WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbonate reservoir quarterly

  1. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions: Quarterly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Shale is characterized by the predominant presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores. The behavior of fluids in those pores directly controls shale gas storage and release in shale matrix and ultimately the wellbore production in unconventional reservoirs. Recently, it has been recognized that a fluid confined in nanopores can behave dramatically differently from the corresponding bulk phase due to nanopore confinement (Wang, 2014). CO2 and H2O, either preexisting or introduced, are two major components that coexist with shale gas (predominately CH4) during hydrofracturing and gas extraction. Note that liquid or supercritical CO2 has been suggested as an alternative fluid for subsurface fracturing such that CO2 enhanced gas recovery can also serve as a CO2 sequestration process. Limited data indicate that CO2 may preferentially adsorb in nanopores (particularly those in kerogen) and therefore displace CH4 in shale. Similarly, the presence of water moisture seems able to displace or trap CH4 in shale matrix. Therefore, fundamental understanding of CH4-CO2-H2O behavior and their interactions in shale nanopores is of great importance for gas production and the related CO2 sequestration. This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  2. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  3. Smart waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, A.

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior in porous media. The main conclusion of most previous studies was that it is the rock wettability alteration towards more water wetting condition that helps improving the oil recovery. In the first step of this project, we focused on verifying this conclusion. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using Stevens Klint outcrop chalk core plugs with brines without sulfate, as well as brines containing sulfate in different concentrations. The effects of temperature, injection rate, crude oil composition and different sulfate concentrations on the total oil recovery and the recovery rate were investigated. Experimental results clearly indicate improvement of the oil recovery without wettability alteration. At the second step of this project, we studied crude oil/brine interactions under different temperatures, pressures and salinity conditions in order to understand mechanisms behind the high salinity waterflooding. Our results show, in particular that sulfate ions may help decreasing the crude oil viscosity or formation of, seemingly, an emulsion phase between sulfate-enriched brine and oil at high temperature and pressure. Experimental results indicate that crude oils interact differently with the same brine solutions regarding phase behavior and viscosity measurements. This difference is attributed to the difference in composition of the different crude oils. More experiments

  4. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  5. Analysis and application of classification methods of complex carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Ping, Haitao; Wei, Dan; Liu, Xiaomei

    2018-06-01

    There are abundant carbonate reservoirs from the Cenozoic to Mesozoic era in the Middle East. Due to variation in sedimentary environment and diagenetic process of carbonate reservoirs, several porosity types coexist in carbonate reservoirs. As a result, because of the complex lithologies and pore types as well as the impact of microfractures, the pore structure is very complicated. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately calculate the reservoir parameters. In order to accurately evaluate carbonate reservoirs, based on the pore structure evaluation of carbonate reservoirs, the classification methods of carbonate reservoirs are analyzed based on capillary pressure curves and flow units. Based on the capillary pressure curves, although the carbonate reservoirs can be classified, the relationship between porosity and permeability after classification is not ideal. On the basis of the flow units, the high-precision functional relationship between porosity and permeability after classification can be established. Therefore, the carbonate reservoirs can be quantitatively evaluated based on the classification of flow units. In the dolomite reservoirs, the average absolute error of calculated permeability decreases from 15.13 to 7.44 mD. Similarly, the average absolute error of calculated permeability of limestone reservoirs is reduced from 20.33 to 7.37 mD. Only by accurately characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types, reservoir parameters could be calculated accurately. Therefore, characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types are very important to accurate evaluation of complex carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East.

  6. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    brine solutions regarding phase behavior and viscosity measurements. This difference is attributed to the difference in composition of the different crude oils. More experiments are carried out in order to understand mechanisms of the crude oil viscosity reduction and emulsion formation. We observed...... with and without aging. The total oil recovery, recovery rate and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injected fluids under different temperatures and wettability conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the oil recovery mechanism under high salinity seawater flooding...... phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs, besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration. * Crude oil/brine interaction study suggests that viscosity reduction for crude oil in contact with brine...

  7. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  8. quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there many words combining both space and time? A quarter is one of such rare words: it means both a part of the city space and a period of the year. A regular city has parts bordered by four streets. For example, Chita is a city with an absolutely orthogonal historical center. This Utopian city was designed by Decembrists in the depth of Siberian ore-mines (120. The 130 Quarter in Irkutsk is irregular from its inception because of its triangular form. Located between two roads, the forked quarter was initially bordered by flows along the west-east axis – the main direction of the country. That is why it appreciated the gift for the 350 anniversary of its transit existence – a promenade for an unhurried flow of pedestrians. The quarter manages this flow quite well, while overcoming the difficulties of new existence and gathering myths (102. Arousing many expectations, the “Irkutsk’s Quarters” project continues the theme that was begun by the 130 Quarter and involved regeneration, revival and search for Genius Loci and the key to each single quarter (74. Beaded on the trading axis, these shabby and unfriendly quarters full of rubbish should be transformed for the good of inhabitants, guests and the small business. The triptych by Lidin, Rappaport and Nevlyutov is about happiness of urbanship and cities for people, too (58. The City Community Forum was also devoted to the urban theme (114. Going through the last quarter of the year, we hope that Irkutsk will keep to the right policy, so that in the near future the wooden downtown quarters will become its pride, and the design, construction and investment complexes will join in desire to increase the number of comfortable and lively quarters in our city. The Baikal Beam will get one more landmark: the Smart School (22 for Irkutsk’s children, including orphans, will be built in several years on the bank of Chertugeevsky Bay.

  9. Reservoirs as hotspots of fluvial carbon cycling in peatland catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, A G; Allott, T E H; Boult, S; Evans, M G

    2017-02-15

    Inland water bodies are recognised as dynamic sites of carbon processing, and lakes and reservoirs draining peatland soils are particularly important, due to the potential for high carbon inputs combined with long water residence times. A carbon budget is presented here for a water supply reservoir (catchment area~9km 2 ) draining an area of heavily eroded upland peat in the South Pennines, UK. It encompasses a two year dataset and quantifies reservoir dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and aqueous carbon dioxide (CO 2 (aq)) inputs and outputs. The budget shows the reservoir to be a hotspot of fluvial carbon cycling, as with high levels of POC influx it acts as a net sink of fluvial carbon and has the potential for significant gaseous carbon export. The reservoir alternates between acting as a producer and consumer of DOC (a pattern linked to rainfall and temperature) which provides evidence for transformations between different carbon species. In particular, the budget data accompanied by 14 C (radiocarbon) analyses provide evidence that POC-DOC transformations are a key process, occurring at rates which could represent at least ~10% of the fluvial carbon sink. To enable informed catchment management further research is needed to produce carbon cycle models more applicable to these environments, and on the implications of high POC levels for DOC composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995. 2nd Quarter, FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-04-05

    This report describes the development of a Spatial Database Manager (SDBM) shell/interface which will provide information to users on how to collect, store, analyze, interpret, visualize and present data in an integrated reservoir characterization study. SDBM will provide access to various geologic, reservoir visual data via a well log interpretation program (Crocker Petrolog), mapping and cross section software ( the GeoGraphix Exploration System Workbench) and a volume visualization application. Data tables for geochemical and petrographic data, well logs, well header information, well production data, formation tops, and fault trace data have been completed. Spectral mineral data are currently being collected which will ultimately be used for identification of mineral assemblages. The geochemical program CHILLER is being used to model fluid-rock interactions and possibly porosity predictions.

  11. Relative influence of deposition and diagenesis on carbonate reservoir layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Emmanuelle [Total E and P, Courbevoie (France); Javaux, Catherine [Total E and P, Pointe Noire (Congo)

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  12. Carbonate reservoir characterization with lithofacies clustering and porosity prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Moqbel, Abdulrahman; Wang, Yanghua

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives in reservoir characterization is to quantitatively or semi-quantitatively map the spatial distribution of its heterogeneity and related properties. With the availability of 3D seismic data, artificial neural networks are capable of discovering the nonlinear relationship between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters. For a target carbonate reservoir, we adopt a two-stage approach to conduct characterization. First, we use an unsupervised neural network, the self-organizing map method, to classify the reservoir lithofacies. Then we apply a supervised neural network, the back-propagation algorithm, to quantitatively predict the porosity of the carbonate reservoir. Based on porosity maps at different time levels, we interpret the target reservoir vertically related to three depositional phases corresponding to, respectively, a lowstand system tract before sea water immersion, a highstand system tract when water covers organic deposits and a transition zone for the sea level falling. The highstand system is the most prospective zone, given the organic content deposited during this stage. The transition zone is also another prospective feature in the carbonate depositional system due to local build-ups

  13. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliakbardoust, E; Rahimpour-Bonab, H

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  14. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1996-04-30

    On February 18, 1992, Louisiana State University with two technical subcontractors, BDM, Inc. and ICF, Inc., began a research program to estimate the potential oil and gas reserve additions that could result from the application of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery technologies and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones in the Gulf of Mexico oil fields that are related to piercement salt domes. This project is a one year continuation of this research and will continue work in reservoir description, extraction processes, and technology transfer. Detailed data will be collected for two previously studies reservoirs: a South Marsh Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and one additional Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil. Additional reservoirs identified during the project will also be studied if possible. Data collected will include reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data will be used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation will provide additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and water compatibility. Geological investigations will be conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. Research on advanced reservoir simulation will also be conducted. This report describes a review of fine-grained submarine fans and turbidite systems.

  15. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs

  16. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Quarterly report, September 25--December 24, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1994-01-19

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Results to date are summarized.

  17. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, C.W. Van; Thompson, R.S.

    1995-10-27

    This United States Department of Energy (DOE) research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field.

  18. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  19. Matrix acidification in carbonate reservoirs; Acidificacoes matriciais em reservatorios carbonaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcio de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are characterized by great diversity of its properties, including permeability and porosity. When submitted to matrix acidification, if no effort is employed, acid will tend to consume carbonates where permeability and porosity are higher, further increasing conductivity of these sites and also increasing permeability and porosity contrast existing before acid effects on formation. That would give limited production as result of small effective producer zone extent, with probable underutilization of potential reservoirs productivity. To overcome this effect and to achieve greater coverage of treatments, divergence techniques should be applied, including associations of them. This paper presents divergence techniques performed in matrix acidification of Campos and Espirito Santo basins wells, which represent great structural diversity and, as consequence, a significant range of situations. Formations tests results are analyzed to verify diversion systems effectiveness, and how they contribute to the growth of productive potential. (author)

  20. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  1. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Archie R.

    1996-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  2. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1995-07-24

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Technical progress is described for the following tasks: physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; mechanisms of in situ gelation; and mathematical modelling of the gel systems.

  3. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    In the face of the environmental challenges presented by the acceleration of global warming, carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, may provide a vital option to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, while meeting the world's energy demands. To operate on a global scale, carbon sequestration would require thousands of geologic repositories that could accommodate billions of tons of carbon dioxide per year. In order to reach such capacity, various types of geologic reservoirs should be considered, including unconventional reservoirs such as volcanic rocks, fractured formations, and moderate-permeability aquifers. Unconventional reservoirs, however, are characterized by complex pore structure, high heterogeneity, and intricate feedbacks between physical, chemical and mechanical processes, and their capacity to securely store carbon emissions needs to be confirmed. In this dissertation, I present my contribution toward the understanding of geophysical, geochemical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of continental basalts and fractured sedimentary formations in the context of their carbon storage capacity. The data come from two characterization projects, in the Columbia River Flood Basalt in Washington and the Newark Rift Basin in New York, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration. My work focuses on in situ analysis using borehole geophysical measurements that allow for detailed characterization of formation properties on the reservoir scale and under nearly unaltered subsurface conditions. The immobilization of injected CO2 by mineralization in basaltic rocks offers a critical advantage over sedimentary reservoirs for long-term CO2 storage. Continental flood basalts, such as the Columbia River Basalt Group, possess a suitable structure for CO2 storage, with extensive reservoirs in the interflow zones separated by massive impermeable

  4. Carbon Sequestration in a Large Hydroelectric Reservoir: An Integrative Seismic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendonca, R.; Kosten, S.; Sobek, S.; Cole, J.J.; Bastos, A.C.; Albuquerque, A.L.; Cardoso, S.J.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial reservoirs likely accumulate more carbon than natural lakes due to their unusually high sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, the actual magnitude of carbon accumulating in reservoirs is poorly known due to a lack of whole-system studies of carbon burial. We determined the organic carbon

  5. Thermochemical sulphate reduction can improve carbonate petroleum reservoir quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Yang, Changbing

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the creation of secondary pore spaces in petroleum reservoirs has increased because of a need to understand deeper and more complex reservoirs. The creation of new secondary porosity that enhances overall reservoir quality in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs is controversial and some recent studies have concluded it is not an important phenomenon. Here we present petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusion data, and fluid-rock interaction reaction modeling results from Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China, core samples and explore the relative importance of secondary porosity due to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) during deep burial diagenesis. We find that new secondary pores result from the dissolution of anhydrite and possibly from dissolution of the matrix dolomite. Assuming porosity before TSR was 16% and the percentage of anhydrite was 6%, modelling shows that, due to TSR, 1.6% additional porosity was created that led to permeability increasing from 110 mD (range 72-168 mD within a 95% confidence interval) to 264 mD (range 162-432 mD within a 95% confidence interval). Secondary porosity results from the density differences between reactant anhydrite and product calcite, the addition of new water during TSR, and the generation of acidity during the reaction of new H2S with the siderite component in pre-existing dolomite in the reservoir. Fluid pressure was high during TSR, and approached lithostatic pressure in some samples; this transient overpressure may have led to the maintenance of porosity due to the inhibition of compactional processes. An additional 1.6% porosity is significant for reserve calculations, especially considering that it occurs in conjunction with elevated permeability that results in faster flow rates to the production wells.

  6. Using reservoir engineering data to solve geological ambiguities : a case study of one of the Iranian carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kord, S. [National Iranian South Oil Co. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    A fractured carbonate reservoir in southwest Iran was studied with reference to reserve estimation, risk analysis, material balance and recovery factor. The 40 km long and 4 km wide reservoir consists of 2 parts with crest depths of 3780 and 3749 mss respectively. The eastern part is smaller and more productive than the western part which has high water saturation and absolutely no production. Economic production from the reservoir began in 1977. By 2004, the cumulative production had reached 12.064 MMSTB. Of the 6 wells drilled, only 2 wells in the eastern part are productive. This study addressed the main uncertainty of whether the 2 parts of the reservoir are sealed or not. The reservoir is under-saturated but the current pressure is near saturation pressure. The reservoir is divided into the following 4 zones: zones 1 and 2 are productive and consist mainly of carbonate rocks; zone 3 has thin beds of sand and shale; and, zone 4 consists of layers of carbonate, shale, marn, and dolomite. Although there are no faults, mud loss suggests that the reservoir has hairline fractures. Oil in place and reserves were estimated for both parts based on calculated reservoir engineering parameters. Material balance calculations were then performed to analyze and simulate the reservoir. The communication between the 2 parts of the reservoir were examined according to core analysis, rock type, fluid characterization, pressure analysis, water-oil contacts, production history and petrophysical evaluations. The porosity was found to be the same in both parts, but the water saturation and net to gross ratios were different between the eastern and western parts. The petrophysical evaluation revealed that there is no communication between the two parts of the reservoir. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 appendices.

  7. A unique research partnership investigating the fundamental principles of subsurface carbon dioxide behaviour and carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, I.; Blunt, M. J.; Maitland, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs hold the majority of CO2 sequestration potential, however, they are also more complicated than sandstone reservoirs in terms of heterogeneity and potential reactivity impact on operations. There are both significant carbonate reservoir CO2 sinks and CO2 point sources around Qatar making carbon capture and storage a potential decarbonisation pathway. The Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) was formed in 2009 to address the gaps in our current knowledge of both local carbonate reservoir platforms and how CO2 would behave post sequestration. Our work spans 35 graduated PhD students, 10 still studying, 29 post-doctoral researchers, 18 faculty members all aided by 5 support staff and more than 100 MSc and summer students from 30 different countries, the centre has published over 150 papers in over 40 different journals. Our research is based within the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Earth Science and Engineering. Our team annually attends over 20 conferences world-wide to disseminate our findings and activity engage in outreach events (UNFCCC, science festivals, social media, science bars, school visits, etc.). QCCSRC is a research framework agreement over 10 years and valued at $70 million between Qatar Petroleum, Shell, the Qatar Science and Technology Park and Imperial College London bringing together each organisation's unique capabilities. This novel quadruple helix management structure is responsible for the largest single industrially funded research programme conducted at Imperial College London. Our research has focused on data to create and/or improve predictive models for CO2 storage in carbonate reservoirs. Our three broad thematic areas include: Rocks : Rock-fluid interactions : Fluid-fluid interactions and are supported by 5 laboratories. Overall this unique programme is an example of how to approach grand challenges in the energy-carbon dilemma through long-term and multidisciplinary

  8. Lithology-dependent In Situ Stress in Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C. N.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Characterization of in situ stress state for various geomechanical aspects in petroleum development may be particularly difficult in carbonate reservoirs in which rock properties are generally heterogeneous. We demonstrate that the variation of in situ stress in highly heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs is closely related to the heterogeneity in rock mechanical property. The carbonate reservoir studied consists of numerous sequential layers gently folded, exhibiting wide ranges of porosity (0.01 - 0.29) and Young's modulus (25 - 85 GPa) depending on lithology. Wellbore breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DITFs) observed in the image logs obtained from several wells indicate that the in situ state of stress orientation changes dramatically with depth and location. Even in a wellbore, the azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress changes by as much as 60° within a depth interval of 500 m. This dramatic change in stress orientation is inferred to be due to the contrast in elastic properties between different rock layers which are bent by folding in the reservoir. The horizontal principal stress magnitudes are constrained by back-calculating stress conditions necessary to induce the observed wellbore failures using breakout width and the presence of DITFs. The horizontal stresses vary widely, which cannot be represented by a constant stress gradient with depth. The horizontal principal stress gradient increases with Young's modulus of layer monotonically, indicating that a stiffer layer conveys a higher horizontal stress. This phenomenon can be simulated using a numerical modelling, in which the horizontal stress magnitudes depend on stiffness of individual layers although the applied far-field stress conditions are constant. The numerical results also suggest that the stress concentration at the wellbore wall is essentially higher in a stiffer layer, promoting the possibility of wellbore breakout formation. These results are in agreement with our

  9. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2000-05-01

    Sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, is produced in large amounts from many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates. In addition to creating problems in production lines, the precipitation of elemental sulfur in vicinity of the wellbore is often reported to cause wellbore damage. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in gas reservoirs, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This paper presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. Two separate sets of experiments, one for a gas phase system and another for a crude oil system, were conducted to investigate the deposition of elemental sulfur in (linear) carbonate cores. The gas flow tests were conducted with elemental sulfur being carried with nitrogen through limestone cores. Changes in gas flow rate were monitored while the injection pressure was held constant. A series of experiments generated valuable data for plugging with elemental sulfur. X-ray diffraction tests provided evidence of sulfur deposition along the cores. The oil flow tests were carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate core. The crude oil was de-asphalted before conducting these tests in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in a phenomenological model that was incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. The data for the numerical model were obtained from both test tube and oil flow experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results)

  10. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  11. Carbon emission as a function of energy generation in hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazilian dry tropical biome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometto, Jean P.; Cimbleris, André C.P.; Santos, Marco A. dos; Rosa, Luiz P.; Abe, Donato; Tundisi, José G.; Stech, José L.; Barros, Nathan; Roland, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    Most energy generation globally is fueled by coal and oil, raising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroelectric reservoirs are anthropogenic aquatic systems that occur across a wide geographical extent, and, in addition to their importance for energy production, they have the potential to release two important greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide and methane. We report results from an extensive study of eight hydroelectric reservoirs located in central and southeastern tropical Brazil. In the Brazilian dry tropical biome reservoirs, emissions (in tons of CO 2 Eq. per MW h) varied from 0.01 to 0.55, and decreased with reservoir age. Total emissions were higher in the reservoir lake when compared to the river downstream the dam; however, emissions per unit area, in the first kilometer of the river after the dam, were higher than that in the reservoir. The results showed, despite higher carbon emissions per energy production in the youngest reservoirs, lower emission from hydroelectric reservoirs from the studied region in relation to thermo electrical supply, fueled by coal or fossil fuel. The ratio emission of GHG per MWh produced is an important parameter in evaluating the service provided by hydroelectric reservoir and for energy planning policies. - Highlights: ► Hydroelectric reservoirs construction is growing worldwide. ► The effect of hydropower reservoir in the carbon cycle is dependent on environment characteristics. ► Carbon emissions per energy production are higher in the youngest tropical savannah reservoirs. ► Methane emissions decrease with reservoir age in tropical savannah reservoirs. ► In general, the effect of hydropower in the carbon cycle is lower than other energy sources

  12. Microbial potential for carbon and nutrient cycling in a geogenic supercritical carbon dioxide reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam J E; Tan, BoonFei; Thompson, Janelle R

    2017-06-01

    Microorganisms catalyze carbon cycling and biogeochemical reactions in the deep subsurface and thus may be expected to influence the fate of injected supercritical (sc) CO 2 following geological carbon sequestration (GCS). We hypothesized that natural subsurface scCO 2 reservoirs, which serve as analogs for the long-term fate of sequestered scCO 2 , harbor a 'deep carbonated biosphere' with carbon cycling potential. We sampled subsurface fluids from scCO 2 -water separators at a natural scCO 2 reservoir at McElmo Dome, Colorado for analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity and metagenome content. Sequence annotations indicated dominance of Sulfurospirillum, Rhizobium, Desulfovibrio and four members of the Clostridiales family. Genomes extracted from metagenomes using homology and compositional approaches revealed diverse mechanisms for growth and nutrient cycling, including pathways for CO 2 and N 2 fixation, anaerobic respiration, sulfur oxidation, fermentation and potential for metabolic syntrophy. Differences in biogeochemical potential between two production well communities were consistent with differences in fluid chemical profiles, suggesting a potential link between microbial activity and geochemistry. The existence of a microbial ecosystem associated with the McElmo Dome scCO 2 reservoir indicates that potential impacts of the deep biosphere on CO 2 fate and transport should be taken into consideration as a component of GCS planning and modelling. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Numerical simulation of carbon dioxide effects in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, S.L.; Iglesias, E.R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    We developed and coded a new equation of state (EOS) for water-carbon dioxide mixtures and coupled it to the TOUGH numerical simulator. This EOS is valid up to 350{degrees}C and 500 bar. Unlike previous thermodynamical models, it rigorously considers the non-ideal behavior of both components in the gaseous mixture and formally includes the effect of the compressibility of the liquid phase. We refer to the coupling of this EOS with TOUGH as TOUGH-DIOX. To complement this enhancement of TOUGH, we added indexed output files for easy selection and interpretation of results. We validated TOUGH-DIOX against published results. Furthermore we used TOUGH-DIOX to explore and compare mass and energy inflow performance relationships of geothermal wells with/without carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Our results include the effects of a broad range of fluid and formation properties, initial conditions and history of reservoir production. This work contributes with generalized dimensionless inflow performance relationships appropriate for geothermal use.

  14. Post waterflood CO2 miscible flood in light oil fluvial - dominated deltaic reservoirs. Technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 30, 1994. 1st Quarter, fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-15

    Production is averaging about 450 BOPD for the quarter. The fluctuation was primarily due to a temporary shutdown of CO{sub 2} delivery and maturing of the first WAG cycle. CO{sub 2} and water injection were reversed again in order to optimize changing yields and water cuts in the producing wells. Measured BHP was close to the anticipated value. A limited CO{sub 2} volume of 120 MMCF was injected to stimulate well Kuhn No. 6 to test the Huff-Puff process, since the well did not respond to CO{sub 2} injection from the main reservoir. The well will be placed on February 1, 1995. Total CO{sub 2} injection averaged this quarter about 8.8 MMCFD, including 3.6 MMCFD purchased CO{sub 2} from Cardox. The stratigraphy of the sand deposits is also discussed.

  15. Changes in the contents of strontium, barium, and lead in scales of bream Abramis brama from the Mozhaisk Reservoir over a quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, E A; Pelgunova, L A; Sokolova, E L; Skomorokhov, M O; Demidova, T B; Golubtsov, A S

    2016-03-01

    The heavy metal contents in the scales of bream (Abramis brama) from the Mozhaisk Reservoir collected in the second half of the 1980s were compared to the current values. The concentrations of three out of the seven elements studied in the bream scales have changed severalfold during the past quarter century: that of strontium has decreased, and those of barium and lead have increased. Short-term variations of heavy metal contents have proved to be smaller than the observed long-term differences. There is grounds to believe that these long-term differences adequately reflect the changes that have occurred in the water body.

  16. Forming mechanism of the Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Fu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin are important oil and gas exploration targets in the basin, but their dissolution mechanisms are in controversy. In this paper, based on the integrated study of sedimentation, sequence and reservoir, together with microscopic analysis and macroscopic seismic data analysis, the carbonate karst reservoirs in the study area were divided into three types: dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoir, pore-cavity dolomite reservoir and fracture-cavity siliceous reservoir, and their forming mechanisms were discussed respectively. Some findings were obtained. First, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs are distributed in the upper Yingshan Fm and Yijianfang Fm of the Ordovician vertically, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs are mainly developed in the Penglai Fm and lower Yingshan Fm of the Ordovician with great thickness. Second, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs were formed by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary (lowstand tract, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs were formed by deep burial dolomitization controlled by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary, both of which are distributed in the highstand tract below the third-order sequence boundary. Third, siliceous reservoirs are developed under the control of faulting, as a result of reworking of deep hydrothermal fluids along faults to the limestone, and the siliceous reservoirs and their hydrothermal solution fracture-cavity systems are distributed near faults. It is further predicted that, in addition to the three types of reservoir above, platform-margin reef-flat reservoirs are developed in the Ordovician on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin.

  17. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  18. Methane production by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus to recover energy from carbon dioxide sequestered in geological reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sakuma, Takahiro; Nakata, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Hajime; Endo, Keita; Sato, Kozo

    2010-07-01

    To recover energy from carbon dioxide sequestered in geological reservoirs, the geochemical effects of acidic and substrate- and nutrient-limiting conditions on methane production by the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were investigated in a simulated deep saline aquifer environment using formation water media retrieved from petroleum reservoirs. 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai; Yan, Mi; Allen, Rebecca; Salama, Amgad; Lu, Ligang; Jordan, Kirk E.; Sun, Shuyu; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems

  20. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Low salinity water flooding is well studied for sandstone reservoirs, both laboratory and field tests have showed improvement in the oil recovery in many cases. Up to very recently, the low salinity effect has been indeterminated for carbonates. Most recently, Saudi Aramco reported that substantial...... additional oil recovery can be achieved when successively flooding composite carbonate core plugs with various diluted versions of seawater. The experimental data on carbonates is very limited, so more data and better understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed to utilize this method for carbonate...... reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil...

  1. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  2. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Quarterly progress report, April 1 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1997-03-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hard{close_quotes} data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. It involves significant amount of information exchange between researchers in geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering. Computer science (and artificial intelligence) provides the means to effectively acquire, integrate and automate the key expertise in the various disciplines in a reservoir characterization expert system. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data.

  3. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. Second quarterly technical progress report, [January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Production from the Marg Area 1 at Port Neches is averaging 392 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) for this quarter. The production drop is due to fluctuation in both GOR and BS&W on various producing well, coupled with low water injectivity in the reservoir. We were unable to inject any tangible amount of water in the reservoir since late January. Both production and injection problems are currently being evaluated to improve reservoir performance. Well Kuhn (No. 6) was stimulated with 120 MMCF of CO{sub 2}, and was placed on production in February 1, 1995. The well was shut in for an additional month after producing dry CO{sub 2} initially. The well was opened again in early April and is currently producing about 40 BOPD. CO{sub 2} injection averaged 11.3 MMCFD including 4100 MMCFD purchased from Cardox, while water injection averaged 1000 BWPD with most of the injection occurring in the month of January.

  4. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  5. Carbon dioxide dynamics in a lake and a reservoir on a tropical island (Bali, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Paul A; Suryaputra, I Gusti Ngurah Agung; Maher, Damien T; Santos, Isaac R

    2018-01-01

    Water-to-air carbon dioxide fluxes from tropical lakes and reservoirs (artificial lakes) may be an important but understudied component of global carbon fluxes. Here, we investigate the seasonal dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics in a lake and a reservoir on a tropical volcanic island (Bali, Indonesia). Observations were performed over four seasonal surveys in Bali's largest natural lake (Lake Batur) and largest reservoir (Palasari Reservoir). Average CO2 partial pressures in the natural lake and reservoir were 263.7±12.2 μatm and 785.0±283.6 μatm respectively, with the highest area-weighted partial pressures in the wet season for both systems. The strong correlations between seasonal mean values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pCO2 in the natural lake (r2 = 0.92) suggest that surface water metabolism was an important driver of CO2 dynamics in this deep system. Radon (222Rn, a natural groundwater discharge tracer) explained up to 77% of the variability in pCO2 in the shallow reservoir, suggesting that groundwater seepage was the major CO2 driver in the reservoir. Overall, the natural lake was a sink of atmospheric CO2 (average fluxes of -2.8 mmol m-2 d-1) while the reservoir was a source of CO2 to the atmosphere (average fluxes of 7.3 mmol m-2 d-1). Reservoirs are replacing river valleys and terrestrial ecosystems, particularly throughout developing tropical regions. While the net effect of this conversion on atmospheric CO2 fluxes remains to be resolved, we speculate that reservoir construction will partially offset the CO2 sink provided by deep, volcanic, natural lakes and terrestrial environments.

  6. Consideration of clay in rocks in discriminating carbonate reservoirs in Eastern Turkmenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehjvazov, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for calculating the clayiness of rocks in discrimination of carbonate reservoirs of eastern Turkmenia. Carbonate deposits in eastern Turkmenia contain significant amounts of clayey material, which interferes with the collector properties of the rocks. However, in many cases the clayey limestones, when sampled, give industrial supplies of gas. Analysis of gamma-logging data with calculation of the results of sampling for layers of different porosities, as determined from the results of neutron gamma logging, showed a definite correlation between the reservoir properties of carbonate layers and the values of ΔIsub(γ) of two different gamma-logging parameters, calculated by the single ''reference'' horizon method

  7. Bulk and Surface Aqueous Speciation of Calcite: Implications for Low-Salinity Waterflooding of Carbonate Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Yutkin, Maxim P.

    2017-08-25

    Low-salinity waterflooding (LSW) is ineffective when reservoir rock is strongly water-wet or when crude oil is not asphaltenic. Success of LSW relies heavily on the ability of injected brine to alter surface chemistry of reservoir crude-oil brine/rock (COBR) interfaces. Implementation of LSW in carbonate reservoirs is especially challenging because of high reservoir-brine salinity and, more importantly, because of high reactivity of the rock minerals. Both features complicate understanding of the COBR surface chemistries pertinent to successful LSW. Here, we tackle the complex physicochemical processes in chemically active carbonates flooded with diluted brine that is saturated with atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and possibly supplemented with additional ionic species, such as sulfates or phosphates. When waterflooding carbonate reservoirs, rock equilibrates with the injected brine over short distances. Injected-brine ion speciation is shifted substantially in the presence of reactive carbonate rock. Our new calculations demonstrate that rock-equilibrated aqueous pH is slightly alkaline quite independent of injected-brine pH. We establish, for the first time, that CO2 content of a carbonate reservoir, originating from CO2-rich crude oil and gas, plays a dominant role in setting aqueous pH and rock-surface speciation. A simple ion-complexing model predicts the calcite-surface charge as a function of composition of reservoir brine. The surface charge of calcite may be positive or negative, depending on speciation of reservoir brine in contact with the calcite. There is no single point of zero charge; all dissolved aqueous species are charge determining. Rock-equilibrated aqueous composition controls the calcite-surface ion-exchange behavior, not the injected-brine composition. At high ionic strength, the electrical double layer collapses and is no longer diffuse. All surface charges are located directly in the inner and outer Helmholtz planes. Our evaluation of

  8. Carbon flow dynamics in the pelagic community of the Sau Reservoir (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Comerma, M.; García, J. C.; Romero, M.; Armengol, J.; Šimek, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 87-98 ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : reservoir * longitudinal plankton succession * carbon flow through microbial food webs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  9. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  10. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels

  11. A method for the assessment of long-term changes in carbon stock by construction of a hydropower reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Julio Werner Yoshioka; Mannich, Michael; Hilgert, Stephan; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Bleninger, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Sustainability of hydropower reservoirs has been questioned since the detection of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are mainly composed of carbon dioxide and methane. A method to assess the impact on the carbon cycle caused by the transition from a natural river system into a reservoir is presented and discussed. The method evaluates the long term changes in carbon stock instead of the current approach of monitoring and integrating continuous short term fluxes. A case study was conducted in a subtropical reservoir in Brazil, showing that the carbon content within the reservoir exceeds that of the previous landuse. The average carbon sequestration over 43 years since damming was 895 mg C m[Formula: see text] and found to be mainly due to storage of carbon in sediments. These results demonstrate that reservoirs have two opposite effects on the balance of GHGs. By storing organic C in sediments, reservoirs are an important carbon sink. On the other hand, reservoirs increase the flux of methane into the atmosphere. If the sediments of reservoirs could be used for long term C storage, reservoirs might have a positive effect on the balance of GHGs.

  12. Modelling of Salt Solubilities for Smart Water flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs using Extended UNIQUAC Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara

    recovery can increase that capture up to 25-30% of original oil in place (OOIP). But cost effective Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques if implemented correctly canbe used to produce another 10-15% of the initially available hydrocarbons. Advanced water flooding (i.e. altering injection brine...... compositions by varying concentration of selected ions) is an enhanced oil recovery method which in alow cost, non-toxic manner increases oil recovery from various carbonate reservoirs. Dan and Halfdan are chalk reservoirs from the Danish North Sea, which are matured oil fields that have been flooded......For most oil reservoirs which were drilled with conventional methods, the expected initial recovery of available hydrocarbons maybe as low as 15% – thusleaving 85+% of hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Implementation of mechanical methods including pump jacks and initial gas injection or thermal...

  13. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà , N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  14. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-08-24

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  15. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  16. Transient pressure and productivity analysis in carbonate geothermal reservoirs with changing external boundary flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dongying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a triple-medium flow model for carbonate geothermal reservoirs with an exponential external boundary flux is established. The pressure solution under constant production conditions in Laplace space is solved. The geothermal wellbore pressure change considering wellbore storage and skin factor is obtained by Stehfest numerical inversion. The well test interpretation charts and Fetkovich production decline chart for carbonate geothermal reservoirs are proposed for the first time. The proposed Fetkovich production decline curves are applied to analyze the production decline behavior. The results indicate that in carbonate geothermal reservoirs with exponential external boundary flux, the pressure derivative curve contains a triple dip, which represents the interporosity flow between the vugs or matrix and fracture system and the invading flow of the external boundary flux. The interporosity flow of carbonate geothermal reservoirs and changing external boundary flux can both slow down the extent of production decline and the same variation tendency is observed in the Fetkovich production decline curve.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration induced mineral precipitation healing of fractured reservoir seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, N.; Crawshaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Initial experiments and the thermodynaic basis for carbon dioxide sequestration induced mineral precipitation healing of fractures through reservoir seals will be presented. The basis of this work is the potential exists for the dissolution of reservoir host rock formation carbonate minerals in the acidified injection front of CO2 during sequestration or EOR. This enriched brine and the bulk CO2 phase will then flow through the reservoir until contact with the reservoir seal. At this point any fractures present in the reservoir seal will be the preferential flow path for the bulk CO2 phase as well as the acidified brine front. These fractures would currently be filled with non-acidified brine saturated in seal formation brine. When the acidifeid brine from the host formation and the cap rock brine mix there is the potential for minerals to fall out of solution, and for these precipitated minerals to decrease or entirely cut off the fluid flow through the fractures present in a reservoir seal. Initial equilibrium simulations performed using the PHREEQC1 database drived from the PHREEQE2 database are used to show the favorable conditions under which this mineral precipitation can occurs. Bench scale fluid mixing experiments were then performed to determine the kinetics of the mineral precipitation process, and determine the progress of future experiemnts involving fluid flow within fractured anhydrite reservoir seal samples. 1Parkhurst, D.L., and Appelo, C.A.J., 2013, Description of input and examples for PHREEQC version 3—A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A43, 497 p., available only at https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/a43/. 2Parkhurst, David L., Donald C. Thorstenson, and L. Niel Plummer. PHREEQE: a computer program for geochemical calculations. No. 80-96. US Geological Survey, Water Resources Division,, 1980.

  18. Estimates of Carbon Reservoirs in High-Altitude Wetlands in the Colombian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Javier Peña

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observed increase in emission of greenhouse gases, with attendant effects on global warming, have raised interests in identifying sources and sinks of carbon in the environment. Terrestrial carbon (C sequestration involves capture of atmospheric C through photosynthesis and storage in biota, soil and wetlands. Particularly, wetland systems function primarily as long-term reservoirs for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 and as sources of atmospheric methane (CH4. The objective of this study was to evaluate the patterns of carbon reservoirs in two high-altitude wetlands in the central Andean mountain of Colombia. Carbon cycle in both systems is related mainly with the plant biomass dynamics from the littoral zone. Thus, total organic carbon concentrate an average up to 329 kg of N ha-1 and 125 kg of P ha-1 every year vs only 17 kg N ha-1 and 6 kg P ha-1 in the water column of the limnetic zone in the wetland, evidencing spatial differences in carbon concentrations for these types of ecosystems. Results revealed that these systems participate in the balance and sequestration of carbon in the Colombian Andes.

  19. Identification of carbonate reservoirs based on well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging

  20. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer

  1. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  2. CarbonSAFE Rocky Mountain Phase I : Seismic Characterization of the Navajo Reservoir, Buzzard Bench, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, K. K.; Balch, R. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The CarbonSAFE Rocky Mountain project team is in the initial phase of investigating the regulatory, financial and technical feasibility of commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage from two coal-fired power plants in the northwest region of the San Rafael Swell, Utah. The reservoir interval is the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, an eolian dune deposit that at present serves as the salt water disposal reservoir for Ferron Sandstone coal-bed methane production in the Drunkards Wash field and Buzzard Bench area of central Utah. In the study area the Navajo sandstone is approximately 525 feet thick and is at an average depth of about 7000 feet below the surface. If sufficient porosity and permeability exist, reservoir depth and thickness would provide storage for up to 100,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per square mile, based on preliminary estimates. This reservoir has the potential to meet the DOE's requirement of having the ability to store at least 50 million metric tons of CO2 and fulfills the DOE's initiative to develop protocols for commercially sequestering carbon sourced from coal-fired power plants. A successful carbon storage project requires thorough structural and stratigraphic characterization of the reservoir, seal and faults, thereby allowing the creation of a comprehensive geologic model with subsequent simulations to evaluate CO2/brine migration and long-term effects. Target formation lithofacies and subfacies data gathered from outcrop mapping and laboratory analysis of core samples were developed into a geologic model. Synthetic seismic was modeled from this, allowing us to seismically characterize the lithofacies of the target formation. This seismic characterization data was then employed in the interpretation of 2D legacy lines which provided stratigraphic and structural control for more accurate model development of the northwest region of the San Rafael Swell. Developing baseline interpretations such as this are crucial toward long-term carbon storage

  3. Technical difficulties of logging while drilling in carbonate reservoirs and the countermeasures: A case study from the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, carbonate reservoirs are characterized by deep burial depth and strong heterogeneity, so it is difficult to conduct structure steering, pore space reservoir tracking and trajectory control in the process of geosteering logging while drilling. In this paper, a series of corresponding techniques for structure, reservoir and formation tracking were proposed after analysis was conducted on multiple series of carbonate strata in terms of their geologic and logging response characteristics. And investigation was performed on the adaptabilities of the following logging technologies to geosteering while drilling, including gamma ray imaging while drilling, resistivity imaging while drilling, density imaging while drilling, gamma ray logging while drilling, resistivity logging while drilling, neutron logging while drilling and density logging while drilling. After while drilling information was thoroughly analyzed, the logging suites for four common types of complicated reservoirs (thin layered reservoirs, thick massive reservoirs, denuded karst reservoirs and shale gas reservoirs were optimized, and five logging combinations suitable for different formations and reservoirs were proposed, including gamma ray logging + porosity + resistivity imaging, gamma ray logging + resistivity imaging, gamma ray logging + porosity + resistivity logging, gamma ray imaging + resistivity logging, and gamma ray logging. Field application indicates that it is of great reference and application value to use this method for the first time to summarize logging while drilling combinations for different types of carbonate reservoirs.

  4. Production and screening of carbon products precursors from coal. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondlo, J.; Stiller, A.

    1996-10-25

    This quarterly report covers activities during the period from July 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 on the development of carbon products precursor materials from coal. The first year of the project ended in February, 1996; however, the WVU research effort continued through August 14, 1997 on a no-cost extension of the original contract. PETC chose to exercise the option for continuation of the projects and $100,000 became available on August 9, 1996. The objective for year two is to focus on development of those carbon products from coal-based solvent extract precursors which have the greatest possibility for commercial success.

  5. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L A; Harith, Z Z T

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak

  6. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods.Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks.Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  7. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  8. Validating predictions of evolving porosity and permeability in carbonate reservoir rocks exposed to CO2-brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Carroll, S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving our ability to better forecast the extent and impact of changes in porosity and permeability due to CO2-brine-carbonate reservoir interactions should lower uncertainty in long-term geologic CO2 storage capacity estimates. We have developed a continuum-scale reactive transport model that simulates spatial and temporal changes to porosity, permeability, mineralogy, and fluid composition within carbonate rocks exposed to CO2 and brine at storage reservoir conditions. The model relies on two primary parameters to simulate brine-CO2-carbonate mineral reaction: kinetic rate constant(s), kmineral, for carbonate dissolution; and an exponential parameter, n, relating porosity change to resulting permeability. Experimental data collected from fifteen core-flooding experiments conducted on samples from the Weyburn (Saskatchewan, Canada) and Arbuckle (Kansas, USA) carbonate reservoirs were used to calibrate the reactive-transport model and constrain the useful range of k and n values. Here we present the results of our current efforts to validate this model and the use of these parameter values, by comparing predictions of extent and location of dissolution and the evolution of fluid permeability against our results from new core-flood experiments conducted on samples from the Duperow Formation (Montana, USA). Agreement between model predictions and experimental data increase our confidence that these parameter ranges need not be considered site-specific but may be applied (within reason) at various locations and reservoirs. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  10. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  11. Flue gas injection into gas hydrate reservoirs for methane recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinhai; Okwananke, Anthony; Tohidi, Bahman; Chuvilin, Evgeny; Maerle, Kirill; Istomin, Vladimir; Bukhanov, Boris; Cheremisin, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flue gas was injected for both methane recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration. • Kinetics of methane recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration was investigated. • Methane-rich gas mixtures can be produced inside methane hydrate stability zones. • Up to 70 mol% of carbon dioxide in the flue gas was sequestered as hydrates. - Abstract: Flue gas injection into methane hydrate-bearing sediments was experimentally investigated to explore the potential both for methane recovery from gas hydrate reservoirs and for direct capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide from flue gas as carbon dioxide hydrate. A simulated flue gas from coal-fired power plants composed of 14.6 mol% carbon dioxide and 85.4 mol% nitrogen was injected into a silica sand pack containing different saturations of methane hydrate. The experiments were conducted at typical gas hydrate reservoir conditions from 273.3 to 284.2 K and from 4.2 to 13.8 MPa. Results of the experiments show that injection of the flue gas leads to significant dissociation of the methane hydrate by shifting the methane hydrate stability zone, resulting in around 50 mol% methane in the vapour phase at the experimental conditions. Further depressurisation of the system to pressures well above the methane hydrate dissociation pressure generated methane-rich gas mixtures with up to 80 mol% methane. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide hydrate and carbon dioxide-mixed hydrates were formed while the methane hydrate was dissociating. Up to 70% of the carbon dioxide in the flue gas was converted into hydrates and retained in the silica sand pack.

  12. Quantifying Fracture Heterogeneity in Different Domains of Folded Carbonate Rocks to Improve Fractured Reservoir Analog Fluid Flow Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Gauthier, B.D.M.; Hardebol, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs is largely controlled by multiscale fracture networks. Significant variations of fracture network porosity and permeability are caused by the 3D heterogeneity of the fracture network characteristics, such as intensity, orientation and size. Characterizing fracture

  13. Modeling of carbonate reservoir variable secondary pore space based on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, X.; Nie, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Digital core technology has brought convenience to us, and X-ray CT scanning is one of the most common way to obtain 3D digital cores. However, it can only provide the original information of the only samples being scanned, and we can't modify the porosity of the scanned cores. For numerical rock physical simulations, a series of cores with variable porosities are needed to determine the relationship between the physical properties and porosity. In carbonate rocks, the secondary pore space including dissolution pores, caves and natural fractures is the key reservoir space, which makes the study of carbonate secondary porosity very important. To achieve the variation of porosities in one rock sample, based on CT scanned digital cores, according to the physical and chemical properties of carbonate rocks, several mathematical methods are chosen to simulate the variation of secondary pore space. We use the erosion and dilation operations of mathematical morphology method to simulate the pore space changes of dissolution pores and caves. We also use the Fractional Brownian Motion model to generate natural fractures with different widths and angles in digital cores to simulate fractured carbonate rocks. The morphological opening-and-closing operations in mathematical morphology method are used to simulate distribution of fluid in the pore space. The established 3D digital core models with different secondary porosities and water saturation status can be used in the study of the physical property numerical simulations of carbonate reservoir rocks.

  14. Kinetics of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated aqueous system at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Crawshaw, John P.; Maitland, Geoffrey; Trusler, J. P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for limiting anthropogenic CO2 emissions while allowing the continued utilisation of fossil fuels. The most promising geological storage sites are deep saline aquifers because the capacity, integrity and injection economics are most favourable, and the environmental impact can be minimal. Many rock-fluid chemical reactions are known to occur both during and after CO2 injection in saline aquifers. The importance of rock-fluid reactions in the (CO2 + H2O) system can be understood in terms of their impact on the integrity and stability of both the formation rocks and cap rocks. The chemical interactions between CO2-acidified brines and the reservoir minerals can influence the porosity and permeability of the formations, resulting in changes in the transport processes occurring during CO2 storage. Since carbonate minerals are abundant in sedimentary rocks, one of the requirements to safely implement CO2 storage in saline aquifers is to characterise the reactivity of carbonate minerals in aqueous solutions at reservoir conditions. In this work, we reported measurements of the intrinsic rate of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated water under high-temperature high-pressure reservoir conditions extending up to 373 K and 14 MPa. The rate of carbonate dissolution in CO2-free HCl(aq) was also measured at ambient pressure at temperatures up to 353 K. Various pure minerals and reservoir rocks were investigated in this study, including single-crystals of calcite and magnesite, and samples of dolomite, chalks and sandstones. A specially-designed batch reactor system, implementing the rotating disc technique, was used to obtain the intrinsic reaction rate at the solid/liquid interface, free of mass transfer effects. The effective area and mineralogy of the exposed surface was determined by a combination of surface characterisation techniques including XRD, SEM, EDX and optical microscopy. The

  15. Prediction of abrupt reservoir compaction and surface subsidence due to pore collapse in carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, R.M.M.; de Waal, A.; van Kooten, J.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure has been developed to predict the abrupt in-situ compaction and the associated surface subsidence above high-porosity carbonate fields showing pore collapse. The approach is based on an extensive laboratory compaction study in which the effects of carbonate type, porosity, core preparation, pore saturant, horizontal to vertical stress ratio and loading rate on the pore collapse behaviour were investigated. For each carbonate type a trendline was established describing the relationship between the porosity after collapse and the vertical effective stress. This trendline concept, in combination with existing subsidence models, enables reservoir compaction and surface subsidence to be predicted on the basis of wireline porosity logs. Static and dynamic elastic constants were found to be uncorrelated during pore collapse. The position of the trendline depends strongly on carbonate type, pore saturant, loading rate and stress ratio. Therefore procedures are given to derive the correct in-situ trendline from laboratory compaction experiments.

  16. Prediction of abrupt reservoir compaction and surface subsidence caused by pore collapse in carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, R.M.M.; De Waal, J.A.; Van Kootan, J.F.C.

    1988-06-01

    A new procedure has been developed to predict the abrupt in-situ compaction and the associated surface subsidence above high-porosity carbonate fields that show pore collapse. The approach is based on an extensive laboratory compaction study in which the effects of carbonate type, porosity, core preparation, pore saturant, horizontal/vertical stress ratio, and loading rate on pore-collapse behavior were investigated. For a number of carbonate types, a trendline was established that describes the relationship between the porosity after collapse and the vertical effective stress. This trendline concept, in combination with existing subsidence models, enables reservoir compaction and surface subsidence to be predicted on the basis of wireline porosity logs. Static and dynamic elastic constants were found to be uncorrelated during pore collapse. The position of the trendline depends strongly on carbonate type, pore saturant, loading rate, and stress ratio. Therefore, procedures are given to derive the correct in-situ trendline from laboratory compaction experiments.

  17. Criteria for identification of carbonate reservoirs according to well logging data (carboniferous deposits of Astrakhan' vault taken as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, A.N.; Mitalev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    Described are the criteria for identification of carbonate reservoirs according to well logging data (carboniferous deposits of Astrakhan' vault taken as an example). According to gamma logging and cavitymetry data clay areas (decreased readings of neutron-gamma logging opposite dense rocks) are distinguished in a well log. ''Reservoir-nonreserVoir'' boundary is relatively drawn on the basis of the relation between neutron-gamma logaing indications and average general porosity of carbonate rocks determined by accoustic and neutron gamma logging

  18. Thermal regime of the deep carbonate reservoir of the Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, V.; Chiozzi, P.; Verdoya, M.

    2012-04-01

    Italy is one of the most important countries in the world with regard to high-medium enthalpy geothermal resources, a large part of which is already extracted at relatively low cost. High temperatures at shallow to medium depth occur within a wide belt, several hundred kilometre long, west of the Apennines mountain chain. This belt, affected by recent lithosphere extension, includes several geothermal fields, which are largely exploited for electricity generation. Between the Alps and Apennines ranges, the deeper aquifer, occurring in carbonate rocks of the Po Plain, can host medium enthalpy fluids, which are exploited for district heating. Such a general picture of the available geothermal resources has been well established through several geophysical investigations and drillings. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate future developments, especially with reference to the deep carbonate aquifer of the Po Plain. In this paper, we focus on the eastern sector of the plain and try to gain a better understanding of the thermal regime by using synergically geothermal methodologies and geological information. The analysis of the temperatures recorded to about 6 km depth in hydrocarbon wells supplies basic constraints to outline the thermal regime of the sedimentary basin and to investigate the occurrence and importance of hydrothermal processes in the carbonate layer. After correction for drilling disturbance, temperatures were analysed, together with geological information, through an inversion technique based on a laterally constant thermal gradient model. The inferred thermal gradient changes with depth; it is quite low within the carbonate layer, while is larger in the overlying, practically impermeable formations. As the thermal conductivity variation does not justify such a thermal gradient difference, the vertical change can be interpreted as due to convective processes occurring in the carbonate layer, acting as thermal reservoir. The

  19. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  20. Total porosity of carbonate reservoir rocks by X-ray microtomography in two different spatial resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Marques, Leonardo C.; Fernandes, Celso P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate reservoir rocks contain more than 50% of world's petroleum. To know carbonate rocks' structural properties is quite important to petroleum extraction. One of their main structural properties is the total porosity, which shows the rock's capacity to stock petroleum. In recent years, the X-ray microtomography had been used to analyze the structural parameters of reservoir rocks. Such nondestructive technique generates images of the samples' internal structure, allowing the evaluation of its properties. The spatial resolution is a measurement parameter that indicates the smallest structure size observable in a sample. It is possible to measure one sample using two or more different spatial resolutions in order to evaluate the samples' pore scale. In this work, two samples of the same sort of carbonate rock were measured, and in each measurement a different spatial resolution (17 μm and 7 μm) was applied. The obtained results showed that with the better resolution it was possible to measure 8% more pores than with the poorer resolution. Such difference provides us with good expectations about such approach to study the pore scale of carbonate rocks. (author)

  1. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  2. Quantification of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) storage in lakes and reservoirs of mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Shang, Yingxing; Yang, Hong; Lyu, Lili; Liu, Ge; Fang, Chong; Du, Jia; Zhao, Ying

    2018-04-04

    As a major fraction of carbon in inland waters, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a crucial role in carbon cycling on a global scale. However, the quantity of DOC stored in lakes and reservoirs was not clear to date. In an attempt to examine the factors that determine the DOC storage in lakes and reservoirs across China, we assembled a large database (measured 367 lakes, and meta-analyzed 102 lakes from five limnetic regions; measured 144 reservoirs, and meta-analyzed 272 reservoirs from 31 provincial units) of DOC concentrations and water storages for lakes and reservoirs that are used to determine DOC storage in static inland waters. We found that DOC concentrations in saline waters (Mean/median ± S.D: 50.5/30.0 ± 55.97 mg/L) are much higher than those in fresh waters (8.1/5.9 ± 6.8 mg/L), while lake DOC concentrations (25.9/11.5 ± 42.04 mg/L) are much higher than those in reservoirs (5.0/3.8 ± 4.5 mg/L). In terms of lake water volume and DOC storage, the Tibet-Qinghai lake region has the largest water volume (552.8 km 3 ), 92% of which is saline waters, thus the largest DOC (13.39 Tg) is stored in these alpine lake region; followed by the Mengxin lake region, having a water volume of 99.4 km 3 in which 1.75 Tg DOC was stored. Compared to Mengxin lake region, almost the same amount of water was stored in East China lake region (91.9 km 3 ), however, much less DOC was stored in this region (0.43 Tg) due to the lower DOC concentration (Ave: 3.45 ± 2.68 mg/L). According to our investigation, Yungui and Northeast lake regions had water storages of 32.14 km 3 and 19.44 km 3 respectively, but relatively less DOC was stored in Yungui (0.13 Tg) than in Northeast lake region (0.19 Tg). Due to low DOC concentration in reservoirs, especially these large reservoirs having lower DOC concentration (V > 1.0 km 3 : 2.31 ± 1.48 mg/L), only 1.54 Tg was stored in a 485.1 km 3 volume of water contained

  3. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  4. Integrated Modeling and Carbonate Reservoir Analysis, Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation, Fishpond Field, Southwest Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Alexander Emory

    This field case study focuses on Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover hydrocarbon reservoir characterization, modeling and evaluation at Fishpond Field, Escambia County, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. The field is located in the Conecuh Embayment area, south of the Little Cedar Creek Field in Conecuh County and east of Appleton Field in Escambia County. In the Conecuh Embayment, Smackover microbial buildups commonly developed on Paleozoic basement paleohighs in an inner to middle carbonate ramp setting. The microbial and associated facies identified in Fishpond Field are: (F-1) peloidal wackestone, (F-2) peloidal packstone, (F-3) peloidal grainstone, (F-4) peloidal grainstone/packstone, (F-5) microbially-influenced wackestone, (F-6) microbially-influenced packstone, (F-7) microbial boundstone, (F-8) oolitic grainstone, (F-9) shale, and (F-10) dolomitized wackestone/packstone. The Smackover section consists of an alternation of carbonate facies, including F-1 through F-8. The repetitive vertical trend in facies indicates variations in depositional conditions in the area as a result of changes in water depth, energy conditions, salinity, and/or water chemistry due to temporal variations or changes in relative sea level. Accommodation for sediment accumulation also was produced by a change in base level due to differential movement of basement rocks as a result of faulting and/or subsidence due to burial compaction and extension. These changes in base level contributed to the development of a microbial buildup that ranges between 130-165 ft in thickness. The Fishpond Field carbonate reservoir includes a lower microbial buildup interval, a middle grainstone/packstone interval and an upper microbial buildup interval. The Fishpond Field has sedimentary and petroleum system characteristics similar to the neighboring Appleton and Little Cedar Creek Fields, but also has distinct differences from these Smackover fields. The characteristics of the

  5. NST Quarterly - issue January 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. The subjects discussed are i. food and drinking water which are the major pathways of radionuclides to man and ii. nuclear techniques help to monitor sedimentation in reservoir

  6. Geological storage of carbon dioxide in the coal seams: from material to the reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoosokhan, S.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere are recognized to have a significant effect on global warming. Geological storage of CO 2 is widely regarded as an essential approach to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting carbon dioxide in coal bed methane reservoirs facilitates the recovery of the methane naturally present, a process known as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential adsorption by coal of carbon dioxide over the methane in place leads to a closure of the cleat system (a set of small natural fractures) of the reservoir and therefore to a loss of injectivity. This PhD thesis is dedicated to a study of how this injectivity evolves in presence of fluids. We derive two poro-mechanical dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The resulting constitutive equations enable to better understand and model the link between the injectivity of a coal seam and the adsorption-induced swelling of coal. For both models, the pore space of the reservoir is considered to be divided into the macroporous cleats and the pores of the coal matrix. The two models differ by how adsorption of fluid is taken into account: the first model is restricted to surface adsorption, while the second model can be applied for adsorption in a medium with a generic pore size distribution and thus in a microporous medium such as coal, in which adsorption mostly occurs by micropore filling. The latter model is calibrated on two coals with different sorption and swelling properties. We then perform simulations at various scales (Representative Elementary Volume, coal sample, coal seam). In particular, we validate our model on experimental data of adsorption-induced variations of permeability of coal. We also perform simulations of seams from which methane would be produced (CBM) or of methane-free seams into which CO 2 would be injected. We study the effect of various

  7. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in a carbonate oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Awadhy, F. [ADMA-OPCO, Abudhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kocabas, I.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Islam, M.R. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (United States)

    2005-01-15

    Many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates produce large amounts of sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide. In addition to creating problems in the production line, wellbore damage is often reported due to the precipitation of elemental sulfur in the vicinity of the wellbore. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in a gas reservoir, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This article presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. The experiments were conducted in a core (linear) system. Both analytical and numerical modelings were performed in a linear coordinate system. Data for the numerical model was obtained from both test tube and coreflood experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results). The crude oil was de-asphalted prior to conducting the experiment in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. A series of coreflood tests was carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate rock. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in the phenomenological model and can be incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. (author)

  8. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2015-10-26

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, reservoir-simulation toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, whereas the MD simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Technologies from several different fields are used to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large-scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in subsurface geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the few attractive and practical solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and address the global-warming threat. Fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures under geological conditions are essential for accurate simulations. In this work, CO2 sequestration is presented as a first example for coupling reservoir simulation and MD, although the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical processes in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability is observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well-demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to one billion cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to couple reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large-scale modeling. Because of the complexity of

  9. Use of ``rock-typing`` to characterize carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikwuakor, K.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the project was to apply techniques of ``rock-typing`` and quantitative formation evaluation to borehole measurements in order to identify reservoir and non-reservoir rock-types and their properties within the ``C`` zone of the Ordovician Red River carbonates in the northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota areas of the Williston Basin. Rock-typing discriminates rock units according to their pore-size distribution. Formation evaluation estimates porosities and pore fluid saturation. Rock-types were discriminated using crossplots involving three rock-typing criteria: (1) linear relationship between bulk density and porosity, (2) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and porosity, and (3) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and bulk density. Each rock-type was quantitatively characterized by the slopes and intercepts established for different crossplots involving the above variables, as well as porosities and fluid saturations associated with the rock-types. All the existing production was confirmed through quantitative formation evaluation. Highly porous dolomites and anhydritic dolomites contribute most of the production, and constitute the best reservoir rock-types. The results of this study can be applied in field development and in-fill drilling. Potential targets would be areas of porosity pinchouts and those areas where highly porous zones are downdip from non-porous and tight dolomites. Such areas are abundant. In order to model reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, a more localized (e.g. field scale) study, expanded to involve other rock-typing criteria, is necessary.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE AVIFAUNA FROM THE SITE NATURE 2000 ROSPA0062 – “THE RESERVOIRS ON THE ARGEŞ RIVER” - THE WINTERING QUARTERS FROM THE MIDDLE BASIN OF THE ARGEŞ RIVER. THE HIEMAL SEASON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we present the results of our ecological research on the avifauna of some reservoirs (a site of the Nature 2000 Network from the middle basin of the Argeş River, during the hiemal season in the period 2003 – 2010. The hibernal/hiemal season is the poorest in species of the six seasons (118 species belonging to 14 orders, 32 families and 68 genera, of which 49 species are dependent on wetlands, but the richest in the number of individuals (448,064. We also perform an analysis of the avifauna according to ecological indices (IR, constancy, dominancy, the Dzuba index of ecological significance, etc.. The Anseriformes were overdominant. It is the only season in which the order Passeriformes is complementary. Great agglomerations of Anseriformes are constantly present during the hiemal season; the specific composition and the number of individuals of the different species vary continuously on each of the reservoirs in relation to the weather conditions, the accessibility of food, etc. The highest number of Anseriformes species was observed on the Budeasa Reservoir (19 species and the lowest on the Bascov Reservoir (12 species. The correlation between temperature and the total number of individuals of the bird species is negative. As the temperature increases, the number of individuals decreases and vice versa. The most important wintering quarter is, during our research, the Goleşti Reservoir, with impressive concentrations of waterbirds. Mention should be made of five characteristic species (eudominant and dominant present in the area of the reservoirs in the hiemal season: Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Fulica atra, Aythya fuligula and Larus ridibundus. The high number of subrecedent species (102 emphasizes the great fluctuation of bird species in the area as a result of the fact that these reservoirs are on the course of some European migration routes and ensure favourable conditions (halting, sheltering and feeding

  11. Facies analysis of an Upper Jurassic carbonate platform for geothermal reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Dussel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Jurassic Carbonate platform in Southern Germany is an important aquifer for the production of geothermal energy. Several successful projects were realized during the last years. 3D-seismic surveying has been established as a standard method for reservoir analysis and the definition of well paths. A project funded by the federal ministry of economic affairs and energy (BMWi) started in 2015 is a milestone for an exclusively regenerative heat energy supply of Munich. A 3D-seismic survey of 170 square kilometer was acquired and a scientific program was established to analyze the facies distribution within the area (http://www.liag-hannover.de/en/fsp/ge/geoparamol.html). Targets are primarily fault zones where one expect higher flow rates than within the undisturbed carbonate sediments. However, since a dense net of geothermal plants and wells will not always find appropriate fault areas, the reservoir properties should be analyzed in more detail, e.g. changing the viewpoint to karst features and facies distribution. Actual facies interpretation concepts are based on the alternation of massif and layered carbonates. Because of successive erosion of the ancient land surfaces, the interpretation of reefs, being an important target, is often difficult. We found that seismic sequence stratigraphy can explain the distribution of seismic pattern and improves the analysis of different facies. We supported this method by applying wavelet transformation of seismic data. The splitting of the seismic signal into successive parts of different bandwidths, especially the frequency content of the seismic signal, changed by tuning or dispersion, is extracted. The combination of different frequencies reveals a partition of the platform laterally as well as vertically. A cluster analysis of the wavelet coefficients further improves this picture. The interpretation shows a division into ramp, inner platform and trough, which were shifted locally and overprinted in time by other

  12. Some open issues in the analysis of the storage and migration properties of fractured carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    Underground CO2 storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs may become a common practice in the future to lower the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Results from the first experiments conducted in carbonate rocks, for instance the Lacq integrated CCS Pilot site, SW France, are quite exciting. All monitored parameters, such as the CO2 concentration at well sites, well pressures, cap rock integrity and environmental indicators show the long-term integrity of this type of geological reservoirs. Other positive news arise from the OXY-CFB-300 Compostilla Project, NW Spain, where most of the injected CO2 dissolved into the formation brines, suggesting the long-term security of this method. However, in both cases, the CO2- rich fluids partially dissolved the carbonate minerals during their migration through the fractured reservoir, modifying the overall pore volume and pressure regimes. These results support the growing need for a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of carbonate rocks over geological time of scales. In fact, it is well known that carbonates exhibit a variety of deformation mechanisms depending upon many intrinsic factors such as composition, texture, connected pore volume, and nature of the primary heterogeneities. Commonly, tight carbonates are prone to opening-mode and/or pressure solution deformation. The interplay between these two mechanisms likely affects the petrophysical properties of the fault damage zones, which form potential sites for CO2 storage due to their high values of both connected porosity and permeability. On the contrary, cataclastic deformation produces fault rocks that often form localized fluid barriers for cross-fault fluid flow. Nowadays, questions on the conditions of sealing/leakage of carbonate fault rocks are still open. In particular, the relative role played by bulk crushing, chipping, cementation, and pressure solution on connected porosity of carbonate fault rocks during structural

  13. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the

  14. Kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution in CO2-acidified brines at storage reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Anabaraonye, Benaiah U; Crawshaw, John P; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Trusler, J P Martin

    2016-10-20

    We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO 2 -saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO 2 -saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg -1 . The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid. The dissolution rates of dolomite and magnesite were studied in both aqueous HCl solution and in CO 2 -saturated water. For these minerals, the dissolution rates could be explained by a simpler kinetic model involving only direct reaction between protons and the mineral surface. Finally, the rates of dissolution of two carbonate-reservoir analogue minerals (Ketton limestone and North-Sea chalk) in CO 2 -saturated water were found to follow the same kinetics as found for pure calcite. Vertical scanning interferometry was used to study the surface morphology of unreacted and reacted samples. The results of the present study may find application in reactive-flow simulations of CO 2 -injection into carbonate-mineral saline aquifers.

  15. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in a stream during a quarter century of forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy L. Meyer; Jackson Webster; Jennifer Knoepp; E.F. Benfield

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a heterogeneous mixture of compounds that makes up a large fraction of the organic matter transported in streams. It plays a significant role in many ecosystems. Riverine DOC links organic carbon cycles of continental and oceanic ecosystems. It is a significant trophic resource in stream food webs. DOC imparts color to lakes,...

  16. Integrated Sedimentological Approach to Assess Reservoir Quality and Architecture of Khuff Carbonates: Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mutsim; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    The Permian to Triassic Khuff carbonate reservoirs (and equivalents) in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 38.4% of the world's natural gas reserves. Excellent exposed outcrops in central Saudi Arabia provide good outcrop equivalents to subsurface Khuff reservoirs. This study conduct high resolution outcrop scale investigations on an analog reservoir for upper Khartam of Khuff Formation. The main objective is to reconstruct litho- and chemo- stratigraphic outcrop analog model that may serve to characterize reservoir high resolution (interwell) heterogeneity, continuity and architecture. Given the fact of the limitation of subsurface data and toolsin capturing interwell reservoir heterogeneity, which in turn increases the value of this study.The methods applied integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic petrographic, petrophysical data and chemical analyses for major, trace and rare earth elements. In addition, laser scanning survey (LIDAR) was also utilized in this study. The results of the stratigraphic investigations revealed that the lithofacies range from mudstone, wackestone, packestone and grainstone. These lithofacies represent environments ranging from supratidal, intertidal, subtidal and shoal complex. Several meter-scale and less high resolution sequences and composite sequences within 4th and 5th order cycles were also recognized in the outcrop analog. The lithofacies and architectural analysis revealed several vertically and laterally stacked sequences at the outcrop as revealed from the stratigraphic sections and the lidar scan. Chemostratigraphy is effective in identifying lithofacies and sequences within the outcrop analog. Moreover, different chemical signatures were also recognized and allowed establishing and correlating high resolution lithofacies, reservoir zones, layers and surfaces bounding reservoirs and non-reservoir zones at scale of meters or less. The results of this high resolution outcrop analog study might help to understand

  17. Sedimentary mode and reservoir distribution of the Cambrian carbonate & evaporate paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin is made up of the Longwangmiao, Gaotai and Xixiangchi Fms. So far, great breakthrough has been made only in the Longwangmiao Fm instead of the latter two, and the Anyue Gasfield was discovered in the center of this basin. In this paper, therefore, the Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin was analyzed in terms of its structural–sedimentary setting, sequence stratigraphic framework, sedimentary facies and the distribution of evaporites by using various geologic, logging and seismic data. Then, the geological model of sedimentary facies was established and the distribution range of favorable reservoirs was predicted. Based on these studies, the following results are obtained. Firstly, the palaeotectonic framework is characterized by the style of “one depression between two uplifts” in the setting of a large SE dipping slope, and the stratigraphic filling is in the structure of “onlapping at the bottom and truncation at the top” which is thin in the west and thick in the east. Secondly, three third-order sequence cycles which, on the whole, become shallow upward are developed from bottom to top, and gypsum-salt rocks are mainly located at the high system tract (HST of third-order sequences and concentrated in the Wanzhou–Yibin sag. Thirdly, the geological model of sedimentary facies is composed of three major sedimentary structural layers from bottom to top, namely the evaporative carbonate ramp, the evaporative diamictic restricted platform and the evaporative restricted platform. The sedimentary environment changes from the open to the closed and the penesaline for a long time, and then back to the open. The distribution of shoals changes from the pattern of “dual banks” in a large area to more scattered shoals and banded shoals, while the evaporative lagoon and tidal flat shrink. Fourthly, the reservoir distribution is

  18. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  19. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  20. Chemical and physical characteristics of water and sediment in Scofield Reservoir, Carbon County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Darby, D.W.; Theobald, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluations based on the nutrient content of the inflow, outflow, water in storage, and the dissolved-oxygen depletion during the summer indicate that the trophic state of Scofield Reservoir is borderline between mesotrophic and eutrophic and may become highly eutrophic unless corrective measures are taken to limit nutrient inflow.Sediment deposition in Scofield Reservoir during 1943-79 is estimated to be 3,000 acre-feet, and has decreased the original storage capacity of the reservoir by 4 percent. The sediment contains some coal, and age dating of those sediments (based on the radioisotope lead-210) indicates that most of the coal was deposited prior to about 1950.Scofield Reservoir is dimictic, with turnovers occurring in the spring and autumn. Water in the reservoir circulates completely to the bottom during turnovers. The concentration of dissolved oxygen decreases with depth except during parts of the turnover periods. Below an altitude of about 7,590 feet, where 20 percent of the water is stored, the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 milligrams per liter during most of the year. During the summer stratification period, the depletion of dissolved oxygen in the deeper layers is coincident with supersaturated conditions in the shallow layers; this is attributed to plant photosynthesis and bacterial respiration in the reservoir.During October 1,1979-August 31,1980, thedischargeweighted average concentrations of dissolved solids was 195 milligrams per liter in the combined inflow from Fish, Pondtown, and Mud Creeks, and was 175 milligrams per liter in the outflow (and to the Price River). The smaller concentration in the outflow was due primarily to precipitation of calcium carbonate in the reservoir about 80 percent of the decrease can be accounted for through loss as calcium carbonate.The estimated discharge-weighted average concentration of total nitrogen (dissolved plus suspended) in the combined inflow of Fish, Pondtown, and Mud Creeks was 1

  1. Analysis of Flow Behavior for Acid Fracturing Wells in Fractured-Vuggy Carbonate Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a mathematical model for transient flow analysis of acid fracturing wells in fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs. This model considers a composite system with the inner region containing finite number of artificial fractures and wormholes and the outer region showing a triple-porosity medium. Both analytical and numerical solutions are derived in this work, and the comparison between two solutions verifies the model accurately. Flow behavior is analyzed thoroughly by examining the standard log-log type curves. Flow in this composite system can be divided into six or eight main flow regimes comprehensively. Three or two characteristic V-shaped segments can be observed on pressure derivative curves. Each V-shaped segment corresponds to a specific flow regime. One or two of the V-shaped segments may be absent in particular cases. Effects of interregional diffusivity ratio and interregional conductivity ratio on transient responses are strong in the early-flow period. The shape and position of type curves are also influenced by interporosity coefficients, storativity ratios, and reservoir radius significantly. Finally, we show the differences between our model and the similar model with single fracture or without acid fracturing and further investigate the pseudo-skin factor caused by acid fracturing.

  2. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs

  3. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeandel, E.

    2008-12-01

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO 2 geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO 2 . Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  4. Integrated Analysis Seismic Inversion and Rockphysics for Determining Secondary Porosity Distribution of Carbonate Reservoir at “FR” Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosid, M. S.; Augusta, F. F.; Haidar, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    In general, carbonate secondary pore structure is very complex due to the significant diagenesis process. Therefore, the determination of carbonate secondary pore types is an important factor which is related to study of production. This paper mainly deals not only to figure out the secondary pores types, but also to predict the distribution of the secondary pore types of carbonate reservoir. We apply Differential Effective Medium (DEM) for analyzing pore types of carbonate rocks. The input parameter of DEM inclusion model is fraction of porosity and the output parameters are bulk moduli and shear moduli as a function of porosity, which is used as input parameter for creating Vp and Vs modelling. We also apply seismic post-stack inversion technique that is used to map the pore type distribution from 3D seismic data. Afterward, we create porosity cube which is better to use geostatistical method due to the complexity of carbonate reservoir. Thus, the results of this study might show the secondary porosity distribution of carbonate reservoir at “FR” field. In this case, North – Northwest of study area are dominated by interparticle pores and crack pores. Hence, that area has highest permeability that hydrocarbon can be more accumulated.

  5. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoo, J.N.D.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A.

    1998-08-01

    Oxidation studies of coal fly ash have been carried out at partial pressures in the range 1 atmosphere down to 400 torr. The studies have also been carried out at 1 atmosphere for different temperatures in the range 500 to 750 C. The equipment used was a state-of-the-art Cann Thermogravimetric analyzer having sensitive microbalance that permitted measurements to .1 {micro}g. The analyzer is part of a GC/MS/TG setup in this laboratory. The fly ash was supplied by Delmarva Power Indian River Plant, DE. The samples were dried and stored in a desiccator to ensure that they remained dry prior to combustion. The combustion process inside the TGA is continuous and the heat released can be related to the percent of carbon consumed. The setup provided easy identification of the elements in the fly ash. The elemental analysis was also augmented by use of an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In the X-ray analysis the carbon in the fly ash was compared with that in a dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) standard obtained from the US Bureau of Mines (USBOM). Preliminary data show encouraging results in the rate of reduction of the residual carbon. Both analyses show reduction of carbon after burning.

  6. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  7. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and south Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Reeves, J.J.

    1996-06-17

    The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

  8. Geochemical analysis of atlantic rim water, carbon county, wyoming: New applications for characterizing coalbed natural gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J.F.; Frost, C.D.; Sharma, Shruti

    2011-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production typically requires the extraction of large volumes of water from target formations, thereby influencing any associated reservoir systems. We describe isotopic tracers that provide immediate data on the presence or absence of biogenic natural gas and the identify methane-containing reservoirs are hydrologically confined. Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon and strontium, along with water quality data, were used to characterize the CBNG reservoirs and hydrogeologic systems of Wyoming's Atlantic Rim. Water was analyzed from a stream, springs, and CBNG wells. Strontium isotopic composition and major ion geochemistry identify two groups of surface water samples. Muddy Creek and Mesaverde Group spring samples are Ca-Mg-S04-type water with higher 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting relatively young groundwater recharged from precipitation in the Sierra Madre. Groundwaters emitted from the Lewis Shale springs are Na-HCO3-type waters with lower 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting sulfate reduction and more extensive water-rock interaction. To distinguish coalbed waters, methanogenically enriched ??13CDIC wasused from other natural waters. Enriched ??13CDIC, between -3.6 and +13.3???, identified spring water that likely originates from Mesaverde coalbed reservoirs. Strongly positive ??13CDIC, between +12.6 and +22.8???, identified those coalbed reservoirs that are confined, whereas lower ??13CDIC, between +0.0 and +9.9???, identified wells within unconfined reservoir systems. Copyright ?? 2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  9. An Experimental Study of Surfactant Alternating CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery of Carbonated Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Gandomkar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Core flooding experiments were conducted with the objective of evaluating near miscible surfactant alternating CO2 injection and the effect of surfactant concentrations on gas-oil and water displacements in porous media. The core samples were provided from a low permeability mixed wet oil reservoir at 156 °F and 1900 psia. In addition, very few studies of surfactant adsorption on carbonate minerals have been conducted. Hence, the surfactant adsorption on carbonate rock was determined by core flooding and crushed tests. It was found that for the crushed rock, the required equilibrium time is approximately five hours, while it is more than four days for the flow-through tests. Hysteresis effects demonstrated that the irreducible water saturations were 5 to 10% higher than the initial connate water saturation after drainage cycles during 5000 ppm surfactant solution. Furthermore, near-miscible surfactant alternating CO2 injection process led to a 4-17% increase in the recovery factor in comparison to water alternating gas process.

  10. Comparison of the diagenetic and reservoir quality evolution between the anticline crest and flank of an Upper Jurassic carbonate gas reservoir, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, Daniel; Nader, Fadi H.; Gasparrini, Marta; Morad, Sadoon; Rossi, Carlos; Marchionda, Elisabetta; Al Darmaki, Fatima; Martines, Marco; Hellevang, Helge

    2018-05-01

    This petrographic, stable isotopic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study of the Upper Jurassic limestones of an onshore field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) compares diagenesis in flanks and crest of the anticline. The results revealed that the diagenetic and related reservoir quality evolution occurred during three phases, including: (i) eogenesis to mesogenesis 1, during which reservoir quality across the field was either deteriorated or preserved by calcite cementation presumably derived from marine or evolved marine pore waters. Improvement of reservoir quality was due to the formation of micropores by micritization of allochems and creation of moldic/intragranular pores by dissolution of peloids and skeletal fragments. (ii) Obduction of Oman ophiolites and formation of the anticline of the studied field was accompanied by cementation by saddle dolomite and blocky calcite. High homogenization temperatures (125-175 °C) and high salinity (19-26 wt% NaCl eq) of the fluid inclusions, negative δ18OVPDB values (-7.7 to -2.9‰), saddle shape of dolomite, and the presence of exotic cements (i.e. fluorite and sphalerite) suggest that these carbonates were formed by flux of hot basinal brines, probably related to this tectonic compression event. (iii) Mesogenesis 2 during subsidence subsequent to the obduction event, which resulted in extensive stylolitization and cementation by calcite. This calcite cement occluded most of the remaining moldic and inter-/intragranular pores of the flank limestones (water zone) whereas porosity was preserved in the crest. This study contributes to: (1) our understanding of differences in the impact of diagenesis on reservoir quality evolution in flanks and crests of anticlines, i.e. impact of hydrocarbon emplacement on diagenesis, and (2) relating various diagenetic processes to burial history and tectonic events of foreland basins in the Arabian Gulf area and elsewhere.

  11. Experimental reactivity with CO2 of clayey cap-rock and carbonate reservoir of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, G.

    2009-01-01

    The constant increase in the quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is regarded as being the principal cause of the current global warming. The geological sequestration of CO 2 seems to be an ideal solution to reduce the increase of greenhouse gases (of which CO 2 ) in the atmosphere but only if the reservoir's cap-rock keep its integrity for several hundreds or thousands of years. Batch experimental simulations were conducted to observe the reactivity of a cap-rock made of clay and a carbonate reservoir with CO 2 at 80 C and 150 C for a pressure of 150 bar with an equilibrated water. The analytical protocol established allowed to compare the rocks before and after experimentations finding a very low reactivity, focusing on aluminium in phyllosilicates. Textural analysis shows that CO 2 does not affect the properties of adsorption and the specific surface. The study of carbonate reservoir by confocal microscopy has revealed phenomena of dissolution-precipitation which have no significant impact on chemistry and structure of the reservoir. The numerical simulations carried out on mineral reference as calcium montmorillonite or clinochlore show a significant reaction in the presence of CO 2 not achieved experimentally, probably due to lacunas in the thermodynamic databases or the kinetics of reactions. The simulations on Bure show no reaction on the major minerals confirming the results with batch experiments. (author)

  12. Carbon-oxygen log applications in complex reservoir evaluation by neutron interactions from (D,T) accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmann, M.J.; Berg, L.O.; Ivey, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Granite Wash reservoirs in Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and New Mexico have proven to be effective commercial producers of hydrocarbons. Substantial drilling activity continues to penetrate this formation either as a primary or secondary objective. A new technique to provide additional lithologic data to engineers and geologists will yield significant benefits in the evaluation and treatment of these reservoirs. This information can be obtained by data available from spectrum analysis through the use of tools such as the Carbon/Oxygen Log, Spectralog and NGS

  13. Highly CO2-supersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle - A transient carbon reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créon, Laura; Rouchon, Virgile; Youssef, Souhail; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Delpech, Guillaume; Szabó, Csaba; Remusat, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Smail; Asimow, Paul D.; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Boller, Elodie; Guyot, François

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of carbonated crust is widely believed to generate a flux of carbon into the base of the continental lithospheric mantle, which in turn is the likely source of widespread volcanic and non-volcanic CO2 degassing in active tectonic intracontinental settings such as rifts, continental margin arcs and back-arc domains. However, the magnitude of the carbon flux through the lithosphere and the budget of stored carbon held within the lithospheric reservoir are both poorly known. We provide new constraints on the CO2 budget of the lithospheric mantle below the Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) through the study of a suite of xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions, silicate melt inclusions, networks of melt veins, and melt pockets with large and abundant vesicles provide numerous lines of evidence that mantle metasomatism affected the lithosphere beneath this region. We obtain a quantitative estimate of the CO2 budget of the mantle below the Pannonian Basin using a combination of innovative analytical and modeling approaches: (1) synchrotron X-ray microtomography, (2) NanoSIMS, Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry, and (3) thermodynamic models (Rhyolite-MELTS). The three-dimensional volumes reconstructed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography allow us to quantify the proportions of all petrographic phases in the samples and to visualize their textural relationships. The concentration of CO2 in glass veins and pockets ranges from 0.27 to 0.96 wt.%, higher than in typical arc magmas (0-0.25 wt.% CO2), whereas the H2O concentration ranges from 0.54 to 4.25 wt.%, on the low end for estimated primitive arc magmas (1.9-6.3 wt.% H2O). Trapping pressures for vesicles were determined by comparing CO2 concentrations in glass to CO2 saturation as a function of pressure in silicate melts, suggesting pressures between 0.69 to 1.78 GPa. These values are generally higher than trapping pressures for fluid inclusions

  14. Radiocarbon constraints on the coupled growth of sediment and organic carbon reservoirs in fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M. A.; Kemeny, P. C.; Fischer, W. W.; Lamb, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Vast amounts of sediments are stored transiently in fluvial deposits as they move in rivers from source to sink. The timescale(s) of transient storage have the potential to set the cadence for biogeochemical reactions to occur in river sediments. However, the extent to which storage modulates the chemical composition of river sediments remains unclear. In case of the organic carbon (OC) cycle, transient sediment storage may leave an imprint in the radiocarbon (14C) content of riverine particulate OC (POC), offering a potential tool to trace the coupling of sediment storage and biogeochemical cycling in river systems. We investigated the modern and ancient budgets of sediments and POC in the Efi Haukadalsá River catchment in West Iceland to provide new empirical constraints on the role of sediment storage in the terrestrial OC cycle. This field site is attractive because the basaltic bedrock is free of rock-derived (i.e. "petrogenic") POC such that bulk 14C measurements can be interpreted more directly as constraints on catchment OC storage timescales. Additionally, Lake Haukadalsvatn at the outlet of the river catchment has captured sediment for nearly 13 ka, which offers a complementary record of the evolution of climate-sediment-OC linkages since deglaciation. New 14C measurements show that bulk POC in fine grained fluvial deposits within the Haukadalsá catchment is remarkably old (model ages between 1 and 10 ka). This evidence for "aged" POC in floodplain storage is consistent with previous measurements from Lake Haukadalsvatn, which show that POC is aged in the river system by thousands of years prior to deposition in the lake. Additionally, our estimate of the mean transit time of sediments through the river system matches the millennial-scale reservoir age of riverine POC derived from 14C, which implies a tight coupling between sediment storage and the OC cycle. We interpret the long-term increase in the 14C reservoir age of riverine POC over the last 10 ka

  15. The Influence of Seal Properties on Pressure Buildup and Leakage of Carbon Dioxide from Sequestration Reservoirs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S. M.; Chabora, E.

    2009-12-01

    The transport properties of seals, namely permeability, relative permeability, and capillary pressure control both migration of carbon dioxide and brine through the seal. Only recently has the the importance of brine migration emerged as key issue in the environmental performance of carbon dioxide sequestration projects. In this study we use numerical simulation to show that brine migration through the seal can be either advantageous or deleterious to the environmental performance of a carbon dioxide sequestration project. Brine migration through the seal can lower the pressure buildup in the storage reservoir, thereby reducing the risk of leakage or geomechanical stresses on the seal. On the other hand, if the seal is penetrated by a permeable fault it can lead to focused flow up a fault, which could lead to brine migration into drinking water aquifers. We also show that as the carbon dioxide plume grows, brine flow undergoes a complex evolution from upward flow to downward flows driven by countercurrent migration of carbon dioxide and brine in the seal and capillary pressure gradients at the base of the seal. Finally, we discuss desirable attributes seals, taking into account both carbon dioxide and brine migration through the seal. In particular, identifying seals that provide an effective capillary barrier to block the flow of carbon dioxide while allowing some brine migration through the seal can help to control pressure buildup and allow more efficient utilization of a sequestration reservoir. This could be particularly important in those settings that may be limited by the maximum allowable pressure buildup.

  16. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  17. Discontinuities Characteristics of the Upper Jurassic Arab-D Reservoir Equivalent Tight Carbonates Outcrops, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdlmutalib, Ammar; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    Jurassic carbonates represent an important part of the Mesozoic petroleum system in the Arabian Peninsula in terms of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. Jurassic Outcrop equivalents are well exposed in central Saudi Arabia and which allow examining and measuring different scales of geological heterogeneities that are difficult to collect from the subsurface due to limitations of data and techniques. Identifying carbonates Discontinuities characteristics at outcrops might help to understand and predict their properties and behavior in the subsurface. The main objective of this study is to identify the lithofacies and the discontinuities properties of the upper Jurassic carbonates of the Arab D member and the Jubaila Formation (Arab-D reservoir) based on their outcrop equivalent strata in central Saudi Arabia. The sedimentologic analysis revealed several lithofacies types that vary in their thickness, abundances, cyclicity and vertical and lateral stacking patterns. The carbonates lithofacies included mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. These lithofacies indicate deposition within tidal flat, skeletal banks and shallow to deep lagoonal paleoenvironmental settings. Field investigations of the outcrops revealed two types of discontinuities within Arab D Member and Upper Jubaila. These are depositional discontinuities and tectonic fractures and which all vary in their orientation, intensity, spacing, aperture and displacements. It seems that both regional and local controls have affected the fracture development within these carbonate rocks. On the regional scale, the fractures seem to be structurally controlled by the Central Arabian Graben System, which affected central Saudi Arabia. While, locally, at the outcrop scale, stratigraphic, depositional and diagenetic controls appear to have influenced the fracture development and intensity. The fracture sets and orientations identified on outcrops show similarity to those fracture sets revealed in the upper

  18. Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakova, G T; Kharisov, R Ya; Sharifullin, A R; Pestrikov, A V

    2015-01-01

    Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios

  19. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  20. Reduced-Order Model for Leakage Through an Open Wellbore from the Reservoir due to Carbon Dioxide Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Potential CO2 leakage through existing open wellbores is one of the most significant hazards that need to be addressed in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) projects. In the framework of the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) which requires fast computations for uncertainty analysis, rigorous simulation of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system is not practical. We have developed a 7,200-point look-up table reduced-order model (ROM) for estimating the potential leakage rate up open wellbores in response to CO2 injection nearby. The ROM is based on coupled simulations using T2Well/ECO2H which was run repeatedly for representative conditions relevant to NRAP to create a look-up table response-surface ROM. The ROM applies to a wellbore that fully penetrates a 20-m thick reservoir that is used for CO2 storage. The radially symmetric reservoir is assumed to have initially uniform pressure, temperature, gas saturation, and brine salinity, and it is assumed these conditions are held constant at the far-field boundary (100 m away from the wellbore). In such a system, the leakage can quickly reach quasi-steady state. The ROM table can be used to estimate both the free-phase CO2 and brine leakage rates through an open well as a function of wellbore and reservoir conditions. Results show that injection-induced pressure and reservoir gas saturation play important roles in controlling leakage. Caution must be used in the application of this ROM because well leakage is formally transient and the ROM lookup table was populated using quasi-steady simulation output after 1000 time steps which may correspond to different physical times for the various parameter combinations of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system.

  1. Characterization of nanometer-scale porosity in reservoir carbonate rock by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K; Vick, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Sedimentary carbonate rocks are one of the principal porous structures in natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas. Efficient hydrocarbon recovery requires an understanding of the carbonate pore structure, but the nature of sedimentary carbonate rock formation and the toughness of the material make proper analysis difficult. In this study, a novel preparation method was used on a dolomitic carbonate sample, and selected regions were then serially sectioned and imaged by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting series of images were used to construct detailed three-dimensional representations of the microscopic pore spaces and analyze them quantitatively. We show for the first time the presence of nanometer-scale pores (50-300 nm) inside the solid dolomite matrix. We also show the degree of connectivity of these pores with micron-scale pores (2-5 μm) that were observed to further link with bulk pores outside the matrix.

  2. Biomass-derived porous carbon modified glass fiber separator as polysulfide reservoir for Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, Ramakrishnan Kalai; Zhu, Pei; Yan, Chaoi; Zhu, Jiadeng; Dirican, Mahmut; Shanmugavani, A; Lee, Yun Sung; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2018-03-01

    Biomass-derived porous carbon has been considered as a promising sulfur host material for lithium-sulfur batteries because of its high conductive nature and large porosity. The present study explored biomass-derived porous carbon as polysulfide reservoir to modify the surface of glass fiber (GF) separator. Two different carbons were prepared from Oak Tree fruit shells by carbonization with and without KOH activation. The KOH activated porous carbon (AC) provides a much higher surface area (796 m 2  g -1 ) than pyrolized carbon (PC) (334 m 2  g -1 ). The R factor value, calculated from the X-ray diffraction pattern, revealed that the activated porous carbon contains more single-layer sheets with a lower degree of graphitization. Raman spectra also confirmed the presence of sp 3 -hybridized carbon in the activated carbon structure. The COH functional group was identified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the polysulfide capture. Simple and straightforward coating of biomass-derived porous carbon onto the GF separator led to an improved electrochemical performance in Li-S cells. The Li-S cell assembled with porous carbon modified GF separator (ACGF) demonstrated an initial capacity of 1324 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C, which was 875 mAh g -1 for uncoated GF separator (calculated based on the 2nd cycle). Charge transfer resistance (R ct ) values further confirmed the high ionic conductivity nature of porous carbon modified separators. Overall, the biomass-derived activated porous carbon can be considered as a promising alternative material for the polysulfide inhibition in Li-S batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusive emission of methane and carbon dioxide from two hydropower reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, A A; Santos, M A; Xavier, V L; Bezerra, C S; Silva, C R O; Amorim, M A; Rodrigues, R P; Rogerio, J P

    2015-05-01

    The role of greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater reservoirs and their contribution to increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is currently under discussion in many parts of the world. We studied CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes from two large neotropical hydropower reservoirs with different climate conditions. We used floating closed-chambers to estimate diffusive fluxes of these gaseous species. Sampling campaigns showed that the reservoirs studied were sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, the CH4 emissions ranged from 0.530 to 396.96 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emissions ranged from -1,738.33 to 11,166.61 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and in Três Marias Reservoir the CH4 fluxes ranged 0.720 to 2,578.03 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emission ranged from -3,037.80 to 11,516.64 to mg.m(-2).d(-1). There were no statistically significant differences of CH4 fluxes between the reservoirs, but CO2 fluxes from the two reservoirs studied were significantly different. The CO2 emissions measured over the periods studied in Serra da Mesa showed some seasonality with distinctions between the wet and dry transition season. In Três Marias Reservoir the CO2 fluxes showed no seasonal variability. In both reservoirs, CH4 emissions showed a tendency to increase during the study periods but this was not statistically significant. These results contributed to increase knowledge about the magnitude of CO2 and CH4 emission in hydroelectric reservoirs, however due to natural variability of the data future sampling campaigns will be needed to better elucidate the seasonal influences on the fluxes of greenhouse gases.

  4. Sedimentary record of water column trophic conditions and sediment carbon fluxes in a tropical water reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero-Bravo, Vladislav; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2015-03-01

    Valle de Bravo (VB) is the main water reservoir of the Cutzamala hydraulic system, which provides 40% of the drinking water consumed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and exhibits symptoms of eutrophication. Nutrient (C, N and P) concentrations were determined in two sediment cores to reconstruct the water column trophic evolution of the reservoir and C fluxes since its creation in 1947. Radiometric methods ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) were used to obtain sediment chronologies, using the presence of pre-reservoir soil layers in one of the cores as an independent chronological marker. Mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.56 g cm(-2) year(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes from 122 to 380 g m(-2) year(-1). Total N ranged 4.9-48 g m(-2) year(-1), and total P 0.6-4.2 g m(-2) year(-1). The sedimentary record shows that all three (C, N and P) fluxes increased significantly after 1991, in good agreement with the assessed trophic evolution of VB and with historic and recent real-time measurements. In the recent years (1992-2006), the TOC flux to the bottom of VB (average 250 g m(-2) year(-1), peaks 323 g m(-2) year(-1)) is similar to that found in highly eutrophic reservoirs and impoundments. Over 1/3 of the total C burial since dam construction, circa 70,000 t, has occurred in this recent period. These results highlight the usefulness of the reconstruction of carbon and nutrient fluxes from the sedimentary record to assess carbon burial and its temporal evolution in freshwater ecosystems.

  5. Atmospheric transport simulations in support of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. M.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Karion, A.; Miller, J. B.; Sweeney, C.; Steiner, N.; Wofsy, S. C.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the atmospheric modeling that underlies the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) science analysis, including its meteorological and atmospheric transport components (polar variant of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models), and provides WRF validation for May-October 2012 and March-November 2013 - the first 2 years of the aircraft field campaign. A triply nested computational domain for WRF was chosen so that the innermost domain with 3.3 km grid spacing encompasses the entire mainland of Alaska and enables the substantial orography of the state to be represented by the underlying high-resolution topographic input field. Summary statistics of the WRF model performance on the 3.3 km grid indicate good overall agreement with quality-controlled surface and radiosonde observations. Two-meter temperatures are generally too cold by approximately 1.4 K in 2012 and 1.1 K in 2013, while 2 m dewpoint temperatures are too low (dry) by 0.2 K in 2012 and too high (moist) by 0.6 K in 2013. Wind speeds are biased too low by 0.2 m s-1 in 2012 and 0.3 m s-1 in 2013. Model representation of upper level variables is very good. These measures are comparable to model performance metrics of similar model configurations found in the literature. The high quality of these fine-resolution WRF meteorological fields inspires confidence in their use to drive STILT for the purpose of computing surface influences ("footprints") at commensurably increased resolution. Indeed, footprints generated on a 0.1° grid show increased spatial detail compared with those on the more common 0.5° grid, better allowing for convolution with flux models for carbon dioxide and methane across the heterogeneous Alaskan landscape. Ozone deposition rates computed using STILT footprints indicate good agreement with observations and exhibit realistic seasonal variability, further indicating that WRF

  6. Well log and seismic data analysis for complex pore-structure carbonate reservoir using 3D rock physics templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbing; Zhang, Jiajia

    2018-04-01

    The pore structure in heterogeneous carbonate rock is usually very complex. This complex pore system makes the relationship between the velocity and porosity of the rock highly scattered, so that for the classical two-dimensional rock physics template (2D RPT) it is not enough to accurately describe the quantitative relationship between the rock elastic parameters of this kind of reservoir and its porosity and water saturation. Therefore it is possible to attribute the effect of pore type to that of the porosity or water saturation, and leads to great deviations when applying such a 2D RPT to predict the porosity and water saturation in seismic reservoir prediction and hydrocarbon detection. This paper first presents a method to establish a new three-dimensional rock physics template (3D RPT) by integrating the Gassmann equations and the porous rock physics model, and use it to characterize the quantitative relation between rock elastic properties and the reservoir parameters including the pore aspect ratio, porosity and water saturation, and to predict these parameters from the known elastic properties. The test results on the real logging and seismic inversion data show that the 3D RPT can accurately describe the variations of elastic properties with the porosity, water saturation and pore-structure parameters, and effectively improve the accuracy of reservoir parameters prediction.

  7. Application of probabilistic facies prediction and estimation of rock physics parameters in a carbonate reservoir from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpouli, Sadegh; Hassani, Hossein; Nabi-Bidhendi, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein; Malehmir, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a carbonate field from Iran was studied. Estimation of rock properties such as porosity and permeability is much more challenging in carbonate rocks than sandstone rocks because of their strong heterogeneity. The frame flexibility factor (γ) is a rock physics parameter which is related not only to pore structure variation but also to solid/pore connectivity and rock texture in carbonate reservoirs. We used porosity, frame flexibility factor and bulk modulus of fluid as the proper parameters to study this gas carbonate reservoir. According to rock physics parameters, three facies were defined: favourable and unfavourable facies and then a transition facies located between these two end members. To capture both the inversion solution and associated uncertainty, a complete implementation of the Bayesian inversion of the facies from pre-stack seismic data was applied to well data and validated with data from another well. Finally, this method was applied on a 2D seismic section and, in addition to inversion of petrophysical parameters, the high probability distribution of favorable facies was also obtained. (paper)

  8. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  9. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  10. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  11. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Structural characterization and numerical simulations of flow properties of standard and reservoir carbonate rocks using micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Amina; Chevalier, Sylvie; Sassi, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    With advances in imaging techniques and computational power, Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is becoming an increasingly popular tool to characterize reservoir samples and determine their internal structure and flow properties. In this work, we present the details for imaging, segmentation, as well as numerical simulation of single-phase flow through a standard homogenous Silurian dolomite core plug sample as well as a heterogeneous sample from a carbonate reservoir. We develop a procedure that integrates experimental results into the segmentation step to calibrate the porosity. We also look into using two different numerical tools for the simulation; namely Avizo Fire Xlab Hydro that solves the Stokes' equations via the finite volume method and Palabos that solves the same equations using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Representative Elementary Volume (REV) and isotropy studies are conducted on the two samples and we show how DRP can be a useful tool to characterize rock properties that are time consuming and costly to obtain experimentally.

  13. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs. 3rd Quarterly report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-15

    Production from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} continue to improve. five wells responded to CO{sub 2} injection and currently are flowing with the exception of well No. 6, which has been placed on gas lift to draw the CO{sub 2} to the vicinity. Current production is about 400 BOPD from the five producing wells. Total CO{sub 2} injection is averaging 10 MMCFD, including 4 MMCFD purchased from Cardox and 6 MMCFD of recycled gas. Reservoir pressure increased from 2697 psi in May, to 2890 psi in June due to over-injection. An additional water injection pump was installed to handle the increasing volume of produced water. Also a workover was performed on Well No. 33 to take out the gas lift valves and eliminate communication. Two papers were presented at the SPE/DOE symposium that was held in Tulsa this April. The screening model has been released to the DOE and was made public during the month of May.

  14. A novel viscoelastic surfactant suitable for use in high temperature carbonate reservoirs for diverted acidizing stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Stuart; Zhou, Jian; Gadberry, Fred [AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Nasr-El-Din, Hisham; Wang, Guanqun [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Due to the low permeability of many carbonate hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs, it is difficult to achieve economic hydrocarbon recovery from a well without secondary stimulation. Bullheading of strong acids, such as HCl is practiced in low temperature reservoirs, but as the bottom hole temperature (BHT) rises, the acid becomes increasingly corrosive, causing facial dissolution and sub-optimal wormhole network development. In the last decade, viscoelastic surfactants (VES) have been added to HCl acid systems to improve the stimulation of HT carbonate reservoirs. The VES form 'living polymers' or worm-like micelles as electrolyte concentration rises in the acid due to reaction with the reservoir. This leads to viscosification of the stimulation fluid. The viscosification slows further acid reaction in the region already contacted by the acid, and forces the acid to take an alternate path into the rock, leading to diversion of the acids further down the well to the harder to access toe or lower permeability zones. Until recently, the maximum BHT that such VES-based diverting systems could be used was up to about 250 deg F/120 deg C. Above that temperature, all viscous properties of the fluid are lost, destroying the mechanism of acid diversion. A recently developed novel viscoelastic surfactant provides nearly 100 deg F/55 deg C extension in the BHT range in which diverted acid treatments can be used. These fluids are able to maintain both viscosity up to about 375 deg F/190 deg C, with the elastic modulus predominating up to 350 deg F/175 deg C. It is the elasticity which is particularly important in acid diversion. These fluids can have their viscosity readily broken by in-situ hydrocarbons, dilution with water or by using a mutual solvent. The broken fluids are readily removed from the near-well bore, leaving the newly created wormhole network to produce the target hydrocarbons. The new VES is significantly more environmentally benign compared with current

  15. Enhanced oil recovery by nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection followed by low salinity water flooding for tight carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Lwisa, Essa; Abdulkhalek, Ashrakat R.

    2018-03-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

  16. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  17. Development of infill drilling recovery models for carbonates reservoirs using neural networks and multivariate statistical as a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R; Wu, Ch. H; Bubela, A M

    1999-01-01

    This work introduces a novel methodology to improve reservoir characterization models. In this methodology we integrated multivariate statistical analyses, and neural network models for forecasting the infill drilling ultimate oil recovery from reservoirs in San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in west Texas. Development of the oil recovery forecast models help us to understand the relative importance of dominant reservoir characteristics and operational variables, reproduce recoveries for units included in the database, forecast recoveries for possible new units in similar geological setting, and make operational (infill drilling) decisions. The variety of applications demands the creation of multiple recovery forecast models. We have developed intelligent software (Soto, 1998), oilfield intelligence (01), as an engineering tool to improve the characterization of oil and gas reservoirs. 01 integrates neural networks and multivariate statistical analysis. It is composed of five main subsystems: data input, preprocessing, architecture design, graphic design, and inference engine modules. One of the challenges in this research was to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. The variables include porosity, permeability, water saturation, depth, area, net thickness, gross thickness, formation volume factor, pressure, viscosity, API gravity, number of wells in initial water flooding, number of wells for primary recovery, number of infill wells over the initial water flooding, PRUR, IWUR, and IDUR. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. We compared the results from neural network models with the non-parametric approach. The advantage of the non-parametric regression is that it is easy to use. The disadvantage is that it retains a large variance of forecast results for a particular data set. We also used neural network concepts to develop recovery

  18. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. 1994 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    It is anticipated that this project will show that the application of the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates can be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project are the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential. The selected site for the demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Work is nearing completion on the reservoir characterization components of the project. The near-term emphasis is to, (1) provide an accurate distribution of original oil-in-place on a waterflood pattern entity level, (2) evaluate past recovery efficiencies, (3) perform parametric simulations, and (4) forecast performance for a site specific field demonstration of the proposed technology. Macro zonation now exists throughout the study area and cross-sections are available. The Oil-Water Contact has been defined. Laboratory capillary pressure data was used to define the initial water saturations within the pay horizon. The reservoir`s porosity distribution has been enhanced with the assistance of geostatistical software. Three-Dimensional kriging created the spatial distributions of porosity at interwell locations. Artificial intelligence software was utilized to relate core permeability to core porosity, which in turn was applied to the 3-D geostatistical porosity gridding. An Equation-of-State has been developed and refined for upcoming compositional simulation exercises. Options for local grid-refinement in the model are under consideration. These tasks will be completed by mid-1995, prior to initiating the field demonstrations in the second budget period.

  19. Computer Modeling of the Displacement Behavior of Carbon Dioxide in Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Binshan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs is performed not only to improve oil recovery but also to store CO2 captured from fuel combustion. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulator to predict quantitatively supercritical CO2 flooding behaviors for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. A non-isothermal compositional flow mathematical model is developed. The phase transition diagram is designed according to the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and CO2 maximum solubility in oil phase. The convection and diffusion of CO2 mixtures in multiphase fluids in reservoirs, mass transfer between CO2 and crude and phase partitioning are considered. The governing equations are discretized by applying a fully implicit finite difference technique. Newton-Raphson iterative technique was used to solve the nonlinear equation systems and a simulator was developed. The performances of CO2 immiscible and miscible flooding in oil reservoirs are predicted by the new simulator. The distribution of pressure and temperature, phase saturations, mole fraction of each component in each phase, formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation and the improved oil recovery are predicted by the simulator. Experimental data validate the developed simulator by comparison with simulation results. The applications of the simulator in prediction of CO2 flooding in oil reservoirs indicate that the simulator is robust for predicting CO2 flooding performance.

  20. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  1. Impact of stylolitization on diagenesis of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir from a giant oilfield, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Matteo; Al Harthi, Amena; Morad, Daniel; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Mansurbeg, Howri; Al Suwaidi, Aisha; Al-Aasm, Ihsan S.; Ehrenberg, Stephen N.; Sirat, Manhal

    2016-04-01

    Bed-parallel stylolites are a widespread diagenetic feature in Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoirs, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Diagenetic calcite, dolomite, kaolin and small amounts of pyrite, fluorite, anhydrite and sphalerite occur along and in the vicinity of the stylolites. Petrographic observations, negative δ18OVPDB, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and enrichment in 87Sr suggest that these cements have precipitated from hot basinal brines, which migrated along the stylolites and genetically related microfractures (tension gashes). Fluid migration was presumably related to lateral tectonic compression events related to the foreland basin formation. The low solubility of Al3 + in formation waters suggests that kaolin precipitation was linked to derivation of organic acids during organic matter maturation, probably in siliciclastic source rocks. The mass released from stylolitization was presumably re-precipitated as macro- and microcrystalline calcite cement in the host limestones. The flanks of the oilfield (water zone) display more frequent presence and higher amplitude of stylolites, lower porosity and permeability, higher homogenization temperatures and more radiogenic composition of carbonates compared to the crest (oil zone). This indicates that oil emplacement retards diagenesis. This study demonstrates that stylolitization plays a crucial role in fluid flow and diagenesis of carbonate reservoirs during basin evolution.

  2. NST Quarterly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events

  3. NST Quarterly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events.

  4. The equivalent pore aspect ratio as a tool for pore type prediction in carbonate reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    FOURNIER , François; Pellerin , Matthieu; Villeneuve , Quentin; Teillet , Thomas; Hong , Fei; Poli , Emmanuelle; Borgomano , Jean; Léonide , Philippe; Hairabian , Alex

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The equivalent pore aspect ratios (EPAR) provide a tool to detect pore types by combining P-and S-wave velocities, porosity, bulk density and mineralogical composition of carbonate rocks. The integration of laboratory measurements, well log data and petrographic analysis of 468 carbonate samples from various depositional and diagenetic settings (Lower Cretaceous pre-salt non-marine carbonates from offshore Brazil, Lower Cretaceous shallow-water platform carbonates from...

  5. Quantifying Sources and Fluxes of Aquatic Carbon in U.S. Streams and Reservoirs Using Spatially Referenced Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2004-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in riverine systems that is an important component of the aquatic carbon cycle and energy balance. Examples of processes controlled by OC interactions are complexation of trace metals; enhancement of the solubility of hydrophobic organic contaminants; formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water; and absorption of visible and UV radiation. Organic carbon also can have indirect effects on water quality by influencing internal processes of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. photosynthesis and autotrophic and heterotrophic activity). The importance of organic matter dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing OC processes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context. In this study, we apply spatially referenced watershed models (SPARROW) to statistically estimate long-term mean-annual rates of dissolved- and total- organic carbon export in streams and reservoirs across the conterminous United States. We make use of a GIS framework for the analysis, describing sources, transport, and transformations of organic matter from spatial databases providing characterizations of climate, land use, primary productivity, topography, soils, and geology. This approach is useful because it illustrates spatial patterns of organic carbon fluxes in streamflow, highlighting hot spots (e.g., organic-rich environments in the southeastern coastal plain). Further, our simulations provide estimates of the relative contributions to streams from allochthonous and autochthonous sources. We quantify surface water fluxes of OC with estimates of uncertainty in relation to the overall US carbon budget; our simulations highlight that aquatic sources and sinks of OC may be a more significant component of regional carbon cycling than was previously thought. Further, we are using our simulations to explore the potential role of climate and other changes in the terrestrial environment on

  6. Capillary pressure - saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine: Implications for capillary/residual trapping in carbonate reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), data on capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are routinely needed to appraise reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been often experimentally studied in oil-water, gas-water and three phase gas-oil-water systems, but fewer works have been reported on scCO2-water under in-situ reservoir conditions. Here, Pc-Sw relations of supercritical (sc) CO2 displacing brine, and brine rewetting the porous medium to trap scCO2 were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior in carbonate reservoirs under representative reservoir conditions. High-quality drainage and imbibition (and associated capillary pressure hysteresis) curves were measured under elevated temperature and pressure (45 ºC, 8.5 and 12 MPa) for scCO2-brine as well as at room temperature and pressure (23 ºC, 0.1 MPa) for air-brine in unconsolidated limestone and dolomite sand columns using newly developed semi-automated multistep outflow-inflow porous plate apparatus. Drainage and imbibition curves for scCO2-brine deviated from the universal scaling curves for hydrophilic interactions (with greater deviation under higher pressure) and shifted to lower Pc than predicted based on interfacial tension (IFT) changes. Augmented scaling incorporating differences in IFT and contact angle improved the scaling results but the scaled curves still did not converge onto the universal curves. Equilibrium residual trapping of the nonwetting phase was determined at Pc =0 during imbibition. The capillary-trapped amounts of scCO2 were significantly larger than for air. It is concluded that the deviations from the universal capillary scaling curves are caused by scCO2-induced wettability alteration, given the fact that pore geometry remained constant and IFT is well constrained. In-situ wettability alteration by reactive scCO2 is of critical importance and must be accounted for to achieve reliable predictions of CO2 behavior in GCS reservoirs.

  7. Uncovering the Minor Contribution of Land-Cover Change in Upland Forests to the Net Carbon Footprint of a Boreal Hydroelectric Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessureault, Pierre-Luc; Boucher, Jean-François; Tremblay, Pascal; Bouchard, Sylvie; Villeneuve, Claude

    2015-07-01

    Hydropower in boreal conditions is generally considered the energy source emitting the least greenhouse gas per kilowatt-hour during its life cycle. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of the land-use change on the modification of the carbon sinks and sources following the flooding of upland forested territories to create the Eastmain-1 hydroelectric reservoir in Quebec's boreal forest using Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector. Results suggest a carbon sink loss after 100 yr of 300,000 ± 100,000 Mg CO equivalents (COe). A wildfire sensitivity analysis revealed that the ecosystem would have acted as a carbon sink as long as carbon flux estimate resulted in emissions of 4 ± 2 g COe kWh as a contribution to the carbon footprint calculation, one-eighth what was obtained in a recent study that used less precise and less sensitive estimates. Consequently, this study significantly reduces the reported net carbon footprint of this reservoir and reveals how negligible the relative contribution of the land-use change in upland forests to the total net carbon footprint of a hydroelectric reservoir in the boreal zone can be. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir; Monitoring geochimique par couplage entre les gaz rares et les isotopes du carbone: etude d'un reservoir naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, E

    2008-12-15

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO{sub 2}. Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  9. High primary production contrasts with intense carbon emission in a eutrophic tropical reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Nóbrega, Gabriel N.; Junger, Pedro C.; Figueiredo, Aline V.; Andrade, Anízio S.; Moura, de Caroline G.B.; Tonetta, Denise; Oliveira, Ernandes S.; Araújo, Fabiana; Rust, Felipe; Piñeiro-Guerra, Juan M.; Mendonça, Jurandir R.; Medeiros, Leonardo R.; Pinheiro, Lorena; Miranda, Marcela; Costa, Mariana R.A.; Melo, Michaela L.; Nobre, Regina L.G.; Benevides, Thiago; Roland, Fábio; Klein, de Jeroen; Barros, Nathan O.; Mendonça, Raquel; Becker, Vanessa; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Kosten, Sarian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies from temperate lakes indicate that eutrophic systems tend to emit less carbon dioxide (CO2) and bury more organic carbon (OC) than oligotrophic ones, rendering them CO2 sinks in some cases. However, the scarcity of data from tropical systems is critical for a

  10. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  11. Study of ionically modified water performance in carbonate reservoir system by multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    the critical mechanisms at the pore scale. Better pore scale physico-chemical understanding will guide to formulate accurate reservoir-scale models. This paper presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of the proposed mechanisms using multivariate data analysis. Detailed review of the subject, including...... mechanisms with supporting and contradictory evidence has been presented by Sohal et al. (2016). In this study, the significance of each contributing factor to EOR was quantified and subjected to rigorous multivariate statistical analysis. The analysis was limited because there is no uniform methodology...

  12. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  13. How the rock fabrics can control the physical properties - A contribution to the understanding of carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrast, H.; Siegesmund, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The correlation between microfabrics and physical properties will be illustrated in detail on three dolomitic carbonate reservoir rocks with different porosity. For this study core segments from the Zechstein Ca2-layer (Permian) of the Northwest German Basin were kindly provided by the Preussag Energie GmbH, Lingen. The mineral composition was determined by using the X-ray diffraction method. Petrographic and detailed investigation of the microfabrics, including the distribution and orientation of the cracks were done macroscopally (core segments) and microscopally with the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (thin sections in three orthogonally to each other oriented directions). Different kinds of petrophysical measurements were carried out, e.g. porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity, seismic velocities. (orig.)

  14. Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration into A Naturally Fractured Reservoir at Kevin Dome, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Minh [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Onishi, Tsubasa [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Carey, James William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Will, Bob [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); Bowen, David [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); DeVault, Brian [Vecta Oil and Gas, Dallas, TX (United States); Duguid, Andrew [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Spangler, Lee [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-22

    In this report, we describe risk assessment work done using the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) applied to CO2 storage at Kevin Dome, Montana. Geologic CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers poses certain risks including CO2/brine leakage through wells or non-sealing faults into groundwater or to the land surface. These risks are difficult to quantify due to data availability and uncertainty. One solution is to explore the consequences of these limitations by running large numbers of numerical simulations on the primary CO2 injection reservoir, shallow reservoirs/aquifers, faults, and wells to assess leakage risks and uncertainties. However, a large number of full-physics simulations is usually too computationally expensive. The NRAP integrated assessment model (NRAP-IAM) uses reduced order models (ROMs) developed from full-physics simulations to address this issue. A powerful stochastic framework allows NRAPIAM to explore complex interactions among many uncertain variables and evaluate the likely performance of potential sequestration sites.

  15. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Susan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mansoor, Kayyum [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Zhenue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Yunwei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trainor-Guitton, Whitney [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  16. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  17. An Efficient Upscaling Procedure Based on Stokes-Brinkman Model and Discrete Fracture Network Method for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Guan

    2010-01-01

    Naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are characterized by various-sized solution caves that are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. These complex geologic features can not be fully resolved in reservoir simulations due to the underlying uncertainty in geologic models and the large computational resource requirement. They also bring in multiple flow physics which adds to the modeling difficulties. It is thus necessary to develop a method to accurately represent the effect of caves, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling of naturally fractured carbonate karst reservoirs.

  18. Dynamic Pore-Scale Imaging of Reactive Transport in Heterogeneous Carbonates at Reservoir Conditions Across Multiple Dissolution Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Blunt, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sequestering carbon in deep geologic formations is one way of reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When supercritical CO2 mixes with brine in a reservoir, the acid generated has the potential to dissolve the surrounding pore structure. However, the magnitude and type of dissolution are condition dependent. Understanding how small changes in the pore structure, chemistry, and flow properties affect dissolution is paramount for successful predictive modelling. Both 'Pink Beam' synchrotron radiation and a Micro-CT lab source are used in dynamic X-ray microtomography to investigate the pore structure changes during supercritical CO2 injection in carbonate rocks of varying heterogeneity at high temperatures and pressures and various flow-rates. Three carbonate rock types were studied, one with a homogeneous pore structure and two heterogeneous carbonates. All samples are practically pure calcium carbonate, but have widely varying rock structures. Flow-rate was varied in three successive experiments by over an order of magnitude whlie keeping all other experimental conditions constant. A 4-mm carbonate core was injected with CO2-saturated brine at 10 MPa and 50oC. Tomographic images were taken at 30-second to 20-minute time-resolutions during a 2 to 4-hour injection period. A pore network was extracted using a topological analysis of the pore space and pore-scale flow modelling was performed directly on the binarized images with connected pathways and used to track the altering velocity distributions. Significant differences in dissolution type and magnitude were found for each rock type and flowrate. At the highest flow-rates, the homogeneous carbonate was seen to have predominately uniform dissolution with minor dissolution rate differences between the pores and pore throats. Alternatively, the heterogeneous carbonates which formed wormholes at high flow rates. At low flow rates the homogeneous rock developed wormholes, while the heterogeneous samples showed evidence

  19. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  20. Exploring a carbonate reef reservoir - nuclear magnetic resonance and computed microtomography confronted with narrow channel and fracture porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fheed, Adam; Krzyżak, Artur; Świerczewska, Anna

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of hydrocarbon reservoirs, comprising numerous moulds, vugs, fractures and channel porosity, requires a specific set of methods to be used in order to obtain plausible petrophysical information. Both computed microtomography (μCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are nowadays commonly utilized in pore space investigation. The principal aim of this paper is to propose an alternative, quick and easily executable approach, enabling a thorough understanding of the complicated interiors of the carbonate hydrocarbon reservoir rocks. Highly porous and fractured Zechstein bioclastic packstones from the Brońsko Reef, located in West Poland were studied. Having examined 20 thin sections coming from two different well bores, 10 corresponding core samples were subjected to both μCT and NMR experiments. After a preliminary μCT-based image analysis, 9.4 [T] high-field zero echo time (ZTE) imaging, using a very short repetition time (RT) of 2 [μs] was conducted. Taking into consideration the risk of internal gradients' generation, the reliability of ZTE was verified by 0.6 [T] Single Point Imaging (SPI), during which such a phenomenon is much less probable. Both narrow channels and fractures of different apertures appeared to be common within the studied rocks. Their detailed description was therefore undertaken based on an additional tool - the spatially-resolved 0.05 [T] T2 profiling. According to the obtained results, ZTE seems to be especially suitable for studying porous and fractured carbonate rocks, as little disturbance to the signal appears. This can be confirmed by the SPI, indicating the negligible impact of the internal gradients on the registered ZTE images. Both NMR imaging and μCT allowed for locating the most porous intervals including well-developed mouldic porosity, as well as the contrasting impermeable structures, such as the stylolites and anhydrite veins. The 3D low-field profiling, in turn, showed the fracture aperture variations

  1. Types and characteristics of carbonate reservoirs and their implication on hydrocarbon exploration: A case study from the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are deposited in the Ordovician, Cambrian, and Sinian of eastern Tarim Basin with a cumulative maximum thickness exceeding 2000 m. They are the main carriers of oil and gas, and a great deal of natural gas has been found there in the past five years. Based on lithofacies and reservoir differences, natural gas exploration domains of eastern Tarim Basin can be classified into five types: Ordovician platform limestone; Ordovician platform dolomite; Cambrian platform margin mound shoal; Cambrian slope gravity flow deposits, and; Sinian dolomite. Carbonate reservoir characteristics of all the types were synthetically analyzed through observation on drilling core and thin sections, porosity and permeability measurement, and logging data of over 10 drilling wells. We find distribution of part of good fracture and cave reservoir in carbonate platform limestone of Ordovician. In the Ordovician, platform facies dolomite is better than limestone, and in the Cambrian, platform margin mound shoal dolomite has large stacking thickness. Good quality and significantly thick carbonate gravity deposit flow can be found in the Cambrian slope, and effective reservoir has also been found in Sinian dolomite. Commercial gas has been found in the limestone and dolomite of Ordovician in Shunnan and Gucheng areas. Exploration experiences from these two areas are instructive, enabling a deeper understanding of this scene.

  2. Wettability Alteration of Sandstone and Carbonate Rocks by Using ZnO Nanoparticles in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Tajmiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to enhance oil recovery through wettability alteration by nanoparticles have been attracted in recent years. However, many basic questions have been ambiguous up until now. Nanoparticles penetrate into pore volume of porous media, stick on the core surface, and by creating homogeneous water-wet area, cause to alter wettability. This work introduces the new concept of adding ZnO nanoparticles by an experimental work on wettability alteration and oil recovery through spontaneous imbibition mechanism. Laboratory tests were conducted in two experimental steps on four cylindrical core samples (three sandstones and one carbonate taken from a real Iranian heavy oil reservoir in Amott cell. In the first step, the core samples were saturated by crude oil. Next, the core samples were flooded with nanoparticles and saturated by crude oil for about two weeks. Then, the core samples were immersed in distilled water and the amount of recovery was monitored during 30 days for both steps. The experimental results showed that oil recovery for three sandstone cores changed from 20.74, 4.3, and 3.5% of original oil in place (OOIP in the absence of nanoparticles to 36.2, 17.57, and 20.68% of OOIP when nanoparticles were added respectively. Moreover, for the carbonate core, the recovery changed from zero to 8.89% of OOIP by adding nanoparticles. By the investigation of relative permeability curves, it was found that by adding ZnO nanoparticles, the crossover-point of curves shifted to the right for both sandstone and carbonate cores, which meant wettability was altered to water- wet. This study, for the first time, illustrated the remarkable role of ZnO nanoparticles in wettability alteration toward more water-wet for both sandstone and carbonate cores and enhancing oil recovery.

  3. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  4. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-15

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 were mixed with N 2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F 12CO2 and F 13CO2 ), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ 13 C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0Raman peak area can be used for the determination of δ 13 C values within the relative errors range of 0.076% to 1.154% in 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 binary mixtures when F 12CO2 /F 13CO2 is 0.466972625. In addition, measurement of δ 13 C values by Micro-Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO 2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ 13 C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ 13 C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ 13 C values in natural CO 2 gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-01

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12CO2 and 13CO2 were mixed with N2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F12CO2 and F13CO2), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ13C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0 Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ13C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ13C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ13C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ13C values in natural CO2 gas reservoirs.

  6. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  7. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could

  8. Axial-obliquity control on the greenhouse carbon budget through mid- to high-latitude reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurin, Jiří; Meyers, S. R.; Uličný, David; Jarvis, I.; Sageman, B. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2015), s. 133-149 ISSN 0883-8305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12041; GA ČR GAP210/10/1991 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Cretaceous * carbon cycle * Milankovitch forcing Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.433, year: 2015

  9. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is common in the

  10. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France). Impact of diagenesis on reservoir properties of the Upper Jurassic carbonate sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, Yasin; Rusillon, Elme; Brentini, Maud; Clerc, Nicolas; Meyer, Michel; Samankassou, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Diagenesis of carbonate rocks is known to affect the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability) of the host rock. Assessing the diagenetic history of the rock is thus essential when evaluating any reservoir exploitation project. The Canton of Geneva (Switzerland) is currently exploring the opportunities for geothermal energy exploitation in the Great Geneva Basin (GGB) sub-surface. In this context, a structural analysis of the basin (Clerc et al., 2016) associated with reservoir appraisal (Brentini et al., 2017) and rock-typing of reservoir bodies of potential interest were conducted (Rusillon et al., 2017). Other geothermal exploitation projects elsewhere (e.g. Bavaria, south Germany, Paris Basin, France) showed that dolomitized carbonate rocks have good reservoir properties and are suitable for geothermal energy production. The objectives of this work are to (1) describe and characterize the dolomitized bodies in the GGB and especially their diagenetic history and (2) quantify the reservoir properties of those bodies (porosity, permeability). Currently, our study focuses on the Upper Jurassic sedimentary bodies of the GGB. Field and well data show that the dolomitization is not ubiquitous in the GGB. Results from the petrographical analyses of the Kimmeridgian cores (Humilly-2) and of field analogues (Jura, Saleve and Vuache mountains) display complex diagenetic histories, dependent of the study sites. The paragenesis exhibits several stages of interparticular calcite cementation as well as different stages of dolomitization and/or dedolomitization. Those processes seem to follow constrained path of fluid migrations through burial, faulting or exhumation during the basin's history. These complex diagenetic histories affected the petrophysical and microstructural properties via porogenesis (conservation of initial porosity, moldic porosity) and/or poronecrosis events. The best reservoir properties appear to be recorded in patch reef and peri

  11. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  12. CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.C.; Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Preiditus, J.; Vogt, J.

    1996-09-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg/San Andres formation; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir within the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from the flat bottom and shallow Nam Theun 2 Reservoir: drawdown area as a neglected pathway to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Pighini, Sylvie; Oudone, Phetdala; Sopraseuth, Saysoulinthone; Godon, Arnaud; Rode, Wanidaporn; Guédant, Pierre; Oliva, Priscia; Audry, Stéphane; Zouiten, Cyril; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Robain, Henri; Ribolzi, Olivier; Kansal, Arun; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Freshwater reservoirs are a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere. CO2 is known to be emitted at the reservoir surface by diffusion at the air-water interface and downstream of dams or powerhouses by degassing and along the river course. In this study, we quantified total CO2 emissions from the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Lao PDR) in the Mekong River watershed. The study started in May 2009, less than a year after flooding and just a few months after the maximum level was first reached and lasted until the end of 2013. We tested the hypothesis that soils from the drawdown area would be a significant contributor to the total CO2 emissions.Total inorganic carbon, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and CO2 concentrations were measured in 4 pristine rivers of the Nam Theun watershed, at 9 stations in the reservoir (vertical profiles) and at 16 stations downstream of the monomictic reservoir on a weekly to monthly basis. CO2 bubbling was estimated during five field campaigns between 2009 and 2011 and on a weekly monitoring, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems in 2012 and 2013. Three field campaigns in 2010, 2011 and 2013 were dedicated to the soils description in 21 plots and the quantification of soil CO2 emissions from the drawdown area. On this basis, we calculated total CO2 emissions from the reservoir and carbon inputs from the tributaries. We confirm the importance of the flooded stock of organic matter as a source of carbon (C) fuelling emissions. We show that the drawdown area contributes, depending on the year, from 40 to 75 % of total annual gross emissions in this flat and shallow reservoir. Since the CO2 emissions from the drawdown zone are almost constant throughout the years, the large interannual variations result from the significant decrease in diffusive fluxes and downstream emissions between 2010 and 2013. This overlooked pathway in terms of gross emissions would require an in-depth evaluation

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions from the flat bottom and shallow Nam Theun 2 Reservoir: drawdown area as a neglected pathway to the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deshmukh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater reservoirs are a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere. CO2 is known to be emitted at the reservoir surface by diffusion at the air–water interface and downstream of dams or powerhouses by degassing and along the river course. In this study, we quantified total CO2 emissions from the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Lao PDR in the Mekong River watershed. The study started in May 2009, less than a year after flooding and just a few months after the maximum level was first reached and lasted until the end of 2013. We tested the hypothesis that soils from the drawdown area would be a significant contributor to the total CO2 emissions.Total inorganic carbon, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and CO2 concentrations were measured in 4 pristine rivers of the Nam Theun watershed, at 9 stations in the reservoir (vertical profiles and at 16 stations downstream of the monomictic reservoir on a weekly to monthly basis. CO2 bubbling was estimated during five field campaigns between 2009 and 2011 and on a weekly monitoring, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems in 2012 and 2013. Three field campaigns in 2010, 2011 and 2013 were dedicated to the soils description in 21 plots and the quantification of soil CO2 emissions from the drawdown area. On this basis, we calculated total CO2 emissions from the reservoir and carbon inputs from the tributaries. We confirm the importance of the flooded stock of organic matter as a source of carbon (C fuelling emissions. We show that the drawdown area contributes, depending on the year, from 40 to 75 % of total annual gross emissions in this flat and shallow reservoir. Since the CO2 emissions from the drawdown zone are almost constant throughout the years, the large interannual variations result from the significant decrease in diffusive fluxes and downstream emissions between 2010 and 2013. This overlooked pathway in terms of gross emissions would require

  15. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng

    2009-01-01

    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  16. Origins of carbonate spherulites: Implications for Brazilian Aptian pre-salt reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Henry; Barth, Jennifer; Cook, Megan; Guo, Xuan; Zhou, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Spherulites, spherical to elliptical allochems composed of crystals radiating from a common core, investigated from a variety of depositional settings, e.g., hot springs, ambient water temperature geyser, tufa, and caliche, are all composed of a fine-grained nucleus made-up of carbonate encrusted bacterial bodies, biofilms, and/or EPS and surrounded by a cortex of radiating crystals of either aragonite or calcite. The microbes and their by-products in the nucleus induced the precipitation of carbonate, overcoming the inhibition to initiate crystal formation. The enveloping radiating crystals comprising aragonitic cortices tended to grow abiotically producing well-formed euhedral crystals with a paucity of included bacterial fossils. Whereas those cortical crystals made-up of calcite commonly contained bacterial fossils, indicating that the bacterial colonies contributed to the calcitic cortical crystal precipitation. Similar spherulites form a thick, widespread accumulation in the Aptian Pre-Salt lacustrine deposits in the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. As with the travertine, tufa, and caliche spherulites, the Pre-Salt spherulites most likely initiated carbonate precipitation around bacterial colonies and/or their bioproducts, probably while afloat in a lacustrine water column before settling to the water-sediment interface. Absence of inter-spherulite sediment and the spherulite-to-spherulite compaction indicate that cortical crystal growth continued while the spherulites were at the sediment-water interface rather than displacively within a sediment.

  17. Conversion of 3D seismic attributes to reservoir hydraulic flow units using a neural network approach: An example from the Kangan and Dalan carbonate reservoirs, the world's largest non-associated gas reservoirs, near the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Dezfoolian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an intelligent model based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN to produce a quantitative formulation between seismic attributes and hydraulic flow units (HFUs. Neural networks have been used for the last several years to estimate reservoir properties. However, their application for hydraulic flow unit estimation on a cube of seismic data is an interesting topic for research. The methodology for this application is illustrated using 3D seismic attributes and petrophysical and core data from 6 wells from the Kangan and Dalan gas reservoirs in the Persian Gulf basin. The methodology introduced in this study estimates HFUs from a large volume of 3D seismic data. This may increase exploration success rates and reduce costs through the application of more reliable output results in hydrocarbon exploration programs. 4 seismic attributes, including acoustic impedance, dominant fre- quency, amplitude weighted phase and instantaneous phase, are considered as the optimal inputs for pre- dicting HFUs from seismic data. The proposed technique is successfully tested in a carbonate sequence of Permian-Triassic rocks from the studied area. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a good agreement between the core and PNN-derived flow units. The PNN used in this study is successful in modeling flow units from 3D seismic data for which no core data or well log data are available.  Resumen Este estudio presenta un modelo inteligente basado en redes neuronales probabilísticas (PNN para pro- ducir una formulación cuantitativa entre atributos sísmicos y unidades de flujo hidráulico (HFU. Las redes neuronales han sido utilizadas durante los últimos años para estimar las propiedades de reserva. Sin embargo, su aplicación para estimación de unidades de flujo hidráulico en un cubo de datos sísmicos es un tema importante de investigación. La metodología para esta aplicación está ilustrada a partir de datos tridimensionales y

  18. Dolomitization of carbonated reservoirs of platforms. From geologic data to modeling. Example of the great Bahama bank; La dolomitisation des reservoirs carbonates de plate-forme. Des donnees geologiques a la modelisation. Exemple du Grand Banc des Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspard, E.

    2002-09-01

    Dolomitization has long been one of the most studied geological processes because of its economic interest (dolomitic rocks form a significant share of hydrocarbon reservoirs) as well as its academic interest, based on the fact that dolomite scarcely forms in current and recent marine environments whereas seawater is highly over-saturated; and that it is still not possible to synthesize it in laboratory under the same conditions. We used data collected by the University of Miami (Bahamas Drilling Project, ODP Leg 166) to understand the geological context of complete dolomitization of a Messinian 60 m thick reef unit. Classical methods of petrographic analysis of thin sections (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, in situ isotopic analyze using ionic microprobe) showed that the intensity of dolomitization is not controlled by the initial texture of the sediment, that the key parameter for dolomitization is the conservation of the initial mineralogy of magnesian bio-clasts, and that redox conditions, salinity and/or temperature of the precipitation fluid varied significantly during the process. Hydrodynamic modelling showed that during periods of high sea-level, Kohout thermal convection is a viable mechanism for driving marine fluids through the sediments. The key parameter for fluid circulations is the permeability anisotropy on the platform scale. Geochemical modelling showed that seawater is able to induce a complete dolomitization over durations of around one million years. Sensitivity tests showed that the critical parameter (as well as one of the less well-known) to describe diagenetic processes in carbonates is the water/rock reactions kinetics and in particular the precipitation kinetics of carbonate minerals. We finally propose that the dolomitization of the reef unit of the Unda well took place during the high sea-level period which extended over 1,1 My in the early Pliocene, according to the Kohout thermal convection

  19. A Review of Recovery Mechanisms of Ionically Modified Waterflood in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    . This process has been evaluated as a wettability-modifying agent in carbonates and captured the global research focus in water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the published research to speed the process of further investigations in this field. The review......Advanced water flooding is a process in which the ionic strength as well as the ionic composition of the injected water is tuned to improve the oil recovery. It has been observed in field trials and in lab core flooding experiments; advanced water flooding has the potential to recover additional oil...

  20. Carbon sequestration potential of the Habanero reservoir when carbon dioxide is used as the heat exchange fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoshui Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of sequestered carbon dioxide (CO2 as the heat exchange fluid in enhanced geothermal system (EGS has significant potential to increase their productivity, contribute further to reducing carbon emissions and increase the economic viability of geothermal power generation. Coupled CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy production from hot dry rock (HDR EGS were first proposed 15 years ago but have yet to be practically implemented. This paper reviews some of the issues in assessing these systems with particular focus on the power generation and CO2 sequestration capacity. The Habanero geothermal field in the Cooper Basin of South Australia is assessed for its potential CO2 storage capacity if supercritical CO2 is used as the working fluid for heat extraction. The analysis suggests that the major CO2 sequestration mechanisms are the storage in the fracture-stimulation damaged zone followed by diffusion into the pores within the rock matrix. The assessment indicates that 5% of working fluid loss commonly suggested as the storage capacity might be an over-estimate of the long-term CO2 sequestration capacity of EGS in which supercritical CO2 is used as the circulation fluid.

  1. Prediction of total organic carbon content in shale reservoir based on a new integrated hybrid neural network and conventional well logging curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linqi; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Chaomo; Wei, Yang; Zhou, Xueqing; Cheng, Yuan; Huang, Yuyang; Zhang, Le

    2018-06-01

    There is increasing interest in shale gas reservoirs due to their abundant reserves. As a key evaluation criterion, the total organic carbon content (TOC) of the reservoirs can reflect its hydrocarbon generation potential. The existing TOC calculation model is not very accurate and there is still the possibility for improvement. In this paper, an integrated hybrid neural network (IHNN) model is proposed for predicting the TOC. This is based on the fact that the TOC information on the low TOC reservoir, where the TOC is easy to evaluate, comes from a prediction problem, which is the inherent problem of the existing algorithm. By comparing the prediction models established in 132 rock samples in the shale gas reservoir within the Jiaoshiba area, it can be seen that the accuracy of the proposed IHNN model is much higher than that of the other prediction models. The mean square error of the samples, which were not joined to the established models, was reduced from 0.586 to 0.442. The results show that TOC prediction is easier after logging prediction has been improved. Furthermore, this paper puts forward the next research direction of the prediction model. The IHNN algorithm can help evaluate the TOC of a shale gas reservoir.

  2. Pore facies analysis: incorporation of rock properties into pore geometry based classes in a Permo-Triassic carbonate reservoir in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour-Bonab, H; Aliakbardoust, E

    2014-01-01

    Pore facies analysis is a useful method for the classification of reservoir rocks according to pore geometry characteristics. The importance of this method is related to the dependence of the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock on the pore geometry. In this study, pore facies analysis was performed by the quantification and classification of the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves applying the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method. Each pore facies includes a limited variety of rock samples with different depositional fabrics and diagenetic histories, which are representative of one type of pore geometry. The present pore geometry is the result of the interaction between the primary rock fabric and its diagenetic overprint. Thus the variations in petrographic properties can be correlated with the pore geometry characteristics. Accordingly, the controlling parameters in the pore geometry characteristics were revealed by detailed petrographic analysis in each pore facies. The reservoir rock samples were then classified using the determined petrographic properties which control the pore system quality. This method is proposed for the classification of reservoir rocks in complicated carbonate reservoirs, in order to reduce the incompatibility of traditional facies analysis with pore system characteristics. The method is applicable where enough capillary pressure data is not available. (papers)

  3. Discovery of reservoirs in carbonate deposits of the Perm Province using tracer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhnov, V.N.; Bykov, V.N.; Naborshchikova, I.I.; Zvyagin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described to define the oil-bearing collectors of the carbonate deposits of the Perm region by using labelled substances. The suspension containing tetra-boronatrium-borax was forced into productive layers. The penetration of the borax solution into pervious collectors was evidenced by sharply decreased estimates obtained by neutron logging technique. The minimum borax concentration sufficient for defining collectors by the neutron gamma method constitutes 1-2 g/l. With increasing the borax concentration to 50 g/l the radius of neutron method investigations amounts to 60 cm. The technique was used to determine the effective thickness of the Gezhsky productive layer, which was found to be 20% larger than that earlier determined by the standard geophysical borehole investigations. The data were confirmed by the layer sampling results

  4. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  5. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  6. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) FTS: Results From the 2012/13 Alaska Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight paths. Science operations started in 05/2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements and in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, an active/passive L-band radar for surface conditions (freeze/thaw state), and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, and interfering species (e.g., H2O). The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. Outstanding challenges include the need for improved spectral and radiometric calibration, as well as compensating for low signal-to-noise spectra acquired under Alaskan flight conditions. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns, including preliminary comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2

  7. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico, Semi-Annual; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, Stephen C.; Jennings, James W.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Outcrop studies include stratigraphic and petrophysical analysis. Analysis of the detailed sequence- and cycle-scale architecture of the Clear Fork reservoir-equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon is nearly complete. This work reveals two high-frequency transgressive-regressive sequences (HFS) in the lower Clear Fork composite depositional sequence and three HFS in the basal middle Clear Fork composite depositional sequence. A 1,800-ft transect of 1-inch-diameter samples was collected from one cycle at the Apache Canyon outcrop. The transect was sampled with 5-ft spacing, but there were some gaps due to cover and cliff, resulting in 181 samples. Permeability, porosity, and grain density were measured, and the spatial statistics are being analyzed geostatistically

  8. Understanding the fracture role on hydrocarbon accumulation and distribution using seismic data: A case study on a carbonate reservoir from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpouli, Sadegh; Hassani, Hossein; Malehmir, Alireza; Nabi-Bidhendi, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    The South Pars, the largest gas field in the world, is located in the Persian Gulf. Structurally, the field is part of the Qatar-South Pars arch which is a regional anticline considered as a basement-cored structure with long lasting passive folding induced by salt withdrawal. The gas-bearing reservoir belongs to Kangan and Dalan formations dominated by carbonate rocks. The fracture role is still unknown in gas accumulation and distribution in this reservoir. In this paper, the Scattering Index (SI) and the semblance methods based on scattered waves and diffraction signal studies, respectively, were used to delineate the fracture locations. To find the relation between fractures and gas distribution, desired facies containing the gas, were defined and predicted using a method based on Bayesian facies estimation. The analysis and combination of these results suggest that preference of fractures and/or fractured zones are negligible (about 1% of the total volume studied in this paper) and, therefore, it is hard to conceive that they play an important role in this reservoir. Moreover, fractures have no considerable role in gas distribution (less than 30%). It can be concluded from this study that sedimentary processes such as digenetic, primary porosities and secondary porosities are responsible for the gas accumulation and distribution in this reservoir.

  9. Anomalies of natural gas compositions and carbon isotope ratios caused by gas diffusion - A case from the Donghe Sandstone reservoir in the Hadexun Oilfield, Tarim Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Chen, Jianfa; Pang, Xiongqi; Zhang, Baoshou; Wang, Yifan; He, Liwen; Chen, Zeya; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    Natural gases in the Carboniferous Donghe Sandstone reservoir within the Block HD4 of the Hadexun Oilfield, Tarim Basin are characterized by abnormally low total hydrocarbon gas contents ( δ13C ethane (C2) gas has never been reported previously in the Tarim Basin and such large variations in δ13C have rarely been observed in other basins globally. Based on a comprehensive analysis of gas geochemical data and the geological setting of the Carboniferous reservoirs in the Hadexun Oilfield, we reveal that the anomalies of the gas compositions and carbon isotope ratios in the Donghe Sandstone reservoir are caused by gas diffusion through the poorly-sealed caprock rather than by pathways such as gas mixing, microorganism degradation, different kerogen types or thermal maturity degrees of source rocks. The documentation of an in-reservoir gas diffusion during the post entrapment process as a major cause for gas geochemical anomalies may offer important insight into exploring natural gas resources in deeply buried sedimentary basins.

  10. Well-based stable carbon isotope leakage monitoring of an aquifer overlying the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin; Myrttinen, Anssi; Zimmer, Martin; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2014-05-01

    At the pilot site for CO2 storage in Ketzin, a new well-based leakage-monitoring concept was established, comprising geochemical and hydraulic observations of the aquifer directly above the CO2 reservoir (Wiese et al., 2013, Nowak et al. 2013). Its purpose was to allow early detection of un-trapped CO2. Within this monitoring concept, we established a stable carbon isotope monitoring of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). If baseline isotope values of aquifer DIC (δ13CDIC) and reservoir CO2 (δ13CCO2) are known and distinct from each other, the δ13CDIC has the potential to serve as an an early indicator for an impact of leaked CO2 on the aquifer brine. The observation well of the overlying aquifer was equipped with an U-tube sampling system that allowed sampling of unaltered brine. The high alkaline drilling mud that was used during well drilling masked δ13CDIC values at the beginning of the monitoring campaign. However, subsequent monitoring allowed observing on-going re-equilibration of the brine, indicated by changing δ13CDIC and other geochemical values, until values ranging around -23 ‰ were reached. The latter were close to baseline values before drilling. Baselineδ13CDIC and δ13CCO2 values were used to derive a geochemical and isotope model that predicts evolution of δ13CDIC, if CO2 from the reservoir would leak into the aquifer. The model shows that equilibrium isotope fractionation would have to be considered if CO2 dissolves in the brine. The model suggests that stable carbon isotope monitoring is a suitable tool to assess the impact of injected CO2 in overlying groundwater aquifers. However, more data are required to close gaps of knowledge about fractionation behaviour within the CO2(g) - DIC system under elevated pressures and temperatures. Nowak, M., Myrttinen, A., Zimmer, M., Wiese, B., van Geldern, R., Barth, J.A.C., 2013. Well-based, Geochemical Leakage Monitoring of an Aquifer Immediately Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir by Stable Carbon

  11. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial: Dominated deltaic reservoirs. Second quarterly technical progress report, Fiscal year 1994, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Production resumed from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} project on December 6, 1993, after a 75 days shut in period. Since that date production is continuing to improve on various wells that responded to CO{sub 2} injection. Current production is averaging 325 BOPD from 3 wells. This represents 4 folds increase from the production level prior to commencing CO{sub 2} injection. Texaco continue to purchase an average of 4.3 MMCF/D of CO{sub 2} from Cardox. The reservoir pressure increased with CO{sub 2} injection from 2460 psi in September 1993 to 3328 psi in January 1994. However, the reservoir pressure declined slightly since then to 2730 psi in March of this year because of reservoir imbalance due to downtime at the CO{sub 2} source. Currently, CO{sub 2} is being injected in 3 wells in the reservoir including the horizontal well drilled specifically for this purpose. The well, through its 250 ft horizontal section, is capable of taking all the available CO{sub 2} volume. However, injection rate in the well is restricted in order to distribute the CO{sub 2} evenly in the reservoir. Texaco is continuing its efforts to transfer this technology to other operators by presenting two papers at the SPE/DOE symposium that was hold on April 17--20, 1994, in Tulsa, Oklahoma. One paper will discuss reservoir characterization and project design, while the other paper will discuss the development of the screening model. This model is scheduled for release to the public in 1994, it will be a very useful screening and design tool for the industry. A topical report covering the environmental regulations and constrains related to the implementation of similar projects, will be released later this year.

  12. Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.A.; Mahmood, S.M.; Amjad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

  13. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliston, Anton Jaynand; Holmqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Viggen, Kjerstin Dahl; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Guren, Ingrid; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    Fourth quarter of 2011 was unusually mild and wet, resulting in high energy inflow to the Norwegian reservoirs. Total inflow for the year was 149.2 TWh, 26.7 TWh more than normal. This ensured record-high 80.3 percent load factor at the end of the quarter.The stored energy amount in the reservoirs was thus 29.5 TWh greater than at the end of 2010/2011. Norway had a power consumption of 34.1 TWh in the fourth quarter. Compared with the same quarter of 2010, a decrease of 4.2 TWh, which can be connected to the mild weather development. The total Norwegian electricity consumption in 2011 was 125.1 TWh, or 6.9 TWh less than in 2010. Electricity production in the fourth quarter of 2011 was 38.3 GWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from the same quarter the year before. The production increase were a result of the large volume of water in the system. Power production for the year 2011 was 128.1 TWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from 2010. Kraft surplus was therefore large, and it was Norwegian net export of 4.2 TWh in the fourth quarter, and 3.0 TWh total for the year. In comparison, in the fourth quarter of 2010 Norwegian net import of 0.8 TWh and 7.5 TWh annually. The good resource combined with the low consumption gave a unusually low price levels in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for fourth quarter, the price of power in the East and South-East Norway Nok 264 / MWh, in western Norway Nok 260 / MWh, in Central Norway Nok 270 / MWh (eb)

  14. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface. Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, Peter [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Evans, James [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Formation reservoir/caprock interface in order to extend our work to a reservoir/caprock pair this is currently being assessed for long-term carbon storage. These analyses indicate that interface features similar to those observed at the Utah sites 3 were not observed. Although not directly related to our main study topic, one byproduct of our investigation is documentation of exceptionally high degrees of heterogeneity in the pore-size distribution of the Mount Simon Sandstone. This suggests that the unit has a greater-than-normal potential for residual trapping of supercritical CO2.

  15. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  16. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  17. CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process in a light oil shallow carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieditis, J.; Wehner, S.

    1998-01-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that exists throughout the Permian Basin. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin`s daily production. There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO{sub 2} projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO{sub 2} H-n-P process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO{sub 2} projects when coupled together.

  18. The applicability of C-14 measurements in the soil gas for the assessment of leakage out of underground carbon dioxide reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałupnik Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, due to the ratification of the Kioto Protocol, is obliged to diminish the emission of greenhouse gases. One of the possible solutions of this problem is CO2 sequestration (CCS - carbon capture and storage. Such an option is a priority in the European Union. On the other hand, CO2 sequestration may be potentially risky in the case of gas leakage from underground reservoirs. The most dangerous event may be a sudden release of the gas onto the surface. Therefore, it is very important to know if there is any escape of CO2 from underground gas reservoirs, created as a result of sequestration. Such information is crucial to ensure safety of the population in areas located above geological reservoirs. It is possible to assess the origin of carbon dioxide, if the measurement of radiocarbon 14C concentration in this gas is done. If CO2 contains no 14C, it means, that the origin of the gas is either geological or the gas has been produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, like coal. A lot of efforts are focused on the development of monitoring methods to ensure safety of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. A radiometric method has been tested for such a purpose. The main goal of the investigations was to check the application possibility of such a method. The technique is based on the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The gas sample is at first bubbled through the carbon dioxide adsorbent, afterwards the adsorbent is mixed with a dedicated cocktail and measured in a low-background liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus. The described method enables measurements of 14C in mine and soil gas samples.

  19. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu

    2018-03-20

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  20. Sedimentary mode and reservoir genesis of dual grain banks at the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm carbonate ramp in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas reservoir of the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm in the Sichuan Basin is a supergiant integral marine carbonate gas reservoir whose single scale is currently the largest in China. In order to figure out its sedimentary model and reservoir genesis, its geological structures and sedimentary settings and facies were analyzed comprehensively and the lithofacies paleographic map was plotted. It is revealed that the following sedimentary facies are successively developed in the Longwangmiao Fm from West Sichuan to Southeast Chongqing: diamictic tidal flat at the back ramp, grain bank (the upper bank at the inner/shallow ramp – interbank sea (depression, deeper open bay at the platform depression of inner ramp → evaporative lagoon → evaporative tidal flat, tempestite at the middle ramp – barrier beach – mud mound beach (the lower bank, and outer ramp – basin. Accordingly, the specific sedimentary model of dual grain banks in the Longwangmiao Fm carbonate ramp was established as follows. Firstly, in this model, dual grain banks are symmetrically developed with Wanzhou–Yibin platform depression as the axis, on whose dual sides the paleohighs have shallow water bodies with strong energy. Compared with the classical model, the new one has a new upper bank which is developed around the paleohighs covering an area of about 8 × 104 km2. Secondly, the upper bank is large for its paleogeomorphology being located at the highest position with the strongest water energy during deposition. Therefore, it is prone to dolomitization and meteoric dissolution respectively during contemporaneous–penecontemporaneous hot-dry and hot-humid periods, and especially the Caledonian–Early Hercynian denudation wedge out tends to undergo post-supergene multiphase karstification. Therefore, quality reservoirs are more developed on scale. Thirdly, the intergranular pores and vermes moldic pores were dissolved and enlarged due to the multiphase

  1. Spatio-temporal variations of carbon dioxide and its gross emission regulated by artificial operation in a typical hydropower reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Xiao, Yan; Guo, Jinsong; Wu, Shengjun; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Supersaturation and excess emission of greenhouse gases in freshwater reservoirs have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Although impoundment of reservoirs has been shown to contribute to the net emission of greenhouse gases, reservoir age, geographical distribution, submerged soil type and artificial regulation also have a great impact on their emissions. To examine how large scale reservoir operation impact the water column CO2 and its air-water interface flux, a field study was conducted in 2010 to evaluate potential ecological processes that regulate the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the water column in the Pengxi River backwater area (PBA), a typical tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Measurements of total alkalinity (TA), pH and water temperature were applied to compute the pCO2. And this approach was also validated by calculation of pCO2 from the dissolved inorganic carbon data of samples. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to determine how the dynamics of the water pCO2 were related to the available variables. The estimated pCO2 in our sample ranged from 26 to 4,087 μatm in the surface water. During low water operation from July to early September, there was an obvious pCO2 stratification, and pCO2 in the surface was almost unsaturated. This phenomenon was also observed in the spring bloom during discharge period. Conversely, there was no significant pCO2 stratification and the entire water column was supersaturated during high water operation from November to the following February. Significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of pCO2, DO and chlorophyll a, suggesting that phytoplankton dynamics regulate pCO2 in the PBA. The average areal rate of CO2 emissions from the Pengxi River ranged from 18.06 to 48.09 mmol m(-2) day(-1), with an estimated gross CO2 emission from the water surface of 14-37 t day(-1) in this area in 2010. Photosynthesis and respiration rates by phytoplankton might be the

  2. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  3. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  4. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of a compressed carbon dioxide energy storage system using two saline aquifers at different depths as storage reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; He, Qing; Borgia, Andrea; Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A compressed CO_2 energy storage system using two storage reservoirs is presented. • Compressed CO_2 energy storage density is higher than that of CAES. • The effects of storage reservoir pressure on the system performance are studied. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the leading large-scale energy storage technologies. However, low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density restrict its application. To improve the energy storage density, we propose a two-reservoir compressed CO_2 energy storage system. We present here thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO_2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions using a steady-state mathematical model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO_2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given power rating.

  6. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  7. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  8. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  9. Flexible three-dimensional electrodes of hollow carbon bead strings as graded sulfur reservoirs and the synergistic mechanism for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Ni, Wei, E-mail: niwei@iccas.ac.cn [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Wang, Ting; Guan, Qun [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: y_zhang@scu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Wu, Hao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Xiaodong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Bin, E-mail: edward.bwang@gmail.com [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Flexible three-dimensional electrode comprised of stringed N-doped hollow carbon spheres shows a synergistic sulfur confinement mechanism and a higher energy/power density for the promising lithium-sulfur batteries compared with traditional electrodes. - Highlights: • Hollow carbon beads on string structure was first prepared. • Flexible 3D electrodes as graded reservoirs for polysulfides were conducted. • Synergistic effect for enhanced polysulfides storage was claimed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) flexible electrodes of stringed hollow nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanospheres as graded sulfur reservoirs and conductive frameworks were elaborately designed via a combination of the advantages of hollow structures, 3D electrodes and flexible devices. The as-prepared electrodes by a synergistic method of electrospinning, template sacrificing and activation for Li–S batteries without any binder or conductive additives but a 3D interconnected conductive network offered multiple transport paths for electrons and improved sulfur utilization and facilitated an easy access to Li{sup +} ingress/egress. With the increase of density of hollow carbon spheres in the strings, the self-supporting composite electrode reveals an enhanced synergistic mechanism for sulfur confinement and displays a better cycling stability and rate performance. It delivers a high initial specific capacity of 1422.6 mAh g{sup −1} at the current rate of 0.2C with the high sulfur content of 76 wt.%, and a much higher energy density of 754 Wh kg{sup −1} and power density of 1901 Wh kg{sup −1}, which greatly improve the energy/power density of traditional lithium–sulfur batteries and will be promising for further commercial applications.

  10. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Thompson, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into geological formations at quantities necessary to significantly reduce CO2 emissions will represent an environmental perturbation on a continental scale. The extent to which biological processes may play a role in the fate and transport of CO2 injected into geological formations has remained an open question due to the fact that at temperatures and pressures associated with reservoirs targeted for sequestration CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), which has generally been regarded as a sterilizing agent. Natural subsurface accumulations of CO2 serve as an excellent analogue for studying the long-term effects, implications and benefits of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). While several geologic formations bearing significant volumes of nearly pure scCO2 phases have been identified in the western United States, no study has attempted to characterize the microbial community present in these systems. Because the CO2 in the region is thought to have first accumulated millions of years ago, it is reasonable to assume that native microbial populations have undergone extensive and unique physiological and behavioral adaptations to adjust to the exceedingly high scCO2 content. Our study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the dolomite limestone McElmo Dome scCO2 Field in the Colorado Plateau region, approximately 1,000 m below the surface. Fluid samples were collected from 10 wells at an industrial CO2 production facility outside Cortez, CO. Subsamples preserved on site in 3.7% formaldehyde were treated in the lab with Syto 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, revealing 3.2E6 to 1.4E8 microbial cells per liter of produced fluid and 8.0E9 cells per liter of local pond water used in well drilling fluids. Extracted DNAs from sterivex 0.22 um filters containing 20 L of sample biomass were used as templates for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA amplicons from these samples were cloned, sequenced and subjected to microbial

  11. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial - dominated deltaic reservoirs. Technical progress report, 4th quarter, fiscal year 1994, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-15

    Production from the Port Neches project has reached a new high of 500 BOPD, as shown. Production from several wells has improved after changing WAGer and CO{sub 2} injection patterns. The WAG process appears to be effective in FDD reservoirs. The WAT process has improved the oil production rates and simultaneously decreased the CO{sub 2} production rates from wells with high GOR. Material balance calculations indicate that the reservoir pressure remained relatively flat, and a new BHP will be taken this month to verify the calculations. Total CO{sub 2} injection is averaging about 9.5 MMCFD, including 3.9 MMCFD purchased from Cardox, as shown, and the balance is recycled from the producing wells. Over 50% of the gas was produced from one well, Khun No. 33. A CO{sub 2} injection line was installed to huff-puff well Khun No. 6 that did not respond yet to CO{sub 2} injection in well Khun No. 17. After injecting a limited CO{sub 2} volume in well Khun No. 6, this will be followed by a short shut-in period, then the well will be placed on production.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Fluid Flow in Continental Carbonate Reservoir Rocks and in Upscaled Rock Models Generated with Multiple-Point Geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcomputed tomography (μCT and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM simulations were applied to continental carbonates to quantify fluid flow. Fluid flow characteristics in these complex carbonates with multiscale pore networks are unique and the applied method allows studying their heterogeneity and anisotropy. 3D pore network models were introduced to single-phase flow simulations in Palabos, a software tool for particle-based modelling of classic computational fluid dynamics. In addition, permeability simulations were also performed on rock models generated with multiple-point geostatistics (MPS. This allowed assessing the applicability of MPS in upscaling high-resolution porosity patterns into large rock models that exceed the volume limitations of the μCT. Porosity and tortuosity control fluid flow in these porous media. Micro- and mesopores influence flow properties at larger scales in continental carbonates. Upscaling with MPS is therefore necessary to overcome volume-resolution problems of CT scanning equipment. The presented LBM-MPS workflow is applicable to other lithologies, comprising different pore types, shapes, and pore networks altogether. The lack of straightforward porosity-permeability relationships in complex carbonates highlights the necessity for a 3D approach. 3D fluid flow studies provide the best understanding of flow through porous media, which is of crucial importance in reservoir modelling.

  13. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 1. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 1. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Eliston, Anton Jaynanand; Guren, Ingri; Homqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Rasmussen, Kristian; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    The first quarter of 2012 was unusually mild and wetter than normal. Total inflow was 16.8 TWh, 7.5 TWh more than normal. This ensured a high reservoir levels and at the end of the quarter the filling was 50.5 percent. It is 12.5 percentage points over the normal for the time of year and 32.4 percentage points higher than the same time last year. Norway had a power consumption of 37.5 TWh in the first quarter, which is 2.3 percent less than in the same quarter last year. the past 12 months, consumption has been 124.2 TWh, compared with 129.7 TWh the preceding 12 months. Power production in Norway was 42.3 TWh in the first quarter - an increase of 32.3 percent compared with the same quarter last year. The last 12 months have the Norwegian production been 138.5 TWh compared to 117.7 TWh the the previous 12 months. The production increase is due to milder and wetter weather than normal over the past year. This involvement also high the exports abroad. In the first quarter, Norway had a net export of 4.8 TWh, compared with a net import of 6.4 TWh in the first quarter last year. The good resource, combined with a low consumption gave a low price level in wholesale market for electricity. On average for the fourth quarter was the average spot price in the South and West Norway, Nok 272 and 275 / MWh. In Eastern Norway, the average price of Nok 283 / MWh, while it was Nok 285 / MWh in the Middle and Northern Norway. (Author)

  14. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Eliston, Anton Jayanand; Vaeringstad, Thomas; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Langseth, Benedicte; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Rasmussen, Kristian; Guren, Ingri

    2012-07-01

    Second quarter of 2012 was cold. Total inflow was 47.0 TWh, 8.8 TWh less than normal. At the end of the quarter, the reservoir level 68.4 percent. It is 1.8 percentage points above normal for time of year and 1.2 percentage points higher than the same time last year. Norway had a power consumption of 28.2 TWh in the second quarter, which is 4.2 percent higher than in the same quarter last year. The last 12 months the consumption have been 125.7 TWh, compared with 128.7 TWh the preceding 12 months. The power production in Norway was 33.3 TWh in the second quarter - an increase of 26.1 percent compared with the same quarter last year. The last 12 months the Norwegian production has been 145.8 TWh, compared with 120.9 TWh the preceding 12 months. The production increase is due to that the last year has been much wetter than the preceding. This has also given high export abroad. In the second quarter Norway had a net export of 5.1 TWh, compared with a net import of 0.6 TWh in the second quarter last year. The good resource gave a low price level in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for the second quarter was the average spot price in West, Southwest and Eastern Norway, 201, 202 and 203 Nok / MWh. In Central and Northern Norway, the average price 218 and 213 Nok/ MWh. (eb)

  15. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model v2.0.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Zeebe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. LOSCAR's configuration of ocean geometry is flexible and allows for easy switching between modern and paleo-versions. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  16. PICOREF: carbon sequestration in geological reservoirs in France.Map of the unknown ''ground motion''. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmer, J.; Lembezat, C.

    2006-01-01

    in the framework of the PICOREF project, ''CO 2 sequestration in geological reservoirs in France'', two main objectives are decided: the characterization of french adapted sites and the redaction of a document to ask for the storage authorization, including a methodology to survey and study the storage site. This report aims to define the unknown ground motion which the impact should present a risk for the surface installations. The project is presented, as the geological context and the proposed methodology. (A.L.B.)

  17. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion – Taking a closer look at the Karoo rangelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte

    The semi-arid rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa, which are nowadays characterized by badlands on the foot slopes of upland areas and complex gully systems in valley bottoms, have experienced a number of environmental changes. With the settlement of European farmers in the late ......th century agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing which probably acted as a trigger to land degradation. As a consequence of higher water demands and shifting rainfall patterns, many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle...... or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods. Most of these dams are now filled with sediment and many have become breached, revealing sediment archives that can be used to analyse land use changes as well as carbon erosion and deposition during the last ca. 100 years. In this ongoing project, a combination...

  18. The Ladbroke Grove-Katnook carbon dioxide natural laboratory: a recent CO{sub 2} accumulation in a lithic sandstone reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.N. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Australian School of Petroleum; Zwingmann, N. [CSIRO Petroleum, Bentley, WA (Australia); Lemon, N.M. [Santos Ltd., Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    The Ladbroke Grove and Katnook Gas Fields, within the western Otway Basin, southeastern South Australia, provide a natural laboratory to study the effects of CO{sub 2} on siliciclastic reservoirs. CO{sub 2} degassing from nearby volcanics has migrated into the methane accumulation of the Ladbroke Grove Field within the Pretty Hill Formation. CO{sub 2} levels in the Ladbroke Grove Field range from 26 to 57 mol% while Katnook has less than 1 mol%. In Ladbroke Grove, the CO{sub 2} has altered or dissolved most of the reactive minerals, somewhat constrained by the Pleistocene to Recent age of the CO{sub 2} influx. The developed late-stage kaolinite, quartz and less soluble carbonate are products of the reactions involving CO{sub 2} and reactive minerals. The major formation water types were identified using the geochemical code EQ3NR. Ladbroke Grove waters above the gas-water contact (GWC) have bicarbonate levels an order of magnitude higher than the other waters analysed. Below the GWC, Ladbroke Grove and Katnook formation waters have similar ionic compositions, however, pH levels in Ladbroke Grove are low relative to Katnook. The Ladbroke Grove Field has efficiently stored CO{sub 2} in a gaseous and aqueous phase since the influx began in the Pleistocene. In addition, due to the high amount of reactive minerals within the reservoir, mineralisation of ferroan carbonates has also occurred as a more permanent form of mineral storage of some of the CO{sub 2}. (author)

  19. Quarterly report for the electricity market; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliston, Anton Jaynand; Waeringstad, Thomas; Holmqvist, Erik; Lund Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Willumsen, Mats Oivind; Vik, Martin Andreas; Rasmussen, Kristian; Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Weir, David Edward; Thorsen, Kjell; Langseth, Benedicte; Skau, Seming Haakon

    2013-02-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2012 the total inflow was 20.4 TWh, 2.8 TWh less than normal and 11.3 TWh less than in the same quarter than in 2011. Meanwhile the weather was slightly colder than normal, which contributed to high production and normalization of reservoir fillings. At the end of the quarter, the reservoir level was 0.8 percentage points below normal for the season, while it was 4.5 percentage points over the beginning of the quarter. At the end of 2012 it was 9.9 percent landfill units lower than the same time in 2011. Norway had a power consumption of 37.2 TWh in the fourth quarter, an increase of 9 percent from last year. In 2012, consumption was 130.0 TWh, an increase of around 5 TWh from 2011. Power production in Norway was 39.2 TWh in the fourth quarter - an increase of 2.4 percent from last year. In 2012, production was 147.9 TWh, compared to 128.1 TWh in 2011. The production increase is due to high reservoir levels at the beginning of 2012, and more than normal inflow. This gave high exports abroad. In the quarter, Norway had a net export of 2 TWh of electricity and was 17.9 TWh in 2012. It is the highest since 2000. The good resource gave a relatively low price level in the wholesale market for electricity. The average spot price in the Norwegian market areas were NOK 268-277 / MWh in the fourth quarter. In 2012 the price was 217-236 NOK/ MWh.(eb)

  20. Genesis and distribution pattern of carbonate cements in lacustrine deep-water gravity-flow sandstone reservoirs in the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag, Jiyang Depression, Eastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Yingchang; Friis, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The lacustrine deep-water gravity-flow sandstone reservoirs in the third member of the Shahejie Formation are the main exploration target for hydrocarbons in the Dongying Sag, Eastern China. Carbonate cementation is responsible for much of the porosity and permeability reduction in the lacustrine...

  1. Citrus stand ages regulate the fraction alteration of soil organic carbon under a citrus/Stropharua rugodo-annulata intercropping system in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Zhang, Tong; Xie, Deti

    2017-08-01

    Soil carbon fractionation is a valuable indicator in assessing stabilization of soil organic matter and soil quality. However, limited studies have addressed how different vegetation stand ages under intercropping agroforestry systems, could affect organic carbon (OC) accumulation in bulk soil and its physical fractions. A field study thus investigated the impact of citrus plantation age (15-, 25-, and 45-year citrus) on the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC) and SOC fractions and yields of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (SRA) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Chongqing, China. Results indicated that the intercropping practice of SRA with citrus significantly increased the SOC by 57.4-61.6% in topsoil (0-10 cm) and by 24.8-39.9% in subsoil (10-30 cm). With a significantly higher enhancement under the 25-year citrus stand than the other two stands, all these citrus stands of three ages also resulted in a significant increase of free particulate OC (fPOC, 60.1-62.4% in topsoil and 34.8-46.7% in subsoil), intra-micro aggregate particulate OC (iPOC, 167.6-206.0% in topsoil and 2.77-61.09% in subsoil), and mineral-associated OC (MOC, 43.6-46.5% in topsoil and 26.0-51.5% in subsoil). However, there were no significant differences in yields of SRA under three citrus stands. Our results demonstrated that citrus stand ages did play an important role in soil carbon sequestration and fractionation under a citrus/SRA intercropping system, which could therefore provide a sustainable agroforestry system to enhance concurrently the SOC accumulation while mitigating farmland CO 2 emission.

  2. Quarterly Financial Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    acray

    2011-06-30

    Jun 30, 2011 ... 2 IDRC QUARTERLY FINANCIAL REPORT JUNE 2011. Consolidated .... spending on capacity-building projects as well as to management's decision to restrict capacity- building ...... The investments in financial institutions.

  3. Hybrid ANFIS with ant colony optimization algorithm for prediction of shear wave velocity from a carbonate reservoir in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Fattahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocity (Vs data are key information for petrophysical, geophysical and geomechanical studies. Although compressional wave velocity (Vp measurements exist in almost all wells, shear wave velocity is not recorded for most of elderly wells due to lack of technologic tools. Furthermore, measurement of shear wave velocity is to some extent costly. This study proposes a novel methodology to remove aforementioned problems by use of hybrid adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS with ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO based on fuzzy c–means clustering (FCM and subtractive clustering (SCM. The ACO is combined with two ANFIS models for determining the optimal value of its user–defined parameters. The optimization implementation by the ACO significantly improves the generalization ability of the ANFIS models. These models are used in this study to formulate conventional well log data into Vs in a quick, cheap, and accurate manner. A total of 3030 data points was used for model construction and 833 data points were employed for assessment of ANFIS models. Finally, a comparison among ANFIS models, and six well–known empirical correlations demonstrated ANFIS models outperformed other methods. This strategy was successfully applied in the Marun reservoir, Iran.

  4. Determination of Pore Pressure from Sonic Log: a Case Study on One of Iran Carbonate Reservoir Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Azadpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pore pressureis defined as the pressure of the fluid inside the pore space of the formation, which is also known as the formation pressure. When the pore pressure is higher than hydrostatic pressure, it is referred to as overpressure. Knowledge of this pressure is essential for cost-effective drilling, safe well planning, and efficient reservoir modeling. The main objective of this study is to estimate the formation pore pressure as a reliable mud weight pressure using well log data at one of oil fields in the south of Iran. To obtain this goal, the formation pore pressure is estimated from well logging data by applying Eaton’s prediction method with some modifications. In this way, sonic transient time trend line is separated by lithology changes and recalibrated by Weakley’s approach. The created sonic transient time is used to create an overlay pore pressure based on Eaton’s method and is led to pore pressure determination. The results are compared with the pore pressure estimated from commonly used methods such as Eaton’s and Bowers’s methods. The determined pore pressure from Weakley’s approach shows some improvements in comparison with Eaton’s method. However, the results of Bowers’s method, in comparison with the other two methods, show relatively better agreement with the mud weight pressure values.

  5. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  6. Mathematical model of the methane replacement by carbon dioxide in the gas hydrate reservoir taking into account the diffusion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musakaev, N. G.; Khasanov, M. K.; Rafikova, G. R.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of the replacement of methane in its hydrate by carbon dioxide in a porous medium is considered. The gas-exchange kinetics scheme is proposed in which the intensity of the process is limited by the diffusion of CO2 through the hydrate layer formed between the gas mixture flow and the CH4 hydrate. Dynamics of the main parameters of the process is numerically investigated. The main characteristic stages of the process are determined.

  7. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  8. Quarterly oil statistics. First quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide rapid, accurate and detailed statistics on oil supply and demand in the OECD area. Main components of the system are: complete balances of production, trade, refinery intake and output, final consumption, stock levels and changes; separate data for crude oil, NGL, feedstocks and nine product groups; separate trade data for main product groups, LPG and naphtha; imports for 41 origins; exports for 29 destinations; marine bunkers and deliveries to international civil aviation by product group; aggregates of quarterly data to annual totals; and natural gas supply and consumption.

  9. Effect of Temperature on Wettability and Optimum Wetting Conditions for Maximum Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoir System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2017-01-01

    The additional oil recovery from fractured & oil-wet carbonates by ionically modified water is principally based on changing wettability and often attributed to an improvement in water wetness. The influence of different parameters like dilution of salinity, potential anions, temperature, pressure......, lithology, pH, oil acid and base numbers to improve water wetting has been tested in recovery experiments. In these studies temperature is mainly investigated to observe the reactivity of potential anions (SO42-, PO33-, and BO33-) at different concentrations. But the influence of systematically increasing...... and 100 times. It was observed that as temperature increased the water-wetness decreased for seawater and seawater dilutions, however, the presence of elevated sulfate can somewhat counter this trend as sulfate increased oil wetting....

  10. NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  11. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  12. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  13. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  14. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  15. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  16. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  17. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  18. Application of fluorinated nanofluid for production enhancement of a carbonate gas-condensate reservoir through wettability alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaei, Zahra; Azin, Reza; Naghizadeh, Arefeh; Osfouri, Shahriar; Saboori, Rahmatollah; Vahdani, Hosein

    2018-03-01

    Condensate blockage phenomenon in near-wellbore region decreases gas production rate remarkably. Wettability alteration using fluorinated chemicals is an efficacious way to vanquish this problem. In this study, new synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles with an optimized condition and mean diameter of 50 nm is employed to modify carbonate rock surface wettability. Rock characterization tests consisting Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) were utilized to assess the nanofluid adsorption on rock surface after treatment. Contact angle, spontaneous imbibition and core flooding experiments were performed to investigate the effect of synthesized nanofluid adsorption on wettability of rock surface and liquid mobility. Results of contact angle experiments revealed that wettability of rock could alter from strongly oil-wetting to the intermediate gas-wetting even at elevated temperature. Imbibition rates of oil and brine were diminished noticeably after treatment. 60% and 30% enhancement in pressure drop of condensate and brine floods after wettability alteration with modified nanofluid were observed which confirm successful field applicability of this chemical.

  19. Relationship between fracturing and porogenesis in a carbonate reservoir: Example from the Middle Turonian Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila, Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Ali, Hajer; Belghithi, Hanen; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the Middle Turonian carbonate Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila area (Central Tunisia). This member mainly consists of dolostones. The sampling of the dolomitic rocks was carried out on both sides of the several fractures affecting the Bireno Member. We also measured the directions and dips of the fractures. The Studied dolomites basically consist of subhedral to euhedral dolospar. The porosity associated to the dolomites show a gradual variation both laterally and vertically. In fact, porosity increases respectively, laterally while going toward the fractures and vertically from the bottom to the top of the dolomitic member. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses of dolomite, carried out respectively by X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption, show that the studied dolomites broadly range from a sub-stoechiometric dolomite (48% CaCO3) far from the fractures to a dolomitic calcite (84% CaCO3) near the fractures. In the same way, the MgCO3 contents vary from 35% to 11%. Such high contents in Ca against low contents in Mg could probably related to the dilution of the dolomitizing marine waters by meteoric waters which would have been introduced within the platform during the Middle Turonian sea-level fall and the subsequent subaerial exposure of the Bireno platform. The Sr and Na contents (respectively, 4 ppm and 15 ppm in average) are rather low and they gradually decrease while approaching the fractures. Such a gradual decrease in Sr and Na concentrations may be the result of salinity lowering caused by the meteoric waters that would have circulated through the existing fractures networks. The previous analyses were supplemented by the SEM examination of the dolomite and the measurement of porosity and permeability. The SEM allowed us to identify the dolomite petrographic phases and the associated diagenetic products (solution, cementing, dedolomitization.), whereas the porosity and permeability evaluation highlights the

  20. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  1. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  2. Imagerie sismique d'un réservoir carbonaté : le dogger du Bassin parisien Seismic Imaging a Carbonate Reservoir: the Paris Basin Dogger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mougenot D.

    2006-11-01

    inversion, 3D interpretation through automatic picking and horizon attributes. The combined use of all these techniques on the Villeperdue (Total operator and Fontaine-au-Bron fields (EAP, operator illustrates the appropriateness of surface seismic for describing the characteristics of the thin reservoir (30 m lying at the top of the Dogger carbonate, at a depth of 1900 m. Widening the frequency content of the seismic comes into conflict with the limitations imposed by the attenuation of the high frequencies as they are propagated in the subsurface. An evaluation of this attenuation, made by VSP, indicates that the filtering related to propagation as far as the Dogger (1. 3 s twt is sharply amplified beyond 90 Hz. High-resolution seismic (2D-HR is used to record this transition frequency at the level of the target, since it provides sufficiently adequate vertical resolution for the reflections at the top and at the base of the reservoir not to interfere (lambda/2 = 26 m. The amplitude of these reflectors is therefore representative of the impedance contrasts on either limit of the reservoir and their lateral variations reveal heterogeneities, such as porosity changes, which are expressed well acoustically. The high frequency content of the 3D seismic (70 Hz was more difficult to enhance. As a result of careful static corrections, which are related to a geological database and uphole surveys, the time-image of the reservoir, at the location of the syncline described by the 3D, is not influenced by the topographic variations and the associated strong surface heterogeneities. Yet the essential contribution made by the 3D, thanks to the continuity of its spatial sampling, is to evidence, via the picking of the reservoir and the corresponding horizon attributes, submeridian lineaments corresponding to faults with throw of several meters which is too weak to be detected on vertical sections. The distribution of these faults, via which water tends to invade the reservoir, and the

  3. Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Stephen H. [Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1999-11-05

    A copy of the quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the WSSRAP verification group and merged into the data base during the third quarter of 1999. Selected KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during the quarter are also included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  4. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the biodiversity and biogeochemical processes in the sediments above these reservoirs. Whilst a number of impact assessment studies have been conducted, no information is available on the specific responses of viruses and virus-host interactions. In the present study, we tested the impact of a simulated CO2 leakage on the benthic microbial assemblages, with specific focus on microbial activity and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM). We found that exposure to levels of CO2 in the overlying seawater from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm for a period up to 140 days, resulted in a marked decrease in heterotrophic carbon production and organic matter degradation rates in the sediments, associated with lower rates of VIPM, and a progressive accumulation of sedimentary organic matter with increasing CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in seawater pCO2 levels that may result from CO2 leakage, can severely reduce the rates of microbial-mediated recycling of the sedimentary organic matter and viral infections, with major consequences on C cycling and nutrient regeneration, and hence on the functioning of benthic ecosystems.

  5. [Characteristics of dissolved organic carbon release under inundation from typical grass plants in the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiu-Xia; Zhu, Boi; Hua, Ke-Ke

    2013-08-01

    The water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) exposes in spring and summer, then, green plants especially herbaceous plants grow vigorously. In the late of September, water-level fluctuation zone of TGR goes to inundation. Meanwhile, annually accumulated biomass of plant will be submerged for decaying, resulting in organism decomposition and release a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This may lead to negative impacts on water environment of TGR. The typical herbaceous plants from water-level fluctuation zone were collected and inundated in the laboratory for dynamic measurements of DOC concentration of overlying water. According to the determination, the DOC release rates and fluxes have been calculated. Results showed that the release process of DOC variation fitted in a parabolic curve. The peak DOC concentrations emerge averagely in the 15th day of inundation, indicating that DOC released quickly with organism decay of herbaceous plant. The release process of DOC could be described by the logarithm equation. There are significant differences between the concentration of DOC (the maximum DOC concentration is 486.88 mg x L(-1) +/- 35.97 mg x L(-1) for Centaurea picris, the minimum is 4.18 mg x L(-1) +/- 1.07 mg x L(-1) for Echinochloacrus galli) and the release amount of DOC (the maximum is 50.54 mg x g(-1) for Centaurea picris, the minimum is 6.51 mg x g(-1) for Polygonum hydropiper) due to different characteristics of plants, especially, the values of C/N of herbaceous plants. The cumulative DOC release quantities during the whole inundation period were significantly correlated with plants' C/N values in linear equations.

  6. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G. [VEBA OEL AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  7. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  8. EDF - Quarterly Financial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader

    2014-01-01

    EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018

  9. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1996--September 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J. [and others

    1996-11-06

    The overall objective of this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. This information is important to the utility industry in anticipation of pending regulations. During Phase I, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed, built and integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to and mercury concentration measurements will be made to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase II effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale.

  10. Fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonated and sandstone reservoirs in the fronts and fore-lands of folded chains: the Salt Range case - Poswar (Pakistan); Circulation des fluides et diagenese des reservoirs carbonates et greseux dans les fronts de chaines plissees et leur avant pays: le cas du Salt Range - Poswar (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchilla, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Salt Range-Poswar Province is located in the western foothills of the Himalayas, in northern Pakistan. It extends over 170 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north to the Salt Range in the south. The Salt Range itself is dominantly an ENE-trending structure, but it comprises also a NNW-trending lateral ramp which connects to the west with the Surghar Range. The Salt Range constitutes the frontal part of a detached allochthonous thrust sheet. The sedimentary cover is indeed entirely detached from its substratum along Infracambrian salt horizons. Palaeozoic to Eocene platform series are well exposed in the hanging wall, whereas Neogene molasse has been extensively under-thrust in the footwall of this large over-thrust. The North Potwar Basin is bordered by the Khari-Murat Ridge and coeval back-thrusts in the south, by the northern flank of the Soan syncline in the southeast, and by the MBT in the north. In addition to Neogene outcrops, it also comprises a number of surface anticlines and thrust fronts along which the Eocene platform carbonates are exposed. The Datta Formation is the main Jurassic oil reservoir in the Potwar Basin. It is a fluvio-deltaic deposit which comprises large porous and permeable channels associated to many-calcareous interbeds. The formations crop out well in both the Nammal and Chichali Gorges. The oil field of Toot, located in the western part of the basin, is producing from this reservoir. The petrographic observations show that diagenesis occurred mainly early and was controlled by the fluvio-deltaic environment. (author)

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  12. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  13. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  14. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  15. Element mobilization and immobilization from carbonate rocks between CO 2 storage reservoirs and the overlying aquifers during a potential CO 2 leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Asmussen, R. Matthew; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Bacon, Diana H.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2018-04-01

    Despite the numerous studies on changes within the reservoir following CO2 injection and the effects of CO2 release into overlying aquifers, little or no literature is available on the effect of CO2 release on rock between the storage reservoirs and subsurface. To address this knowledge gap, relevant rock materials, temperatures and pressures were used to study mineralogical and elemental changes in this intermediate zone. After rocks reacted with CO2, liquid analysis showed an increase of major elements (e.g., Ca, and Mg) and variable concentrations of potential contaminants (e.g., Sr and Ba); lower concentrations were observed in N2 controls. In experiments with As/Cd and/or organic spikes, representing potential contaminants in the CO2 plume originating in the storage reservoir, most or all of these contaminants were removed from the aqueous phase. SEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed the formation of new minerals and Fe oxides in some CO2-reacted samples, indicating potential for contaminant removal through mineral incorporation or adsorption onto Fe oxides. These experiments show the interactions between the CO2-laden plume and the rock between storage reservoirs and overlying aquifers have the potential to affect the level of risk to overlying groundwater, and should be considered during site selection and risk evaluation.

  16. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorski, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station was operating with the 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops in service. During the quarter, the Station was operated for Duquesne Light Company System grid including base load and swing load operation. Twelve (12) planned swing load operations were performed on the LWBR Core this quarter to complete the LWBR operating plan of fifty (50) during this operating phase. The Station was shutdown on September 12 for the Fall 1980 Shutdown and remained in this mode through the end of the quarter. The LWBR Core has generated 18,297.98 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. The radioactive liquid waste effluent line to the river remained blanked off to prevent inadvertent radioactive liquid waste discharges. During the quarter, approximately 0.001 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. The radioactivity released from Shippingport Station is far too small to have any measurable effect on the general background environmental radioactivity outside the plant.

  17. Tectono-Thermal History Modeling and Reservoir Simulation Study of the Nenana Basin, Central Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Nilesh C.

    Central Interior Alaska is an active tectonic deformation zone highlighted by the complex interactions of active strike-slip fault systems with thrust faults and folds of the Alaska Range fold-and-thrust belt. This region includes the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin, both of which have significant Tertiary coal-bearing formations and are also promising areas (particularly the Nenana basin) with respect to hydrocarbon exploration and geologic carbon sequestration. I investigate the modern-day crustal architecture of the Nenana and Tanana basins using seismic reflection, aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly data and demonstrate that the basement of both basins shows strong crustal heterogeneity. The Nenana basin is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Flats fault zone. The Tanana basin has a fundamentally different geometry and is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. NE-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. Seismic refection data, well data, fracture data and apatite fission track data further constrain the tectonic evolution and thermal history of the Nenana basin. The Nenana basin experienced four distinct tectonic phases since Late Paleocene time. The basin initiated as a narrow half-graben structure in Late Paleocene with accumulation of greater than 6000 feet of sediments. The basin was then uplifted, resulting in the removal of up to 5000 feet of Late Paleocene sediments in Eocene to Oligocene time. During Middle to Late Miocene time, left lateral strike-slip faulting was superimposed on the existing half-graben system. Transtensional deformation of the basin began in the Pliocene. At present, Miocene and older strata are exposed to temperatures > 60°C in the deeper parts of the Nenana

  18. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  19. Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    A loss of ac power to the station occurred on July 28, 1978 caused by an interaction between Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station when the main transformer of Unit No. 1 of the Beaver Valley Power Station developed an internal failure and tripped the BVPS. Two environmental studies were continued this quarter. The first involves reduction of main unit condenser chlorination and the second, river intake screen fish impingement sampling. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. During the third quarter of 1978, 874 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. At the end of the quarter, the Fall shutdown continued with the plant heated up, the main turbine on turning gear and plant testing in progress prior to Station startup.

  20. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a...9 Richard B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez— Aguas de Amazonas Water for...humanitarian duties. They have overseen over 130 humani- tarian projects worth in excess of $7.6 million and ranging from a medical center, to potable

  1. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  2. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  3. NST Quarterly. October 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in latex vulcanization (first RVNRL-based rubber gloves produced in Malaysia), tank floor scanning system (TAFLOSS), incineration and radiotherapeutic agent

  4. NST Quarterly - April 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in ionizing radiation as an alternative method for sanitization of herbs and spices

  5. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  6. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  7. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  8. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  9. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  10. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  11. Risk and geological uncertainties in carbonate reservoirs in Santos Basin; Incertezas geologicas e risco em reservatorios carbonaticos na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makoto; Cortez, Marcella M.M. [Queiroz Galvao Perfuracoes S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, Marcos Huber

    2004-07-01

    The Lower Albian in the south part of Santos Basin is composed mainly of oolitic calcarenites and calcilutites organized in shoaling upward cycles. The calcarenites from the top of the sequence constitute a package of reservoir zones and sub-zones with regional distribution along which are located mature, producing and development phase oil fields. In this work the main factors with major impact in reserves estimation are interpreted and quantified in a probabilistic approach giving support for the development plan phase of a field of the carbonatic trend. The regional stratigraphic and structural interpretations provided information about extension, external geometry, and continuity of the reservoir zones for reserves risk computation. The porosity probability density functions were defined according to stratigraphic position, seismic reflection pattern of calcarenites and also information from the discovery and the appraisal wells. The Decision Tree methodology with Monte Carlo Simulation was used to better understand the impact of geological uncertainties in reserves computation and also as a first step for risk management. The Monte Carlo simulation allows the Multivariate Sensibility and Scenario Analysis, Probabilistic Technical and Economic Evaluation and Optimal Portfolio Stochastic Simulation. (author)

  12. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  13. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2004-01-01

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  14. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  15. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Shale is characterized by the predominant presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores. The behavior of fluids in those pores directly controls shale gas storage and release in shale matrix and ultimately the wellbore production in unconventional reservoirs. Recently, it has been recognized that a fluid confined in nanopores can behave dramatically differently from the corresponding bulk phase due to nanopore confinement (Wang, 2014). CO2 and H2O, either preexisting or introduced, are two major components that coexist with shale gas (predominately CH4) during hydrofracturing and gas extraction. Note that liquid or supercritical CO2 has been suggested as an alternative fluid for subsurface fracturing such that CO2 enhanced gas recovery can also serve as a CO2 sequestration process. Limited data indicate that CO2 may preferentially adsorb in nanopores (particularly those in kerogen) and therefore displace CH4 in shale. Similarly, the presence of water moisture seems able to displace or trap CH4 in shale matrix. Therefore, fundamental understanding of CH4-CO2-H2O behavior and their interactions in shale nanopores is of great importance for gas production and the related CO2 sequestration. This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  16. First quarter 2005 sales data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  18. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  19. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  1. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  2. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  3. Energy situation - Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Misak, Evelyne; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents, first, a quarterly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. The methodology, the definitions and the corrections used are explained in a second part

  4. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  5. NST Quarterly - issue October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it reviews GM technology and GMOs - genetically modified organisms. The topics discussed includes the implication of GM in practice, the controversy and the prospect of GM technology. Radioactive pig - something like a ball or plug which cleanses the inner walls of the pipeline, also briefly presented

  6. NST Quarterly - October 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in scientific computer modelling and simulation. A report on 2-nd FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting (RCM) of the coordinated research programme (CRP) on public acceptance of the trade development in irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific (RPFI-IV) also presented

  7. NST Quarterly. January 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in nuclear medicine, healthcare products sterilization, industrial irradiation dosimetry and heavy metals determination in food. The Malaysian standard for food irradiation was discussed in this issue

  8. NST Quarterly - April 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in genetic engineering. The articles summarized the improvement of orchids and tulips through genetic engineering and generating new varieties for the floriculture industry. It also reported, MINT won gold and silver at the International Invention 2000, 12-16 April 2000, Geneva

  9. Quarter 9 Mercury information clearinghouse final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Ralston, N.; Dunham, G.; Weber, G.

    2005-12-15

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. A total of eight reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. Selected topics were discussed in detail in each quarterly report. Issues related to mercury from coal-fired utilities include the general areas of measurement, control, policy, and transformations. Specific topics that have been addressed in previous quarterly reports include the following: Quarterly 1 - Sorbent Control Technologies for Mercury Control; Quarterly 2 - Mercury Measurement; Quarterly 3 - Advanced and Developmental Mercury Control Technologies; Quarterly 4 - Prerelease of Mercury from Coal Combustion By-Products; Quarterly 5 - Mercury Fundamentals; Quarterly 6 - Mercury Control Field Demonstrations; Quarterly 7 - Mercury Regulations in the United States: Federal and State; and Quarterly 8 - Commercialization Aspects of Sorbent Injection Technologies in Canada. In this last of nine quarterly reports, an update of these mercury issues is presented that includes a summary of each topic, with recent information pertinent to advances made since the quarterly reports were originally presented. In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. 86 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  11. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  13. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 64, 1st Quarter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ndupress .ndu.edu issue 64, 1 st quarter 2012 / JFQ 43 experienced in cultural relativism belie the great commonality of moral solidarity in...Politics of Civil-Military Relations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957), 11. 12 Many people equate cultural relativism and moral relativism ...perhaps reluctantly, his muse was Platonic (the concept of the human for strategy to work in our age, it must possess solid moral and political

  14. Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly statistics. Second Quarter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

  15. 32 CFR 643.127 - Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.127 Quarters. The assignment and rental of quarters to civilian employees and other nonmilitary personnel will be accomplished in accordance with AR 210-50. Responsibility of the Corps of Engineers for the establishment of rental rates for quarters rented to civilian and...

  16. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium received...

  17. Quarterly financial reports | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 31 December 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 September 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 June 2011 · Summary of Expense Reductions to Accommodate Budget 2012 Appropriation Reduction (PDF) · What we do · Funding ...

  18. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. NST Quarterly - January 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in local heat shrinkable copolymer and electron beam technology for purification of flue gases. It announces an International Nuclear Conference themed ' a new era in nuclear science and technology - the challenge of the 21 century ' will be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 29 to 30 Sept 1997

  20. 2. Quarterly progress report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This quarterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 58 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, K, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  1. 4. Quarterly progress report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This quarterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 58 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 125 Sb, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, K, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  2. NST Quarterly - Oct 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights the bioremediation of soils, the use of biological agents to reclaim soils and water polluted by substances hazardous to human health and/or the environment. Integrated waste management and thermal oxidation plant also reported, the topics discussed includes the role of the integrated waste management system, plant description and equipment design

  3. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  4. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  5. 3. Quarterly progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This quarterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 58 Co, 60 Co 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, K, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  6. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery: Progress review No. 74, Quarter ending March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  7. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  8. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  9. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  10. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  11. Using Recent Advances in 2D Seismic Technology and Surface Geochemistry to Economically Redevelop a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir: Vernon Field, Isabella County, M, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Chittick, S.D.; Harrison, William B.; Tayjor, W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    In this project a consortium consisting of Cronus Exploration (Traverse City, MI), Michigan Technological University (Houghton, MI) and Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, MI) proposed to develop and execute an economical and environmentally sensitive plan for recovery of hydrocarbons from an abandoned shallow-shelf carbonate field that is typical of many fields in the U.S. Midwest. This is a 5-year project that will use surface geochemistry as a tool to reduce risk in locating and producing hydrocarbons in Class II fields. The project will develop new techniques for measuring hydrocarbon gases in the soil horizon to locate new and bypassed oil in the shallow-shelf carbonate environments typified by the Dundee and Trenton Formations of the Michigan Basin (Fisher et. al., 1988). In Phase I of the project, the consortium proposes to re-develop the Vernon Oil field located in Vernon Twp, Isabella County, Michigan and produce both bypassed hydrocarbons from the original field and to locate and produce extensions of the original field

  12. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  13. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  14. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...

  15. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, Reid B.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year contract, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364 ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs,'' was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering January 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002 that covers the second and third fiscal quarters of the project's first year. Paper SPE 75178, ''Cost Reduction and Injectivity Improvements for CO 2 Foams for Mobility Control,'' has been presented and included in the proceedings of the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. During these two quarters of the project we have been working in several areas: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, producer survey on injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried and reservoir core

  16. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  18. Experimental and modeling results on geochemical impacts of leaking CO2 from subsurface storage reservoirs to an unconfined oxidizing carbonate aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Bacon, D. H.; Shao, H.; Lawter, A.; Wang, G.; Brown, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding on how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Solid materials (rocks and slightly weathered rocks) from an unconfined aquifer, i.e., the Edwards Aquifer in Texas, were used in this investigation. The experimental part consisted of: 1) wet chemical acid extractions (8M HNO3 solution at 90 0C); 2) batch experiments conducted at low solid to solution ratios to study time-dependent releases of major, minor and trace elements during periodic or continuous exposure to CO2 gas; 3) hydraulically saturated column experiments conducted under continuous and stop-flow conditions using a CO2 gas saturated synthetic groundwater; 4) pre- and post-treatment solid phase characterization studies. Major variables tested included reaction time (0-336 hours), CO2 flow rate (50 to 350 ml/min), brine concentration (0.1 and 1 M NaCl), rock type and particle size fraction. We are currently investigating the solution composition effects (i.e., presence of contaminants in the initial solution) on the fate and behavior of potential contaminants (As, Pb and Cd) in these systems. Results from the solid phase characterization studies showed that the mineralogy of the Edwards aquifer materials was dominated by calcite. Quartz and montmorillonite were also present in some samples. Acid extractions confirmed that the solid phase had appreciable amounts of potential contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn). However, the results from the batch and column experiments demonstrated that these contaminants

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  20. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  1. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  2. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  3. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1979, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown to complete repairs of the turbine generator hydrogen circulation fan following discovery of a rubbing noise on May 24, 1979. The Station was in a cooldown condition at approximately 180/sup 0/F and 300 psig with a steam bubble in the pressurizer and the reactor coolant pumps in slow speed. The reactor plant cooldown heat exchanger was in service to maintain coolant temperature. The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops remained in service. All expended PWR Core 2 fuel elements have previously been shipped off-site. The remaining irradiated PWR Core 2 core barrel and miscellaneous refueling tools were in storage under shielding water in the deep pit of the Fuel Handling Building. The LWBR Core has generated 12,111.00 EFPH from startup through the end of the quarter.

  4. Two-point versus multiple-point geostatistics: the ability of geostatistical methods to capture complex geobodies and their facies associations—an application to a channelized carbonate reservoir, southwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Seyyedhossein; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Ataee-pour, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Facies models try to explain facies architectures which have a primary control on the subsurface heterogeneities and the fluid flow characteristics of a given reservoir. In the process of facies modeling, geostatistical methods are implemented to integrate different sources of data into a consistent model. The facies models should describe facies interactions; the shape and geometry of the geobodies as they occur in reality. Two distinct categories of geostatistical techniques are two-point and multiple-point (geo) statistics (MPS). In this study, both of the aforementioned categories were applied to generate facies models. A sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and a truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS) represented two-point geostatistical methods, and a single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) selected as an MPS simulation representative. The dataset from an extremely channelized carbonate reservoir located in southwest Iran was applied to these algorithms to analyze their performance in reproducing complex curvilinear geobodies. The SNESIM algorithm needs consistent training images (TI) in which all possible facies architectures that are present in the area are included. The TI model was founded on the data acquired from modern occurrences. These analogies delivered vital information about the possible channel geometries and facies classes that are typically present in those similar environments. The MPS results were conditioned to both soft and hard data. Soft facies probabilities were acquired from a neural network workflow. In this workflow, seismic-derived attributes were implemented as the input data. Furthermore, MPS realizations were conditioned to hard data to guarantee the exact positioning and continuity of the channel bodies. A geobody extraction workflow was implemented to extract the most certain parts of the channel bodies from the seismic data. These extracted parts of the channel bodies were applied to the simulation workflow as hard data

  5. NST Quarterly - January 1999 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in radioactive tracer technique and medical services. Special report on the sediment tracing technique to study the sedimentation pattern at the power stations was presented. The syopsis on two new book launched by MINT also were reviewed. The books are Research Highlights on the Use of Induced Mutations for Plant Improvement in Malaysia and Rice Agro-Ecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia. In medical services, MINT has a group, provide medical physics services such as QA checks on the country's diagnostic radiology equipment and related services

  6. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  10. A Poromechanical Model for Coal Seams Injected with Carbon Dioxide: From an Isotherm of Adsorption to a Swelling of the Reservoir Un modéle poromécanique pour l’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon : d’une isotherme d’adsorption à un gonflement du réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoosokhan S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injecting carbon dioxide into deep unminable coal seams can enhance the amount of methane recovered from the seam. This process is known as CO2-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (CO2-ECBM. The seam is a porous medium whose porous system is made of cleats (small natural fractures and of coal pores (whose radius can be as small as a few angström. During the injection process, the molecules of CO2 get adsorbed in the coal pores. Such an adsorption makes the coal swell, which, in the confined conditions that prevail underground, induces a closure of the cleat system of the coal bed reservoir and a loss of injectivity. In this work, we develop a poromechanical model which, starting from the knowledge of an adsorption isotherm and combined with reservoir simulations, enables to estimate the variations of injectivity of the coal bed reservoir over time during the process of injection. The model for the coal bed reservoir is based on poromechanical equations that explicitly take into account the effect of adsorption on the mechanical behavior of a microporous medium. We consider the coal bed reservoir as a dual porosity (cleats and coal porosity medium, for which we derive a set of linear constitutive equations. The model requires as an input the adsorption isotherm on coal of the fluid considered. Reversely, the model provides a way to upscale an adsorption isotherm into a meaningful swelling of the coal bed reservoir at the macroscopic scale. The parameters of the model are calibrated on data on coal samples available in the literature. Reservoir simulations of an injection of carbon dioxide in a coal seam are performed with an in-house finite volume and element code. The variations of injection rate over time during the process of injection are obtained from the simulations. The effect of the compressibility of the coal matrix on those variations is discussed. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon profondes peut augmenter

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  13. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  14. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2000-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  15. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  16. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2001-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  17. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  18. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  19. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  20. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  1. Trend chart: wind power. Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the fourth quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  2. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  3. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  4. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  5. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  6. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  7. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  8. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  9. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  10. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  11. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  12. United States housing, second quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. housing market’s quarter two results were disap¬pointing compared with the first quarter. Although overall expected gains did not materialize, certain sectors improved slightly. Housing under construction, completions, and new and existing home sales exhibited slight increases. Overall permit data declined, and the decrease in starts was due primarily to a...

  13. Nagylengyel: an interesting reservoir. [Yugoslovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedinszky, J

    1971-04-01

    The Nagylengyel oil field, discovered in 1951, has oil-producing formations mostly in the Upper-Triassic dolomites, in the Norian-Ractian transition formations, in the Upper-Cretaceous limestones and shales, and in the Miocene. The formation of the reservoir space occurred in many stages. A porous, cavernous fractured reservoir is developed in the Norian principal dolomite. A cavernous fractured reservoir exists in the Cretaceous limestone and in the Cretaceous shale and porous fractured reservoir is developed in the Miocene. The derivation of the model of the reservoir, and the conservative evaluation of the volume of the reservoir made it possible to use secondary recovery.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  16. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  17. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  18. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  19. Reservoir simulation with MUFITS code: Extension for double porosity reservoirs and flows in horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modelling of multiphase flows in porous medium is necessary in many applications concerning subsurface utilization. An incomplete list of those applications includes oil and gas fields exploration, underground carbon dioxide storage and geothermal energy production. The numerical simulations are conducted using complicated computer programs called reservoir simulators. A robust simulator should include a wide range of modelling options covering various exploration techniques, rock and fluid properties, and geological settings. In this work we present a recent development of new options in MUFITS code [1]. The first option concerns modelling of multiphase flows in double-porosity double-permeability reservoirs. We describe internal representation of reservoir models in MUFITS, which are constructed as a 3D graph of grid blocks, pipe segments, interfaces, etc. In case of double porosity reservoir, two linked nodes of the graph correspond to a grid cell. We simulate the 6th SPE comparative problem [2] and a five-spot geothermal production problem to validate the option. The second option concerns modelling of flows in porous medium coupled with flows in horizontal wells that are represented in the 3D graph as a sequence of pipe segments linked with pipe junctions. The well completions link the pipe segments with reservoir. The hydraulics in the wellbore, i.e. the frictional pressure drop, is calculated in accordance with Haaland's formula. We validate the option against the 7th SPE comparative problem [3]. We acknowledge financial support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No RFBR-15-31-20585). References [1] Afanasyev, A. MUFITS Reservoir Simulation Software (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). [2] Firoozabadi A. et al. Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Petrol. Tech. 1990. V.42. N.6. P.710-715. [3] Nghiem L., et al. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation

  20. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  1. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses (exclusive of boron and lithium) and turbidity measurements. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during second quarter 1994. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 3. Specific conductance and total organic halogens were elevated in well HAC 2. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water stable beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the west during second quarter 1994. During previous quarters, the groundwater flow direction has been consistently to the northwest or the north-northwest. This apparent change in flow direction may be attributed to the lack of water elevations for wells HTF 16 and 17 and the anomalous water elevations for well HAC 2 during second quarter

  2. Econometric Methods within Romanian Quarterly National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Marineta Drăguşin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to synthesise the main econometric methods (including the mathematical and statistical ones used in the Romanian Quarterly National Accounts compilation, irrespectively of Quarterly Gross Domestic Product (QGDP. These methods are adapted for a fast manner to operatively provide information about the country macroeconomic evolution to interested users. In this context, the mathematical and econometric methods play an important role in obtaining quarterly accounts valued in current prices and in constant prices, in seasonal adjustments and flash estimates of QGDP.

  3. Nondestructive analysis of the gold quarter liras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, C.; Guerol, A.; Demir, L.; Sahin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have prepared seven Au-Cu standards in the concentration range of 18-24 (as carat) for nondestructive control of gold quarter liras. Some calibration curves for quantitative analysis of Au in the gold quarter liras that commercially present in Turkey have been plotted using these standard samples. The characteristic X-rays of Au and Cu emitted from these standard samples and the test sample with known composition are recorded by using a Ge(Li) detector. These calibration curves provide a nondestructive analysis of gold quarter liras with the uncertainties about 1.18%. (author)

  4. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, October--December 1992. Progress review No. 73, quarter ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Accomplishments for this quarter ending December 31, 1992 are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; reservoir classes; and novel technology.

  5. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  6. A welfare study into capture fisheries in cirata reservoir: a bio-economic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Z.; Hindayani, P.

    2018-04-01

    Capture fishery in inland such as reservoirs can be a source of food security and even the economy and public welfare of the surrounding community. This research was conducted on Cirata reservoir fishery in West Java, to see how far reservoir capture fishery can contribute economically in the form of resource rents. The method used is the bioeconomic model Copes, which can analyze the demand and supply functions to calculate the optimization of stakeholders’ welfare in various management regimes. The results showed that the management of capture fishery using Maximum Economic Yield regime (MEY) gave the most efficient result, where fewer inputs would produce maximum profit. In the MEY management, the producer surplus obtained is IDR 2,610.203.099, - per quarter and IDR 273.885.400,- of consumer surplus per quarter. Furthermore, researches showed that sustainable management regime policy MEY result in the government rent/surplus ofIDR 217.891,345, - per quarter with the average price of fish per kg being IDR 13.929. In open access fishery, it was shown that the producer surplus becomesIDR 0. Thus the implementation of the MEY-based instrument policy becomes a necessity for Cirata reservoir capture fishery.

  7. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  8. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis for the 1st Quarter FY2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 82 reportable events (13 from the 1st quarter (Qtr) of fiscal year (FY) 2017 and 68 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 31 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (seven from this quarter and 24 from the prior three quarters).

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).

  11. Information Science Research Institute. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartker, T.A.

    1994-06-30

    This is a second quarter 1194 progress report on the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. Included is symposium activity; staff activity; document analysis program; text retrieval program; institute activity; and goals.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1992-01-01

    The United States produced 257 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1992. This was the second highest quarterly production level ever recorded. US coal exports in January through March of 1992 were 25 million short tons, the highest first quarter since 1982. The leading destinations for US coal exports were Japan, Italy, France, and the Netherlands, together receiving 46 percent of the total. Coal exports for the first quarter of 1992 were valued at $1 billion, based on an average price of $42.28 per short ton. Steam coal exports totaled 10 million short tons, an increase of 34 percent over the level a year earlier. Metallurgical coal exports amounted to 15 million short tons, about the same as a year earlier. US coal consumption for January through March 1992 was 221 million short tons, 2 million short tons more than a year earlier (Table 45). All sectors but the residential and commercial sector reported increased coal consumption

  13. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  14. NSA Diana Wueger Published in Washington Quarterly

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    National Security Affairs (NSA) News NSA Faculty Associate for Research Diana Wueger has recently had an article titled “India’s Nuclear-Armed Submarines: Deterrence or Danger?” published in the Washington Quarterly.

  15. The Worldwide Marine Radiocarbon Reservoir Effect: Definitions, Mechanisms, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo Q.; Macario, Kita; Ascough, Philippa; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    When a carbon reservoir has a lower radiocarbon content than the atmosphere, this is referred to as a reservoir effect. This is expressed as an offset between the radiocarbon ages of samples from the two reservoirs at a single point in time. The marine reservoir effect (MRE) has been a major concern in the radiocarbon community, as it introduces an additional source of error that is often difficult to accurately quantify. For this reason, researchers are often reluctant to date marine material where they have another option. The influence of this phenomenon makes the study of the MRE important for a broad range of applications. The advent of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) has reduced sample size requirements and increased measurement precision, in turn increasing the number of studies seeking to measure marine samples. These studies rely on overcoming the influence of the MRE on marine radiocarbon dates through the worldwide quantification of the local parameter ΔR, that is, the local variation from the global average MRE. Furthermore, the strong dependence on ocean dynamics makes the MRE a useful indicator for changes in oceanic circulation, carbon exchange between reservoirs, and the fate of atmospheric CO2, all of which impact Earth's climate. This article explores data from the Marine Reservoir Database and reviews the place of natural radiocarbon in oceanic records, focusing on key questions (e.g., changes in ocean dynamics) that have been answered by MRE studies and on their application to different subjects.

  16. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  17. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  18. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  19. Effect of dietary fats with odd or even numbers of carbon atoms on metabolic response and muscle damage with exercise in Quarter Horse-type horses with type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Lisa A; Valberg, Stephanie J; McCue, Molly E; Pagan, Joe D; Roe, Charles R

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate effects of fats with odd and even numbers of carbon atoms on muscle metabolism in exercising horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). 8 horses with PSSM (6 females and 2 males; mean +/- SD age, 6.3 +/- 3.9 years). Isocaloric diets (grain, triheptanoin, corn oil, and high-fat, low-starch [HFLS] feed) were fed for 3 weeks each; horses performed daily treadmill exercise. Grain was fed to establish an exercise target, and HFLS feed was fed as a negative control diet. Daily plasma samples were obtained. For each diet, a 15-minute exercise test was performed, and gluteus medius muscle specimens and blood samples were obtained before and after exercise. Feeding triheptanoin, compared with the corn oil diet, resulted in exercise intolerance; higher plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and concentrations of C3:0- and C7:0-acylcarnitine and insulin; and lower concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and C16:0-, C18:1-, and C18:2-acylcarnitine, without changes in concentrations of plasma glucose or resting muscle substrates and metabolites. Feeding grain induced higher CK activity and insulin concentrations and lower NEFA concentrations than did corn oil or HFLS feed. Feeding grain induced higher glucose concentrations than did triheptanoin and corn oil. In muscle, feeding grain resulted in lower glucose-6-phosphate, higher citrate, and higher postexercise lactate concentrations than did the other diets. Triheptanoin had detrimental effects, reflecting decreased availability of NEFA, increased insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis, and potential inhibition of lipid oxidation. Long-chain fats are the best dietetic for PSSM.

  20. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Part 1. Evaluation of Phase 2 CO2 Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2. Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowersox, Richard [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Hickman, John [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-12-20

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.

  1. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  2. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  4. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1996, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroethene, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, gross alpha, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone llB2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone llB1 (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in six Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  5. Evaluation of Frasnian Shale reservoir, case studywell DAK-1, Ahnet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of unconventional reservoir in term of future exploration plan where the geochemical data are not unavailable making us different results from logging and Gas Data However this paper aim to define Potential zone throught the estimation of total organic carbon(TOC) using Δ log R Method and thermal ...

  6. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (23 from the 3rd Qtr FY-16 and 50 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 45 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (16 from this quarter and 29 from the prior three quarters).

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 1st Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 74 reportable events (16 from the 1st Qtr FY-16 and 58 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 35 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (15 from this quarter and 20 from the prior three quarters).

  9. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2009-01-30

    Current research projects have focused Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP) talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene, low-dose ionizing radiation (gamma and neutron) and alpha radiation from plutonium. Trichloroethylene research has been conducted as a joint collaborative effort with the University of Georgia. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Laboratory work has been completed on several trichloroethylene risk assessment projects, and these projects have been brought to a close. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the remaining trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A comprehensive manuscript on the scientific basis of trichloroethylene risk assessment is in preparation. Work on the low-dose radiation risk assessment projects is also progressing at a slowed rate as a result of funding uncertainties. It has been necessary to restructure the proponency and performance schedule of these projects, with the project on Low-Dose Radiation: Epidemiology Risk Models transferred to DOE Office of Science proponency under a separate funding instrument. Research on this project will continue under the provisions of the DOE Office of Science funding instrument, with progress reported in accordance with the requirements of that funding instrument. Progress on that project will no longer be reported in quarterly reports for DE-FC09-02CH11109. Following a meeting at the Savannah River Site on May 8, 2008, a plan was submitted for development of an epidemiological cohort study and prospective medical surveillance system for the assessment of disease rates among workers at the Savannah River

  10. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 60 reportable events (23 from the 4th Qtr FY14 and 37 from the prior three reporting quarters) as well as 58 other issue reports (including not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL from July 2013 through October 2014. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC07 051D14517.

  12. Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-27

    These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

  13. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  14. GBRN/DOE Project: Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies. Quarterly technical report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.

    1994-04-15

    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth faults in EI-330 field are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. Previous work, which incorporated pressure, temperature, fluid flow, heat flow, seismic, production, and well log data, indicated active fluid flow along fault zones. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production test of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. The quarterly progress reports contains accomplishments to date for the following tasks: Management start-up; database management; field and demonstration equipment; reservoir characterization, modeling; geochemistry; and data integration.

  15. [Dynamic enhanced recovery techniques]. Quarterly technical report, April 1994--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.

    1994-07-15

    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth of faults in Eugene Island Block 330 (EI-330 field) are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water and the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production testing of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. In this quarterly report, progress reports are presented for the following tasks: Task one--management start-up; Task two--database management; Task three--field demonstration experiment; Task four--reservoir characterization; Task five--modeling; Task six--geochemistry; and Task seven--data integration.

  16. Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

  17. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  18. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  19. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  20. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2004-01-01

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'', was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The project has received a one-year, no-cost extension to September 27, 2005. During this extra time additional deliverables will be (1) the version of MASTER that has been debugged and a foam option added for CO 2 mobility control and (2) adsorption/desorption data on pure component minerals common in reservoir rock that will be used to improve predictions of chemical loss to adsorption in reservoirs. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004 that comprises the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's third year. During this period of the project several areas have advanced: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. Presentations and papers included: a papers covered in a previous report was presented at the fall SPE ATCE in Denver in October 2003, a presentation at the Southwest ACS meeting in Oklahoma City, presentation on CO 2 flood basic behavior at the Midland Annual CO 2 Conference December 2003; two papers prepared for the biannual SPE/DOE Symposium on IOR, Tulsa, April 2004; one paper accepted for the fall 2004 SPE ATCE in Houston; and a paper submitted to an international journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science which is being revised after peer review

  1. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  2. Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    temperature, reservoir storage, reservoir elevation, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, unfiltered salinity, unfiltered total nitrogen, filtered total nitrogen, unfiltered nitrate plus nitrite, unfiltered phosphorus, filtered phosphorus, unfiltered carbon, carbon in suspended sediment, total hardness, unfiltered noncarbonate hardness, filtered noncarbonate hardness, unfiltered calcium, filtered calcium, unfiltered magnesium, filtered magnesium, unfiltered sodium, filtered sodium, unfiltered potassium, filtered potassium, filtered chloride, filtered sulfate, unfiltered fluoride, and filtered fluoride. When possible, USGS and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality water-quality properties and constituents were matched using the database parameter codes for individual physical properties and constituents, descriptions of each physical property or constituent, and their reporting units. This report presents a collection of delimited text files of source-aggregated, spatially pooled, depth-dependent, instantaneous water-quality data as well as instantaneous, daily, and monthly storage and elevation reservoir data.

  3. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  4. Mineral exploration, Australia, March quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This publication contains annual and quarterly statistics of exploration for minerals in Australia. Part 1 sets out statistics of exploration for minerals and oil shale for which data are no longer available for separate publication. Part 2 gives details of petroleum exploration.

  5. 39 CFR 243.2 - Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF OFFICES § 243.2 Quarters. (a.... Postal Service, General Accounting Office Building, Washington, DC 20260, with a memorandum of... depositing mail in front of or next to the post office. Show collection time schedules on letterboxes. At...

  6. "The Career Development Quarterly": A Centennial Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.; Pope, Mark; Niles, Spencer G.

    2011-01-01

    "The Career Development Quarterly" has been the premier journal in the field of vocational guidance and career intervention since its inception 100 years ago. To celebrate its centennial, 3 former editors trace its evolution from a modest and occasional newsletter to its current status as a major professional journal. They recount its history of…

  7. 76 FR 22910 - ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Council... Historic Preservation Working Group IX. New Business X. Adjourn Note: The meetings of the ACHP are open to...

  8. Subject Access Project. Third Quarterly Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pauline

    This third quarterly report for the period January to March 1977 describes the production schedule, records, and estimated costs and times in creating the Subject Access Project data base. Plans for on-line use of the data base and search strategy design are outlined. A table of specifications for preparing the data base for on-line searching is…

  9. LLE Review 83, Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2000, features an article by F. J. Marshall, T. Ohki, D. McInnis, Z. Ninkov, and J. Carbone, who detail the conversion of the OMEGA time-integrated x-ray diagnostics to electronic readout using direct-detection x-ray cameras [charge-injection devices (CID's)]. Pinhole and x-ray microscope images are shown along with inferred calibration measurements of the CID cameras. Currently, the same cameras are being used to obtain x-ray spectra in a TIM-based spectrometer, extending their use to all time-integrated imaging and spectroscopic x-ray instruments used on OMEGA. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) V. A. Smalyuk, B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer investigate the spatial structure of the temperature and density of target-shell plasmas at peak compression (stagnation). This is accomplished by examining the energy dependence of the x-ray emission using narrow-band x-ray filters and the known absorption properties of the shell dopant (Ti). (2) F. Sequin, C. K. Ll, D. G. Hicks, J. A. Frenje, K. M. Green, R. D. Petrasso, J. M. Soures, V. Yu. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, P. B. Radha, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. Roberts, C. Sorce, T. C. Sangster, M. D. Cable, S. Padalino, and K. Fletcher detail the physics and instrumentation used to obtain and interpret secondary D-{sup 3}He proton spectra from current gas-filled-target and future cryogenic-target experiments. Through a novel extension of existing charged-particle detection techniques with track detectors, the authors demonstrate the ability to obtain secondary proton spectra with increased sensitivity. (3) M. Guardelben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. Battaglia, and K. Marshall compare the utility of a novel liquid-crystal-based, point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) with the commercial standard phase-shifting interferometer and conclude that the LCPDI is a viable low-cost alternative. (4) A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R

  10. LLE Review 83, Quarterly Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2000, features an article by F. J. Marshall, T. Ohki, D. McInnis, Z. Ninkov, and J. Carbone, who detail the conversion of the OMEGA time-integrated x-ray diagnostics to electronic readout using direct-detection x-ray cameras [charge-injection devices (CID's)]. Pinhole and x-ray microscope images are shown along with inferred calibration measurements of the CID cameras. Currently, the same cameras are being used to obtain x-ray spectra in a TIM-based spectrometer, extending their use to all time-integrated imaging and spectroscopic x-ray instruments used on OMEGA. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) V. A. Smalyuk, B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer investigate the spatial structure of the temperature and density of target-shell plasmas at peak compression (stagnation). This is accomplished by examining the energy dependence of the x-ray emission using narrow-band x-ray filters and the known absorption properties of the shell dopant (Ti). (2) F. Sequin, C. K. Ll, D. G. Hicks, J. A. Frenje, K. M. Green, R. D. Petrasso, J. M. Soures, V. Yu. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, P. B. Radha, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. Roberts, C. Sorce, T. C. Sangster, M. D. Cable, S. Padalino, and K. Fletcher detail the physics and instrumentation used to obtain and interpret secondary D- 3 He proton spectra from current gas-filled-target and future cryogenic-target experiments. Through a novel extension of existing charged-particle detection techniques with track detectors, the authors demonstrate the ability to obtain secondary proton spectra with increased sensitivity. (3) M. Guardelben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. Battaglia, and K. Marshall compare the utility of a novel liquid-crystal-based, point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) with the commercial standard phase-shifting interferometer and conclude that the LCPDI is a viable low-cost alternative. (4) A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans

  11. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary: 100, 200, 300 and 600 Areas. Fourth quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed on waste disposal sites located at the Hanford Site. The Fourth Quarter 1994 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are summarized

  12. ARM Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. This quarterly report is written to comply with this requirement. This reports on the first quarter facility statistics.

  13. Evaluation of the point-centred-quarter method of sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -quarter method.The parameter which was most efficiently sampled was species composition relativedensity) with 90% replicate similarity being achieved with 100 point-centred-quarters. However, this technique cannot be recommended, even ...

  14. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf; Saad, Bilal; Negara, Ardiansyah; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other non-reportable issues identified at INL from July 2013 through June 2014.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  17. 10 CFR 34.69 - Records of quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of quarterly inventory. 34.69 Section 34.69 Energy... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.69 Records of quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the quarterly inventory of sealed sources and of devices...

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  19. 77 FR 51705 - Rescission of Quarterly Financial Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... No. FMCSA-2012-0020] RIN-2126-AB48 Rescission of Quarterly Financial Reporting Requirements AGENCY...: FMCSA withdraws its June 27, 2012, direct final rule eliminating the quarterly financial reporting... future proposing the elimination of the quarterly financial reporting requirements for Form QFR and Form...

  20. The quarter wave resonator as a superconducting linac element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Brennan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The electrical and mechanical properties of quarter wave resonators are derived. A procedure for optimal design of a quarter wave resonator for use in a superconducting heavy ion linac is given. It is concluded that a quarter wave resonator has significant advantages for this application. (orig.)

  1. Facies and porosity origin of reservoirs: Case studies from the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation of Sichuan Basin, China, and their implications on reservoir prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjiang Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dolostone of the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation has been a significant gas exploration area in Sichuan Basin. In Gaoshiti-Moxi regions, a giant gas pool with thousands of billion cubic meters' reserve has been discovered. However, the origin of the reservoir and the distribution patterns are still disputed, eventually constraining the dolostone exploration of the Longwangmiao Formation. This paper focuses on the characteristics, origin, and distribution patterns of the dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation based on: the outcrop geological survey, cores, thin-sections observation, reservoir geochemical characteristics study, and reservoir simulation experiments. As a result, two realizations were acquired: (1 The Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation could be divided into upper and lower part in Sichuan Basin. Based on the two parts of the Longwangmiao Formation, two lithofacies paleogeographic maps were generated. In addition, the carbonate slope sedimentary models were established. The grainstone shoals are mainly distributed in the shallow slope of the upper part in the Longwangmiao Formation. (2 The grainstone shoals are the developing basis of the dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation. Moreover, the contemporaneous dissolution was a critical factor of grainstone shoal reservoir development in the Longwangmiao Formation. Controlled by the exposure surface, the dissolution vugs are not only extensively distributed, but also successively developed along the contemporaneous pore zones. Hence, the distribution patterns could be predicted. The geological understandings of the origin of dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation show that the reservoir distributed in the areas of karstification in the Gaoshiti-Moxi regions, as well as the widespread grainstone shoals in the whole basin, are the potential exploration targets. Keywords: Sichuan Basin, Longwangmiao Formation, Carbonate slope, Dolograinstone shoal

  2. Design Techniques and Reservoir Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Fereidooni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced oil recovery using nitrogen injection is a commonly applied method for pressure maintenance in conventional reservoirs. Numerical simulations can be practiced for the prediction of a reservoir performance in the course of injection process; however, a detailed simulation might take up enormous computer processing time. In such cases, a simple statistical model may be a good approach to the preliminary prediction of the process without any application of numerical simulation. In the current work, seven rock/fluid reservoir properties are considered as screening parameters and those parameters having the most considerable effect on the process are determined using the combination of experimental design techniques and reservoir simulations. Therefore, the statistical significance of the main effects and interactions of screening parameters are analyzed utilizing statistical inference approaches. Finally, the influential parameters are employed to create a simple statistical model which allows the preliminary prediction of nitrogen injection in terms of a recovery factor without resorting to numerical simulations.

  3. The Characteristics of Spanish Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armengol, J; Merce, R

    2003-01-01

    Sau Reservoir was first filled in 1963 in a middle stretch of the Ter River, as part of a multi-use scheme, including hydroelectric power, agricultural irrigation, domestic and industrial water supply...

  4. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  6. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  7. Impacts of water quality variation and rainfall runoff on Jinpen Reservoir, in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-zhen Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation characteristics of the water quality of the Jinpen Reservoir and the impacts of rainfall runoff on the reservoir were investigated. Water quality monitoring results indicated that, during the stable stratification period, the maximum concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, total organic carbon, iron ion, and manganese ion in the water at the reservoir bottom on September 6 reached 2.5 mg/L, 0.12 mg/L, 0.58 mg/L, 3.2 mg/L, 0.97 mg/L, and 0.32 mg/L, respectively. Only heavy storm runoff can affect the main reservoir and cause the water quality to seriously deteriorate. During heavy storms, the stratification of the reservoir was destroyed, and the reservoir water quality consequently deteriorated due to the high-turbidity particulate phosphorus and organic matter in runoff. The turbidity and concentrations of total phosphorus and total organic carbon in the main reservoir increased to 265 NTU, 0.224 mg/L, and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Potential methods of dealing with the water problems in the Jinpen Reservoir are proposed. Both in stratification and in storm periods, the use of measures such as adjusting intake height, storing clean water, and releasing turbid flow can be helpful to safeguarding the quality of water supplied to the water treatment plants.

  8. Hydrodynamic modeling of petroleum reservoirs using simulator MUFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    MUFITS is new noncommercial software for numerical modeling of subsurface processes in various applications (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). To this point, the simulator was used for modeling nonisothermal flows in geothermal reservoirs and for modeling underground carbon dioxide storage. In this work, we present recent extension of the code to petroleum reservoirs. The simulator can be applied in conventional black oil modeling, but it also utilizes a more complicated models for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs as well as for oil rim fields. We give a brief overview of the code by providing the description of internal representation of reservoir models, which are constructed of grid blocks, interfaces, stock tanks as well as of pipe segments and pipe junctions for modeling wells and surface networks. For conventional black oil approach, we present the simulation results for SPE comparative tests. We propose an accelerated compositional modeling method for sub- and supercritical flows subjected to various phase equilibria, particularly to three-phase equilibria of vapour-liquid-liquid type. The method is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic potential of reservoir fluid as a function of pressure, total enthalpy and total composition and storing its values as a spline table, which is used in hydrodynamic simulation for accelerated PVT properties prediction. We provide the description of both the spline calculation procedure and the flashing algorithm. We evaluate the thermodynamic potential for a mixture of two pseudo-components modeling the heavy and light hydrocarbon fractions. We develop a technique for converting black oil PVT tables to the potential, which can be used for in-situ hydrocarbons multiphase equilibria prediction under sub- and supercritical conditions, particularly, in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. We simulate recovery from a reservoir subject to near-critical initial conditions for hydrocarbon mixture. We acknowledge

  9. A rationale for reservoir management economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Significant economic benefits can be derived from the application f reservoir management. The key elements in economical reservoir management are the efficient use of available resources and optimization of reservoir exploitation through a multidisciplined approach. This paper describes various aspects of and approaches to reservoir management and provides case histories that support the findings

  10. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  11. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 4, Spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Martin J. Peters, Jr. Calvin B. Kelley Art Direction Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by...within larger organizations. For example, the concept 6 JFQ / Spring 1994 of the combined joint task force for Europe is designed to provide just such...or financial, may be the shared outcome for all parties to future conflicts. The image of war, shaped over centuries, is precise, graphic , and

  12. Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanadham, C; Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L

    2003-01-01

    Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave copper R.F resonators, have been taken up in our laboratory, An ultra high vacuum system was made for this purpose. Niobium exhibits superconducting properties at liquid Helium temperature. A uniform coating of about 1.5 mu m of niobium on the internal surfaces of the copper resonant cavities is desired. Power dissipation in the resonators can be greatly reduced by making the internal surfaces of the R.F cavity super conducting. (author)

  13. A Walk around Irkutsk’s Quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the key issues of the Concept of reconstruction of the 11 Irkutsk’s quarters adjacent to the Trading Axis. While remaining basic, the trading function should reduce its overwhelming domination to be in harmony with other functions of the city environment, which attract inhabitants and guests to the historical area of Irkutsk, that is culture, education, leisure, recreation, and housing.

  14. MENA Quarterly Economic Brief, July 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shanta; Mottaghi, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Iran and the Permanent Members of the UN Security Council and Germany (P5+1) reached a deal on July 14, 2015 that limits Iranian nuclear activity in return for lifting all international sanctions that were placed on Iran (Box 1). This issue of the MENA Quarterly Economic Brief (QEB) traces the economic effects of this development—removing sanctions on Iran—on the world oil market, on Iran’s trading partners, and on the Iranian economy.

  15. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 2, Autumn 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National...Decisions regard- ing the key force will affect many factors in the new environment. It determines reaction time, how much and what type of force to...shelters destroyed? Only indirectly. Attacks on shel- ters had forced a reaction by the Iraqis, one that caused the loss of their air arm as a force in

  16. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  17. Calcium-Mediated Adhesion of Nanomaterials in Reservoir Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Shannon L; Burnham, Nancy A

    2017-09-14

    Globally, a small percentage of oil is recovered from reservoirs using primary and secondary recovery mechanisms, and thus a major focus of the oil industry is toward developing new technologies to increase recovery. Many new technologies utilize surfactants, macromolecules, and even nanoparticles, which are difficult to deploy in harsh reservoir conditions and where failures cause material aggregation and sticking to rock surfaces. To combat these issues, typically material properties are adjusted, but recent studies show that adjusting the dispersing fluid chemistry could have significant impact on material survivability. Herein, the effect of injection fluid salinity and composition on nanomaterial fate is explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the calcium content in reservoir fluids affects the interactions of an AFM tip with a calcite surface, as surrogates for nanomaterials interacting with carbonate reservoir rock. The extreme force sensitivity of AFM provides the ability to elucidate small differences in adhesion at the pico-Newton (pN) level and provides direct information about material survivability. Increasing the calcium content mitigates adhesion at the pN-scale, a possible means to increase nanomaterial survivability in oil reservoirs or to control nanomaterial fate in other aqueous environments.

  18. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, L. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States) (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  19. Reservoir effects in a Stone Age fjord on Lolland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2018-01-01

    to be known for accurate radiocarbon dating of samples with possible aquatic carbon sources, such as human bones or food residues on pottery. Therefore, this paper attempts at calculating the local reservoir effect for the study area. I will discuss the possibilities and limitations when analysing radiocarbon...... for building chronologies and for reconstructing the environment of the Stone Age fjord. Finally, I will discuss the pitfalls and uncertainties associated with radiocarbon dates for sea level reconstruction....

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-11-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the second quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of TVO plant units and the Midsummer shutdown at TVO II which was due to low electricity demand, a turbine generator inspection and repairs. The load factor average of all plant units was 88.9 %. Events in the second quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  1. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary: Third quarter 1994--100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed on waste disposal sites located at the Hanford Site. The Third Quarter 1994 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports and are summarized below: (1) All the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during July, August, and September 1994 were completed except for the D Island vent riser area. The surveys for the 200-W railways, spurs, and sidings were completed during this period after being delayed by equipment problems during the second quarter. (2) No Compliance Assessment Reports (CARs) were issued for sites found out of compliance with standards identified in WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance. (3) Two Surveillance Compliance/Inspection Reports (SCIRs) were closed during the Third Quarter of 1994. (4) Eleven open SCIRs had not been resolved

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 1st Quarter FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (27 from the 1St Qtr FY-15 and 46 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 38 other issue reports (including nine not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions reported during the1st Qtr FY-15) identified at INL during the past 12 months.

  3. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, 2nd quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1994 through the fourth quarter of 1995. Values for the first quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available. The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1994 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the STIFS. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Event Performance Analysis FY 2013 4th Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable for the previous twelve months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) during the period of October 2012 through September 2013.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 2nd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-06-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at INL from January 2014 through March 2014.

  6. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary - second quarter 1997 100, 200, 300, and 600 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Marks, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. The Second Quarter 1997 survey results and the status of actions required are summarized below: All of the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during April, May, and June 1997, were performed as planned with the exception of UN-216-E-9. This site was not surveyed as stabilization activities were in progress. The sites scheduled for the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) team were switched with those identified for the third quarter as there was a conflict with vegetation management activities

  7. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  8. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  9. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...

  10. Sedimentological and Geomorphological Effects of Reservoir Flushing: The Cachi Reservoir, Costa Rica, 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar

    1999-01-01

    Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...

  11. The WSTIAC Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    elements of command– Major Eric D. Trias Captain Bryan M. Bell US Air Force You have to know the past to understand the present. — Carl Sagan This article is...Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 4 3 INTRODUCTION Carl von Clausewitz defined war as “…an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will...controlled systems. NOTES & REFERENCES ‡ Joint Pub 3-13 provides the doctrinal foundation for the conduct of IO in joint operations. [1] von Clausewitz, Carl

  12. Natural gas consumption for GRTgaz areas: 1. Quarter of 2015, 2. Quarter of 2015, 3. Quarter of 2015, 4. Quarter of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2015: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  13. Natural gas consumption within GRTgaz's territory: 1. Quarter of 2008, 2. Quarter of 2008, 3. Quarter of 2008, 4. Quarter of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2008: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  14. Natural gas consumption for GRTgaz areas: 1. Quarter of 2014, 2. Quarter of 2014, 3. Quarter of 2014, 4. Quarter of 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2014: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  15. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  16. Natural gas consumption for GRTgaz areas: 1. Quarter of 2011, 2. Quarter of 2011, 3. Quarter of 2011, 4. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2011: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  17. Improved prediction of reservoir behavior through integration of quantitative geological and petrophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auman, J. B.; Davies, D. K.; Vessell, R. K.

    1997-08-01

    Methodology that promises improved reservoir characterization and prediction of permeability, production and injection behavior during primary and enhanced recovery operations was demonstrated. The method is based on identifying intervals of unique pore geometry by a combination of image analysis techniques and traditional petrophysical measurements to calculate rock type and estimate permeability and saturation. Results from a complex carbonate and sandstone reservoir were presented as illustrative examples of the versatility and high level of accuracy of this method in predicting reservoir quality. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  18. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-12-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the second quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Olkiluoto plant units and the Midsummer outage at Olkiluoto 2 due to reduced demand for electricity. There were also brief interruptions in power operation at the Olkiluoto plant units due to three reactor scrams. All plant units are undergoing long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level which has been approved by STUK The load factor average of all plant units was 88.7 %. One event in the second quarter of 1997 was classified level 1 on the INES. The event in question was a scram at Olkiluoto 1 which was caused by erroneous opening of switches. Other events in this quarter were level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  20. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary: Second Quarter 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Second Quarter 1995 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are summarized

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy's application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1997-02-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the third quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to identify and repair malfunctions of a high pressure turbine control valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 77.2%. Events in the third quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The names of Teollisuuden Voima Oy's plant units have changed. Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 now replace the names TVO I and TVO II previously used in quarterly reports. (orig.)

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K [ed.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy`s application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.).

  4. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary. Fourth quarter, 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Fourth Quarter 1995 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are described

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-04-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units which lasted well over a month in all. There was also a brief interruption in electricity generation at Olkiluoto 1 for repairs and at Olkiluoto 2 due to a disturbance at the turbine plant. All plant units were in long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level approved by STUK. The load factor average of all plant units was 87.6 %. One event in the third quarter was classified level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It was noted at Loviisa 2 that one of four pressurized water tanks in the plant unit's emergency cooling system had been inoperable for a year. Other events in this quarter were INES level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  6. Quarterly report of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. 4th quarter 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1984 ten power reactors were in operation in Sweden. Two new reactors, Oskarshamn 3 and Forsmark 3, got loading authorization and started the test operation. No serious fault has occurred during the period. (K.A.E.)

  7. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-04-15

    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quarterly Technical Progress Report June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The project has two main goals: 1) Identify the types of adducts naphthalene (NA) forms with DNA and 2) determine whether adduct formation correlates with site selective tumor formation in defined subcompartments of the respiratory tract (respiratory and olfactory nasal epithelium and airways of mice, rats and rhesus monkeys). Five tasks are associated with the completion of the goals. Task 1: Contracting and Animal Use Approvals. IACUC and ACURO approvals are complete, The subcontract with UC Davis (UCD) was executed in December 2014. Task 2: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 1. Rat samples exposed and in freezer while adduct standards are being made. Mouse samples need to be exposed in next quarter. Task 3: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 2. Mouse ex vivo samples completed. Rat and monkey samples need to be completed in the next quarter. Task 4: Sample Preparation and Analysis. Mouse Goal 2 samples completed. Other samples remain to be done. Task 5: Data Interpretation and Reporting. Need rat data to write paper on adduct formation.

  9. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  10. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  11. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1999-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. All Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole second quarter of 1999, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Olkiluoto plant units. The load factor average of the plant units in this quarter was 93.1%. Two events in this quarter were classified Level 1 on the INKS Scale. At Olkiluoto 1, a valve of the containment gas treatment system had been in an incorrect position for almost a month, owing to which the system would not have been available as planned in an accident. At Olkiluoto 2, main circulation pump work was done during the annual maintenance outage and a containment personnel air lock was briefly open in violation of the Technical Specifications. Water leaking out of the reactor in an accident could not have been directed to the emergency cooling system because it would have leaked out from the containment via the open personnel air lock. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on the nuclear or radiation safety of the plant units. The individual doses of NPP personnel and also radioactive releases off-site were well below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  13. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters

  15. Third-quarter 1989 electric utility financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Utility earnings per share before write-offs fell 6.9% in the third quarter of 1989 from the year-earlier level. Write-offs reduced third-quarter earnings of a sample of 83 utilities that account for 95% of investor-owned utility revenue by $792 million, compared with $183 million in the year-earlier quarter. With larger write-offs in 1989 than in 1988, third-quarter earnings per share after write-offs plunged 16.9% from the year-earlier level

  16. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  17. ``Stacked reservoirs`` in the Zechstein 2 carbonate (Ca2): inversion tectonics in the pre-Zechstein subdivision-saline base of the Lower Saxony basin (Germany); ``Stacked Reservoirs`` im Zechstein 2 Karbonat (Ca2): Inversionstektonik im prae-Zechstein-salinaren Sockel des Niedersaechsischen Beckens (NW-Deutschland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbauch, K.; Brauckmann, F.; Schaefer, H.G.; Utermoehlen, S. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This article looks at areas in the Lower Saxony basis of North-West Germany where the carbonate of the 2nd Zechstein subdivision cycle (Ca2) was tectonically removed from its stratigraphic compound and is found in several stacks elsewhere. Modern 3D seismology and deep drillings were evaluated and tectonic models were developed which could be compared with examples from other saline provinces. This revealed new aspects of exploration for sour natural gas in the Zechstein subdivision (orig.). [Deutsch] Der Artikel behandelt Bereiche innerhalb des Niedersaechsischen Beckens von Nordwestdeutschland, wo das Karbonat des 2. Zechstein-Zyklus (Ca2) tektonisch aus seinem stratigraphischen Verband geloest wurde und an anderer Stelle mehrfach uebereinander gestapelt anzutreffen ist. Hierzu wurden moderne 3D Seismik sowie Tiefbohrungen ausgewertet und tektonische Modelle entwickelt, die mit Beispielen aus anderen Salinarprovinzen verglichen wurden. Hinsichtlich der Exploration auf Sauergas im Zechstein ergeben sich daraus neue Aspekte und Moeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  18. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  19. Application of an expert system to optimize reservoir performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Ridha

    2005-01-01

    The main challenge of oil displacement by an injected fluid, such as in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes, is to reduce the cost and improve reservoir performance. An optimization methodology, combined with an economic model, is implemented into an expert system to optimize the net present value of full field development with an EOR process. The approach is automated and combines an economic package and existing numerical reservoir simulators to optimize the design of a selected EOR process using sensitivity analysis. The EOR expert system includes three stages of consultations: (1) select an appropriate EOR process on the basis of the reservoir characteristics, (2) prepare appropriate input data sets to design the selected EOR process using existing numerical simulators, and (3) apply the discounted-cash-flow methods to the optimization of the selected EOR process to find out under what conditions at current oil prices this EOR process might be profitable. The project profitability measures were used as the decision-making variables in an iterative approach to optimize the design of the EOR process. The economic analysis is based on the estimated recovery, residual oil in-place, oil price, and operating costs. Two case studies are presented for two reservoirs that have already been produced to their economic limits and are potential candidates for surfactant/polymer flooding, and carbon-dioxide flooding, respectively, or otherwise subject to abandonment. The effect of several design parameters on the project profitability of these EOR processes was investigated

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIR MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    ORDOÑEZ, A; PEÑUELA, G; IDROBO, E. A; MEDINA, C. E

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of oil reserves are contained in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of these hydrocarbon volumes have been left behind because of the poor knowledge and/or description methodology of those reservoirs. This lack of knowledge has lead to the nonexistence of good quantitative models for this complicated type of reservoirs. The complexity of naturally fractured reservoirs causes the need for integration of all existing information at all scales (drilling, well logging, seismic, we...

  1. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie's parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  2. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  3. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  4. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  5. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  6. On the evaluation of steam assisted gravity drainage in naturally fractured oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tohidi Hosseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD as a successful enhanced oil recovery (EOR process has been applied to extract heavy and extra heavy oils. Huge amount of global heavy oil resources exists in carbonate reservoirs which are mostly naturally fractured reservoirs. Unlike clastic reservoirs, few studies were carried out to determine the performance of SAGD in carbonate reservoirs. Even though SAGD is a highly promising technique, several uncertainties and unanswered questions still exist and they should be clarified for expansion of SAGD methods to world wide applications especially in naturally fractured reservoirs. In this communication, the effects of some operational and reservoir parameters on SAGD processes were investigated in a naturally fractured reservoir with oil wet rock using CMG-STARS thermal simulator. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fracture properties including fracture orientation, fracture spacing and fracture permeability on the SAGD performance in naturally fractured reservoirs. Moreover, one operational parameter was also studied; one new well configuration, staggered well pair was evaluated. Results indicated that fracture orientation influences steam expansion and oil production from the horizontal well pairs. It was also found that horizontal fractures have unfavorable effects on oil production, while vertical fractures increase the production rate for the horizontal well. Moreover, an increase in fracture spacing results in more oil production, because in higher fracture spacing model, steam will have more time to diffuse into matrices and heat up the entire reservoir. Furthermore, an increase in fracture permeability results in process enhancement and ultimate recovery improvement. Besides, diagonal change in the location of injection wells (staggered model increases the recovery efficiency in long-term production plan.

  7. The AMTEX Partnership. Third quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The AMTEX Partnership is a collaborative research and development program among the U.S. Integrated Textile Industry, the Department of Energy, The DOE laboratories, other federal agencies and laboratories, and universities. The goal of AMTEX is to strengthen the competitiveness of this vital U.S. industry and thereby preserve and create American jobs. During the third quarter of 1994 all the Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) were completed and work initiated for three additional projects: Computer Aided Fabric Evaluation (CAFE), Textile Resource Conservation (TReC), and Sensors for Agile Manufacturing (SFAM). The plan for a Cotton Biotechnology project was completed and reviewed by the Industry Technical Advisory Committee. In addition, an `impact study` on the topic of flexible fiber production was conducted by an industry group led by the fiber manufacturers.

  8. Cardiology update 2017: The first quarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridharan Umapathy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first quarter of 2017, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9's role got defined further with a number of trials such as FOURIER, ORION-1, and SPIRE 1 and 2. TAVI proves safe in intermediate-risk patients in the Surgical Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation study. Newer anticoagulants extended their role to valvular heart disease. Bioabsorbable stent showed problems (ABSORB 2 and 3. New guidelines have been released for syncope and transcatheter aortic valve replacement implantation. Clinical outcome studies involving instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR showed IFR to be noninferior to fractional flow reserve. Optimal medical therapy proves noninferior to percutaneous coronary intervention in single vessel chronic total occlusion.

  9. Performance indicators for first quarter CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-Wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment safety, and health (ES ampersand H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the thirteenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The report format and content adhere to the guidelines established In DOE Order 5480.26, Trending and Analysis of Operations Information Using Performance Indicators, and DOE-STD-1048-92, DOE Peformance Indicators Guidance Document

  10. Quarterly status of Department of Energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Quarterly Status of Department of Energy Projects is prepared by the Office of project and Facilities Management, MA-30. The report is designed to provide Department of Energy (DOE) management officials with a summary of the important baseline data that exists in the DOE project data base. This data base is maintained chiefly from periodic field management reports required by DOE Order 5700.4. Since most of the current estimates in this report are from field project managers, they do not necessarily have full Headquarters approval. The current budget data sheet estimates that appear in the report are considered appropriate for reporting external to the Department and reflect the President's FY 1983 Budget to Congress. Moneys allocated and estimated costs, and the construction status are tabulated for projects under the subject categories of: conservation and renewable energy; defense programs; environmental protection, safety and emergency preparedness; energy research; defense programs; nuclear energy; and management and administration

  11. Mexican forest inventory expands continental carbon monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Sandoval Uribe; Sean. P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Rigoberto Palafox Rivas; Enrique Gonzalez Aguilar; Carmen Lourdes Meneses Tovar; Ernesto S. Diaz Ponce Davalos; Vanessa Silva Mascorro

    2008-01-01

    The terrestrial ecosystems of the North American continent represent a large reservoir of carbon and a potential sink within the global carbon cycle. The recent State of the Carbon Cycle Report [U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), 2007] identified the critical role these systems may play in mitigating effects of greenhouse gases emitted from fossil fuel...

  12. 77 FR 71288 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... its regulations to change the process for filing Electric Quarterly Reports (EQR). Due to technology... Quarterly Reports (EQR). Due to technology changes that will render the current filing process outmoded... the current EQR software to the web interface minimally disruptive. We direct Commission staff to...

  13. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2011-11-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  16. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  19. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  20. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2010-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet