 张士诚; 牟建业; 李双明; 张剑

    2012-01-01

    在碳酸盐岩油藏的酸化过程中,酸蚀溶解形态对酸化效果影响很大,缝洞型碳酸盐岩油藏孔洞和裂缝的存在影响酸液的流动轨迹,进而影响酸蚀溶解形态.通过1种基于双重尺度(达西尺度和孔隙尺度)的径向蚓孔扩展模型对此问题进行了研究.结果表明,存在1个形成蚓孔的最优注入速度,此时的酸液用量最少且酸化后的蚓孔具有足够大的导流能力;对于缝洞型碳酸盐岩油藏,酸液易于进入孔洞和裂缝区域,从而绕过致密区域;对于一定的模拟区域和网格划分,随着油管半径的增加,形成蚓孔所需的最优注入速度增加.%In the process of carbonate reservoir acidizing,acidising effectiveness is greatly affected by the pattern of acidizing etching dissolving and the flow channels of acid fluids are affected by the existence of caverns and fractures in carbonate reservoirs of fracture & cavern type,thus influencing the pattern of acidizing etching dissolving,which is studied by using radial worm - hole models based on double scales,namely,Darcys scale and pore scale. The results shovy that there exists an optimized mjecUon rate at which worm holes can be formed,under which the volume of the acid fluids used is the least and the worm holes formed have high conductivity ,acid fluids are prone to enter caverns and fractures with bypassed tight region of formation for carbonate reservoirs of fracture & cavern type and the optimized injection rate that can form worm holes increases with the increase in tubing radius for a certain simulation region and grid classification.

  9. Reservoir characteristics and genesis of high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on detailed studies, this paper proposes that in the Tarim Basin, hydrocarbon reservoirs widespread either in vertical sequences or in plane and high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs are developed all over the basin. However, obvious difference and heterogeneity exist among different kinds of reservoirs. The lithologic characteristics, reservoir space types and reservoir properties in various strata have been probed. The result indicates that although the Paleozoic carbonates have been deeply buried for a long period, high-quality reservoirs with the porosity of up to 5%-8% (12% as the maximum) and the permeability of 10×10?3-100×10?3 ?m2 (1000×10?3 ?m2 as the maximum) can be found in certain areas. These include the area with the development of reefs and carbonate beaches, the weathered-crust buried-hill belts that have undergone the long-term exposure, weathering and leaching, the area with the development of dolomitization, and those areas that have experienced the resolution of carbonic acid and organic acid generated by the maturity of the organic matter. Finally, the genesis of the high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in deep-buried conditions (with the depth more than 3500 m) have been investigated thoroughly.

  10. Risk and geological uncertainties in carbonate reservoirs in Santos Basin; Incertezas geologicas e risco em reservatorios carbonaticos na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makoto; Cortez, Marcella M.M. [Queiroz Galvao Perfuracoes S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, Marcos Huber

    2004-07-01

    The Lower Albian in the south part of Santos Basin is composed mainly of oolitic calcarenites and calcilutites organized in shoaling upward cycles. The calcarenites from the top of the sequence constitute a package of reservoir zones and sub-zones with regional distribution along which are located mature, producing and development phase oil fields. In this work the main factors with major impact in reserves estimation are interpreted and quantified in a probabilistic approach giving support for the development plan phase of a field of the carbonatic trend. The regional stratigraphic and structural interpretations provided information about extension, external geometry, and continuity of the reservoir zones for reserves risk computation. The porosity probability density functions were defined according to stratigraphic position, seismic reflection pattern of calcarenites and also information from the discovery and the appraisal wells. The Decision Tree methodology with Monte Carlo Simulation was used to better understand the impact of geological uncertainties in reserves computation and also as a first step for risk management. The Monte Carlo simulation allows the Multivariate Sensibility and Scenario Analysis, Probabilistic Technical and Economic Evaluation and Optimal Portfolio Stochastic Simulation. (author)

  11. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a...9 Richard B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez— Aguas de Amazonas Water for...humanitarian duties. They have overseen over 130 humani- tarian projects worth in excess of $7.6 million and ranging from a medical center, to potable

  12. Improved reservoir exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, P.R. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with reservoir exploitation and it highlights some ideas on how to improve exploitive skills to optimise the recovery of a field. The author looks closer at what needs to be done to optimise the reservoir data and the exploitation tools, and what are the needs of the reservoir production management. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Adsorption Characteristics of 2-MIB Onto Powdered Activated Carbons in the Reservoir Type Source Water%PAC对水库型水源水中嗅味物质2-MIB的吸附特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋武昌; 李星; 潘章斌; 杨艳玲; 孙韶华; 贾瑞宝

    2015-01-01

    为解决水库型水源水中季节性藻致嗅味物质的应急处理问题,研究了不同水质条件下粉末活性炭( PAC)对水中嗅味物质二甲基异崁醇(2-MIB)的吸附动力学模型和吸附热力学模型,考察了2类水库型水源水中有机物对吸附作用的影响。结果表明:在试验浓度范围内,纯水、原水A和原水B中PAC对2-MIB的吸附过程符合准二级反应动力学模型,吸附等温线符合修正的Freundlich方程,且吸附速率和吸附容量依次降低;原水A、B中PAC对2-MIB的吸附能力显著降低,但原水B中2-MIB在活性炭表面的吸附势能比原水A中的强,这可能主要是由原水中分子质量<500 u的小分子有机物引起的微孔吸附竞争及其极性造成的。%In order to solve the problem of seasonal pollution of reservoir water by taste and odor caused by algae, the adsorption kinetics and isothermal adsorption modeling of 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by powdered activated carbons ( PAC) in different water quality were studied, and the adsorption effects of organic matter in two kinds of reservoir water were investigated. Results showed that, in the range of test concentration, the adsorption processes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics equation and the modified Freundlich equation in pure water, raw water A and B, and the adsorption rate and adsorption capacity reduced in turn. The adsorption capacity decreased significantly in raw water A and B, but the adsorption potential energies of 2-MIB on activated carbon in raw water B was stronger than that of raw water A, due to the micropore competitive adsorption and polarity caused by the reservoir water of small organic molecules with relative molecular weight of <500 u.

  14. Preliminary Studies on Carbon Sinking Fisheries and Ecological Protection in Dongjiang Reservoir%东江水库碳汇渔业与生态保护的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹忠义; 姚德华; 孙立仲; 何望; 欧燎原; 张政军

    2011-01-01

    2007年7月和10月对东江水库的水体初级生产力和水质进行了监测和评价,估算了天然渔业资源量及可移出碳量。研究表明,库区存在较丰富的外源性营养物质,主要来源于农业、生活废水及旅游业;10月水体水质优于7月,均属中营养水平;初级生产力平均为5.13g/(m2.d),与水体叶绿素、氨氮和总磷浓度呈较强的正相关;折算滤食性鱼产量为1541.9t/年,移出碳量为218.4t/年。2007-2010年进行鱼类增殖放流,获得天然滤食性渔获物最高达产量为900t/年,移出碳量127.5t/年。在制订东江水库渔业环境保护条例时,按初级生产力的大小,利用增殖放流等渔业去碳技术,适量投放滤食性鱼类,充分利用水体氮、磷,可实现东江水库碳汇渔业的可持续发展。%Estimating the catch of natural fisheries resources and the amount of possible remove carbon sinking behind under investigation on ambient of Dongjiang Reservoir,moreover,monitoring and evaluating the primary productivity and water quality.The results showed that abundant exogenous nutrient substances existed around the reservoir mainly from agriculture,domestic wastewater and tourism.The water quality in October was better than its in July,and also belong to middle nutritional level;the mean primary productivity was 5.13 g/(m2·d) and equal to the filter-feeding fish catch 1541.9 t/a that could remove probably total carbon 218.4 t/a.The primary productivity was in strong positive correlation with Chlorophyll-a,ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration.Fish was released from 2007 to 2010,and the annual highest yield of filter-feeding fish was 900 t which equal to 127.5 t carbon.N,P could be taken advantages of and reaching the purpose of sustainable development of carbon sinking fisheries through estimating the primary productivity and using the sinking carbon technology such as releasing filter-feeding fish for multiplication under making the

  15. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  16. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  17. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-01-01

    Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Vernon Field demonstration project in Isabella County, Michigan. This new case history and well summary format organizes and presents the technical and historical details of the Vernon Field demonstration, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion. Planning for the annual project meeting in Tampa, Florida has begun. This meeting will be held March 7-9, 2003 at the same site as the last three meetings. The goals of this project were to: (1) test the use of multi-lateral wells to recover bypassed hydrocarbons and (2) to access the potential of using surface geochemistry to reduce drilling risk. Two new demonstration wells, the State-Smock and the Bowers 4-25, were drilled to test the Dundee Formation at Vernon Field for bypassed oil. Neither well was commercial, although both produced hydrocarbon shows. An extensive geochemical survey in the vicinity of Vernon Field, covering much of Isabella County, has produced a base map for interpretation of anomalies in Michigan. Several potential new anomalies were discovered that could be further investigated.

  18. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-10-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, a new field demonstration, Springdale Prospect in Manistee County, Michigan was begun to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path. The surface geochemistry sampling at the original Bear Lake demonstration site was updated several months after the prospect was confirmed and production begun. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir.

  1. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the first quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base, and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES&H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} data occur. All data received and verified during the first quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those detailed below. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were none for springs or surface water. The following discussion offers a brief summary of the data merged during the first quarter that exceeded the above normal criteria and updates on past reported above normal data. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the data base during the first quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs. Graphs showing concentrations of selected contaminants of concern at some of the critical locations have also been included in this QEDS. The graphs are discussed in the separate sections.

  2. 塔中碳酸盐岩缝洞型储集体精细成像%Accurate imaging way of carbonate fracture-cave type's reservoir in Tazhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚洪林; 袁刚; 田彦灿; 吕磊

    2012-01-01

    根据塔中82并区地形起伏较大、各种类型沙丘产生的干扰波发育以及奥陶系碳酸盐储集体埋藏深、纵横向非均质性强的特点,为了提高奥陶系碳酸盐岩内幕成像精度,开展了碳酸盐岩缝洞型储集体成像方法研究,建立了一套以高精度静校正技术、地表一致性振幅补偿技术、叠前去噪技术、三维高保真处理技术、叠前子波处理技术、视各向异性动校正技术、三维速度分析技术、三维高精度偏移速度建模技术、三维叠前时间偏移处理技术为基础的碳酸盐岩缝洞型储集体精细成像技术方法.塔中82井区三维地震资料的实际应用结果表明,应用所建立技术方法刻画断裂特征更清楚,使绕射波归位更准确,提高了地震资料信噪比和分辨率,为高精度碳酸盐岩缝洞型储层预测提供了高质量的三维地震资料,为塔中碳酸盐岩400万吨产能建设奠定了良好基础.%In view of the characteristics of the serious topographic relief of the 82 well block in Tazhong area, the developed interference wave created by a variety of dunes and the deep burying and strong heterogeneity vertically and horizontally of the Ordovician carbonate reservoir! we carried out the study of imaging methods to the fractured-cavernous carbonate reservoir, establishing a set of fine imaging techniques to it, which is based on the techniques of high accuracy static correlation, surface consistent compensate, prestack noise elimination, 3-D Hi-Fi processing, prestack wavelet processing, apparent anisotropy NMO, 3-D velocity analysis, 3-D high accuracy migration modeling and 3-D prestack time migration. The actual application result indicates that the applying of establishing techniques makes fault depicting more clearly and diffracted wave homing more accurately, improves the SNR and resolution of seismic data, provides the high quality 3-D seismic data for the high accuracy reservoir prediction of

  3. Characteristics of carbonate reservoirs of Cambrian Loushanguan Formation to the west of Xuefeng Mountain%雪峰山西侧地区寒武系娄山关组碳酸盐岩储层特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭兵; 刘安; 曾雄伟; 王传尚; 白云山

    2012-01-01

    The carbonate reservoirs of the Cambrian Loushanguan Formation to the west of Xuefeng Mountain were studied. Two types of reservoirs were identified including oolitic beach and dolomite. Intercrystalline pore, dissolution pore and fracture worked as reservoir room and were usually well connected. The oolitic dolosparites and intraclast dolomites of Loushanguan Formation in Hefeng of Hubei province and Sangzhi and Zhangjiajie of Hunan province were studied. The maximum pore radius of oolitic dolosparite was over 200 μm with the average of 9. 61 μm. The pore radius of intraclast dolomite ranged from 100 μm to 200μm, accounting for 33% .The maximum throat was 81. 43μm and the average was 21. 28μm. The maximum porosity was 10. 3% and the average was 3.4%. The maximum permeability was 18.6×10-3μm2 and the average was 1.4×10 μm2 . Both porosity and permeability were good and were judged as reservoir of type Ⅱ. The reservoirs of the Cambrian Loushanguan Formation distributed mainly in the tidal flat facies areas to the west of the Cili-Baojing Fault, and had good potential for exploration.%通过对雪峰山西侧地区寒武系娄山关组碳酸盐岩储集岩的调查与研究,认为该区储集岩类型主要为鲕粒滩型与白云岩型2类;储集空间类型为晶间孔隙、溶蚀孔隙和裂缝,孔隙连通性较好.在湖北鹤峰、湖南桑植以及张家界一带,娄山关组亮晶鲕粒白云岩最大孔隙半径大于200μm,平均孔隙半径为9.61 μm;亮晶内碎屑白云岩孔隙半径在100~ 200 μm之间,其百分含量达到33%.喉道宽度最大值为81.43 μm,平均值为21.28 μm.其孔隙度最大值为10.3%,平均值为3.4%,渗透率最大值为18.6×10-3 μm2,平均值为1.4×10-3 μm2,孔渗特征相对较好,可以作为Ⅱ型储集层.寒武系娄山关组储集层段主要分布于慈利—保靖断裂以西的潮坪相区,具有一定的油气勘探前景.

  4. 缝洞型油藏钻遇溶洞油井的压力曲线特征%Pressure curve characteristics for wells drilled in cave of fracture-cavity carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪; 任路; 胡治华

    2012-01-01

    Drilling stem emptying,massive mud leakage and acidification transformation appeared during the drilling process of fracture-cavity reservoirs,which increased difficulties for reservoir well test interpretation if using triple porosity well test method.It has great actual significance to establish well test interpretation model for wells drilled in cave and carry out well test interpretation of this reservoir.Based on the double porosity model,taking inner cave as an equipotential body whose internal pressure was equal everywhere,making outer fluid flow observe Darcy law,and according to cave mass conservation equation,a new well test interpretation model for wells drilled in cave was presented.Laplace transform and Stehfest reverse method were used to solve the model.The influences of cave storage ratio,size of cave,matrix interporosity flow coefficient and fracture storage ratio on the bottom pressure were analyzed.And the double log curve for wells drilled in cave of fracture-cavity carbonate reservoirs was used to interpret the measured pressure of some well in TZ area.Good results have been obtained,and this research can provide theory guidance for fracture-cavity reservoirs well test interpretation.%在缝洞型油藏实际钻井过程中经常出现钻杆放空、泥浆大量漏失等现象。这类油藏使用常规三重介质试井方法解释时困难较大,建立溶洞型储层试井解释模型并对这类油藏进行测试资料试井解释具有实际意义。在双重介质模型基础上,将溶洞简化为一个等势体,内部压力处处相等,溶洞外流体流动满足达西定律;基于溶洞质量守恒方程,建立了缝洞型油藏试井解释数学模型;采用Laplace变换和Stehfest数值反演算法得到了井底压力解析解;分析了溶洞储能比、溶洞大小、基质窜流系数、裂缝储能比等参数对井底压力及压力导数双对数曲线的影响。利用建立的钻遇溶洞模型双对数曲线图版对塔中地

  5. 缝洞型储层酸压暂堵剂封堵性能研究%Study on performance of temporary plugging agent of acid fracturing in fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟建业; 邵俊杰; 陆斌芸; 李栋; 侯腾飞; 程相征; 贺雨南

    2016-01-01

    Large composite acid fracturing is the main stimulation method in the Tahe carbonate reservoirs.However,abundant naturally fractured vuggy systems result in serious acid leak-off.Using acidizing flow instrument at high temperature and pres-sure,experiments were carried out to evaluate the plugging performance of ceramic powder,fiber and oil-soluble resin,respec-tively.The maximum displacement pressure and temporary plugging time were tested at different mass of the temporary plugging agents.These three agents were evaluated from aspects of the reservoir damage,price,construction and effect of temporary plug-ging.Experimental results show that the maximum displacement pressure and plugging time increase as the mass of the tempora-ry plugging agent increases.When the mass of temporary plugging agent is 1 g,the maximum displacement pressure of oil-solu-ble resin is 10.67 times that of fiber and 14.38 times that of ceramic powder.Furthermore,the plugging time is 6.73 times lon-ger than that of fiber and 10.57 times longer than that of ceramic powder.Hence,the plugging properties of oil-soluble resin are much more prior to others.Oil-soluble resin can degrade at high temperature and flow along with flow-back liquid without dama-ging to reservoirs The experimental results have guiding significance in choosing temporary plugging agents of acid fracturing in the Tahe naturally fractured vuggy Carbonate Reservoirs.%针对塔河油田缝洞型碳酸盐岩大型复合酸压过程中液体滤失严重的现象,利用高温高压酸岩反应流动仪对粉陶、可降解纤维、油溶性树脂3种暂堵剂进行了室内实验,测得这3种暂堵剂在不同加量下的最大驱替压差和暂堵时间,并从暂堵效果、对地层伤害、价格和施工等方面评价了这3种暂堵剂。结果表明:加量越大,3种暂堵剂的最大驱替压差越大,暂堵时间越长;暂堵剂加量为1 g 时,油溶性树脂的最高驱替压差分别

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Spatial Pattern of Carbon Storage in the Drawdown Area of the Three Gorges Reservoir%三峡水库消落带湿地碳储量及空间格局特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣; 袁兴中

    2012-01-01

    以GIS为支撑,以三峡水库消落带的空间关系、高程变化和坡度分布为基础,分析了三峡水库消落带碳储量的空间格局.结果表明,三峡水库消落带碳储量(单位:tC)约为514 862.3 tC;不同高程带碳储量变化由高到低依次为高程带160~ 170 m、150~ 160 m、170~ 175 m、145~150 rn,其中高程带160~170m的碳储量最高为229 367.46tG;不同坡度带碳储量变化由高到低依次为坡度带5°~15°、0°~5°、15°~25°,其中坡度大于25°的区域,由于水流冲刷和基岩出露,植被生长稀少,因此不考虑其地上部分和地下部分碳储量,估算该区域碳储量为0,这也是不同高程带和不同坡度带计算出来的碳储量相差较大的原因.研究认为三峡水库独特的调节方式和消落带植被夏季生长茂盛可吸收并积累大量碳,具有较大的碳汇潜力;同时在迭加土壤、气候、人为干扰等多种因素后,碳储量表现出了明显的沿高程梯度和坡度梯度变化的趋势.%The spatial patterns of carbon storage were analyzed based on CIS and the natural environments in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The results showed that carbon storage in the drawdown area was 514 862.3 tC and the area is gradually playing a role as a regional carbon sink. Carbon storage changes along the elevation grade, with 160 -170 m above mean sea level having the largest carbon storage at 229 367.46 tC and other elevations following in the order: 160 -170 m>150 ~ 160 m>170 ~ 175 m >145 -150 m. Carbon storage was zero in areas with greater land slopes (>25°) due to water erosion and exposed bedrock leading to sparse growth of vegetation. In different slope zones, carbon storage was in the sequence; 5° ~15°>0° ~5°>15° -25°. On the whole, due to the regulation and operation modes of TGR the drawdown zone had luxuriant vegetation in summer, which had uptake and accumulation of large carbon and had big carbon

  8. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery: Progress review No. 74, Quarter ending March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  9. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  11. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  12. 塔河缝洞型碳酸盐岩油藏漏失井堵水工艺研究%Study on water shutoff technology for leaking wells in fracture-vuggy carbonate reservoir in Tahe Oilifeld

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦飞; 何星; 詹兆文; 欧阳冬; 王瑞

    2013-01-01

    堵剂优选困难、堵剂漏失严重、堵漏措施难以配套,是塔河油田碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏堵水亟待解决的难题。为解决这些难题,针对碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏的堵水现状,开展了堵剂漏失的预判和原因分析,分析研究了适合塔河油田特色的暂堵和堵漏工艺,主要包括中密度固化颗粒、颗粒型体膨堵剂、可溶性硅酸盐凝胶3项暂堵工艺;复合密度选择性堵水、瓜胶液前置多级复合段塞堵水2项堵漏工艺。经现场应用表明,针对不同漏失程度的井,3项暂堵和2项堵漏工艺应用效果较好。%Water shutoff work for fracture-vuggy carbonate reservoirs in Tahe Oilifeld encounters some dififculties, including dif-ifcult water shutoff agent optimization, serious agent leaking, and unmatched leakage plugging treatment. To solve the problem, the paper analyzed the present status of the water shutoff technique for fracture-vuggy carbonate reservoirs, and conducted the anticipation and cause analysis on agent leaking. And it also summarized the temporary plugging and leakage plugging agents, including three kinds of temporary plugging agents, which were middle density solidiifed particles, expansion particles and soluble silicate gel, and two kinds of water plugging techniques, which were composite density selective plugging with bridging particle and multistep composite slugs plugging with guanidine gum liquid as prelfush. Field tests proved that the temporary plugging and leakage plugging techniques showed good effect for different leakage degree wells.

  13. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTRY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. A major part of the remaining project will focus on using surface geochemistry to delineate prospects. A Niagaran reef field geochemical survey, the Bagley Prospect area in Otsego County, Michigan is scheduled to take place this summer. Previous wells drilled in Bagley Prospect area in the early 1970's and in place in late 2002 and early 2003 resulted in discoveries and numerous hydrocarbon shows in the Brown Niagaran reservoir interval. The Bagley region is still considered an area of interest by the industry and appears ripe for a geochemical survey. Our industry partner is interested in a possible test in the Bagley prospect because subsurface geophysical and geological interpretation indicates the presence of structures. Anomalous production and pressure data further suggest the region is not yet well understood and should not be considered mature. The most recent well, the Bagley 1-22A sidetrack, was unsuccessful at locating a new reef culmination to the south of the original vertical well and did not encounter hydrocarbon shows. The sidetrack and well were plugged and abandoned. The proposed geochemical survey will concentrate on areas away from the Bagley 1-22A to the north and west but will include the entire prospect so that the existing data can be used in interpretations. Bagley appears to offer a unique combination of potential and data for a geochemical study that focuses on looking for new oil in an area that has exhausted traditional geologic and geophysical methods. The Bear Lake pinnacle reef trend in Manistee County, Michigan, is also scheduled for further geochemical work this summer. Industry interest, mostly by small companies, is picking up in this area and it is also ripe for targeted geochemical surveys for

  14. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittichk; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical sampling team collected additional 148 samples at Vernon Field along 5 new traverses. Most of the locations were sampled for three types of analyses: microbial, iodine and enzyme leach; no results from the second batch of samples were available in time for this report. In addition to the sampling, a study was begun on the feasibility of collecting and analyzing hydrocarbon gases (C1-C8) directly. Although several companies offer these services, the cost ($200-300/sample w/o sampling fee) is high, on par with the cost of a 3D seismic survey, and may not include the raw data. However direct sampling of reservoir gases collecting in the soil appear to offer the best approach and should be included in this study. It would probably work well at Vernon Field. It may be possible to lower costs considerably; initial estimates of $20/sample for GCMS (Gas Chromatography--mass spectrometry) analysis are attractive and might induce to Michigan producers to include soil surveys in their routine field work-ups. A complete set of digital data was assembled for Vernon Field and nearby locations. The set consists of well locations, formation top picks, lithologies and scanned images of driller's reports and scout tickets. Well logs are still being located. The annual meeting for the Class Revisit work group is tentatively scheduled for the week of March 1-7 in Tampa, Fl. By that time all of the geochemical data will be available and final decisions regarding drilling can be made.

  15. CO2 emissions from German drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Helmi; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 13, 48, and 201gCm(-2)y(-1) in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to varying wind speed had only a minor effect on the annual budgets. High CO2 emissions only occurred in reservoirs with pHCO2 emissions correlated exponentially with pH but not with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was significant correlation between land use in the catchment and CO2 emissions. In total, German drinking water reservoirs emit 44000t of CO2 annually, which makes them a negligible CO2 source (CO2 emissions) in Germany.

  16. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  17. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  18. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Walter Russell Mead, “The Serpent and the Dove,” in Special Providence: American Foreign ndupress .ndu.edu issue 66, 3 rd quarter 2012 / JFQ 21...the desired direction. An example is our finding that social isolation and loneliness are two individual factors that were most divergent between

  19. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  1. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s

  3. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium...

  4. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  5. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996--June 12, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevans, J.W.; Pregger, B. [Fina Oil and Chemical Co., Midland, TX (United States); Blasingame, T.; Doublet, L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Freeman, G.; Callard, J. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Moore, D. [Scientific Software, Inc. (United States); Davies, D.; Vessell, R. [David K. Davies and Associates (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the application of advanced secondary recovery technologies to remedy producibility problems in typical shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin, Texas. Typical problems include poor sweep efficiency, poor balancing of injection and production rates, and completion techniques that are inadequate for optimal production and injection.

  6. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  7. Reservoir-induced seismicity associated with the Itoiz Reservoir, Spain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gómez, Inmaculada; Talwani, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    Reservoir-induced seismicity was observed in 2004 after the impoundment of the Itoiz Reservoir in the central-western Pyrenees, Spain. Subsequent annual filling cycles were accompanied by large epicentral growth in the northern part of the Jaca-Pamplona basin. Based on the evaluation of the available geohydrologic data, we suggest that the seismicity is associated with the diffusion of increased pore pressures along the carbonate megabreccia systems of the Early to Middle Eocene age Hecho Group. Assuming 1-D pore-pressure diffusion from the Itoiz Reservoir, we estimate that excess pore pressures of ~100-500 kPa are adequate to induce M >= 3.0 earthquakes in this geological terrane. The results of this study have potential applicability in regions where reservoirs are built over karst terranes.

  8. Characteristics and main controlling factors of porous carbonate reservoirs: A case from the Jia 5 Member of the Jialingjiang Formation, southwest Sichuan Basin%孔隙型碳酸盐岩储集层特征及主控因素——以川西南嘉陵江组嘉5段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏; 谭秀成; 李凌; 罗冰; 马昌林; 杨立根

    2011-01-01

    With the help of core observation, conventional and cast slices, physical property analysis and mercury penetration, this paper studies the reservoir characteristics and main controlling factors of the Jia 5 Member, Triassic Jialingjiang Formation, and identifies two types of reservoir rocks, silt-sized crystalline dolomite and calcarenite, which are different in forming environment, reservoir space,poroperm characteristics, and pore throat structure. The silt-sized crystalline dolomite reservoir developed in the dolomite-flat microfacies has a good pore/throat configuration with intercrystalline pores and dissolved pores as reservoir space. It has excellent permeability and is the best reservoir in thc region of interest. The calcarenite reservoir developed in the microfacies of arenite bank has the reservoir space of isolated intragranular dissolved pores and moldic pores; the mesoporosity and micro-throat configuration makes the reservoir characterized by high porosity and low permeability. Research on the main controlling factors of the reservoirs indicated that they are typically facies-controlled reservoirs. Microreliefs inside the carbonate platform lead to high heterogeneity of the reservoirs.Dolomitization and the leaching of syngenesis meteoric water are the key factors for forming good porous carbonate reservoirs.%利用岩心、常规及铸体薄片、物性分析、压汞等资料研究四川盆地西南部三叠系嘉陵江组嘉段储集层基本特征及主控因素.识别出两种不同类型的储集层:粉晶云岩储集层和砂屑灰岩储集层,两类储集层的形成环境、储集空间、孔渗性能、孔喉结构等均不相同.云坪微相内发育的粉晶云岩储集层以晶间孔和晶间溶孔为主要储集空间,具有良好的孔喉配置关系,储渗性能极好,为本区最优质储集层;砂屑滩微相内发育的砂屑灰岩储集层主要储集空间为较孤立的粒内溶孔及铸模孔,中孔微喉的配置关系导致

  9. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Organic Carbon in Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir in North China%密云水库上游流域土壤有机碳特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 王效科; 欧阳志云

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool constitutes an important portion of the global carbon pool and has significant impacts on land productivity and global climate change. The study on soil organic carbon has been one of the hot issues of the world. However, related research of the filed in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the largest reservoir in North China, is relatively rare. The distribution characteristics and influencing factors (such as climate, topography and soil characteristics) of soil organic carbon in seven kinds of typical land use types of the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir were analyzed in the study, and the results showed as follows. 1) In the target domain, soil organic carbon contents in natural secondary forests and grasslands were much higher than those in shrubs and artificial forests, while that in croplands was the lowest. In the whole soil profile (0 - 40 cm), the average soil organic carbon content was in order of natural secondary Populus davidiana Dode-Belula platyphylla Suk. Mixed forest > grassland > natural secondary Quercus wutaishanica Blume forest > shrub > artificial Larix principis-rupprechlii Mayr. Forest>artificial Pinus labulaeformis Carr. Forest>cropland. 2) Soil organic carbon contents in the top soil layer (0 - 10 cm) were the highest and decreased rapidly with the increase depth in the six kinds of land use types except grassland, which showed a slight increase from 0 to 20 cm and a small drop from 20 to 40 cm in depth. 3) Soil organic carbon content in each layer was significantly positively correlated with altitude, soil water content and nitrogen content (p0.05). Further partial correlation analysis indicated that the most principal factors influencing soil organic carbon content varied with soil depth, and they were soil nitrogen content, bulk density and pH in the 0 - 10 cm layer, soil nitrogen content, bulk density and slop in the 10-20 cm layer, soil nitrogen content and annual precipitation in the 20

  10. Apprentices & Trainees: September Quarter, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2012. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.74 (December 2012 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the March…

  11. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittick; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan; E. Taylor

    2001-07-31

    A principal goal of the Budget Period I was to demonstrate that surface geochemistry could be used to locate bypassed hydrocarbons in old fields. This part of the program was successful. A surface geochemical survey, employing 5 different techniques, was carried out in the Spring and Summer of 2000 and a demonstration well, the State Vernon & Smock 13-23 HD1 (permit number: PN 53945) was drilled in Vernon Township, Isabella County, Michigan in the late fall of 2000. A demonstration well was selected and drilled based on geologic considerations and surface geochemistry. Over 460 soil samples were collected and analyzed over the drill site. A good anomaly was detected near the proposed well site and the demonstration well, the Smock 13-23, was drilled to a depth of 3157 feet by November 17, 2000. Two laterals were drilled, and hydrocarbons were located in a zone approximately 175 feet in length. However, it was determined that the pay zone was too small and difficult reservoir conditions (water production) prevented putting the well in production. The Smock 13-23 was shut in and abandoned January 15, 2001. A post-mortem determined that the main reason the well was not economic was because the zone was nearly completely flushed by earlier recovery operations. The post mortem also revealed the presence of an unmapped shale plug crossing the first lateral. It appears that this shale was detected by the geochemical survey, but its significance was not appreciated at the time. It is possible that sections of the well were faulty, ''porposing'' up and down so as to create water blockages. We are continuing to use the Vernon Field and the demonstration well to calibrate the geochemical data. Eventually, this study may provide a standard site that can be used to test and calibrate geochemical anomalies, something that does not presently exist. A postmortem report on the well, including the geology and geochemistry used to site the well, is presented in

  12. Experimental and modeling results on geochemical impacts of leaking CO2 from subsurface storage reservoirs to an unconfined oxidizing carbonate aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Bacon, D. H.; Shao, H.; Lawter, A.; Wang, G.; Brown, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding on how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Solid materials (rocks and slightly weathered rocks) from an unconfined aquifer, i.e., the Edwards Aquifer in Texas, were used in this investigation. The experimental part consisted of: 1) wet chemical acid extractions (8M HNO3 solution at 90 0C); 2) batch experiments conducted at low solid to solution ratios to study time-dependent releases of major, minor and trace elements during periodic or continuous exposure to CO2 gas; 3) hydraulically saturated column experiments conducted under continuous and stop-flow conditions using a CO2 gas saturated synthetic groundwater; 4) pre- and post-treatment solid phase characterization studies. Major variables tested included reaction time (0-336 hours), CO2 flow rate (50 to 350 ml/min), brine concentration (0.1 and 1 M NaCl), rock type and particle size fraction. We are currently investigating the solution composition effects (i.e., presence of contaminants in the initial solution) on the fate and behavior of potential contaminants (As, Pb and Cd) in these systems. Results from the solid phase characterization studies showed that the mineralogy of the Edwards aquifer materials was dominated by calcite. Quartz and montmorillonite were also present in some samples. Acid extractions confirmed that the solid phase had appreciable amounts of potential contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn). However, the results from the batch and column experiments demonstrated that these contaminants

  13. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  14. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  15. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  16. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  17. Self-assembly sandwiches of reduced graphene oxide layers with zeolitic-imidazolate-frameworks-derived mesoporous carbons as polysulfides reservoirs for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yingbin; Jia, Zhiqing; Lou, Peili; Cui, Zhonghui; Guo, Xiangxin

    2017-02-01

    Confinement of sulfur and alleviation of the polysulfides dissolution are the key issues for development of high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here, we report self-assembly sandwiches composed of zeolitic-imidazolate-frameworks (ZIF-8)-derived mesoporous carbons (ZIF-8(C)) in between reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers, which are filled with sulfurs inside and coated with poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) outside (noted as P@rGO/ZIF-8(C)). During the synthesis process, the rGO layers stabilize the structure of ZIF-8 nanocrystals to obtain large specific surface area and high electric conductivity of mesoporous materials (rGO/ZIF-8(C)), ensuring accommodation of a large amount of sulfur and the efficient utilization of the confined sulfur. The mesoporous rGO/ZIF-8(C), PEDOT and N-doping provide physical absorption and chemical binding to the polysulfides during cycles. Consequently, the Li-S batteries with the composite cathodes exhibit the high capacity of 1308 mAh g-1 and 865 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 1 C, respectively, and a very low capacity fading of 0.03% per cycle after 500 reversible cycles at 1 C rate. The results indicate that the P@rGO/ZIF-8(C)-S composite cathode may offer a feasible strategy for construction of sulfur cathodes for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  18. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  19. Experiments on gas injection mechanisms in carbonate fracture-cavity reservoir using microvisual model%碳酸盐岩缝洞型油藏气驱机制微观可视化模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭平; 袁恒璐; 李新华; 马洪涛

    2012-01-01

    In fracture-cavity carbonate reservoirs,there are generally two kinds of fracture-cavities whose fracture opening are upward and downward respectively. A microvisual model was established to investigate the displacement mechanisms of gas and liquid flooding. Under normal temperature and low pressure, simulated oil and liquid gas were used to do four groups of experiments including water displacement, active water displacement, direct gas displacement and gas-alternating-water displacement. And the effects of different injected fluids and injected methods on displacement efficiency and water cut were researched. The results show that the displacement efficiencies of water displacement, active water displacement, gas displacement and gas-alternating-water displacement are 81. 12% , 68. 95% , 74. 88% and 99. 84% , respectively. The best injection method is gas-alternating-water in fracture-cavity reservoir. Gas injection can only displace the oil in cavities whose fracture openings are downward, and water injection can only displace those whose fracture openings are upward, but gas-alternating-water method can settle down both. Due to the low capillary pressure, active water is no good for oil displacement.%针对缝洞型碳酸盐岩油藏开发中开口向上和开口向下两种缝洞类型,建立该类油藏气驱机制下的微观可视模型,采用模拟油和液化气,在常温低压下进行水驱、活性水驱、直接注气驱及气-水交替驱4组试验,研究不同注入流体及注入方式对驱替效率和含水率的影响.结果表明:水驱、活性水驱、气驱和气-水交替驱的驱替效率分别为81.12%、68.95%、74.88%和99.84%,缝洞型油藏的最佳注入方式为气-水交替注入;注气只能驱开向下的洞,注水只能驱替开口向上的洞,气-水交替驱可以同时解决这两种洞的驱油问题;活性水由于毛管压力低不利于驱油.

  20. Approach to Karst Reservoir Types and Classification of Ordovician Carbonate in Tahe Oilfield%塔河油田奥陶系碳酸盐岩岩溶储集体类型及划分方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康志宏; 戎意民; 魏历灵; 李雪; 陈夷; 陈琳

    2014-01-01

    塔河油田奥陶系油藏储集体类型的多样性和复杂性,给常规测井定量解释带来了很大困难。此类油藏储集体类型的划分和识别对油田开发极为重要。根据6口关键井的电成像测井(FMI)和岩心样品特征,将塔河碳酸盐岩储集体划分为未充填洞穴型、垮塌充填洞穴型、机械充填洞穴型和裂缝型4类。依据其中5口井的常规测井响应和4类储集体划分结果,选用 GR、RD、RS、K3(深浅侧向电阻率倒数差的绝对值)、AC、DEN 和 CNL 共7种测井信息作为神经网络的输入学习样本,经学习训练建立了储层划分的神经网络模型。通过检验井对比,说明基于神经网络模型,通过常规测井的多参数约束,可以判断岩溶型储集体类型。经本次研究,初步形成了储集体半定量评价标准。%tion in the Tahe areas 6 and 7.Real data processing has proved that this method is effective.Through the actual data processing proved that the conventional log multiparameter constraint can be used to judge karst reservoir type,and initially semi-quantitative evaluation standard is formed,showing preliminarily that the method of the neural network method based on the imaging logging is suitable for complex carbonate reservoir in Tahe oilfield.

  1. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  2. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  3. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 73, 2nd Quarter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    For example, if missile defense is a priority then perhaps the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is key cyber terrain. Step two in this...better forensics , and trustworthy computing platforms—is crucial. While one of the principal advantages to cyberspace is the ability to share...Silent Watch JFQ 73, 2nd Quarter 2014 capabilities to defeat a wide range of stressing ballistic missiles in either the exoatmosphere (outer space) or

  4. A Poromechanical Model for Coal Seams Injected with Carbon Dioxide: From an Isotherm of Adsorption to a Swelling of the Reservoir Un modéle poromécanique pour l’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon : d’une isotherme d’adsorption à un gonflement du réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoosokhan S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injecting carbon dioxide into deep unminable coal seams can enhance the amount of methane recovered from the seam. This process is known as CO2-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (CO2-ECBM. The seam is a porous medium whose porous system is made of cleats (small natural fractures and of coal pores (whose radius can be as small as a few angström. During the injection process, the molecules of CO2 get adsorbed in the coal pores. Such an adsorption makes the coal swell, which, in the confined conditions that prevail underground, induces a closure of the cleat system of the coal bed reservoir and a loss of injectivity. In this work, we develop a poromechanical model which, starting from the knowledge of an adsorption isotherm and combined with reservoir simulations, enables to estimate the variations of injectivity of the coal bed reservoir over time during the process of injection. The model for the coal bed reservoir is based on poromechanical equations that explicitly take into account the effect of adsorption on the mechanical behavior of a microporous medium. We consider the coal bed reservoir as a dual porosity (cleats and coal porosity medium, for which we derive a set of linear constitutive equations. The model requires as an input the adsorption isotherm on coal of the fluid considered. Reversely, the model provides a way to upscale an adsorption isotherm into a meaningful swelling of the coal bed reservoir at the macroscopic scale. The parameters of the model are calibrated on data on coal samples available in the literature. Reservoir simulations of an injection of carbon dioxide in a coal seam are performed with an in-house finite volume and element code. The variations of injection rate over time during the process of injection are obtained from the simulations. The effect of the compressibility of the coal matrix on those variations is discussed. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon profondes peut augmenter

  5. SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE RESERVOIRS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, James W.; Krystinik, Katherine B.; Halley, Robert B.

    1985-01-01

    Limestone reservoirs are more numerous in the United States than dolomite reservoirs (by a ratio of about 3 to 1) because limestones are more abundant than dolomite. However, in the eight states that account for over 90% of United States carbonate reservoirs, there is a statistical tendency for carbonate reservoirs to occur preferentially in dolomites. Dolomite reservoirs, on the average, are larger and deeper than those of limestone, yet they often have lower matrix porosities and permeabilities. This line of investigation offers supplemental evidence that dolomitization tends to improve the reservoir properties of a given formation, and that effective fracture systems at reservoir depths are more likely to occur in dolomites than in limestones. Refs.

  6. Pore texture evaluation of carbonate reservoirs in Gasfield A, Turkmenistan%碳酸盐岩储层孔隙结构评价方法——以土库曼斯坦阿姆河右岸气田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振华; 李光辉; 吴蕾; 李序仁; 韩桂芹; 姜英辉

    2011-01-01

    对土库曼斯坦阿姆河右岸气田两种构造类型的碳酸盐岩储层孔隙结构进行了对比评价.结果表明,大背斜构造储层主要表现为孔洞型储层,披覆构造储层主要表现为孔隙型、裂缝-孔隙型储层.对于大背斜构造储层,孔喉中值半径越大,孔喉分布越偏向较大孔喉,呈现"好上加好"的特点.针对碳酸盐岩天然气储层及其开发特点,从动、静态角度以及物性综合指数与毛细管中值压力等试验结果的相关性角度进行分析,提出了评价碳酸盐岩储层的新物性综合指数Zs.结合毛细管中值压力和新物性综合指数Zs,将碳酸盐岩储层分为4个级别,并在实例分析中验证了Zs的合理性和可操作性.应用储层毛细管压力曲线,还原气藏条件下各级别储层的气柱高度,并结合常规测井、成像测井以及地层测试资料研究了储层纵向和区域上的气水分布特征.储层普遍存在气水过渡带,相比于大背斜构造储层,披覆构造储层气水过渡带要更厚一些.裂缝在该区域发育程度和有效性存在明显差异,裂缝及微裂缝对于研究区碳酸盐岩储层求产,尤其是披覆构造储层求产作用关键.%This research compared and evaluated pore textures formed by two different kinds of structures in carbonate reservoirs in Gasfield A of Turkmenistan.It suggests that reservoirs of mega-anticline structures are characterized mainly by vuggy texture, while those of drape structures mainly showed characteristics of pore texture and fracture-pore texture.As to mega-anticline structures,the larger the medium throat size (corresponding to experimental medium value of capillary pressure), the more obvious tendency of pore throat size distribution to larger size.In view of carbonate gas reservoirs and their special features represented during development, a new aggregative index Z, is proposed to evaluate physical properties of reservoirs based on both dynamic and static

  7. Feasibility of Gas Drive in Fang-48 Fault Block Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Lining; Hou Jirui; Yin Xiangwen

    2007-01-01

    The Fang-48 fault block oil reservoir is an extremely low permeability reservoir, and it is difficult to produce such a reservoir by waterflooding. Laboratory analysis of reservoir oil shows that the minimum miscibility pressure for CO2 drive in Fang-48 fault block oil reservoir is 29 MPa, lower than the formation fracture pressure of 34 MPa, so the displacement mechanism is miscible drive. The threshold pressure gradient for gas injection is less than that for waterflooding, and the recovery by gas drive is higher than waterflooding. Furthermore, the threshold pressure gradient for carbon dioxide injection is smaller than that for hydrocarbon gas, and the oil recovery by carbon dioxide drive is higher than that by hydrocarbon gas displacement, so carbon dioxide drive is recommended for the development of the Fang-48 fault block oil reservoir.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  9. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  10. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  12. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  13. Reservoir Characteristic of Famennian Deposits of the Solikamsk Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Plyusnin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the reservoir rock properties of Famennian (Late Devonian reef carbonate strata obtained by core study at boreholes № 1-4 of the Sukharev oil field. Based on the results of detailed study of lithological features of productive strata, authors defined the structural types and composed their description. The characteristics of the porosity and permeability of oil-bearing beds were shown. In a result of studies, the structure and main lithotypes of Famennian portion of reservoir were determined that allowed predicting the spatial distribution of reservoir properties within oilfield area.

  14. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  18. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  19. An analysis of the types and distribution characteristics of natural gas reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhangyou; Yue Dali; Wu Shenghe; Zhang Xiaoyu; Chen Ce; Ni Yuqiang

    2009-01-01

    The natural gas reservoir beds of different areas in China can be divided into three kinds,clastic natural gas reservoir bed, carbonate natural gas reservoir bed and special natural gas reservoir bed. They have different combination patterns controlled by deposition, diagenesis and tectonism. Our analysis indicates that the natural gas reservoirs are mainly distributed in the Precambrian, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary-Quaternary. Craton basin, foreland basin and intracontinental rift basin which contain most of natural gas in China have special geological features and favorable accumulation conditions, and will be important exploration areas in the future.

  20. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  1. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, October--December 1992. Progress review No. 73, quarter ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Accomplishments for this quarter ending December 31, 1992 are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; reservoir classes; and novel technology.

  2. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  3. Black carbon in deep-Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello; Druffel

    1998-06-19

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is 4 to 22 percent of the DOC pool. If soils are the intermediate reservoir, then the importance of riverine carbon in the ocean carbon cycle has been underestimated.

  4. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  5. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  6. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  8. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  9. 三峡水库小江流域鱼类营养层次研究%Determination of Fish Trophic Level in Xiaojiang River of Three Gorges Reservoir by Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史方; 陈小娟; 杨志; 阙延福; 唐会元

    2016-01-01

    The impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir altered fish habitat and community structure in the reservoir area.Additionally,long-term overfishing has caused the decline of fish populations and affected the sustainable de-velopment of fishery resources.The traditional fishery management system must be improved and ecosystem charac-teristics must be considered to support the scientific management of fishery resources and the environment in Three Gorges Reservoir.In this study,the trophic level of 39 fish species in Xiaojiang River of Three Gorges Reservoir was determined using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis.Samples were collected from May to June of 201 3 in the Qukou,Yanglu,Gaoyang,Huangshi and Shuangjiang sections of Xiaojiang River,including 1 21 fish repre-senting 39 species and 1 5 samples of particle organic matter (POM).The δ1 3 C values of POMsamples ranged from-28.29‰ to -24.1 9‰,with a mean value of (-25.75 ±1 .98)‰,and those for δ1 5 N ranged from 1 .40‰ to 6.97‰,with a mean value of (4.67 ±2.70)‰.The δ1 3 C value of POMdecreased upstream from the estuary,but the δ1 3 C value for fish of the same species did not differ significantly with location,indicating that POMwas not the main energy source for the Xiaojiang River food web.The δ1 5 N value of POMin Gaoyang was higher than Yanglu, Huangshi and Shuangjiang,while δ1 5 N values for fish of the same species in Gaoyang was significantly higher than that of Yanglu,Qukou and Shuangjiang,probably related to the intensity of human activity at each site.There were at least four trophic levels identified in the Xiaojiang River food web and relative trophic levels in the fish communi-ty ranged from 2.1 5 to 5.1 2.Grass carp was at the lowest trophic level among the primary economic fish species. Most fish species were omnivorous with trophic levels ranging from 2.66 to 3.85.Fish species with a trophic level above 3.85 are carnivorous and Leiocassis longirostris was at the highest

  10. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  11. Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, B. B.; White, R. E.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.

    1990-12-01

    During this quarter, impedance data were analyzed for an oxygen reduction process in molten carbonate electrolyte and a manuscript, Impedance Analysis for Oxygen Reduction in a Lithium Carbonate Melt: Effects of Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Temperature, was prepared to be submitted to Journal of the Electrochemical Society for publication.

  12. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  13. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Part 1. Evaluation of Phase 2 CO2 Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2. Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowersox, Richard [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Hickman, John [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-12-20

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.

  14. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  15. Econometric Methods within Romanian Quarterly National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Marineta Drăguşin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to synthesise the main econometric methods (including the mathematical and statistical ones used in the Romanian Quarterly National Accounts compilation, irrespectively of Quarterly Gross Domestic Product (QGDP. These methods are adapted for a fast manner to operatively provide information about the country macroeconomic evolution to interested users. In this context, the mathematical and econometric methods play an important role in obtaining quarterly accounts valued in current prices and in constant prices, in seasonal adjustments and flash estimates of QGDP.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  17. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  18. Forward modeling of carbonate fracture reservoir based on time-space dual Variable grid algorithm%基于时空双变网格算法的碳酸盐岩裂缝型储层正演模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 李振春

    2011-01-01

    引入局部精细时间采样算法,对空间变网格算法进行改进.将裂缝视为局部非均质体,利用空间不同尺度的网格对裂缝介质进行表征.采用有限差分算法直接求解波动方程,实现对实际碳酸盐岩介质的微裂缝储层的地震波正演模拟技术,得到地震波在裂缝型储层传播中的一些直观的波动现象.结果表明:利用局部精细时间采样算法,对精细的空间网格在时间层内可以进行局部加密求解,从而解决全局采用精细时间采样带来的庞大计算量和计算耗时问题;裂缝缝间距、裂缝切伸参数对地震记录的反射振幅能量和极性影响较大,并在反射波后常会紧跟一个弱反射能量;裂缝受构造影响较大,平缓构造和起伏构造裂缝反射模式相差较大;在了解地下构造走向的情况下,可根据不同的裂缝反射特征寻找裂缝发育带.%The space variable grid method was improved by introducing local variable timestep scheme.Fractures were treated as local heterogeneous bodies, and fracture media was represented by using different size of grid samples.Wave equation was solved directly by finite difference method.Seismic forward modeling of micro-fractured reservoir of field carbonate velocity models was realized, and some detailed wave-propagation phenomena were gotten.The results show that local variable timestep scheme can realize local refinement calculation in a global timestep, which solves huge computing resource and time consuming problems caused by fine timesteps in the global models.Fracture density and fracture length have much effect on amplitude and polarity of seismic record, and a weak fracture reflection energy always follows reflection wave closely.Subsurface structure affects fracture characteristics a lot.Fracture reflection characteristics of flat strata and undulation strata are quite different.So fracture growing zones can be found according to different fracture reflection

  19. Influence of nanomirelal phases on development processes of oil reservoirs in Volga-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Victor; Sitdikova, Lyalya

    2010-05-01

    The optimisation of oil-field development by enhancing oil recovery is the most important target in further improvement of oil production processes. The resulting economic benefits often exceed those from discoveries of new fields, especially in hard-to-reach regions. Despite the wide use of enhanced oil recovery methods, their efficiency is in many cases not as high as expected. For instance, in terrigenous reservoirs of the Volga-Ural region oil recovery rarely exceeds 0.4, and in carbonate reservoirs with the complex structure, variability and high oil viscosity it can be as low as 0.15-0.20. In natural bitumen fields, the recovery factor is even lower. Analysis of the conducted EOR optimisation operations indicates that EOR methods mainly aim to change the hydrodynamic conditions in the reservoir under development or the physicochemical properties of oil, - for instance, to decrease its viscosity or to change its lyophilic behaviour. The impact of EOR methods on the reservoir's mineral component remains largely unstudied. It is generally believed that the mineral component of the reservoir, its matrix, is inert and remains unaffected by EOR methods. However, the analysis of oil-field development processes and the available studies allow the conclusion that natural hydrocarbon reservoirs are sensitive to any impact on both the near-wellbore zone and the whole reservoir. The authors' research in the reservoir's mineral phase dynamics has permitted the conclusion that the reservoir's fluid phases (including hydrocarbons) and the reservoir itself form a lithogeochemical system that remains in unstable equilibrium. Any external impact, such as the reservoir penetration or the use of EOR methods, disturbs this equilibrium and changes the filtration characteristics of the reservoir, the fluid chemistry and the reaction of the reservoir's mineral component to the impact. In order to characterise the processes in the reservoir in the course of its development, the

  20. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  1. 76 FR 22910 - ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Notice... c. Southwest Renewable Energy Development and Historic Preservation Working Group IX. New Business...

  2. Information Science Research Institute. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartker, T.A.

    1994-06-30

    This is a second quarter 1194 progress report on the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. Included is symposium activity; staff activity; document analysis program; text retrieval program; institute activity; and goals.

  3. Seismic Evaluation of Hydorcarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-10-31

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  4. Characteristics of carbonate reservoirs in the Timan?Pechora Basin in Russia:The Trebs and Titov oil fields as examples%俄罗斯季曼—伯朝拉盆地碳酸盐岩油气藏特征分析——以Trebs和Titov油气田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士伟; 史丹妮

    2016-01-01

    季曼—伯朝拉盆地是俄罗斯境内的富油气盆地,属裂谷—被动陆缘前陆复合盆地;早里菲世早石炭世为裂谷—大洋被动边缘、浅海大陆架阶段,晚石炭世第四纪为乌拉尔造山和造山后的前陆演化阶段.盆地共发育3套碳酸盐岩储集层,包括下古生界、下泥盆统—上泥盆统(上弗拉斯阶—法门阶)及石炭系—下二叠统碳酸盐岩.研究表明,该区碳酸盐岩储层明显受沉积、成岩双重作用的控制,有利沉积相带及不整合面共同控制有效储层的分布;储集空间包括原生孔隙和喀斯特作用形成的溶蚀孔洞,储层物性空间横、纵向变化大,通常不整面之下30~40 m为有利储层发育的最佳地带;储层非均质性极强,盆地内部分油藏具有低孔隙度、低渗透率特性,制约了油气藏开发速度.通过分析该盆地具有较长开发历史的12个碳酸盐岩油气藏数据,证实该类油藏具有低采油速度、低采出程度特点.%The Timan?Pechora Basin is a petroliferous basin in Russia. It is a composite basin of rift, passive margin, and foreland. From the Early Riphing to Early Carboniferous, a rift, passive margin, and shallow continental shelf developed in the basin. From the Late Carboniferous to Quaternary, the Ural orogeny and post?orogeny foreland developed. Three sets of carbonate reservoirs were formed in the basin, including the Lower Paleozoic, Lower-Upper Devonian (Frasnian-Famennian), and Carboniferous-Lower Permian. They were controlled by both sedimentary and diagenetic effects. Favorable sedimentary facies and unconformities controlled the distribution of effective reservoirs. Reservoir porosity includes primary pores and dissolution vugs formed by karst. Reservoir physical properties vary both horizontally and vertically. Generally, the formation 30-40 m below an unconformity is the most favorable reservoir position. The reservoirs have a strong heterogeneity, and are featured by low

  5. Diagenetic bitumen in Ordovician carbonate reservoirs of the northern Tarim Basin%塔北地区奥陶系碳酸盐岩中的储层沥青

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鼐; 王招明; 鞠凤萍; 肖中尧; 房启飞; 张宝收; 卢玉红; 余小庆

    2013-01-01

    According to the relationship between the relative intensity of D-peak, G-peak and G-D peak spacing of bitumens and the maturity of bitumen evolution, we deduced that the Dh/Gh ratio and G-D peak spacing are positively proportional to bitumen maturity. Bitumens in Ordovician reservoir in the northern Tarim Basin are thought to have evolved in three stages and the Dh/Gh ratio and G-D peak spacing of Raman measurements on these bitumens indicated that the first-stage bitumen is highly-mature carbonaceous reservoir bitumen, the second-stage one is mature asphaltene reservoir bitumen, and the third-stage one is a combination of overmature oily reservoir bitumen and asphaltene reservoir bitumen. The formation of the first- and second-stage bitumens is attributed to thermal metamorphism, while the co-existence of two different bitumens for the third-stage bitumen is mainly due to selective adsorption of rocks. The distribution and property of these three-stages bitumens in Ordovician reservoirs of the northern Tarim Basin may determine the nature of Ordovician reservoirs, which is characterized by the southern condensate oil later than the northern heavy oil. The observation of oily reservoir bitumen in the northern Halahatang-Yingmaili region can provide evidence and targets for exploring Himalayan condensate oil reservoirs in this area.%利用沥青质拉曼D峰相对强度、G峰相对强度、两峰间距宽窄与沥青演化成熟度关系,推出Dh/Gh和G-D与沥青成熟度成正比关系图.塔北奥陶系储层中发育3期储层沥青,通过3期储层沥青拉曼Dh/Gh和G-D认为:第Ⅰ期为高热成熟炭质储层沥青,第Ⅱ期为成熟沥青质储层沥青,第Ⅲ期为过成熟油质储层沥青和沥青质储层沥青共存.前两期储层沥青是由于热变质而成,第Ⅲ期两种储层沥青共存主要是岩石选择性吸附导致.3期储层沥青的分布及性质决定塔北奥陶系成藏北部老、南部新,北部重质油、南部凝析油的

  6. Carbonate reservoir features and karst mode in the Yingmai-2 well field of Tabei uplift%塔北隆起英买2井区碳酸盐岩储层特征及岩溶模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 张艳秋; 潘文庆; 王瑞菊; 客伟利

    2013-01-01

    According to the relationship between the relative intensity of D-peak, G-peak and G-D peak spacing of bitumens and the maturity of bitumen evolution, we deduced that the Dh/Gh ratio and G-D peak spacing are positively proportional to bitumen maturity. Bitumens in Ordovician reservoir in the northern Tarim Basin are thought to have evolved in three stages and the Dh/Gh ratio and G-D peak spacing of Raman measurements on these bitumens indicated that the first-stage bitumen is highly-mature carbonaceous reservoir bitumen, the second-stage one is mature asphaltene reservoir bitumen, and the third-stage one is a combination of overmature oily reservoir bitumen and asphaltene reservoir bitumen. The formation of the first- and second-stage bitumens is attributed to thermal metamorphism, while the co-existence of two different bitumens for the third-stage bitumen is mainly due to selective adsorption of rocks. The distribution and property of these three-stages bitumens in Ordovician reservoirs of the northern Tarim Basin may determine the nature of Ordovician reservoirs, which is characterized by the southern condensate oil later than the northern heavy oil. The observation of oily reservoir bitumen in the northern Halahatang-Yingmaili region can provide evidence and targets for exploring Himalayan condensate oil reservoirs in this area.%中国海相碳酸盐岩储层具有鲜明的非均质性特征及复杂的形成机理.应用三维地震、岩心、成像测井、薄片等资料对英买2井区储层特征进行了研究,认为该区域储层并非典型的风化壳型岩溶储层,而属于断裂岩溶或断控岩溶储层,储集空间以方解石半充填或未充填的裂缝、小型溶蚀孔洞-裂缝为主,且分布受到断裂系统的强烈控制.结合构造活动背景以及包裹体盐度综合分析,认为该区断裂岩溶先后经历了地表水沿断裂向下溶蚀和深部热液沿断裂向上溶蚀2个阶段.前者以建设性作用为主,后者以

  7. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  8. 井型对缝洞型碳酸盐岩凝析气藏开发对策的影响%Impact of well type on development strategy for vuggy fractured carbonate condensate gas reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学磊; 张守良; 樊茹; 焦玉卫; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    Vuggy fractured reservoirs are characterized by diversified reservoir types, severe heterogeneity and complex oil/gas/water relationship. There can be many factors affecting development strategy, of which well type configuration is one of the key factors. Numerical simulation has been conducted to study the adaptability of well type to different vuggy fractured systems and to analyze the impacts of aquifer energy, recovery rate and development method on development effect. The results indicate that vertical well is suitable for single - fracture - vug and multi - fracture - vug reservoir systems without bottom water, while horizontal well fits for multi - fracture - vug system with bottom water and disconnected multi - fracture - vug reservoirs. Based on the above research, dominant development strategy is determined for the condensate gas reservoir in the Tazhong -I gas field, thus providing theoretical basis for development of similar reservoirs.%缝洞型气藏储层类型多样,非均质性严重,油气水关系复杂,影响开发对策的因素较多,井型的优化配置是其关键因素之一.应用数值模拟方法对不同缝洞系统井型适应性进行了研究,分析了水体能量、开采速度、开发方式对开发效果的影响.结果表明单洞及多洞系统无底水的情形适合采用直井开发,而水平井更适合有底水存在的多洞系统以及多洞之间不连通的情况.在此基础上结合塔中Ⅰ号气田凝析气藏的开发,确立了主要的开发技术对策,为此类气藏的开发提供了理论依据.

  9. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  10. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  11. Mirador - Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. This Focus Area deals with the cycling of carbon in reservoirs and ecosystems as it changes naturally, is changed by humans,...

  12. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  13. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  14. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  15. Distribution of favorable lacustrine carbonate reservoirs: A case from the Upper Es4 of Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin%湖相碳酸盐岩有利储集层分布——以渤海湾盆地沾化凹陷沙四上亚段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭传圣

    2011-01-01

    Based on core thin sections, logging and seismic data, the distribution of favorable lacustrine carbonate reservoirs is predicted in the upper Efu of the Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin. In the upper Es4 of the Zhanhua Sag, four categories of carbonates are developed, I.e. Bioclastic limestones (dolomites), intraclastic limestones (dolomites), arenaceous limestones (dolomites) and argillaceous limestones (dolomites). With core calibrated logs, the electrical characteristics interpretation criteria for various carbonates are established, and the lithofacies sequences of the exploratory well are reconstructed. According to overlying pattern of high-frequency cycles, the short-term cycles of bioherm, carbonate bank and semi-deep lake are divided, and high resolution isochronous formation framework is built. On the basis of the facies characteristics of well tie sections and palaeo-landform background, the carbonate depositional model is established, namely, the reef and bank carbonates are deposited from the largest expansion period to the stable period of lake basin, bank carbonates* are mainly distributed on the upper side of synsedimentary faults on the gentle slope or deposited in fault-step lowland on the steep slope while the reef carbonates mainly on fault-step highland on the steep slope. Favorable reservoir types include reef bioclastic limestone (dolomite), bank bioclastic limestone (dolomite), intraclastic limestone (dolomite) and arenaceous limestone. It is possible to predict the distribution of favorable reservoirs according to the depositional model, palaeo-landform analysis and seismic amplitude attributes.%运用岩心薄片、测井、地震等资料和技术手段,预测渤海湾盆地沾化凹陷沙四上亚段湖相碳酸盐岩有利储集层分布.研究表明,沾化凹陷沙四上亚段发育生物碎屑灰/云岩类、内碎屑灰/云岩类、砂质灰/云岩类、泥灰/云岩类等4大类碳酸盐岩.用岩心刻度测井,分区建立了不同

  16. Using surface heave to estimate reservoir volumetric strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanayakkara, A.S.; Wong, R.C.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed numerical tool for estimating reservoir volumetric strain distribution using surface vertical displacements and solving an inverse problem. Waterflooding, steam injection, carbon dioxide sequestration and aquifer storage recovery are among the subsurface injection operations that are responsible for reservoir dilations which propagate to the surrounding formations and extend to the surface resulting in surface heaves. Global positioning systems and surface tiltmeters are often used to measure the characteristics of these surface heaves and to derive valuable information regarding reservoir deformation and flow characteristics. In this study, Tikhonov regularization techniques were adopted to solve the ill-posed inversion problem commonly found in standard inversion techniques such as Gaussian elimination and least squares methods. Reservoir permeability was then estimated by inverting the volumetric strain distribution. Results of the newly developed numerical tool were compared with results from fully-coupled finite element simulation of fluid injection problems. The reservoir volumetric strain distribution was successfully estimated along with an approximate value for reservoir permeability.

  17. Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    temperature, reservoir storage, reservoir elevation, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, unfiltered salinity, unfiltered total nitrogen, filtered total nitrogen, unfiltered nitrate plus nitrite, unfiltered phosphorus, filtered phosphorus, unfiltered carbon, carbon in suspended sediment, total hardness, unfiltered noncarbonate hardness, filtered noncarbonate hardness, unfiltered calcium, filtered calcium, unfiltered magnesium, filtered magnesium, unfiltered sodium, filtered sodium, unfiltered potassium, filtered potassium, filtered chloride, filtered sulfate, unfiltered fluoride, and filtered fluoride. When possible, USGS and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality water-quality properties and constituents were matched using the database parameter codes for individual physical properties and constituents, descriptions of each physical property or constituent, and their reporting units. This report presents a collection of delimited text files of source-aggregated, spatially pooled, depth-dependent, instantaneous water-quality data as well as instantaneous, daily, and monthly storage and elevation reservoir data.

  18. GBRN/DOE Project: Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies. Quarterly technical report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.

    1994-04-15

    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth faults in EI-330 field are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. Previous work, which incorporated pressure, temperature, fluid flow, heat flow, seismic, production, and well log data, indicated active fluid flow along fault zones. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production test of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. The quarterly progress reports contains accomplishments to date for the following tasks: Management start-up; database management; field and demonstration equipment; reservoir characterization, modeling; geochemistry; and data integration.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 1st Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 74 reportable events (16 from the 1st Qtr FY-16 and 58 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 35 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (15 from this quarter and 20 from the prior three quarters).

  20. Facies-controlled volcanic reservoirs of northern Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the late Mesozoic are very important reservoirs for the commercial natural gases including hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide and rare gases in the northern Songliao Basin. The reservoir volcanic rocks include rhyolite,andesite, trachyte, basalt and tuff. Facies of the volcanic rocks can be classified into 5 categories and 15 special types.Porosity and permeability of the volcanic reservoirs are facies-controlled. Commercial reservoirs were commonly found among the following volcanic subfacies: volcanic neck (Ⅰ1), underground-explosive breccia (Ⅰ3), pyroclastic-bearing lava flow (Ⅱ3), upper effusive (Ⅲ3) and inner extrusive ones (Ⅳ1). The best volcanic reservoirs are generally evolved in the interbedded explosive and effusive volcanics. Rhyolites show in general better reservoir features than other types of rocks do.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of Dona Francisca reservoir (Jacuí river, Rio Grande do Sul State, a subtropical reservoir - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.10078

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the behavior of a reservoir located on subtropical latitude (Dona Francisca reservoir. The limnological variables measured were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and electric conductivity. Measurements were taken quarterly at different sampling sites along the reservoir. The results indicated the formation of longitudinal zones regarding circulation patterns and stratification, beyond the influence from the water masses of the main tributary. The vertical profiles were obtained. The behavior of the reservoir is similar to others previously studied in the country, but with shorter time-lag stratification and a narrower range, possibly due to the shorter residence time of the water, and to the latitude, where summer is shorter.

  2. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  3. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  4. 塔中地区中—下奥陶统碳酸盐岩孔洞—裂缝储集系统划分及其特征%Reservoir Architectural System in the Middle-Lower Ordovician Carbonate Rock of Tazhong Areas in Tarim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建国; 卫平生; 蔡忠贤; 杨海军; 王宏斌; 张虎权

    2012-01-01

    塔里木盆地塔中地区下奥陶统鹰山组是—套由喀斯特改造的碳酸盐岩储层,其储集空间主要为裂缝或与裂缝相关的溶蚀孔洞,岩石基质孔隙很低.这些储集空间主要是由多期表生溶蚀作用与后期上升型溶蚀作用叠加改造的结果,因此储层结构复杂、非均质性强.针对这类储层的发育特点,从储层地质静态描述的角度,按系统论思想,明确了“孔洞—裂缝储集系统”的科学内涵,提出了以缝洞储集单元为核心的解剖思路和方法,并以多种地球物理方法包括叠前裂缝预测技术、碳酸盐岩古地貌分析技术、地震一测井联合波阻抗反演技术以及三维地震属性提取及雕刻等所揭示的信息为基础,综合考虑储层发育的构造及其水文地质边界条件,对缝洞储集单元进行了划分.在此基础上,结合钻井岩心及测井分析获得储集空间类型、结构及其成因信息,将该区缝洞储集单元划分为表生岩溶型、热液岩溶型和裂缝型3种成因类型,明确了部分储集单元的成因属性.%The Yingshan Formation of Middle-Lower Ordovician in Tazhong uplift in Tarim is an important fracture and karst-modified carbonate reservoir. Main pore types in this reservoir include fractures .vug and caves, which mainly resulted from multi-stage epigenetic dissolution and post-stage hypogenetic excavation. The reservoir architectural systems are of extreme heterogeneity and significant compartmentalization. This study presents an architectural hierarchy for the reservoirs not controlled by facices according to the system theory. ()n the basis of integrated information revealed by a variety of methods, such as geophysical methods including prestack fracture prediction technology, paleo-geomorphological analysis technology, seismic-logging wave impedance inversion technology, three-dimensional seismic attribute extraction technology, and well-logging explanation, core observation etc

  5. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  6. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  7. Primary migration and secondary alteration of the Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir in Ordos Basin,China―Application of fluid inclusion gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions(FI)often represents the initial geochemical characteristics of palaeo-fluid in reservoir rock.Influence on composition and carbon isotopic composition of gas during primary migration,reservoir-forming and subsequent secondary alterations are discussed through comparing fluid inclusion gas with coal-formed gas and natural gas in present gas reservoirs in the Ordos Basin.The results show that primary migration of gas has significant effect on the molecular but not on the carbon isotopic composition of methane.Migration and diffusion fractionation took place during the secondary migration of gas in Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir according to carbon isotopic composition of methane in FIs.Composition and carbon isotopic composition of natural gas were nearly unchanged after the gas reservoir forming through comparing the FI gases with the natural gas in present gas reservoir.

  8. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  9. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  10. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 60 reportable events (23 from the 4th Qtr FY14 and 37 from the prior three reporting quarters) as well as 58 other issue reports (including not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL from July 2013 through October 2014. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC07 051D14517.

  12. ARM Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. This quarterly report is written to comply with this requirement. This reports on the first quarter facility statistics.

  13. Sinopec's Profits up Drastically in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuxiao

    2003-01-01

    @@ Sinopec, Asia's largest refiner,announced on April 29 that its net first quarter profit skyrocketed almost 12-fold as it sold more refined oil and petrochemical products, cashing in on the international price hikes in oil during the period. However, analysts said the growth of China's second largest oil company is expected to recede in the second quarter as oil prices fall due to the end of the Iraq War. They still anticipate the company's full-year profit will increase by 15 percent or more on the back of a domestic oil market recovery.

  14. Increase of heavy oil reservoir recovery using chemical injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Alishvandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to thermal properties, Nano fluids may be new generation of thermal transfer fluids that would be used invarious industries. Energy carrier Nano fluids as waters, lubricants and ethylene glycol include of particles with dimensions of 100 nm as metal, metal oxid or carbon Nano tubes. Based on evaluation, with increase of viscosity of Nano fluid surfactant, absorbed dispersion materials would be increased and Nano particles dispersion and stability and thermal transfer would be developed. Using chemical injection to reservoirs, surfactant is cause of oil entrapment based on decrease of surface tension force, self generate- emulation and change of wetting. According to reservoir temperature,by Nano fluid and surfactant, thermal properties would be achieved to heat oil and decrease viscosity without any change of reservoir stone wetting.

  15. Greenhouse gases concentrations and fluxes from subtropical small reservoirs in relation with watershed urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Yixin; Yuan, Xingzhong; Chen, Huai; Peng, Changhui; Yue, Junsheng; Zhang, Qiaoyong; Diao, Yuanbin; Liu, Shuangshuang

    2017-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from reservoirs and global urbanization have gained widespread attention, yet the response of GHG emissions to the watershed urbanization is poorly understood. Meanwhile, there are millions of small reservoirs worldwide that receive and accumulate high loads of anthropogenic carbon and nitrogen due to watershed urbanization and can therefore be hotspots of GHG emissions. In this study, we assessed the GHG concentrations and fluxes in sixteen small reservoirs draining urban, agricultural and forested watersheds over a period of one year. The concentrations of pCO2, CH4 and N2O in sampled urban reservoirs that received more sewage input were higher than those in agricultural reservoirs, and were 3, 7 and 10 times higher than those in reservoirs draining in forested areas, respectively. Accordingly, urban reservoirs had the highest estimated GHG flux rate. Regression analysis indicated that dissolved total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) had great effect on CO2 production, while the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content of surface water were closely related to CH4 and N2O production. Therefore, these parameters can act as good predictors of GHG emissions in urban watersheds. Given the rapid progress of global urbanization, small urban reservoirs play a crucial role in accounting for regional GHG emissions and cannot be ignored.

  16. Longitudinal heterogeneity of sediment characteristics during southwest monsoon season in hyper-eutrophic Krishnagiri reservoir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Velu; Ambujam, Neelakantapillai Kanniperumal

    2012-03-01

    Krishnagiri reservoir is a hyper-eutrophicated reservoir located in Krishnagiri district which is one of the drought-prone districts in Tamil Nadu, India. The reservoir water is being used for various purposes such as irrigation, drinking, fish rearing, livestock rearing, and recreation. Since there is no an evidence of investigation on bottom sediments in Krishnagiri reservoir, the present study was carried out during southwest monsoon season in 2008. This study examined the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom sediments such as composition, redox potential, moisture content, organic carbon, organic matter, total phosphorus, and total iron at 15 locations in the reservoir. Phosphorus fractionation study was carried out to find out different fractions such as loosely adsorbed phosphorous, iron and aluminium-bound phosphorus, calcium-bound phosphorous, and organic phosphorous. Results indicated that there was spatial variation in the composition of sediments and low values of redox potential. The significant positive correlation exists between the organic carbon and organic phosphorus concentration. The lacustrine zone of the reservoir showed high accumulation of total phosphorus and total iron when compared to riverine and transition zones. This study concludes an allogenic origin of majority of inorganic phosphorus in the reservoir during the study period and this might have been derived from the catchment during the erosion process. The high concentration of surface sediment phosphorus clearly indicates a greater threat of eutrophication in Krishnagiri reservoir.

  17. 10 CFR 34.69 - Records of quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of quarterly inventory. 34.69 Section 34.69 Energy... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.69 Records of quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the quarterly inventory of sealed sources and of...

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  19. 19 CFR 159.34 - Certified quarterly rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.34 Certified quarterly rate. (a) Countries for which quarterly rate is certified. For the currency of each of the following... York for such foreign currency for a day in that quarter: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil,...

  20. 12 CFR 620.10 - Preparing the quarterly report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing the quarterly report. 620.10 Section 620.10 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DISCLOSURE TO SHAREHOLDERS Quarterly Report § 620.10 Preparing the quarterly report. (a) Each institution of the Farm Credit...

  1. Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage Using Numerical Experiments Détermination de la variabilité des réservoirs géologiques sur le stockage du CO2 par la méthodologie des plans d’expériences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedro F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulations of carbon dioxide storage in sedimentary reservoirs model the fluid and gas flow and the chemical reactions which occur between the minerals (calcite and dolomite and the injected CO2 [André et al. (2007 Energy Convers. Manage. 48, 17821797; Gunter et al. (1999 Appl. Geochem. 4, 1-111. However because of the lack of data, these reservoirs are always partially known and the fitted variograms of petrophysical and mineralogical quantities are approximate. The aim is to quantify the impact of uncertainties on reservoir characteristics on the storage predictions. We focus on two operational parameters: the quantity of the stored carbon dioxide and the mean variation of the porosity. Two sources of uncertainties are examined: the draw dispersion and the approximation on the variogram parameters. To study the influence of the draw dispersion, variogram parameters are kept fixed and different simulations are run; the associated variance on the operational parameters then has the meaning of a repeatability error. In the second case, a sensibility analysis is carried out to study the influence of variogram parameters variations (sill, range, nugget effect on the CO2 storage. The chosen methodology is the designs of experiments. The simulations are carried out using reactive transport software. The studied carbonated reservoir is built in reference to the Dogger formation of Paris Basin (France [Diedro (2009 Thèse, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de St- Étienne. This reservoir is composed of several minerals, some of them being disposed in spots. The results show that the impact of the draw dispersion remains lower than the impact of the variogram parameters. The effect of the size of the dolomite spots within the rock on the stored carbon dioxide is to be noticed. Larger spots of the dolomite field with low concentration lead to a greater precipitation of carbonate and reduction of porosity than little ,spots with higher

  2. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  3. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  4. Effects of Game Location, Quality of Opposition, and Starting Quarter Score in the Outcome of Elite Water Polo Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Miguel Á; Serna, Ana D; Lupo, Corrado; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2016-04-01

    The notational analysis is used to investigate teams' performance in water polo, especially focused on the determinants of success. Recently, a new topic has emerged "the situational variables," which includes the game conditions that may influence the performance at a behavioral level. The aim of this study was to identify the interactive effects of starting quarter score (SQS) (i.e., score difference at the beginning of each quarter and at the final score) and game location (GL) (i.e., home and away teams) in relation to quality of opposition (i.e., positions of difference between opposing teams at the end-of-season rankings) in elite men's water polo games. Data comprised 528 games (n = 2,112 quarters) from the first Spanish water polo division. A linear regression analysis was applied to show the impact of SQS and GL in relation to quality of opposition (unbalanced and balanced) for quarter (all quarters, and second, third, and fourth quarters). Results showed that SQS has an important effect for all quarters (0.16) and for the second (0.14) and third (0.14) quarters in balanced games (whereas the fourth quarter has an unpredictable outcome), and for each quarter (all quarters: 0.33; second quarter: 0.55; third quarter: 0.44; fourth quarter: 0.26) in unbalanced games. In addition, GL effects emerged for balanced (0.31) and unbalanced (0.45) games for all quarters and specifically for the second quarter of the unbalanced games. Therefore, this study showed that the elite water polo game dynamics, indirectly providing a reference for coaches (i.e., effective tactical approach) and physical trainers (i.e., high performance intensities), plans to improve their players' performance.

  5. Target reservoirs for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding. Task two: summary of available reservoir and geological data. Vol. II: Rocky Mountain states geological and reservoir data. Part 4: Paradox, Uinta, eastern Utah overthrust, Big Horn, Wind River, Powder River, Red Desert, and Great Divide basins; CACHE-Ismay through WERTZ-Madison fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Marlow, R.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work performed by Gruy Federal, Inc., as the second of six tasks under contract with the US Department of Energy. The stated objective of this study is to build a solid engineering foundation to serve as the basis for field mini- and pilot tests in both high and low oil saturation carbonate reservoirs for the purpose of extending the technology base in carbon dioxide miscible flooding. The six tasks in this study are: (1) summary of available CO/sub 2/ field test data; (2) summary of existing reservoir and geological data; (3) selection of target reservoirs; (4) selection of specific reservoirs for CO/sub 2/ injection tests; (5) selection of specific sites for test wells in carbonate reservoirs; and (6) drilling and coring activities. The report for Task Two consists of a summary of existing reservoir and geological data on carbonate reservoirs located in west Texas, southeast New Mexico, and the Rocky Mountain states. It is contained in two volumes, each with several parts. The present volume, in four parts, is a summary of reservoir data for fields in the Rocky Mountain states. Volume One contains data for Permian basin fields in west Texas and southeast New Mexico. While a serious effort was made to obtain all publicly available data for the fields considered, sufficiently reliable data on important reservoir parameters were not always available for every field. The data in Volume II show 143 carbonate reservoirs in the study area may be suitable for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding. Using a general estimate of enhanced oils recovery by CO/sub 2/ flooding of 10% of original oil in place, some 619 million barrels of oil could be recovered by widespread application of CO/sub 2/ flooding in the study area. Mississippian and Ordovician reservoirs appear to be the most promising targets for the process.

  6. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery -- Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. First quarterly technical progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-05-24

    For work during the first quarter of 1993, American Oil Recovery, Inc. targeted completion of the following specific objectives: Convene meetings of Mattoon Project subcontractors in order to plan and coordinate Project activities. Confirm organizational arrangements and plans for implementation of Mattoon Project. Complete most work on detailed analysis of reservoir geology of productive leases in the Mattoon Project. Identify first Facies Defined Subunit for initial injectivity testing to be commenced near the beginning of the second quarter. Identify additional Facies Defined Subunits for injectivity testing and characterization during the second and third quarters. Award subcontract to the Illinois State Geological Survey and commence work on preparation of a geostatistical model (STRATAMODEL) of more than 100 wells on 1,000 acres within the Mattoon Project Area. Obtain oil samples from wells in the identified Facies Subunit for reservoir rock, fluid, and CO{sub 2} compatibility testing by the Illinois State Geological Survey. Design CO{sub 2} injection pumps and injection monitoring equipment configuration. Obtain bids for required pumps and diesel motor. Accomplishments for this quarter are reported.

  7. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  8. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-31

    This progress report discusses in details the geologic assessment of the Piceance Creek Basin. Analysis of the high resolution aeromagnetic survey concentrated on the high-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired by World Geoscience, but the interpretation was supplemented by examination of regional published gravity and magnetic data, as well as surface geology and subsurface geology.

  9. Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

  10. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for selected birth indicators, 2014–Quarter 2, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of selected reproductive indicators from birth data for 2014 through the second quarter of 2016. Estimates are presented for: general fertility...

  11. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2009-01-30

    Current research projects have focused Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP) talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene, low-dose ionizing radiation (gamma and neutron) and alpha radiation from plutonium. Trichloroethylene research has been conducted as a joint collaborative effort with the University of Georgia. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Laboratory work has been completed on several trichloroethylene risk assessment projects, and these projects have been brought to a close. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the remaining trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A comprehensive manuscript on the scientific basis of trichloroethylene risk assessment is in preparation. Work on the low-dose radiation risk assessment projects is also progressing at a slowed rate as a result of funding uncertainties. It has been necessary to restructure the proponency and performance schedule of these projects, with the project on Low-Dose Radiation: Epidemiology Risk Models transferred to DOE Office of Science proponency under a separate funding instrument. Research on this project will continue under the provisions of the DOE Office of Science funding instrument, with progress reported in accordance with the requirements of that funding instrument. Progress on that project will no longer be reported in quarterly reports for DE-FC09-02CH11109. Following a meeting at the Savannah River Site on May 8, 2008, a plan was submitted for development of an epidemiological cohort study and prospective medical surveillance system for the assessment of disease rates among workers at the Savannah River

  12. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  13. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  14. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  15. Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusuya Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.

  16. Approximating the DGP of China's Quarterly GDP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H. Mees (Heleen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe demonstrate that the data generating process (DGP) of China’s cumulated quarterly Gross Domestic Product (GDP, current prices), as it is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, can be (very closely) approximated by a simple rule. This rule is that annual growth in any

  17. 77 FR 3784 - ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Notice... Implementation C. Bureau of Land Management Nationwide Programmatic Agreement VIII. New Business IX. Adjourn...

  18. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses.

  19. Apprentices and Trainees: March Quarter, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the March quarter 2010. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.64 (June 2010 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the September…

  20. Quarter-controlled milking in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The design of a milking stall with special functions for monitoring and control is described. The milk removal process per quarter is described. The milking stall was equipped with four milk containers, whose advancing weight was recorded permanently. The data were online converted into milk flow ra

  1. Apprentices and Trainees: September Quarter, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2009. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no. 62 (December 2009 estimates). There were 425,500 apprentices and trainees in-training as at 30 September 2009, a decrease of 2.4%…

  2. Apprentices and Trainees: December Quarter, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the December quarter 2009. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.63 (March 2010 estimates). There were 414 900 apprentices and trainees in-training as at 31 December 2009, a decrease of 0.6% from the…

  3. "Library Quarterly" Management Literature, 1931-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Arthur P.

    2006-01-01

    Management literature appearing in "Library Quarterly," 1931-2004, is examined in this essay. A total of 145 articles are identified that focus on administrative and managerial issues related to libraries during this period. Management literature is construed expansively and includes accounting, administration, assessment, budgets, facilities,…

  4. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update - December 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2015-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  5. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update June 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  6. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other non-reportable issues identified at INL from July 2013 through June 2014.

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  9. Preliminary Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in the Oil Reservoirs in Subei Basin%苏北盆地油田封存二氧化碳潜力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪传胜; 田蓉; 季峻峰; 孙蓓; 张婷; 胡高明

    2012-01-01

    The CO2 storage in oil reservoirs is one of the most effective ways of reducing the greenhouse gas emission, which is based on the mechanisms of structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, dissolution trapping and mineral trapping. The universal pyramid method is introduced to assess the CO2 storage capacity for the oil reservoirs. Subei basin has many oil reservoirs with low permeability and water content. Dongtai sag is belter than Yancheng-Funing sag on the CO2 storage potential. Gaoyou depression and Jinhu depression have the greatest potential of CO2 storage among the secondary geological units. A series of the small tectonic units in this area are more suitable for CO2 storage, and beneficial to the preservation of late stage. Subei basin has obviously vertical dichotomy on the sealing ability of CO2 storage. The lower cap rocks of upper Cretaceous system and Paleocene series have better sealing capabily than the upper cap rocks of the Eocene epoch. Based on analyzing the mechanism of CO2 storage in oil reservoirs and combining with geological and structural conditions of Subei basin, we estimated that the theoretical storage capacities of CO, is 1.5054 × 108 1 and the effective storage capacities of CO2 is 0.0828 × 108t ~ 0.4421 × 108 t, which shows the great potential of CO2 storage in Subei basin, Jiangsu Province.%油田二氧化碳封存是减少温室气体排放量最有效的途径之一,油藏中封存CO2主要有构造地层储存、束缚气储存、溶解储存和矿化储存等四种方式,CO2在油藏中的地质储存容量采用国际上通用的资源储量金字塔理论来进行潜力评价.本文通过分析油田CO2封存机理,结合江苏省苏北盆地的地质和构造条件,对苏北盆地油田进行CO2封存潜力研究.苏北盆地油田多为低渗透和含水油藏,在储存CO2的潜力上,东台坳陷优于盐阜坳陷,次级单元中又以高邮凹陷、金湖凹陷封存CO2潜力最大,一系列小型

  10. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  11. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  12. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  14. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  15. Modeling of Salinity Effects on Waterflooding of Petroleum Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem

    brine and the formation water that is initially in equilibrium with the reservoir rock. We consider a displacement process in one dimension with dissolution affecting both the porosity/permeability of the rock and the density of the brine. Extending previous studies, we account for the different...... that smart water flooding can improve the ultimate oil recovery both in carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. A number of different physicochemical mechanisms of action were proposed to explain the smart water effects, but none of them has commonly been accepted as a determining mechanism. Most...... several phenomena related to the smart water effects, such as mineral dissolution, adsorption of potential determining ions in carbonate rocks, and mechanisms that influence mobilization of the trapped oil and its transport. Dissolution of minerals occurs due to the different compositions of the injected...

  16. Brazilian savanna forest : conservation, medicinal reservoir and bioprospecting

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the Brazilian savanna forest from a Legal Reserve (LR) area from a perspective of conservation, reservoir of organic carbon and medicinal biomass for a prospective use of native medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological survey was carried out close to a community settled in the rural area in the south of Tocantins, being selected 9 of the most cited species (cajuí- Anacardium othonianum; inharé-Brosimum gaudichaudii; jatobá-Hymenaeae courbaril; j...

  17. Effect of diagenesis on compaction of reservoir rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Olgaard, D.; Cameron, S.; Dunsmuir, J.; Herhold, A.; King, H; Gooch, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting sediment porosity-depth trends and ultimately the quality of reservoir rocks requires an understanding of mechanical and chemical compaction mechanisms during diagenesis. In many siliciclastic sediments porosity versus depth profiles can be predicted from the sediment’s stress history. In carbonates such predictions are more difficult because chemical diagenesis is prevalent even within a few meters of the seafloor. We used a systematic laboratory approach to investigate th...

  18. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  19. CARBON SEQUESTRATION SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-07-24

    Over 160 acres of tree seedlings were planted during the last quarter. This quarter marked the beginning of the installation of new instrumentation and the inspection and calibration of previously installed recording devices. Sampling systems were initiated to quantify initial seedling success as well as height measurements. Nursery seedlings have been inoculated to produce mycorrhizal treated stock for 2004 spring plantings to determine the effects on carbon sequestration. All planting areas in western Kentucky have been sampled with the recording cone penetrometer and the nuclear density gauge to measure soil density.

  20. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  1. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water, formation of ...

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  3. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  4. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. During second quarter 1994, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, or tritium exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in approximately half of the downgradient wells at the MWMF. Consistent with historical trends, elevated constituent levels were found primarily in Aquifer Zone. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during second quarter 1994. Sixty-two of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 23 wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during second quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during first quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was not elevated in any well during first quarter 1994, was elevated in one well during second quarter. Copper, mercury, and nonvolatile beta were elevated during first quarter 1994 but not during second quarter.

  6. Review of the Proposed Quarterly Coal Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This Review of the Proposed Quarterly Coal Review is the second of two reports and contains the results of our analysis of issues regarding the publication of a new summary publication, the Quarterly Coal Review. The first report on the QCR was submitted to the Office of Energy Data Operations (OEDO) in January 1981 and included results of our analysis and recommendations concerning data availability and content organization. This report concentrates on data presentation and publication format for the proposed QCR. Comprised of two sections, the report addresses chapter and table formats and presents a detailed analysis of chapter content. The first section of this report, Chapter, Table and Graph Formats, consists of findings and recommendations on the ordering, titling, end notes and cosmetics of the tables proposed for the QCR. The next section, Detailed Analysis of Chapter Content, is the result of a more in-depth analysis of chapters in the QCR.

  7. A Notice Soliciting Contribution to Peace Quarterly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Dear readers at home and abroad:Peace quarterly in English is published by the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)since its founding in June 1985.Over the past 30 years,we have received kind support from all your readers in China and overseas.We wish to take this opportunity to express our appreciation to you all from the bottom of our hearts.

  8. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 26, Autumn 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    monocle visual dis- play in the Land Warrior helmet shows maps, data, position, manuals , and orders from head- quarters. Microtechnology makes possible a...Revolu- cionario Institucional (PRI) was in effect the Mexican political system for more than seven decades. Just as the end of the Cold War required a...authoritarian in the sense that one party, the Partido Revolu- cionario Institucional , has monopolized the national political life for six decades. It is

  9. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-30

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  10. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  11. LLE Review 83, Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2000, features an article by F. J. Marshall, T. Ohki, D. McInnis, Z. Ninkov, and J. Carbone, who detail the conversion of the OMEGA time-integrated x-ray diagnostics to electronic readout using direct-detection x-ray cameras [charge-injection devices (CID's)]. Pinhole and x-ray microscope images are shown along with inferred calibration measurements of the CID cameras. Currently, the same cameras are being used to obtain x-ray spectra in a TIM-based spectrometer, extending their use to all time-integrated imaging and spectroscopic x-ray instruments used on OMEGA. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) V. A. Smalyuk, B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer investigate the spatial structure of the temperature and density of target-shell plasmas at peak compression (stagnation). This is accomplished by examining the energy dependence of the x-ray emission using narrow-band x-ray filters and the known absorption properties of the shell dopant (Ti). (2) F. Sequin, C. K. Ll, D. G. Hicks, J. A. Frenje, K. M. Green, R. D. Petrasso, J. M. Soures, V. Yu. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, P. B. Radha, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. Roberts, C. Sorce, T. C. Sangster, M. D. Cable, S. Padalino, and K. Fletcher detail the physics and instrumentation used to obtain and interpret secondary D-{sup 3}He proton spectra from current gas-filled-target and future cryogenic-target experiments. Through a novel extension of existing charged-particle detection techniques with track detectors, the authors demonstrate the ability to obtain secondary proton spectra with increased sensitivity. (3) M. Guardelben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. Battaglia, and K. Marshall compare the utility of a novel liquid-crystal-based, point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) with the commercial standard phase-shifting interferometer and conclude that the LCPDI is a viable low-cost alternative. (4) A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R

  12. 南堡2号潜山碳酸盐岩储层叠前和叠后裂缝综合预测%Carbonate reservoir fracture prediction by using pre-stack and post-stack seismic techniques in Nanpu2 buried-hill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿福兰

    2013-01-01

    针对南堡2号潜山顶部奥陶系非均质碳酸盐岩储层,基于宽方位角采集的地震资料,结合已有钻探成果,开展了碳酸盐岩缝洞型储层的地震综合预测研究.在对地震资料进行相对保幅处理的基础上,通过构造精细解释落实潜山顶面层位和断裂格局;应用P波方位各向异性分析技术进行叠前裂缝预测,利用曲率属性技术进行叠后裂缝预测,再辅之以叠后衰减梯度属性检测溶蚀孔洞分布.通过叠前、叠后预测结果的对比分析,以及FMI成像测井解释结果和钻井实际生产效果的验证,证明了研究思路的正确性和所用预测方法的有效性.综合预测研究成果为圈定南堡2号潜山奥陶系储层裂缝发育的有利目标区提供了依据.%Based on wide-azimuth seismic data and drilling data,the seismic comprehensive prediction of Ordovician heterogeneous carbonate fracture-carst reservoir was conducted in the top of Nanpu2 buried-hill. On the basis of seismic data amplitude-preservation processing, the surface layer and fracture pattern of Nanpu2 buried-hill is identified by fine structure interpretation. Meanwhile, the P-wave azimuth anisotropy analysis technique is used to carry out pre-stack fracture prediction and curvature attribute is adopted to carry out post-stack fracture predictioa Moreover, post-stack attenuation gradient is utilized to detect the distribution of caves. By comparing the pre-stack and post-stack prediction results,combined with FM1 imaging logging interpretation result and drilling data, we proved the correctness of our research clue and the effectiveness of the prediction methods. The comprehensive prediction results provide a basis for identifying the potential target area of Ordovician carbonate reservoir in the Nanpu2 buried-hill.

  13. 川东北碳酸岩储层测井资料的几点认识%A few understanding about the well logging data of carbonate rock reservoir in Northeast Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煊

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the traditional sand/shale formation, the formation in Northeast Sichuan is characterized by high resistivity ,low sonic differential time (SDT) and low natural gamma ray (GR). The quality of well log is influenced by many factors, which result in the complexity in reservoir division and fluid property interpretation. On the basis of obser- vation data, the influencing factors of observed values and differences of the well log were analyzed one by one. These influ- encing factors are consist of borehole size, fissure, lithological character, mud filtrate, formation water resistivity, invasion depth, and so on. In addition, the geological application of the crossed dipoles is synthetically expounded.%与传统砂泥岩地层相比,川东北地区地层常以高电阻率、低声波时差、低自然伽玛为特征。影响测井曲线质量的因素很多,由此造成了储层划分和流体性质解释的难度。结合实测资料,对影响曲线测量值和差异的各种因素逐一进行了分析,这些影响因素包括井眼大小、裂缝、岩性、泥浆滤液和地层水电阻率、侵入深度等。并对交叉偶极子的地质应用进行了综合阐述。

  14. 20 CFR 404.145 - When you acquire a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When you acquire a quarter of coverage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.145 When you acquire a quarter of coverage. If we credit you with a quarter of coverage (QC) for a calendar...

  15. 20 CFR 404.140 - What is a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a quarter of coverage. 404.140... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.140 What is a quarter of coverage. (a) General. A quarter of coverage (QC) is the basic unit of social...

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 1st Quarter FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (27 from the 1St Qtr FY-15 and 46 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 38 other issue reports (including nine not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions reported during the1st Qtr FY-15) identified at INL during the past 12 months.

  17. ``Stacked reservoirs`` in the Zechstein 2 carbonate (Ca2): inversion tectonics in the pre-Zechstein subdivision-saline base of the Lower Saxony basin (Germany); ``Stacked Reservoirs`` im Zechstein 2 Karbonat (Ca2): Inversionstektonik im prae-Zechstein-salinaren Sockel des Niedersaechsischen Beckens (NW-Deutschland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbauch, K.; Brauckmann, F.; Schaefer, H.G.; Utermoehlen, S. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This article looks at areas in the Lower Saxony basis of North-West Germany where the carbonate of the 2nd Zechstein subdivision cycle (Ca2) was tectonically removed from its stratigraphic compound and is found in several stacks elsewhere. Modern 3D seismology and deep drillings were evaluated and tectonic models were developed which could be compared with examples from other saline provinces. This revealed new aspects of exploration for sour natural gas in the Zechstein subdivision (orig.). [Deutsch] Der Artikel behandelt Bereiche innerhalb des Niedersaechsischen Beckens von Nordwestdeutschland, wo das Karbonat des 2. Zechstein-Zyklus (Ca2) tektonisch aus seinem stratigraphischen Verband geloest wurde und an anderer Stelle mehrfach uebereinander gestapelt anzutreffen ist. Hierzu wurden moderne 3D Seismik sowie Tiefbohrungen ausgewertet und tektonische Modelle entwickelt, die mit Beispielen aus anderen Salinarprovinzen verglichen wurden. Hinsichtlich der Exploration auf Sauergas im Zechstein ergeben sich daraus neue Aspekte und Moeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  18. Global-scale analysis of river flow alterations due to water withdrawals and reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    Global-scale information on natural river flows and anthropogenic river flow alterations is required to identify areas where aqueous ecosystems are expected to be strongly degraded. Such information can support the identification of environmental flow guidelines and a sustainable water management that balances the water demands of humans and ecosystems. This study presents the first global assessment of the anthropogenic alteration of river flow regimes, in particular of flow variability, by water withdrawals and dams/reservoirs. Six ecologically relevant flow indicators were quantified using an improved version of the global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP simulated, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, river discharge as affected by human water withdrawals and dams around the year 2000, as well as naturalized discharge without this type of human interference. Compared to naturalized conditions, long-term average global discharge into oceans and internal sinks has decreased by 2.7% due to water withdrawals, and by 0.8% due to dams. Mainly due to irrigation, long-term average river discharge and statistical low flow Q90 (monthly river discharge that is exceeded in 9 out of 10 months) have decreased by more than 10% on one sixth and one quarter of the global land area (excluding Antarctica and Greenland), respectively. Q90 has increased significantly on only 5% of the land area, downstream of reservoirs. Due to both water withdrawals and reservoirs, seasonal flow amplitude has decreased significantly on one sixth of the land area, while interannual variability has increased on one quarter of the land area mainly due to irrigation. It has decreased on only 8% of the land area, in areas downstream of reservoirs where consumptive water use is low. The impact of reservoirs is likely underestimated by our study as small reservoirs are not taken into account. Areas most affected by anthropogenic river flow alterations are the Western and Central USA, Mexico, the

  19. Global-scale analysis of river flow alterations due to water withdrawals and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale information on natural river flows and anthropogenic river flow alterations is required to identify areas where aqueous ecosystems are expected to be strongly degraded. Such information can support the identification of environmental flow guidelines and a sustainable water management that balances the water demands of humans and ecosystems. This study presents the first global assessment of the anthropogenic alteration of river flow regimes, in particular of flow variability, by water withdrawals and dams/reservoirs. Six ecologically relevant flow indicators were quantified using an improved version of the global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP simulated, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, river discharge as affected by human water withdrawals and dams around the year 2000, as well as naturalized discharge without this type of human interference. Compared to naturalized conditions, long-term average global discharge into oceans and internal sinks has decreased by 2.7% due to water withdrawals, and by 0.8% due to dams. Mainly due to irrigation, long-term average river discharge and statistical low flow Q90 (monthly river discharge that is exceeded in 9 out of 10 months have decreased by more than 10% on one sixth and one quarter of the global land area (excluding Antarctica and Greenland, respectively. Q90 has increased significantly on only 5% of the land area, downstream of reservoirs. Due to both water withdrawals and reservoirs, seasonal flow amplitude has decreased significantly on one sixth of the land area, while interannual variability has increased on one quarter of the land area mainly due to irrigation. It has decreased on only 8% of the land area, in areas downstream of reservoirs where consumptive water use is low. The impact of reservoirs is likely underestimated by our study as small reservoirs are not taken into account. Areas most affected by anthropogenic river flow

  20. Quarterly coal report July--September 1995, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-16

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the second quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  1. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  2. Variations of Inorganic Carbon and Its Impact Factors in Surface-Layer Waters in a Groundwater-Fed Reservoir in Karst Area, SW China%岩溶区地下水补给型水库表层无机碳时空变化特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建鸿; 潘谋成; 蒲俊兵; 袁道先; 刘文; 肖琼; 于奭; 张陶; 莫雪; 孙平安

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the inorganic carbon cycle of the groundwater-fed reservoir in karst area, Dalongdong Reservoir, which is located at Shanglin County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, was investigated from 12th to 20th July, 2014. Concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), δ13C of DIC (δ13CDIC ), partial CO2 pressure (pCO2 ) and CO2 flux across water-air interface were studied by observation in situ and high-resolution diel monitoring. Results show that: ① DIC concentration and water pCO2 increased from upstream area to downstream area [DIC(average) : from 122. 88 to 172. 02 mg·L - 1 , pCO2 (average) : from 637. 91 × 10 - 6 to 1 399. 97 × 10 - 6 ], while δ13CDIC decreased from upstream area to downstream area [ δ13CDIC(average) : from - 4. 34‰ to- 6. 97‰]in the reservoir. ② CO2 efflux across water-air interface varied from 7. 11 to 335. 54 mg·(m2·h) - 1 with mean of 125. 03 mg·(m2·h) - 1 in Dalongdong reservoir surface-layer waters, which was the source of atmospheric CO2 . CO2 effluxes across water-air interface in upstream area [mean 131. 73 mg·(m2·h) - 1 ] and downstream area [mean 170. 25 mg·(m2·h) - 1 ] were higher than that in middle area [ mean 116. 05 mg·(m2·h) - 1 ] in the reservoir. ③ Water pCO2 and CO2 efflux across water-air interface showed similar characteristics of diel variations, which decreased in daylight and increased in night and showed a negative correlation with chlorophyll a (Chla). Possible reasons of research results are found as follows: ① DIC concentration, water pCO2 and δ13CDIC are influenced by biomass of phytoplankton, turbidity, conductivity, the depth of water and transparency, while CO2 efflux across water-air interface is controlled by both of biomass of phytoplankton and wind speed. ② Photosynthesis, respiration and vertical motion of phytoplankton possibly affect diel variations of DIC cycle in the groundwater-fed reservoir in karst area.%为更深入地认识岩溶区地

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Event Performance Analysis FY 2013 4th Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2013-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable for the previous twelve months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) during the period of October 2012 through September 2013.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 2nd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-06-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at INL from January 2014 through March 2014.

  5. Logging Geology Study of the Caverned Paleokarst Reservoir Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXinsong; YangLei; PanWenqing; GuQiaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many carbonate rock oilfields such as Lunnan and Tahe have been found in the Tarim Basin, and the main reservoir space of the stable high yield wells in these oilfields consists mainly of the caverns formed by the paleo-karstification and the dissolution pores and fractures connected with them. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict effectively the distribution of the cavern reservoir because of its extremely serious heterogeneity. In this paper, a case study of the Lunxi Oilfield in the north uplift of the Tarim Basin is conducted to introduce the logging geology method for predicting the distribution of the caverned paleokarst, reservoir. By means of building up the logging recognition style of different caverns and differentiating and correlating the karst zones with logging curves, and through an analysis of the paleokarst topography background, the favorable karst zones and distribution areas of the high quality cavern reservoir have been located, which lays a new basis for further exploration in this area.

  6. Strategic Studies Quarterly, Volume 4, Number 3, Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    1948-12 May 1949)—perhaps the best- known relief operation in American history—the Air Force provided vital S QUARTER! > • FAU 2010 \\_ •’ I food...and personnel to begin performing at least the first two functions immediately. [28] STRATEGIC STUDIES QUARTERLY • FAU 2010 Guidelines for Nation...assistance, as measured as a share of GDP, than more-settled societies. Whereas most STRATEGIC STUDIES QUARTERLY • FAU 2010 [35] James F. Dobbins

  7. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  8. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  9. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  10. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  11. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....