WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbonate fuel cells

  1. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  2. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  4. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  5. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) consisting of a solid carbon (carbon black)-molten carbonate ((62–38 wt% Li-K)2CO3) mixtures in the anode chamber of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell type full-cell are tested for their electrochemical performance between 700 and 800°C. Performance...

  6. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  7. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  8. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  9. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  10. Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

  11. Recovery of carbon dioxide from fuel cell exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, H.C.; Kolodney, M.; Levy, A.H.; Trocciola, P.

    1988-06-14

    An acid fuel cell power plant system operable to produce carbon dioxide as a by-product is described comprising: (a) fuel cell stack means having anode means, cathode means, and fuel cell cooling means, the cooling means using a water coolant; (b) means for delivering a hydrogen-rich fuel gas which contains carbon dioxide to the anode means for consumption of hydrogen by the anode means in an electrochemical reaction in the stack; (c) carbon dioxide absorber means including an absorbent for stripping carbon dioxide from gaseous mixtures thereof; (d) means for delivering hydrogen-depleted exhaust gas containing carbon dioxide from the anode means to the carbon dioxide absorber means for absorption of carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas; (e) an absorbent regenerator; (f) means for delivering carbon dioxide-enriched absorbent from the absorber means to the regenerator for separation of carbon dioxide from the absorbent; (g) means for exhausting carbon dioxide from the regenerator, the means for exhausting further including means for cooling and compressing carbon dioxide exhausted from the regenerator; and (h) means for removing the compressed carbon dioxide from the power plant.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell integral matrix tape and bubble barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A molten carbonate fuel cell matrix material is described made up of a matrix tape portion and a bubble barrier portion. The matrix tape portion comprises particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte, ceramic particles and a polymeric binder, the matrix tape being flexible, pliable and having rubber-like compliance at room temperature. The bubble barrier is a solid material having fine porosity preferably being bonded to the matrix tape. In operation in a fuel cell, the polymer binder burns off leaving the matrix and bubble barrier providing superior sealing, stability and performance properties to the fuel cell stack

  13. Carbon xerogels as catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon xerogels with various pore textures were prepared by evaporative drying and pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde gels, and used as supports for Pt catalysts in PEM fuel cell cathodes. The goal of this study was to determine whether carbon xerogels could replace the carbon aerogels which were previously used as Pt catalyst supports in the same electrochemical system, and to determine how the pore texture influences the cell performances. Pt catalysts were prepared by impregnation of carbon supports with aqueous H2PtCl6 solution followed by reduction in aqueous phase with NaBH4. Fuel cell measurements show that the metal surface actually available for the oxygen reduction reaction and the voltage losses due to diffusion phenomena strongly depend on the carbon pore texture. Finally, some carbon xerogels yield similar performance than carbon aerogels

  14. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  15. Development of tubular hybrid direct carbon fuel cell and pyrolysis of biomass for production of carbon fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano

    2013-01-01

    This study involved two avenues of investigation: a new concept of Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) and the production of carbon from biomass. The new concept of DCFC merges a solid oxide electrolyte and a molten carbonate electrolyte called the “hybrid direct carbon fuel cell” using tubular geometry. The tubular cell was chosen for several reasons, such as sealing process, reduction of stress during the sintering process and reduction of the final size of the stack. In addition, it makes th...

  16. Achieving high performance in intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cells with renewable carbon as a fuel source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bamboo fiber and waste paper were pyrolyzed to generate bamboo carbon and waste paper carbon as anode fuels of IT-DCFC. • Superior cell performance was achieved with the waste paper carbon. • The results suggested the high performance was due to the highest thermal reactivity and the catalytic inherent impurities. • Calcite and kaolinite as inherent impurities favored the thermal decomposition and the electrooxidation of carbon. - Abstract: Three kinds of carbon sources obtained from carbon black, bamboo fiber and waste paper were investigated as anode fuels in an intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell. The carbon sources were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, etc. The results indicated that the waste paper carbon was more abundant in calcite and kaolinite, and showed higher thermal reactivity in the intermediate temperature range compared with the other two carbon sources. The cell performance was tested at 650 °C in a hybrid single cell, using Sm0.20Ce0.80O2−x as the electrolyte. As a result, the cell fed with waste paper carbon showed the highest performance among the three carbon sources, with a peak power density of 225 mW cm−2. The results indicated that its inherent impurities, such as calcite and kaolinite, might favor the thermal gasification of renewable carbon sources, which resulted in the enhanced performance of the intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell

  17. An Innovative Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix, Abstract #188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader [FuelCell Energy, Inc.; Surendranath, Arun [FuelCell Energy, Inc.; Yuh, Chao-Yi [FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    2015-05-28

    The electrolyte matrix in direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) is a microporous ceramic structure sandwiched between the electrodes to isolate the fuel from the oxidant, store electrolyte and facilitate ionic transport. FCE has advanced DFC electrolyte matrix over the years and demonstrated that the matrix meets the requirements for greater than 5 year life based on accelerated tests and field stack operations. However, development of advanced designs and materials that can further increase the performance and extend cell life will enable accelerated MCFC deployment. This paper will report the progress on the development of an unique and innovative matrix design that offers numerous benefits to the carbonate fuel cell performance and durability. In addition, this paper will also review parameters that affect matrix material stability and approaches to extend cell life.

  18. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  19. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Ommen, van, B.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In order to find suitable types of nickel catalysts and to obtain more knowledge about the deactivation mechanism(s) occurring during internal reforming, a series of nickel catalysts was prepared and subj...

  20. Carbonate fuel cell system with integrated carbon dioxide/thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetsch, L.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to define the stack design and system requirements for a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell with an integrated carbon dioxide management system. Significant simplification and cost reduction of the system is achieved by direct transfer of the fuel exhaust to the oxidant inlet of the fuel cell, thereby eliminating the anode exhaust converter and high temperature piping utilized in conventional system designs.

  1. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  2. Direct Conversion of Carbon Fuels in a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, N J; Fiet, K J; Krueger, R; Jankowski, A F; Cooper, J F

    2004-01-28

    Anodes of elemental carbon may be discharged in a galvanic cell using a molten carbonate electrolyte, a nickel-foam anode-current collector, and a porous nickel air cathode to achieve power densities of 40-100 mW/cm{sup 2}. We report cell and anode polarization, surface area, primary particle size and a crystallization index for nine particulate carbon samples derived from fuel oil, methane, coal, charred biological material and petroleum coke. At 800 C, current densities of 50-125 mA/cm{sup 2} were measured at a representative cell voltage of 0.8 V. Power densities for cells with two carbon-anode materials were found to be nearly the same on scales of 2.8- and 60 cm{sup 2} active area. Constant current operation of a small cell was accompanied by constant voltage during multiple tests of 10-30 hour duration. Cell voltage fell off after the carbon inventory was consumed. Three different cathode structures are compared, indicating that an LLNL fabricated porous nickel electrode with <10 {micro}m pores provides improved rates compared with nickel foam with 100-300 {micro}m pores. Petroleum coke containing substantial sulfur and ash discharges at a slightly lower rate than purified petroleum coke. The sulfur leads to degradation of the anode current collector over time. A conceptual model for electrochemical reactivity of carbon is presented which indicates the importance of (1) bulk lattice disorder, which continually provides surface reactive sites during anodic dissolution and (2) electrical conductivity, which lowers the ohmic component of anode polarization.

  3. Research and development issues for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of molten carbonate fuel cells. In particular, the corrosion resistance and service life of nickel oxide cathodes is described. The resistivity of lithium oxide/iron oxides and improvement with doping is addressed.

  4. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1995-10-19

    Carbonate fuel cells developed by Energy Research Corporation, in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9 percent. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted in cooperation with METC to identify an economically competitive system with an efficiency in excess of 65 percent. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency in excess of 70 percent. This new system is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95 percent of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for the reforming of the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72 percent of the power. The portion of the fuel cell anode exhaust which is not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to the compressed air from a gas turbine, raising its temperature to 1800{degrees}F. The stream is then heated to 2000{degrees}F in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13 percent of the power. Half the exhaust from the gas turbine flows to the anode exhaust burner, and the remainder flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the fuel cells flows to a steam system which includes a heat recovery steam generator and stages steam turbine which generates 15 percent of the TTC system power. Studies of the TTC for 200-MW and 20-MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the characteristics of the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6 percent, and is relatively insensitive to ambient temperature, but requires a heat exchanger capable of 2000{degrees}F. The estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr which is not competitive with a combined cycle in installations where fuel cost is under $5.8/MMBtu.

  5. Performance evaluation of a tubular direct carbon fuel cell operating in a packed bed of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DCFC (direct carbon fuel cell) technology, based on the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbon, has the potential to double the electric efficiency and half the CO2 emissions compared to conventional coal fired power plants. In order to assess the scalability of the technology in terms of fabrication and fuel feed system, and to elucidate the possible causes of the cell degradation, a tubular DCFC has been fabricated and operated in a pulverised carbon packed bed at around 800 °C. The cell was operated for a total period of 11 days with many thermal cycles. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to elucidate the possible causes of the cell degradation. Post-mortem analysis of the cell with SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed structural stability of both air and fuel electrodes. A peak power density of 30 mW cm−2 was obtained by direct contact of carbon to the fuel electrode with high purity He as the purge gas. The cell, at the end of operation was still found to produce 60% of the power relative to the power at the beginning of operation, and this study demonstrates the feasibility of continuous operation of the tubular fuel cell in a packed bed of carbon. - Highlights: • A direct carbon fuel cell was operated for 11 days in a packed carbon bed. • Scalability and continuous operation of fuel cell on solid carbon demonstrated. • MIEC (Mixed ion electronic conducting) anode (LSCF) showed reasonable stability. • Major degradation source is lack of carbon contact with anode as it is consumed

  6. Carbon Nanowalls for oxygen reduction reaction in Bio Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the usage of Carbon Nanowalls (CNW) synthesized by a PECVD process as electrode material for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In order to substitute the platinum based catalysts in fuel cells, graphene is a promising candidate. Carbon Nanowalls are a graphene modification with good accessibility and a controllable morphology. By controlling height and pore size, they can be optimized for different applications. A ID/IG ratio around 2.5 and the SEM images indicate vertical nanocrystallin graphene sheets. Tests with ferrocene as electroactive compound verify CNW suitability as electrode material. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in oxygen saturated PBS prove the catalytic activity of CNW towards ORR. The results support the feasibility of CNW as cathode in Bio Fuel Cells

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  8. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  9. Recent advances in Carbon Nanotube based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eCosnier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols or hydrogen at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2 at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes, enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons, involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes, can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications.

  10. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells and their reaction mechanisms - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    with carbon capture and storage (CCS) due to the high purity of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gas. Direct carbon (or coal) fuel cells (DCFCs) are directly fed with solid carbon to the anode chamber. The fuel cell converts the carbon at the anode and the oxygen at the cathode into electricity, heat and...... efforts is discussed on the fuel cell stack and system levels. The range of DCFC types can be roughly broken down into four fuel cell types: aqueous hydroxide, molten hydroxide, molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical reactions occurring at the anode and the...... proposed mechanism(s) of these reactions for molten carbonate, solid oxide and hybrid direct carbon fuel cells. Additionally, the criteria of choosing the ‘best’ DCFC technology is explored, including system design (continuous supply of solid fuel), performance (power density, efficiency), environmental...

  11. Study of different nanostructured carbon supports for fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Giorgi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Renzo; Montone, Amelia [Department of Physical Methods and Materials, ENEA, Research Centre of Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Piscopiello, Emanuela [Department of Physical Methods and Materials, ENEA, Research Centre of Brindisi, Via Appia Km 702, 72100 Brindisi (Italy); Bellitto, Serafina; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2009-10-20

    Pt clusters were deposited by an impregnation process on three carbon supports: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), and Vulcan XC-72 carbon black to investigate the effect of the carbon support structure on the possibility of reducing Pt loading on electrodes for direct methanol (DMFC) fuel cells without impairing performance. MWNT and SWNH were in-house synthesised by a DC and an AC arc discharge process between pure graphite electrodes, respectively. UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry measurements were used to characterize the Pt particles deposited on the three carbon supports. A differential yield for Pt deposition, not strictly related to the surface area of the carbon support, was observed. SWNH showed the highest surface chemical activity toward Pt deposition. Pt deposited in different forms depending on the carbon support. Electrochemical characterizations showed that the Pt nanostructures deposited on MWNT are particularly efficient in the methanol oxidation reaction. (author)

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cells: A high temperature fuel cell on the edge to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Manfred

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) technology has been developed in USA, Japan, Korea and Europe for many years. What has started about 30 years ago as an interesting laboratory object has now matured to a potential alternative to conventional power generation systems. Especially the combined heat and power (CHP) generation is an area, where MCFC power plants can be applied with great advantage, due to the high efficiencies which can be achieved. It was demonstrated by several manufacturers that in the sub-MW region MCFC power plants can reach electrical efficiencies of 47%. By making use of the heat generated by the system, total efficiencies of more than 80% can be achieved. The present paper will discuss some aspects of the development work going on with a focus on the role of the molten carbonate contained in the cells. An outlook will be given for the future prospects of this young technology in a changing energy market.

  13. MODELING AND DESIGN FOR A DIRECT CARBON FUEL CELL WITH ENTRAINED FUEL AND OXIDIZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan A. Kornhauser; Ritesh Agarwal

    2005-04-01

    The novel molten carbonate fuel cell design described in this report uses porous bed electrodes. Molten carbonate, with carbon fuel particles and oxidizer entrained, is circulated through the electrodes. Carbon may be reacted directly, without gasification, in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The cathode reaction is 2CO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} 4e{sup -} {yields} 2CO{sub 3}{sup =}, while the anode reaction can be either C + 2CO{sub 3}{sup =} {yields} 3CO{sub 2} + 4e{sup -} or 2C + CO{sub 3}{sup =} {yields} 3CO + 2e{sup -}. The direct carbon fuel cell has an advantage over fuel cells using coal-derived synthesis gas in that it provides better overall efficiency and reduces equipment requirements. Also, the liquid electrolyte provides a means for transporting the solid carbon. The porous bed cell makes use of this carbon transport ability of the molten salt electrolyte. A one-dimensional model has been developed for predicting the performance of this cell. For the cathode, dependent variables are superficial O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes in the gas phase, superficial O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes in the liquid phase, superficial current density through the electrolyte, and electrolyte potential. The variables are related by correlations, from the literature, for gas-liquid mass transfer, liquid-solid mass transfer, cathode current density, electrode overpotential, and resistivity of a liquid with entrained gas. For the anode, dependent variables are superficial CO{sub 2} flux in the gas phase, superficial CO{sub 2} flux in the liquid phase, superficial C flux, superficial current density through the electrolyte, and electrolyte potential. The same types of correlations relate the variables as in the cathode, with the addition of a correlation for resistivity of a fluidized bed. CO production is not considered, and axial dispersion is neglected. The model shows behavior typical of porous bed electrodes used in electrochemical processes. Efficiency is comparable to that of

  14. Carbon fiber enhanced bioelectricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Wan, Lili; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising biotechnology for the bioelectricity recovery as well as the remediation of organics contaminated soil. However, the electricity production and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC are seriously limited by the tremendous internal resistance of soil. Conductive carbon fiber was mixed with petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil and significantly enhanced the performance of soil MFC. The maximum current density, the maximum power density and the accumulated charge output of MFC mixed carbon fiber (MC) were 10, 22 and 16 times as high as those of closed circuit control due to the carbon fiber productively assisted the anode to collect the electron. The internal resistance of MC reduced by 58%, 83% of which owed to the charge transfer resistance, resulting in a high efficiency of electron transfer from soil to anode. The degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbons enhanced by 100% and 329% compared to closed and opened circuit controls without the carbon fiber respectively. The effective range of remediation and the bioelectricity recovery was extended from 6 to 20cm with the same area of air-cathode. The mixed carbon fiber apparently enhanced the bioelectricity generation and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC by means of promoting the electron transfer rate from soil to anode. The use of conductively functional materials (e.g. carbon fiber) is very meaningful for the remediation and bioelectricity recovery in the bioelectrochemical remediation. PMID:27162144

  15. Highly Loaded Carbon Black Supported Pt Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Vít, Zdeněk; Šolcová, Olga; Soukup, Karel; Maixnerová, Lucie

    Prague: Orgit, 2014, s. 35. ISBN 978-80-02-02555-9. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering /21./ - CHISA 2014 and Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction /17./ - PRES 2014. Prague (CZ), 23.08.2014-27.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : pt catalysts * fuel cells * carbon black Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. Efficiency of non-optimized direct carbon fuel cell with molten alkaline electrolyte fueled by carbonized biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, A.; Kobyłecki, R.; Włodarczyk, R.; Bis, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) belong to new generation of energy conversion devices that are characterized by much higher efficiencies and lower emission of pollutants than conventional coal-fired power plants. In this paper the DCFC with molten hydroxide electrolyte is considered as the most promising type of the direct carbon fuel cells. Binary alkali hydroxide mixture (NaOH-LiOH, 90-10 mol%) is used as electrolyte and the biochar of apple tree origin carbonized at 873 K is applied as fuel. The performance of a lab-scale DCFC with molten alkaline electrolyte is investigated and theoretical, practical, voltage, and fuel utilization efficiencies of the cell are calculated and discussed. The practical efficiency is assessed on the basis of fuel HHV and LHV and the values are estimated at 40% and 41%, respectively. The average voltage efficiency is calculated as roughly 59% (at 0.65 V) and it is in a relatively good agreement with the values obtained by other researchers. The calculated efficiency of fuel utilization exceeds 95% thus indicating a high degree of carbon conversion into the electric power.

  17. Carbon nanotube modification of microbial fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Alireza Ahmadian; D'Angelo, Lorenzo; Omer, Nada; Windiasti, Gracia; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-11-15

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy harvesting devices is preferable due to their unique mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. On the other hand, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising devices to recover carbon-neutral energy from the organic matters, and have been hindered with major setbacks towards commercialization. Nanoengineered CNT-based materials show remarkable electrochemical properties, and therefore have provided routes towards highly effective modification of MFC compartments to ultimately reach the theoretical limits of biomass energy recovery, low-cost power production, and thus the commercialization of MFCs. Moreover, these CNT-based composites offer significant flexibility in the design of MFCs that enable their use for a broad spectrum of applications ranging from scaled-up power generation to medically related devices. This article reviews the recent advances in the modification of MFCs using CNTs and CNT-based composites, and the extent to which each modification route impacts MFC power and current generation. PMID:27213269

  18. Nafion-carbon nanocomposite membranes prepared using hydrothermal carbonization for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Zhanli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3182 (Australia); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Hongjie [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Doherty, Cara M.; Hill, Anita J. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Locked Bag 33, Clayton South MDC, VIC 3169 (Australia); Ladewig, Bradley P.; Wang, Huanting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3182 (Australia)

    2010-12-21

    Nafion-carbon (NC) composite membranes were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of Nafion membrane impregnated with glucose solution. The carbon loading of the NC membrane was tuned by controlling the hydrothermal carbonization time. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy were used to characterize plain Nafion and NC composite membranes. Nafion-carbon composite membranes exhibited better proton conductivity and reduced methanol permeability than those of the plain Nafion membrane. A single cell prepared with the NC composite membrane with a carbon loading of 3.6 wt% exhibited the highest cell performance. Compared with the cell performance of plain Nafion membrane, the maximum power density of the new cell improved by 31.7% for an H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell at room temperature, and by 44.0% for a direct methanol fuel cell at 60 C. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. New applications of carbon nanostructures in microbial fuel cells (MFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaca, W.; Żarnowiec, P.; Keczkowska, Justyna; Suchańska, M.; Czerwosz, E.; Kozłowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the studies presented we proposed a new application for nanocomposite carbon films (C-Pd). These films were evaluated as an anode material for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) used for electrical current generation. The results of characterization of C-Pd films composed of carbon and palladium nanograins were obtained using the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method. The film obtained by this method exhibits a multiphase structure composed of fullerene nanograins, amorphous carbon and palladium nanocrystals. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize the chemical composition, morphology and topography of these films. We observed, for MFC with C-Pd anode, the highest electrochemical activity and maximal voltage density - 458 mV (20,8 mV/cm2) for Proteus mirabilis, 426 mV (19,4 mV/cm2) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 652 mV (29,6 mV/cm2) for sewage bacteria as the microbial catalyst.

  20. Thermodynamic Stability of LiFeO2 in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    LiFeO2, as one of candidate cathode materials or additive for molten carbonate fuel cell, has been found to be thermodynamically unstable in CO2 atmosphere at 650℃ (the condition of molten carbonate fuel cell) both by computation and experimental confirmation.

  1. Effect of CeO2 Infiltration on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  2. Performance assessment of natural gas and biogas fueled molten carbonate fuel cells in carbon capture configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Campanari, Stefano; Discepoli, Gabriele; Spinelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The ability of MCFCs as carbon dioxide concentrator is an alternative solution among the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies to reduce the CO2 emission of an existing plant, providing energy instead of implying penalties. Moreover, the fuel flexibility exhibited by MCFCs increases the interest on such a solution. This paper provides the performance characterization of MCFCs operated in CCS configuration and fed with either natural gas or biogas. Experimental results are referred to a base CCS unit constituted by a MCFC stack fed from a reformer and integrated with an oxycombustor. A comparative analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of fuel composition on energy efficiency and CO2 capture performance. A higher CO2 removal ability is revealed for the natural feeding case, bringing to a significant reduction in MCFC total area (-11.5%) and to an increase in produced net power (+13%). Moreover, the separated CO2 results in 89% (natural gas) and 86.5% (biogas) of the CO2 globally delivered by the CCS base unit. Further investigation will be carried out to provide a comprehensive assessment of the different solutions eco-efficiency considering also the biogas source and availability.

  3. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  4. The influence of carbon dioxide on PEM fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, F. A.; Papageorgopoulos, D. C.; Sitters, E. F.; Janssen, G. J. M.

    The influence of CO 2 on the performance of PEM fuel cells was investigated by means of fuel cell experiments and cyclic voltammetry. Depending on the composition and microstructure of the fuel cell anode, the effect varies from small to significant. Adsorbed hydrogen plays a dominant role in the formation of CO-like species via the reverse water-gas shift reaction. Platinum sites which are not utilized in the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen are thought to catalyze this reverse-shift reaction. Alloying with ruthenium suppresses the reverse-shift reaction.

  5. Effect of fuel utilization on the carbon monoxide poisoning dynamics of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis C.; Koski, Pauli; Ihonen, Jari; Sousa, José M.; Mendes, Adélio

    2014-07-01

    The effect of fuel utilization on the poisoning dynamics by carbon monoxide (CO) is studied for future automotive conditions of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Three fuel utilizations are used, 70%, 40% and 25%. CO is fed in a constant concentration mode of 1 ppm and in a constant molar flow rate mode (CO concentrations between 0.18 and 0.57 ppm). The concentrations are estimated on a dry gas basis. The CO concentration of the anode exhaust gas is analyzed using gas chromatography. CO is detected in the anode exhaust gas almost immediately after it is added to the inlet gas. Moreover, the CO concentration of the anode exhaust gas increases with the fuel utilization for both CO feed modes. It is demonstrated that the lower the fuel utilization, the higher the molar flow rate of CO at the anode outlet at early stages of the CO poisoning. These results suggest that the effect of CO in PEMFC systems with anode gas recirculation is determined by the dynamics of its accumulation in the recirculation loop. Consequently, accurate quantification of impurities limits in current fuel specification (ISO 14687-2:2012) should be determined using anode gas recirculation.

  6. Fabrication of Pt deposited on carbon nanotubes and performance of its polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method of depositing nano-sized Pt particles on the surface of the carbon nano-tubes was introduced, and the performance of Pt/carbon nanotube compound on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells was measured. The experimental results show that the fine platinum particles (about 3 nm) were well dispersed on carbon nanotubes, which demonstrates the excellent catalytic properties of the Pt/CNTs compound in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  7. Development of a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell for Power and Fuels Cogeneration Directly from Plastic Trash Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a simple processing concept based-on an advanced direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) technology enabling...

  8. Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

    2005-11-01

    Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The

  9. Assessment of commercial prospects of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Andrew; Siddle, Angie

    The commercial prospects of molten carbonate fuel cells have been evaluated. Market applications, and the commercial criteria that the MCFC will need to satisfy for these applications, were identified through interviews with leading MCFC developers. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses were carried out to critically evaluate the prospects for commercialisation. There are many competing technologies, but it is anticipated that MCFCs can make significant penetration into markets where their attributes, such as quality of power, low emissions and availability, give them a leading position in comparison with, for example, engine and turbine-based power generation systems. Analysis suggests that choosing the size for MCFC plant is more important than the target market sector/niche. Opportunities will exist in many market sectors, though the commercial market would be easier to penetrate initially. Developers are optimistic about the commercial prospects for the MCFC. Most believe that early commercial MCFC plants may start to appear in the first decade of the next century, the earliest date suggested for initial market entry being 2002.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Performance of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立军; 袁俊琪; 曾广益; 姜秀民

    2004-01-01

    A three dimension of dynamic mathematical model of the molten carbonate fuel cell is established,in which the heat generation, mass transfer and electrochemical characteristics are described. The performance of the fuel cell including the distributions of the temperature and the velocity is predicted numerically. Then the experimental data including the output performance of the fuel cell generation system and the temperature distributions are compared. The numerical results are in agreement with the experiment results.

  11. Performance analysis of a direct carbon fuel cell with molten carbonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model of a packed bed anode DCFC (direct carbon fuel cell) with molten carbonate as an electrolyte and graphite as a fuel is established to globally evaluate its performance. Thermodynamic-electrochemical analyses on the performance of the DCFC are implemented, in which the activation overpotential, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential are taken as the main sources of voltage losses. The analytical expressions for the cell voltage, power output, efficiency, and entropy production rate are derived, from which the general performance characteristics are discussed in detail. At the anode, the ohmic overpotential in each slab resulting from the carbon phase is found to be about three orders of magnitude larger than that resulting from the electrolyte phase. The radius of the real contact area between two neighboring graphite particles decreases at an accelerating rate as one goes up in the bed, and the corresponding constriction resistance will increase at an accelerating rate. The decrease in the operating current density and anode dimension and the increase in the operating temperature will lessen the overall ohmic overpotential. The effects of the operating current density, operating temperature and anode dimension on the performance are discussed, and the optimum criteria for some important performance parameters are determined. - Highlights: • An irreversible model of a DCFC with molten carbonate electrolyte is proposed. • Main irreversible losses in the DCFC are analytically characterized. • General performance characteristics of the DCFC are revealed. • Optimum operation regions of some performance parameters are determined

  12. Integration of carbon felt gas diffusion layers in silicon micro fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have integrated carbon felt, a traditional fuel cell gas diffusion layer, with silicon micro fuel cells. To this end we used two silicon microfabrication procedures using reactive ion etching: formation of black silicon and sinking of flowfield. The former decreases electrical contact resistance to the diffusion layer, the latter serves to contain the reactant gases. The micro fuel cells, where the flowfield was covered by black silicon nano-needles, showed better performance (127 mW cm−2) compared to the same cells without black silicon (114 mW cm−2). The black silicon fuel cells were also more stable during an overnight chronoamperometric measurement. (paper)

  13. Anodes for glucose fuel cells made of carbonized nanofibers with embedded carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilutsky, Sabina; Cohen, Yachin; Zussman, Eyal; Makarov, Vadim; Bubis, Eugenia; Schechner, Pinchas

    2010-03-01

    Electrodes made of carbonized polyacrylonitryle nanofibers, with and without embedded multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were fabricated by the electrospinning (ES) process and evaluated as anodes in a glucose fuel cell (FC). The effect of several processing and structural characteristics, such as the presence of MWCNTs, polymer concentration in the ES solution and silver electroless plating, on FC performance were measured The carbon electrodes were successful as anodes showing significant activity even without additional silver catalyst, with noticeable improvement by incorporation of MWCNTs. The orientation of graphitic layers along the fiber axis and the coherence of layer packing were shown to be important for enhanced electrode activity. The maximal values of open circuit voltage (OCV) and peak of power density (PPD) of unmetallized electrodes, 0.4 V and 30 μW/cm^2, were found for composite carbon nanofiber electrode. Electroless silver metallization leads to enhanced performance. Maximal values of OCV and PPD of silvered electrodes were measured to be about 0.9 V and 400 μW/cm^2. Thus, carbonized nanofibers with embedded MWCNTs may form a good basis for glucose FC anodes, but better metallization and cell-configuration allowing proper mixing are required.

  14. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  15. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  16. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  17. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... temperature (700-800 °C) and anode sweep gas (N2, 4-100% CO2 in N2-CO2). It was shown that the addition of silver based catalysts (Ag, Ag2O, Ag2CO3) into the carbon-carbonate slurry enhanced the performance of the HDCFC....

  18. An investigation into carbon nanostructured materials as catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are among the key research areas concerning clean cost-effective energy. Carbon nano fibres (CNF), single walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNT), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and other related materials are among the possible successors to standard carbon...... than carbon blacks. Even then the possible durability of the platinum containing catalyst is a major concern for fuel cell degradation during operation. In order to evaluate platinum containing electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the rotating disc electrode (RDE) and...... rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) thin-film application method is an easy and direct method to evaluate the kinetics of the catalyst for specific reactions.This is due to the RDE and RRDE very well described hydrodynamics, and hence has very well defined flow properties of the electrolyte. By using the...

  19. Highly Loaded Carbon Black Supported Pt Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Larsen, M.J.; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Vít, Zdeněk; Šolcová, Olga; Soukup, Karel; Koštejn, Martin; Bonde, J.L.; Maixnerová, Lucie; Odgaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 256, NOV 1 (2015), s. 375-383. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon black * fuell cell * electrocatalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  20. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP (combined heat, hydrogen and power) system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the fuel cell system at peak capacity. Following the resource assessment study, the team selects FuelCell Energy DFC (direct fuel cell) 1500™ unit as a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CHHP system provides electricity to power the university campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, back-up power and other needs. In conclusion, the CHHP system will be able to reduce fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. - Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation by using anaerobic digestion system. • Anaerobic digestion system will be able to supply fuel for the DFC1500™ unit. • Use locally available feedstock to production electric power, hydrogen and heat. • Application energy end-uses on the university. • CHHP system will reduce energy consumption, fossil fuel usage, and GHG emissions

  1. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation. PMID:27203178

  2. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper r...

  3. Effects of Syngas Components on the Carbon Formation in Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    YU Jian-Guo, WANG Yu-Zhang, WENG Shi-Lie

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of syngas as the fuel of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is one of the main ways to use the coal efficiently and cleanly. However, the possibility of carbon formation in Ni/YSZ anode may reduce the performance of SOFC. According to the fully three―dimensional models of chemical/electrochemical, heat/mass transfer and overpotential, the effects of fuel components on the performance and carbon formation of SOFC were obtained. The results shows that the increments o...

  4. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  5. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, Ashok C.

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  6. Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation mechanism studied for demineralised coal in a direct carbon fuel cell. • Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2. • Major fuel cell performance loss occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts. • The anode retained its phase structure with minor other phases formed in operation. - Abstract: The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance

  7. Improved Electrodes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells using Carbon Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Héctor; Plaza, Jorge; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-05-23

    This work evaluates the use of carbon nanospheres (CNS) in microporous layers (MPL) of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) electrodes and compares the characteristics and performance with those obtained using conventional MPL based on carbon black. XRD, hydrophobicity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory, and gas permeability of MPL prepared with CNS were the parameters evaluated. In addition, a short life test in a fuel cell was carried out to evaluate performance under accelerated stress conditions. The results demonstrate that CNS is a promising alternative to traditional carbonaceous materials because of its high electrochemical stability and good electrical conductivity, suitable to be used in this technology. PMID:27076055

  8. Electrochemical characteristics of vanadium redox reactions on porous carbon electrodes for microfluidic fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cells are membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cells comprising a microfluidic channel network with two porous carbon electrodes. The anolyte and catholyte for fuel cell operation are V(II) and V(V) in sulfuric acid based aqueous solution. In the present work, the electrochemical characteristics of the vanadium redox reactions are investigated on commonly used porous carbon paper electrodes and compared to a standard solid graphite electrode as baseline. Half-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure the overall ohmic resistance and resistivity of the electrodes. Kinetic parameters for both V(II) and V(V) discharging reactions are extracted from Tafel plots and compared for the different electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry techniques reveal that the redox reactions are irreversible and that the magnitudes of peak current density vary significantly for each electrode. The obtained kinetic parameters for the carbon paper are implemented into a numerical simulation and the results show a good agreement with measured polarization curves from operation of a microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell employing the same material as flow-through porous electrodes. Recommendations for microfluidic fuel cell design and operation are provided based on the measured trends.

  9. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  10. Power generation using carbon mesh cathodes with different diffusion layers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Yong

    2011-11-01

    An inexpensive carbon material, carbon mesh, was examined to replace the more expensive carbon cloth usually used to make cathodes in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different diffusion layers were tested using carbon mesh: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Goretex cloth. Carbon mesh with a mixture of PDMS and carbon black as a diffusion layer produced a maximum power density of 1355 ± 62 mW m -2 (normalized to the projected cathode area), which was similar to that obtained with a carbon cloth cathode (1390 ± 72 mW m-2). Carbon mesh with a PTFE diffusion layer produced only a slightly lower (6.6%) maximum power density (1303 ± 48 mW m-2). The Coulombic efficiencies were a function of current density, with the highest value for the carbon mesh and PDMS (79%) larger than that for carbon cloth (63%). The cost of the carbon mesh cathode with PDMS/Carbon or PTFE (excluding catalyst and binder costs) is only 2.5% of the cost of the carbon cloth cathode. These results show that low cost carbon materials such as carbon mesh can be used as the cathode in an MFC without reducing the performance compared to more expensive carbon cloth. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Synthesization of SnO2-modified carbon nanotubes and their application in microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Bo; Xiong, Shi-Chang; Guan, Yu-Jiang; Zhu, Xue-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the synthesization of SnO2-modified carbon nanotubes and their application in microbial fuel cell. With the chemical vapor deposition technique, carbon nanotubes growing in situ on a carbon felt are obtained. A SnO2 sol was applied to the carbon felt to prepare a SnO2-modified carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that SnO2 existed in the prepared samples. Using the prepared samples as anode electrodes, flexible graphite as cathode, and glucose solution as substrate in microbial fuel cell, the effects of the temperature, substrate concentration, and electrodes on removal rates for chemical oxygen demand and the performance of microbial fuel cell have been analyzed. With substrate concentration of 1500 mg L-1, the microbial fuel cell had an optimal output voltage of 563 mV and a removal rate of 78 % for chemical oxygen demand at 311 K. The composite electrodes are stable and reusable.

  12. Carbon-based composite electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Lee, Jog-Won (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini P. (Kennesaw, GA); Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC); Nallathambi, Vijayadurga (T-Nagar, IN); Li, Xuguang (Columbia, SC); Wu, Gang (West Columbia, SC)

    2009-12-08

    A process for synthesis of a catalyst is provided. The process includes providing a carbon precursor material, oxidizing the carbon precursor material whereby an oxygen functional group is introduced into the carbon precursor material, and adding a nitrogen functional group into the oxidized carbon precursor material.

  13. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-06-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  14. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  15. Reduction of Pt Usage in Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Carbon Nanotubes and Non-Pt Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Nakamura; Y. Nagashima; T. Yamazaki; T. Matsumoto; E. Yoo

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The high-priced and limited Pt constitutes a high barrier to commercialization of fuel cells. Pt is essential for the electrode catalyst of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). A reduction in Pt usage is one of the key requirements for the commercialization of fuel cells for use in everyday life, because of its high price and limited availability, and the difficulty of finding suitable substitutes. Non-Pt fuel cell catalysts will decrease the demand for Pt by PEFCs, enabling more Pt to be available for use in other essential products, and make fuel cells more popular[1]. The cheaper Mo2C is known to possess similar catalytic activities and electronic structures to Pt[2]. Carbon black (CB) is widely used as the support for Pt nanoparticles. However, we found that when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rather than CB are used as the support, the performance is improved, especially below 600 mA/cm2[3,4]. Here, we show that a combination of Mo2C catalyst and carbon nanotubes in the anode provides performance as high as half that of the current PEFCs with Pt catalysts below 600mA/cm2.

  16. Direct fabrication of Pt-supported porous carbon catalyst for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.Y.; Wang, G.; Konstantinov, K. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). Inst. for Superconducting and Electronic Materials; Ma, Z.F.; Liub, H.K. [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Platinum (Pt) based electrocatalysts are generally used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) operating at relatively low temperature. Wet impregnation techniques and chemical reduction of the metal precursors are the conventional preparation methods for these electrocatalysts. These conventional synthesis methods are based on impregnation-reduction, microemulsions, sonochemistry, and microwave irradiation. However, Pt-supported carbon catalysts cannot be prepared by such methods due to the very long time needed for the synthesis of carbon. In addition, post-fabrication steps must be taken, such as surface modification of carbon and metal supporting. For these reasons, this study presented a new fabrication method for producing Pt-carbon catalysts directly by a Pt-embedded template. The new method provides a time saving route for the preparation of a Pt catalyst supported on a mesoporous carbon. In this study, Pt-supported porous carbon was prepared using the carbon xerogel method. In particular, a platinum salt was dissolved in an aqueous solution of carbon xerogel precursor and reduced under 5 per cent hydrogen/argon gas along with carbonization. Images from a scanning electron microscope revealed that the nanoscale particle structure of the Pt-embedded carbon electrocatalyst had homogeneously distributed bright particles, likely attributed to Pt. 10 refs.

  17. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Transient modeling of three dimensional multi-phase PEM fuel cell with carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). 20/20 Laboratory for Fuel Cells and Green Energy

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and sudden load change on fuel cell performance. It also examined the effects of reversibility on fuel cell performance under transient conditions. A numerical simulation combining various spatial and temporal scales was used to determine the physical and chemical reactions, and transient transport phenomena inside the cell. CO concentration degrades fuel cell performance considerably. A large amount of CO causes much faster degradation. In this study, fuel cell performance was explained through the differences in adsorption/desorption rates, and reaction rates of species, which contribute to the high sticking probability of CO on platinum surface compared to that of hydrogen. The influence of sudden load change was also analyzed, notably the change of cell voltage on characteristic time to promote CO tolerance. A 3D transient PEM fuel cell model was used to determine if the CO poisoning process was reversible. The study showed that the performance of fuel cell poisoned by CO could be recovered through reinjection of pure hydrogen, but it takes a long time to diminish the poisoning. 27 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  19. Reactions of the Carbon Anode in Alternative Battery and Fuel Cell Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

    2003-10-01

    A model is formulated by combining carbonate dissociation with pre-existing anode mechanisms involving heterogeneous reaction kinetics. The proposed model accounts for both the observed preponderance of CO{sub 2} evolution and dependence of rate on carbon anode microstructure. Implications of the model for the design of carbon batteries and fuel cells are discussed, and the laboratory cells used in earlier research are described. High coulombic efficiencies for the net reaction C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2} require severely limiting the thickness of paste anodes in powder-fed fuel cells while the unreacting surfaces of solid prismatic anodes must be isolated from the CO{sub 2} product atmosphere to prevent Boudouard corrosion, according to C + CO{sub 2} = 2CO.

  20. Electrochemically oxidized carbon anode in direct L-ascorbic acid fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode was investigated in the operation of a direct L-ascorbic acid fuel cell anode. The surface oxygen species placed on electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation process of carbon electrode can facilitate the pore-filling process (i.e., wetting) of the electrolyte into the microstructure of the carbon electrode by increasing the number of more polar functional groups on the electrode surface. The electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode exhibited significantly enhanced electro-catalytic oxidation activity of L-ascorbic acid compared to an unmodified carbon electrode. Moreover, the simplified electrode structure using carbon paper without an additional powder-based precious catalyst layer is very favorable in creating percolation network and generates power density of 18 mW/cm2 at 60 deg. C

  1. SPOUTED BED ELECTRODES (SBE) FOR DIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON IN FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Calo

    2004-12-01

    This Phase I project was focused on an investigation of spouted bed particulate electrodes for the direct utilization of solid carbon in fuel cells. This approach involves the use of a circulating carbon particle/molten carbonate slurry in the cell that provides a few critical functions: it (1) fuels the cell continuously with entrained carbon particles; (2) brings particles to the anode surfaces hydrodynamically; (3) removes ash from the anode surfaces and the cell hydrodynamically; (4) provides a facile means of cell temperature control due to its large thermal capacitance; (5) provides for electrolyte maintenance and control in the electrode separator(s); and (6) can (potentially) improve carbon conversion rates by ''pre-activating'' carbon particle surfaces via formation of intermediate oxygen surface complexes in the bulk molten carbonate. The approach of this scoping project was twofold: (1) adaptation and application of a CFD code, originally developed to simulate particle circulation in spouted bed electrolytic reactors, to carbon particle circulation in DCFC systems; and (2) experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of carbon slurry circulation in DCFC systems using simulated slurry mixtures. The CFD model results demonstrated that slurry recirculation can be used to hydrodynamically feed carbon particles to anode surfaces. Variations of internal configurations were investigated in order to explore effects on contacting. It was shown that good contacting with inclined surfaces could be achieved even when the particles are of the same density as the molten carbonate. The use of CO{sub 2} product gas from the fuel cell as a ''lift-gas'' to circulate the slurry was also investigated with the model. The results showed that this is an effective method of slurry circulation; it entrains carbon particles more effectively in the draft duct and produces a somewhat slower recirculation rate, and thus higher residence

  2. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M; Grimes, P; Tewari, A; Sambhy, V; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper reports successful tests of a technique for coating the electrodes with polystyrene which, in conjunction with older common-sense techniques, appears to solve the problem. This kind of design is applicable to cars run on hydrogen fuel, on reformed methanol or even direct methanol. Developing a test methodology was a major part of the work. A foreword by one of the sponsors at NSF discusses the larger importance of this work for energy security and the environment.

  3. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation

  4. Carbon to electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell combined with an internal catalytic gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Konsolakis; G. E. Marnellos; A. Al-Musa; N. Kaklidis; I. Garagounis; V. Kyriakou

    2015-01-01

    This study explores strategies to develop highly efficient direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) by com‐bining a solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a catalyst‐aided carbon‐gasification process. This system employs Cu/CeO2 composites as both anodic electrodes and carbon additives in a cell of the type:carbon|Cu‐CeO2/YSZ/Ag|air. The study investigates the impact on in situ carbon‐gasification and DCFC performance characteristics of catalyst addition and variation in the carrier gas used (inert He versus reactive CO2). The results indicate that cell performance is significantly improved by infusing the catalyst into the carbon feedstock and by employing CO2 as the carrier gas. At 800 °C, the maxi‐mum power output is enhanced by approximately 40% and 230% for carbon/CO2 and car‐bon/catalyst/CO2 systems, respectively, compared with that of the carbon/He configuration. The increase observed when employing the catalyst and CO2 as the carrier gas can be primarily at‐tributed to the pronounced effect of the catalyst on carbon‐gasification through the re‐verse‐Boudouard reaction, and the subsequent in situ electro‐oxidation of CO at the anode three‐phase boundary.

  5. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.;

    2016-01-01

    To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When infiltr...... deposition in a CO/CO2-atmosphere, while none of the non-nickel cells catalyzed carbon.Stability towards redox cycles was also proven....

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. N-doped carbon nanomaterials are durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Min; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, efficient, and durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for commercialization of the fuel cell technology. Along with intensive research efforts of more than half a century in developing nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to replace the expensive and scarce platinum-based catalysts, a new class of carbon-based, low-cost, metal-free ORR catalysts was demonstrated to show superior ORR performance to commercial platinum catalysts, particularly in alkaline electrolytes. However, their large-scale practical application in more popular acidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells remained elusive because they are often found to be less effective in acidic electrolytes, and no attempt has been made for a single PEM cell test. We demonstrated that rationally designed, metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and their graphene composites exhibited significantly better long-term operational stabilities and comparable gravimetric power densities with respect to the best NPMC in acidic PEM cells. This work represents a major breakthrough in removing the bottlenecks to translate low-cost, metal-free, carbon-based ORR catalysts to commercial reality, and opens avenues for clean energy generation from affordable and durable fuel cells. PMID:26601132

  8. Modeling of indirect carbon fuel cell systems with steam and dry gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Katherine M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2016-05-01

    An indirect carbon fuel cell (ICFC) system that couples coal gasification to a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising candidate for high efficiency stationary power. This study couples an equilibrium gasifier model to a detailed 1D MEA model to study the theoretical performance of an ICFC system run on steam or carbon dioxide. Results show that the fuel cell in the ICFC system is capable of power densities greater than 1.0 W cm-2 with H2O recycle, and power densities ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 W cm-2 with CO2 recycle. This result indicates that the ICFC system performs better with steam than with CO2 gasification as a result of the faster electro-oxidation kinetics of H2 relative to CO. The ICFC system is then shown to reach higher current densities and efficiencies than a thermally decoupled gasifier + fuel cell (G + FC) system because it does not include combustion losses associated with autothermal gasification. 55-60% efficiency is predicted for the ICFC system coupled to a bottoming cycle, making this technology competitive with other state-of-the-art stationary power candidates.

  9. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Abueg, R.Z. [Basic Measuring Instruments, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Schwartz, P. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Performance of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell%MCFC动态性能数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立军; 袁俊琪; 曹广益; 姜秀民

    2004-01-01

    A three dimension of dynamic mathematical model of the molten carbonate fuel cell is established,in which the heat generation, mass transfer and electrochemical characteristics are described. The performance of the fuel cell including the distributions of the temperature and the velocity is predicted numerically. Then the experimental data including the output performance of the fuel cell generation system and the temperature distributions are compared. The numerical results are in agreement with the experiment results.

  11. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  12. Fuel Cell Platinum Catalysts Supported on Mediate Surface Area Carbon Black Supports

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Larsen, M.J.; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Odgaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2015 (2015), s. 913-918. ISSN 1974-9791. [International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering - ICheaP12 /12./. Milano, 19.05.2015-22.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon black * platinum catalyst * fuel cell Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two ''off the shelf'' units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow

  14. Energy and exergy analysis and optimal design of the hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell systems is analyzed. • Power generation and carbon dioxide capturing is done in a process. • Advanced exergy analysis is applied on a fuel cell system. - Abstract: A hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process is investigated through the exergy and advanced exergy analysis. The results show that the greatest exergy destruction (181 MW) occurs in the combustion chamber. It is because of irreversibility of the chemical reactions in the combustion process. Also the lowest exergy efficiency is related to the fuel cell. Advanced exergy analysis shows that the most portion of the exergy destruction is avoidable (more than 65%). Optimal design of the process is done by adjusting the effective operating conditions for reducing the power consumption and carbon dioxide emission of the process. Results of the optimization shows that the power consumption in the compressors can be reduced up to 33%

  15. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  16. Photomicrobial fuel cell (PFC) for simultaneous organic carbon, nutrients removal and energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Safa, Jafar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    illumination, stable power density of 68±5 mW/m2 and biomass of 0.56±0.02 g/L were generated at initial algae concentration of 3.5 g/L. Accordingly, the removal efficiency of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus was 99.6%, 87.6% and 69.8%, respectively. Mass balance analysis suggested the main removal......A sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell (PFC), based on the synergistic interaction between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria, was developed to remove carbon and nutrients from wastewater, and produce electricity and algal biomass simultaneously. Under...... power generation, carbon and nutrients removal was not significantly affected after changing the light/dark photoperiod from 24 h/0 h to 10 h/14 h. This work represents the first successful attempt to develop an effective bacteria-algae coupled system, capable for extracting energy and removing carbon...

  17. Deactivation of carbon supported palladium catalyst in direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carbon black supported palladium catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell applications has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Bi-modal distribution of Pd crystallite sizes was observed. The average Pd size for crystallites in small size and large size ranges were about 2.7 nm and 11.2 nm, respectively. The initial activity of the catalyst in the oxidation of formic acid tested in a fuel cell was similar to a commercial well dispersed 20 wt.% Pd/Vulcan. The rates of the fuel cell power decay were measured for formic acid of two purities for various current loadings. The results showed that various mechanisms contribute to the decrease of cell power with time. In direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) fed with a very pure HCOOH accumulation of CO2 gas bubbles in anode catalyst layer is responsible for observed power decay. In DFAFC fed with a pure for analysis (p.a.) grade formic acid the formation of COads poison from the formic acid impurities is the main deactivation reason.

  18. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  19. Consideration of Numerical Simulation Parameters and Heat Transfer Models for a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, J.H.; Seo, H.K.; Lim, H.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    A fuel cell stack model based on differential heat balance equations was solved numerically with a computational fluid dynamics code. Theoretical aspects in the simulation of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance model were discussed with regard to numerical accuracy of temperature prediction. The effect of grid setting for gas channel depth was studied to ensure how coarse it can be. A single computational element was sufficient for temperature prediction, while more grid elements are required for calculation of flow field and pressure distribution. The use of constant velocities is not recommended because it cannot account for the change of linear velocity within fuel cells, indicating the momentum equations have to be solved together with the heat balance equations. Thermal radiation has little effect on calculation of temperature field from the model. Gas properties vary within fuel cells, but most of them can be treated constant except for specific heat capacity of anode gas. Convection heat transfer by anode gas can be overestimated when a constant specific heat capacity is used, resulting in prediction of lower temperature curves. (author). 18 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating on diluted hydrogen feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Krishnan Kumar; Chaoyang Wang [Pennsylvania State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The transient behavior of a 50 cm{sup 2} PEM fuel cell fed on simulated reformate containing diluted hydrogen and trace quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) was experimentally investigated. It was found that the overall cell performance throughout the CO poisoning process can be described with a lumped model of hydrogen and CO adsorption, desorption, and electro-oxidation coupled with a current-voltage relationship for fuel cell performance. It was shown that while hydrogen dilution alone does not have an appreciable effect on cell polarization, in the presence of trace amounts of CO, hydrogen dilution amplifies the problem of CO poisoning. This is a result of the diluent reducing the partial pressure of reactants in the anode fed stream, thus retarding the already CO-impaired hydrogen adsorption onto the catalyst surface. In a diluted hydrogen stream, even low CO concentrations (i.e. 10 ppm), which are traditionally considered safe for PEM fuel cell operation, were found to be harmful to cell performance. (Author)

  1. Power generation using an activated carbon and metal mesh cathode in a microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive activated carbon (AC) air cathode was developed as an alternative to a platinum-catalyzed electrode for oxygen reduction in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). AC was cold-pressed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder to form the cathode around a Ni mesh current collector. This cathode construction avoided the need for carbon cloth or a metal catalyst, and produced a cathode with high activity for oxygen reduction at typical MFC current densities. Tests with the AC cathode produced a maximum power density of 1220 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 36 W/m3 based on liquid volume) compared to 1060 mW/m2 obtained by Pt catalyzed carbon cloth cathode. The Coulombic efficiency ranged from 15% to 55%. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for achieving useful rates of oxygen reduction in air cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient analysis of multicomponent transport with carbon monoxide poisoning effect of a PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Ping; Chu, Hsin-Sen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (ROC)

    2006-09-22

    A one-dimensional, two-phase, transient mathematical model was developed to analyze how carbon monoxide poisoning affects the performance of a PEM fuel cell. This work examines both vapor and liquid water transport inside the cell. The theoretical results indicate that a higher CO concentration results in less hydrogen coverage and a large drop in the time to reach steady state t{sub ss}. The slowing of the reactions at both the anode and the cathode reduce the saturation of liquid water in the catalytic layers. The distribution of liquid water depends more strongly on the CO concentration than on dilution of hydrogen in the MEA of the fuel cell. Increasing the amount of pure hydrogen drastically increases t{sub ss} for a wide range of CO contents. At a relatively low CO content, a long t{sub ss} can be achieved using pure hydrogen, especially at high cell voltage, promoting the tolerance for CO and providing the desired performance of the fuel cell. (author)

  3. In situ catalyzed Boudouard reaction of coal char for solid oxide-based carbon fuel cells with improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Industrial coal char was used as a fuel for solid oxide-based carbon fuel cells. • The Boudouard reactivity of coal char is higher than that of a commercial activated carbon. • The mineral matter in coal char has a catalytic effect on the Boudouard reaction. • Added catalysts and the inherent catalysts synergetically improved cell output. - Abstract: The use of industrial coal char as a fuel source for an anode-supported solid oxide-based carbon fuel cell (SO-CFC) with a yttrium-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 cathode was investigated. Both the Boudouard reactivity and electrochemical performance of the coal char samples are higher than those of activated carbon samples under the same conditions. The inherent catalytic activity of the metal species (FemOn, CaO, etc.) in the coal char mineral matter leads to good cell performance, even in the absence of an external catalyst. For example, the peak power density of a cell fueled with pure coal char is 100 mW cm−2 at 850 °C, and that of a cell fueled with coal char impregnated with an FemOn-alkaline metal oxide catalyst is 204 mW cm−2. These results suggest that using coal char as the fuel in SO-CFCs might be an attractive way to utilize abundant coal resources cleanly and efficiently, providing an alternative for future power generation

  4. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, S. [Universita di Messina (Italy); Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S. [Istituto CNR-TAE, Messina (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  5. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); O`Shea, T.P. [Santa Clara Demonstration Project, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  6. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and...... nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  7. Porous carbon as electrode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) synthesized by the direct carbonization of MOF-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Inayatali

    2014-01-12

    Porous carbon (PC-900) was prepared by direct carbonization of porous metal-organic framework (MOF)-5 (Zn4O(bdc)3, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) at 900 °C. The carbon material was deposited with PtM (M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu (20 %) metal loading) nanoparticles using the polyol reduction method, and catalysts PtM/PC-900 were designed for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). However, herein, we are reporting PtFe/PC-900 catalyst combination which has exhibited superior performance among other options. This catalyst was characterized by powder XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. The electrocatalytic capability of the catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and direct ethanol single cell testing. The results were compared with those of PtFe and Pt supported on Vulcan XC72 carbon catalysts (PFe/CX-72 and Pt/XC-72) prepared via the same method. It has been observed that the catalyst PtFe/PC-900 developed in this work showed an outstanding normalized activity per gram of Pt (6.8 mA/g Pt) and superior power density (121 mW/cm2 at 90 °C) compared to commercially available carbon-supported catalysts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  8. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  9. Application of carbon supported NiMo carburized catalyst to fuel cell anode electrocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izhar, S.; Otsuka, S.; Nagai, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Bio-applications and Systems Engineering

    2008-01-15

    The fabrication of polymer electrolyte fuel cells using platinum (Pt) base catalysts is a challenge due to the high cost of Pt and the potential for carbon monoxide poisoning. Transition metal carbides are highly regarded as a material substitute because of their high conductivity, high activity in hydrogenolysis reactions and high resistance to poisoning of the catalyst. A study was conducted in which nickel (Ni) molybdenum (Mo)/Ketjen carbon (KC) carbides were prepared with various Ni compositions and carburization temperatures. XRD, temperature programmed reduction and the cyclic voltammetric method were used to evaluate these catalysts through comparative evaluations with a Pt/C catalyst. The Ni-Mo/KC catalysts were evaluated for their electrocatalytic activity using a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} single stack cell and a 3-electrode cell in order to identify the active species. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated that the Ni-Mo/KC carbide catalysts have a high activity towards the anodic electrooxidation of hydrogen. The activity was attributed to the amorphous Ni-Mo carbide measured by XRD and temperature programmed reduction techniques. It was concluded that bimetallic carbides can reduce the manufacturing cost of fuel cells and are therefore a suitable material for Pt/C catalysts. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Application of carbon supported base metal carburized catalyst to fuel cell electrocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izhar, S.; Otsuka, S.; Nagai, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Bio-applications and Systems Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Due to the high cost and potential for carbon monoxide poisoning, polymer electrolyte fuel cells using platinum (Pt) base catalysts pose serious problems. Transition metal carbides are highly regarded because of their high conductivity, high activity in hydrogenolysis reactions and high resistance to poisoning of the catalyst. A study was conducted in which nickel (Ni) molybdenum (Mo)/Ketjen carbon (KC) carbides were prepared with various Ni compositions and carburization temperatures. XRD, TPR and the cyclic voltammetric method were used to evaluate these catalysts through comparative evaluations with a Pt/C catalyst. These Ni-Mo/KC catalysts were evaluated for their electrocatalytic activity using a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} single stack cell and a 3-electrode cell in order to identify the active species. It was found that Ni{sub 0.5}Mo{sub 0.5} carbided at 873 K achieved the current density of 17 per cent of the Pt/C catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated that the Ni-Mo/KC carbide catalysts have a high activity towards the anodic electrooxidation of hydrogen. The activity is due to the amorphous Ni-Mo carbide measured by XRD and TPR. It was concluded that bimetallic carbides can reduce the manufacturing cost of fuel cells and are therefore a suitable material for Pt/C catalysts.

  11. Carbon composite bipolar plate for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-09-01

    A carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate is an ideal substitute for the brittle graphite bipolar plate for lightweight proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) because of its high specific strength and stiffness. However, conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plates are not applicable for high-temperature PEMFCs (HT-PEMFCs) because these systems are operated at higher temperatures than the glass transition temperatures of conventional epoxies. Therefore, in this study, a cyanate ester-modified epoxy is adopted for the development of a carbon composite bipolar plate for HT-PEMFCs. The composite bipolar plate with exposed surface carbon fibers is produced without any surface treatments or coatings to increase the productivity and is integrated with a silicone gasket to reduce the assembly cost. The developed carbon composite bipolar plate exhibits not only superior electrical properties but also high thermo-mechanical properties. In addition, a unit cell test is performed, and the results are compared with those of the conventional graphite bipolar plate.

  12. Development of gas diffusion layer using water based carbon slurry for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.F.; Liu, X.; Adame, A.; Villacorta, R. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Ahmad, R.; Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States); Kannan, A.M., E-mail: amk@asu.ed [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The micro-porous layer of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by wire rod coating process. The aqueous carbon slurry with micelle-encapsulation was highly consistent and stable without losing any homogeneity even after adding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder for hundreds of hours. The surface morphology, contact angle and pore size distribution of the GDLs were examined using SEM, Goniometer and Hg Porosimeter, respectively. GDLs fabricated with various SDS concentrations were assembled into MEAs and evaluated in a single cell PEMFC under diverse operating relative humidity (RH) conditions using H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air as reactants. The peak power density of the single cell using the GDLs with optimum SDS concentration was 1400 and 500 mW cm{sup -2} with H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air at 90% RH, respectively. GDLs were also fabricated with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based carbon slurry for fuel cell performance comparison. It was found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically SDS concentration played a critical role in controlling the pore diameter as well as the corresponding pore volumes of the GDLs.

  13. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at M-C Power Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, D. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    M-C Power Corporation was founded in 1987 with the mission to further develop and subsequently commercialize molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). The technology chosen for commercialization was initially developed by the Institute of Gas technology (IGT). At the center of this MCFC technology is the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchange (IMHEX) separator plate design. The IMHEX technology design provides several functions within one component assembly. These functions include integrating the gas manifold structure into the fuel cell stack, separating the fuel gas stream from the oxidant gas stream, providing the required electrical contact between cells to achieve desired power output, and removing excess heat generated in the electrochemical process. Development of this MCFC technology from lab-scale sizes too a commercial area size of 1m{sup 2} has focused our efforts an demonstrating feasibility and evolutionary progress. The development effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept- 250kW power plant demonstration in 1996. The remainder of our commercialization program focuses upon lowering the costs associated with the MCFC power plant system in low production volumes.

  14. Raman Spectroscopy of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technique Overview and Application to Carbon Deposition Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maher, R. C.

    2013-07-30

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful characterization tool for improving the understanding of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), capable of providing direct, molecularly specific information regarding the physical and chemical processes occurring within functional SOFCs in real time. In this paper we give a summary of the technique itself and highlight ex situ and in situ studies that are particularly relevant for SOFCs. This is followed by a case study of carbon formation on SOFC Ni-based anodes exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) using both ex situ and in situ Raman spectroscopy combined with computational simulations. In situ measurements clearly show that carbon formation is significantly reduced for polarized SOFCs compared to those held at open circuit potential (OCP). Ex situ Raman mapping of the surfaces showed clear variations in the rate of carbon formation across the surface of polarized anodes. Computational simulations describing the geometry of the cell showed that this is due to variations in gas access. These results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy in combination with traditional characterization tools, to provide detailed understanding of critical processes occurring within functional SOFCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Changes in Carbon Electrode Morphology Affect Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. P. Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm-electrodes is crucial for microbial fuel cell current production because optimal performance is often associated with thick biofilms. However, the influence of the electrode structure and morphology on biofilm formation is only beginning to be investigated. This study provides insight on how changing the electrode morphology affects current production of a pure culture of anode-respiring bacteria. Specifically, an analysis of the effects of carbon fiber electrodes with drastically different morphologies on biofilm formation and anode respiration by a pure culture (Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were examined. Results showed that carbon nanofiber mats had ~10 fold higher current than plain carbon microfiber paper and that the increase was not due to an increase in electrode surface area, conductivity, or the size of the constituent material. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that electron transfer from the carbon nanofiber mats was biofilm-based suggesting that decreasing the diameter of the constituent carbon material from a few microns to a few hundred nanometers is beneficial for electricity production solely because the electrode surface creates a more relevant mesh for biofilm formation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

  16. Study of CO2 recovery in a carbonate fuel cell tri-generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Giorgio; McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Lanzini, Andrea; Santarelli, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of separating and recovering CO2 in a biogas plant that co-produces electricity, hydrogen, and heat is investigated. Exploiting the ability of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) to concentrate CO2 in the anode exhaust stream reduces the energy consumption and complexity of CO2 separation techniques that would otherwise be required to remove dilute CO2 from combustion exhaust streams. Three potential CO2 concentrating configurations are numerically simulated to evaluate potential CO2 recovery rates: 1) anode oxidation and partial CO2 recirculation, 2) integration with exhaust from an internal combustion engine, and 3) series connection of molten carbonate cathodes initially fed with internal combustion engine (ICE) exhaust. Physical models have been calibrated with data acquired from an operating MCFC tri-generating plant. Results illustrate a high compatibility between hydrogen co-production and CO2 recovery with series connection of molten carbonate systems offering the best results for efficient CO2 recovery. In this case the carbon capture ratio (CCR) exceeds 73% for two systems in series and 90% for 3 MCFC in series. This remarkably high carbon recovery is possible with 1.4 MWe delivered by the ICE system and 0.9 MWe and about 350 kg day-1 of H2 delivered by the three MCFC.

  17. Miniaturized ascorbic acid fuel cells with flexible electrodes made of graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-04-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a biologically friendly compound and exists in many products such as sports drinks, fruit, and even in human blood. Thus, a miniaturized and flexible ascorbic acid fuel cell (AAFC) is expected be a power source for portable or implantable electric devices. In this study, we fabricated an AAFC with anode and cathode dimensions of 3 × 10 mm2 made of a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC) and found that GCFC electrodes significantly improve the power generated by the AAFC. This is because the GCFC has more than two times the effective surface area of a conventional carbon fiber cloth and it can contain more enzymes. The power density of the AAFC in a phosphate buffer solution containing 100 mM AA at room temperature was 34.1 µW/cm2 at 0.46 V. Technical issues in applying the AAFC to portable devices are also discussed.

  18. Application of infiltrated LSCM-GDC oxide anode in direct carbon/coal fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangling; Arenillas, Ana; Irvine, John T S

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid direct carbon/coal fuel cells (HDCFCs) utilise an anode based upon a molten carbonate salt with an oxide conducting solid electrolyte for direct carbon/coal conversion. They can be fuelled by a wide range of carbon sources, and offer higher potential chemical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and have the potential to decrease CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired power plants. In this study, the application of (La, Sr)(Cr, Mn)O3 (LSCM) and (Gd, Ce)O2 (GDC) oxide anodes was explored in a HDCFC system running with two different carbon fuels, an organic xerogel and a raw bituminous coal. The electrochemical performance of the HDCFC based on a 1-2 mm thick 8 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and the GDC-LSCM anode fabricated by wet impregnation procedures was characterized and discussed. The infiltrated oxide anode showed a significantly higher performance than the conventional Ni-YSZ anode, without suffering from impurity formation under HDCFC operation conditions. Total polarisation resistance (Rp) reached 0.8-0.9 Ω cm(2) from DCFC with an oxide anode on xerogel and bituminous coal at 750 °C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values in the range 1.1-1.2 V on both carbon forms. These indicated the potential application of LSCM-GDC oxide anode in HDCFCs. The chemical compatibility of LSCM/GDC with carbon/carbonate investigation revealed the emergence of an A2BO4 type oxide in place of an ABO3 perovskite structure in the LSCM in a reducing environment, due to Li attack as a result of intimate contact between the LSCM and Li2CO3, with GDC being stable under identical conditions. Such reaction between LSCM and Li2CO3 was not observed on a LSCM-YSZ pellet treated with Li-K carbonate in 5% H2/Ar at 700 °C, nor on a GDC-LSCM anode after HDCFC operation. The HDCFC durability tests of GDC-LSCM oxide on a xerogel and on raw bituminous coal were performed under potentiostatic operation at 0.7 V at 750 °C. The degradation mechanisms were

  19. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  20. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Trevor A. Tyson; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C3H8, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni su...

  1. Modeling and parametric simulations of solid oxide fuel cells with methane carbon dioxide reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A 2D model is developed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). ► CH4 reforming by CO2 (MCDR) is included. ► SOFC with MCDR shows comparable performance with methane steam reforming SOFC. ► Increasing CO electrochemical oxidation greatly enhances the SOFC performance. ► Effects of potential and temperature on SOFC performance are also discussed. - Abstract: A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fed with CO2 and CH4 mixture. The electrochemical oxidations of both CO and H2 are included. Important chemical reactions are considered in the model, including methane carbon dioxide reforming (MCDR), reversible water gas shift reaction (WGSR), and methane steam reforming (MSR). It’s found that at a CH4/CO2 molar ratio of 50/50, MCDR and reversible WGSR significantly influence the cell performance while MSR is negligibly small. The performance of SOFC fed with CO2/CH4 mixture is comparable to SOFC running on CH4/H2O mixtures. The electric output of SOFC can be enhanced by operating the cell at a low operating potential or at a high temperature. In addition, the development of anode catalyst with high activity towards CO electrochemical oxidation is important for SOFC performance enhancement. The model can serve as a useful tool for optimization of the SOFC system running on CH4/CO2 mixtures

  2. Verification of a simple numerical fuel cell model in a flowsheeting program by performance testing of a 110 cm2 molten carbonate fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a verification of a simple numerical model that uses the cell resistance as the only experimental parameter. Two methods for determining this experimental parameter are evaluated by comparing the actual measured cell voltages with the calculated cell voltages at various gas utilizations and current loads. Furthermore, the results of the model are compared with the analytical fuel cell model that was previously developed at Delft University. Both the simple numerical model and the analytical fuel cell model use isothermal electrochemical relations for determination of the performances. In order to assess this numerical model for application to non-isothermal molten carbonate fuel cell stacks found in practice, the discrepancy between the results from the isothermal model and the non-isothermal model is discussed. The maximum relative discrepancy between the measured and calculated cell voltage by the numerical model was 3%. This discrepancy was reduced to 1.7% when using a fitted value for the cell resistance. Comparison of the results of the isothermal and non-isothermal models shows that the differences in results can, in general, be neglected

  3. Characterization of Carbon Nanotube/Graphene on Carbon Cloth as an Electrode for Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yin Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs, which can generate low-pollution power through microbial decomposition, have become a potentially important technology with applications in environmental protection and energy recovery. The electrode materials used in MFCs are crucial determinants of their capacity to generate electricity. In this study, we investigate the performance of using carbon nanotube (CNT and graphene-modified carbon-cloth electrodes in a single-chamber MFC. We develop a process for fabricating carbon-based modified electrodes and Escherichia coli HB101 in an air-cathode MFC. The results show that the power density of MFCs can be improved by applying a coat of either graphene or CNT to a carbon-cloth electrode, and the graphene-modified electrode exhibits superior performance. In addition, the enhanced performance of anodic modification by CNT or graphene was greater than that of cathodic modification. The internal resistance decreased from 377 kΩ for normal electrodes to 5.6 kΩ for both electrodes modified by graphene with a cathodic catalyst. Using the modified electrodes in air-cathode MFCs can enhance the performance of power generation and reduce the associated costs.

  4. A comparison of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Manuel, Michelle; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2016-05-15

    This study demonstrates simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in laboratory-scale continuous flow microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and provides side-by side comparison of these bioelectrochemical systems. The maximum organic carbon removal rates in MFC and MEC tests were similar at 5.1 g L(-1) d(-1) and 4.16 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively, with a near 100% carbon removal efficiency at an organic load of 3.3 g L(-1) d(-1). An ammonium removal efficiency of 30-55% with near-zero nitrite and nitrate concentrations was observed in the MFC operated at an optimal external resistance, while open-circuit MFC operation resulted in a reduced carbon and ammonium removal of 53% and 21%, respectively. In the MEC ammonium removal was limited to 7-12% under anaerobic conditions, while micro-aerobic conditions increased the removal efficiency to 31%. Also, at zero applied voltage both carbon and ammonium removal efficiencies were reduced to 42% and 4%, respectively. Based on the observed performance under different operating conditions, it was concluded that simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal was facilitated by concurrent anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation pathways at the anode and cathode, which balanced bioelectrochemical nitrification and denitrification reactions. PMID:26950500

  5. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg-sign) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX reg-sign concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft2) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft2 stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft2) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs

  6. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  7. Photothermally induced bromination of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Martin; Franzka, Steffen [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cappuccio, Franco; Peinecke, Volker; Heinzel, Angelika [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik (ZBT), Carl-Benz-Straße 201, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal laser bromination of carbon/polymer materials is demonstrated. • Using a microfocused laser functionalized domains with diameters of 5 μm and 100 μm and more can be fabricated. • Bromine groups can be transformed in a variety of other chemical functionalities, i.e. amine groups. • Depending on the chemical functionality, the local chemical affinity and wettability is changed. • The routine can be applied to standard bipolar plate materials used for fuel cell applications. - Abstract: A facile photothermal procedure for direct functionalization of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials is demonstrated. Through irradiation with a microfocused beam of an Ar{sup +}-laser at λ = 514 nm in gaseous bromine and distinct laser powers and pulse lengths local bromination of the carbon/polymer material takes place. At a 1/e spot diameter of 2.1 μm, functionalized surface areas with diameters down to 5 μm are fabricated. In complementary experiments large-area bromination is investigated using an ordinary tungsten lamp. For characterization contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in conjunction with labeling techniques are employed. After irradiation bromine groups can easily be substituted by other chemical functionalities, e.g. azide and amine groups. This provides a facile approach in order to fabricate surface patterns and gradient structures with varying wetting characteristics. Mechanistic aspects and prospects of photothermal routines in micropatterning of carbon/polymer materials are discussed.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of electrospun carbon nanofiber supported Pt catalyst for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The functionalized and optimized e-CNF has been prepared. • Increasing functionalization period, the fiber morphology slightly affected. • The suitability of the Pt/fe-CNF was studied in the lab made set-ups of PEMFC. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile polymer nanofibers were prepared using an electrospinner. These nanofibers were subjected to stabilization and carbonization processes. The electrospun carbon nanofibers (e-CNF) were functionalized using sulfuric acid and nitric acid under three different refluxing periods (i.e., 1f, 3f, and 5f) to optimize the functionalization level. The thermal stability of the obtained carbon supports was characterized by TGA. The Pt loaded carbon supports (20 wt%) for the three functionalized (1fe, 3fe, and 5fe-CNF) samples were prepared using chloroplatinic acid with ethylene glycol as the reducing agent. The dispersion of platinum on e-CNF and the size of Pt nanoparticles were characterized by HRSEM and HRTEM and the crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD. The surface area and pore size distribution were calculated from Brunner Emmett Teller method. The performance of five different samples such as Pt/C, Pt/1fe, 3fe, 5fe-CNF and e-CNF as electrodes and laboratory prepared hydrocarbon based sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) as electrolyte were studied in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and the results were compared with commercially available Pt/C catalyst and Nafion-117 membrane

  9. Power generation using an activated carbon fiber felt cathode in an upflow microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Qian

    2010-02-01

    An activated carbon fiber felt (ACFF) cathode lacking metal catalysts is used in an upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC). The maximum power density with the ACFF cathode is 315 mW m-2, compared to lower values with cathodes made of plain carbon paper (67 mW m-2), carbon felt (77 mW m-2), or platinum-coated carbon paper (124 mW m-2, 0.2 mg-Pt cm-2). The addition of platinum to the ACFF cathode (0.2 mg-Pt cm-2) increases the maximum power density to 391 mW m-2. Power production is further increased to 784 mW m-2 by increasing the cathode surface area and shaping it into a tubular form. With ACFF cutting into granules, the maximum power is 481 mW m-2 (0.5 cm granules), and 667 mW m-2 (1.0 cm granules). These results show that ACFF cathodes lacking metal catalysts can be used to substantially increase power production in UMFC compared to traditional materials lacking a precious metal catalyst. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Photothermally induced bromination of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal laser bromination of carbon/polymer materials is demonstrated. • Using a microfocused laser functionalized domains with diameters of 5 μm and 100 μm and more can be fabricated. • Bromine groups can be transformed in a variety of other chemical functionalities, i.e. amine groups. • Depending on the chemical functionality, the local chemical affinity and wettability is changed. • The routine can be applied to standard bipolar plate materials used for fuel cell applications. - Abstract: A facile photothermal procedure for direct functionalization of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials is demonstrated. Through irradiation with a microfocused beam of an Ar+-laser at λ = 514 nm in gaseous bromine and distinct laser powers and pulse lengths local bromination of the carbon/polymer material takes place. At a 1/e spot diameter of 2.1 μm, functionalized surface areas with diameters down to 5 μm are fabricated. In complementary experiments large-area bromination is investigated using an ordinary tungsten lamp. For characterization contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in conjunction with labeling techniques are employed. After irradiation bromine groups can easily be substituted by other chemical functionalities, e.g. azide and amine groups. This provides a facile approach in order to fabricate surface patterns and gradient structures with varying wetting characteristics. Mechanistic aspects and prospects of photothermal routines in micropatterning of carbon/polymer materials are discussed

  11. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Wilemski, G. (Physical Sciences, Inc. (United States))

    1992-01-01

    NH{sub 3} Cd, Hg, and Sn have no noticeable effects on carbonate fuel cell performance. Zn and Pb (the latter in the presence of Se) had minor effects, while the interactions of H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se and As are more significant. Because H{sub 2}S had already been extensively investigated earlier by various groups, the focus in this study was centered on the latter three elements. It appears that HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, and As need to be limited to sub-ppM levels in a manner similar to H{sub 2}S. These findings, of course, should be considered qualitative because they were obtained in single, isothermally operated, bench-sale cells, and are applicable for individual contaminants.

  12. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Wilemski, G. [Physical Sciences, Inc. (United States)

    1992-09-01

    NH{sub 3} Cd, Hg, and Sn have no noticeable effects on carbonate fuel cell performance. Zn and Pb (the latter in the presence of Se) had minor effects, while the interactions of H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se and As are more significant. Because H{sub 2}S had already been extensively investigated earlier by various groups, the focus in this study was centered on the latter three elements. It appears that HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, and As need to be limited to sub-ppM levels in a manner similar to H{sub 2}S. These findings, of course, should be considered qualitative because they were obtained in single, isothermally operated, bench-sale cells, and are applicable for individual contaminants.

  13. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of the catalyst material used for the oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes is one of the factors limiting practical applications of this technology. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon (MNC), prepared at different temperatures, was examined as an oxygen reduction catalyst, and compared in performance to Pt in MFCs and electrochemical cells. MNC calcined at 800 °C produced a maximum power density of 979 ± 131 mW m-2 in MFCs, which was 37% higher than that produced using MNC calined at 600 °C (715 ± 152 mW m-2), and only 14% lower than that obtained with Pt (1143 ± 54 mW m-2). The extent of COD removal and coulombic efficiencies were the same for all cathode materials. These results show that MNC could be used as an alternative to Pt in MFCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High power direct methanol fuel cell with a porous carbon nanofiber anode layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study demonstrates a novel porous carbon nanofiber anode (PNCF) layer. • PNFC anode layer DMFC presents power density of 23.0 mW cm−2. • This unit operates at room temperature and consumes low concentration of methanol. - Abstract: Three anode electrodes containing Pt–Ru Black as a catalyst were fabricated with a porous layer made with different carbon materials: carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF) and a combination of both carbon materials (CB + CNF). The carbon-based porous layer was coated onto a carbon cloth with PTFE pre-treatment for delivering hydrophobic properties and applied in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Characterisation of electrochemical properties for three different anode electrodes was performed with cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at room temperature in a half-cell configuration. The evolution of the surface morphology of diffusion layer and electrodes was characterised by using variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The electrochemical results indicate that electrode with CNF layer showed the highest current densities compared to CB and CB + CNF with the same catalyst loading. VP-SEM measurements show the network formation within the structure, which could facilitate the methanol mass transfer and improve the catalyst efficiency. The electrodes were applied to a single-cell DMFC, and the cell performance was experimentally investigated under passive operating mode and room temperature. A maximum power density of 23.0 mW cm−2 at a current density of 88.0 mA cm−2 with a 3 M dilute methanol solution was achieved. The results show that the electrodes with a CNF layer could improve the performance of DMFC as compared with commercially used CB and prove it’s potentially application in DMFC technology especially for portable power source applications due to several advantages as followings: operating at low concentration of

  15. Nano Ru Impregnated Ni-YSZ Anode as Carbon Resistance Layer for Direct Ethanol Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liangliang; ZHENG Tao; HU Zhimin; LUO Linghong; WU Yefan; XU Xu; CHENG Liang; SHI Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon formation on conventional Ni and Y2O3stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anodes is a major problem for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells (DE-SOFC). A nanostructure Ru layer was grown in Ni/YSZ anodes through wet impregnation method with RuCl3solvent at pH=4. Anode-supported Ni-YSZ/YSZ/(La0.8Sr0.2)0.98MnO3±δ(LSM) and Ru-Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM fuel cells were compared in terms of the performance and carbon formation with ethanol fuel. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy,energy disperse spectroscopy and electrochemical workstation were used to study the morphology and fuel cell performance. The results indicate that a nano structured and pearl like Ru layer was well dispersed on the surface of Ni-YSZ materials. The single cell with Ru-impregnated Ni/YSZ showed a maximum power density of 369 mW/cmat 750°C, which was higher than Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM. Specifically, no carbon was formed in the anode after 1000 min operation. Fuel cell performance and carbon resistance were enhanced with the addition of the Ru layer.

  16. Control of geometrical properties of carbon nanotube electrodes towards high-performance microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Celal; Pu, Xiong; Choi, Woongchul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Yeontack; Hou, Huijie; Lin, Furong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Yu, Choongho; Han, Arum

    2015-04-01

    In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), physical and electrochemical interactions between microbes and electrode surfaces are critical to performance. Nanomaterial-based electrodes have shown promising performances, however their unique characteristics have not been fully utilized. The developed electrodes here consist of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) directly grown in the radial direction from the wires of stainless steel (SS) meshes, providing extremely large three-dimensional surfaces while ensuring minimal ohmic loss between CNTs and SS meshes, fully utilizing the advantages of CNTs. Systematic studies on how different lengths, packing densities, and surface conditions of CNTs affect MFC power output revealed that long and loosely packed CNTs without any amorphous carbon show the highest power production performance. The power density of this anode is 7.4-fold higher compared to bare carbon cloth, which is the highest reported improvement for MFCs with nanomaterial-decorated electrodes. The results of this study offer great potential for advancing the development of microbial electrochemical systems by providing a highly efficient nanomaterial-based electrode that delivers large surface area, high electrochemical activity, and minimum ohmic loss, as well as provide design principles for next-generation nanomaterial-based electrodes that can be broadly applicable for highly efficient microbial electrochemical cells.

  17. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  18. Carbon nanotubes rooted montmorillonite (CNT-MM) reinforced nanocomposite membrane for PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Novel montmorillonite-CNT (MM-CNT) nanohybrid materials were produced by CVD. ► Highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes were grown over montmorillonite. ► Fabricated Nafion-MM-CNT nanocomposite membrane by solution casting method. ► Homogeneous dispersion of MM-CNT in the Nafion matrix was achieved. ► Combined effect of montmorillonite and CNT improves the thermal stability of Nafion. - Abstract: Nafion based nanocomposite membranes containing montmorillonite-carbon nanotubes (a binary hybrid material) were produced to develop high performance polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Multi walled carbon nanotubes were grown over 20 and 25 wt% iron loaded montmorillonite catalysts by CVD using acetylene as the carbon precursor. Growth experiments were carried out at optimised conditions to obtain highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction spectra of the catalysts were recorded for the structural characterisation and definition of particle size. The carbon nanotubes obtained were examined by various physico chemical characterisation studies such as SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TG analyses to understand the morphology and crystallinity of the CNTs. The MM-CNT hybrid material with ID/IG ratio of Raman spectral band as 0.53 represents the high selectivity towards CNTs. Thus the hybrid material produced was considered as the best nanofiller to develop polymer nanocomposites. Nafion based nanocomposite membranes were prepared by adding MM-CNT as nanofiller by solution casting method. A better dispersion of MM-CNT into the Nafion matrix was observed and the addition of the MM-CNT improved the thermal stability of the Nafion membrane.

  19. Interfacial electron transfer and bioelectrocatalysis of carbonized plant material as effective anode of microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: Effective use of natural materials to fabricate porous carbonaceous structures for anodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has a high potential for substantial cost reduction in MFC. In this study, three kinds of plant materials, i.e. king mushroom, wild mushroom and corn stem, were investigated for fabrication of conductive electrode materials by simple carbonization procedures. Structure–reactivity relationships of these electrodes were systematically studied with electrochemical redox probe ([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) and biofilm electroactivity. The electrochemical and bioelectrochemical accessibilities of the carbonized electrodes were evaluated by impedance, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques in order to study the electron transfer rate (Kapp), charge transfer resistances, oxidative current density and bioelectroactive moieties. The results showed that the electron transfer resistance (Rct) was 94 Ω for carbonized corn stem electrode with an electron transfer rate (Kapp) of 3.44 × 10−2 cm s−1 for Fe2+/Fe3+ redox probe. Higher bioelectroactivity (9.29 × 10−8 mol cm−2) was found from biofilm on carbonized corn stem (Rbiofilm, 45 Ω) with an electron transfer rate (bacteria-anode) of 63 × 10−5 cm s−1. The maximum bioelectrocatalytic current (imax) of 3.12 mA cm−2 was obtained on carbon electrode derived from corn stem. That is 8 times higher than plain graphite electrode. The porous architecture, high electron transfer rate and high electroactive biofilm growth are attributes that qualify natural-material carbon anodes as low-cost alternative for MFC

  20. Development and Experimental Research of kW-scale Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A kW-scale molten carbonate fuel cells stack was developed and 800-hours' operating test and performance experimental research had been done. Utilizing domestic materials completely, we developed NiO cathode and Ni-Al anode with the active area of 336cm2 and Υ-LiAlO2 electrolyte tile and bipolar plate with the area of 900cm2. The stack was composed of thirty cells, with 62%Li2CO3+38%K2CO3 as its electrolyte. During the 800 hours' continuous operating, the performance of the stack was stable. With 99.7%(mole fraction) H2 as fuel and O2 from air as oxidant, the average operating voltage of a cell was about 0.72 V. The maximal current density attained to 165mA/cm2, and the maximal output power attained to 1080 Watt. The whole performance of the stack approached to the international level in the early 90's. This paper gives the main works and experiments results.

  1. Transport phenomena in the cathode of a molten carbonate fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text': A Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is an electro-chemical energy conversion technology that runs on natural gas and employs a molten salt electrolyte. In order to keep the electrolyte in this state, the cell must be kept at a temperature above 500 C, eliminating the need for noble catalysts. There has been only a limited amount of research on modelling the transport processes inside this device, mainly due to its limited ability for mobile applications. A model for the reaction-diffusion processes within the cathode of a MCFC is developed using Fick's Law for diffusion and incorporating Darcy's Law for convection. A model for Binary Diffusion is also discussed and compared to those for Fickian diffusion. It can be shown that there exists a limiting case for diffusion across the cathode that depends on the conductivity for the liquid potential, for which there exists an analytical solution. Results are also discussed for varying diffusivities and permeabilities. Ultimately, this research focuses on the optimization of the electrode porosity to increase the power output of the fuel cell. The porosity is considered as a function of position, and is optimized using the software package MATLAB. (author)

  2. A simple high-performance matrix-free biomass molten carbonate fuel cell without CO2 recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    In previous reports, flowing CO2 at the cathode is essential for either conventional molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) based on molten carbonate/LiAlO2 electrolytes or matrix-free MCFCs. For the first time, we demonstrate a high-performance matrix-free MCFC without CO2 recirculation. At 800°C, power densities of 430 and 410 mW/cm2 are achieved when biomass—bamboo charcoal and wood, respectively–is used as fuel. At 600°C, a stable performance is observed during the measured 90 hours after the initial degradation. In this MCFC, CO2 is produced at the anode when carbon-containing fuels are used. The produced CO2 then dissolves and diffuses to the cathode to react with oxygen in open air, forming the required CO32− or CO42− ions for continuous operation. The dissolved O2− ions may also take part in the cell reactions. This provides a simple new fuel cell technology to directly convert carbon-containing fuels such as carbon and biomass into electricity with high efficiency. PMID:27540588

  3. A simple high-performance matrix-free biomass molten carbonate fuel cell without CO2 recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-08-01

    In previous reports, flowing CO2 at the cathode is essential for either conventional molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) based on molten carbonate/LiAlO2 electrolytes or matrix-free MCFCs. For the first time, we demonstrate a high-performance matrix-free MCFC without CO2 recirculation. At 800°C, power densities of 430 and 410 mW/cm(2) are achieved when biomass-bamboo charcoal and wood, respectively-is used as fuel. At 600°C, a stable performance is observed during the measured 90 hours after the initial degradation. In this MCFC, CO2 is produced at the anode when carbon-containing fuels are used. The produced CO2 then dissolves and diffuses to the cathode to react with oxygen in open air, forming the required [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] ions for continuous operation. The dissolved [Formula: see text] ions may also take part in the cell reactions. This provides a simple new fuel cell technology to directly convert carbon-containing fuels such as carbon and biomass into electricity with high efficiency. PMID:27540588

  4. Experiment and numerical simulation on the performance of a kw-scale molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Yu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature molten carbonate fuel cell stack was studied experimentally and computationally. Experimental data for fuel cell temperature was obtained when the stack was running under given operational conditions. A 3-D CFD numerical model was set up and used to simulate the central fuel cell in the stack. It includes the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, the ideal gas law and an empirical equation for cell voltage. The model was used to simulate the transient behavior of the fuel cell under the same operational conditions as those of the experiment. Simulation results show that the transient temperature and current and power densities reach their maximal values at the channel outlet. A comparison of the modeling results and the experimental data shows the good agreement.

  5. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  6. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  7. The effect of carbon supports on the performance of platinum/carbon nanotubes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, platinum/carbon nanotubes (Pt/CNTs) are prepared using a wet-chemical process (colloidal method), which are served as the electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Three CNTs are used as Pt supports: citric acid-oxidized CNTs (cCNT), citric acid-oxidized nitrogen-doped CNTs (cCN), and monoethanolamine-treated CNTs (nCNT), where the CNTs are commercial products and the nitrogen-doped CNTs are prepared using chemical vapor deposition. The Pt/CNTs are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. A catalyst-coated membrane is used to prepare the membrane electrode assembly for the polarization test. The results show that the Pt nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of CNTs using the colloidal method and the mean size of the Pt on Pt/cCNT, Pt/cCN and Pt/nCNT is 3.98 ± 1.23, 2.91 ± 1.18 and 4.40 ± 1.57 nm, respectively. The temperatures for the maximum rate of weight loss are 506 (Pt/cCNT), 515 (Pt/cCN) and 508 (Pt/nCNT) °C. The electrochemical surface areas for Pt/cCNT, Pt/cCN and Pt/nCNT are calculated to be 59.5, 40.4 and 48.4 m2/g, respectively. The results for a single fuel cell test show that the current density at 0.6 V, using Pt/C (Johnson Matthey) as anode catalyst and Pt/cCNT, Pt/cCN or Pt/nCNT as a cathode catalyst, is 658, 441, or 684 mA/cm2, and the peak power density is 661, 441, or 575 mW/cm2. The results show that Pt/CNTs prepared by colloidal method exhibit excellent cell performance. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotube supported platinum nanocatalysts have excellent cell performance. • Nitrogen atoms in carbon nanotubes facilitate the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. • High percentage of Pto improves the oxygen diffusion to active catalytic sites

  8. Platinum-carbon black-titanium dioxide nanocomposite electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satheesh Sambandam; Vinodh Valluri; Wilaiwan Chanmanee; Norma R De Tacconi; Wesley A Wampler; Wen-Yuan Lin; Thomas F Carlson; Vijay Ramani; Krishnan Rajeshwar

    2009-09-01

    New-generation Pt/C-TiO2 nanocomposite electrocatalysts for fuel cells, prepared by a heterogeneous photocatalytic method, have been characterized using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Importantly, galvanostatic data confirm the superior stability of these materials against corrosion under anodic polarization conditions relative to commercial benchmark fuel cell electrocatalysts. EIS spectra from ETEK 5, SIDCAT 405 and SIDCAT 410 membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fit to a Randles equivalent circuit with a Warburg element to show the presence of O2 transport limitation arising from the use of thicker electrodes (lower Pt loading on carbon). The use of a constant phase element (CPE) instead of pure capacitor was justified from the fit procedure as CPE represents the porous electrode system more precisely with its distributive elements. EIS spectra from Tanaka, SIDCAT 451 and SIDCAT 452 MEAs (thinner electrodes) were fit to a Randles circuit with a pure capacitor and no Warburg element. The use of a transmission line model for fitting these data independently provided information about the catalyst layer resistance while all other parameters matched well with that of the Randles circuit. The effective proton transport in cathodes was quantified using polarization data for both classes of MEAs. Trends in the previously reported performance of MEAs prepared using these electrocatalysts were justified based on the relative contributions of kinetic, Ohmic and mass transfer losses to the overall overpotential, which in turn were estimated from impedance and polarization data analyses.

  9. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  10. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger

    2012-10-10

    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  11. Electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube-textile: Anode material for glucose alkaline fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper we propose a new anode material for glucose-gluconate direct oxidation fuel cells prepared by electrodepositing gold nanoparticles onto a conductive textile made by conformally coating single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on a polyester textile substrate. The electrodeposition conditions were optimized in order to achieve a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles in the 3D porous structure of the textile. On the basis of previously reported studies, the reaction conditions (pH, electrolyte composition and glucose concentration) were tuned in order to achieve the highest oxidation rate, selectively oxidizing glucose to gluconate. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by means of cyclic voltammetry. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of planar and cylindrical carbon electrodes at sedimentary microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Natalia J; Figuerola, Eva L M; Pataccini, Gabriela; Bonetto, María Celina; Erijman, Leonardo; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents data obtained using an indigenous microbial community contained in anaerobic sediments (mud) collected from the shore of the Río de La Plata River (South America). After the sedimentary microbial fuel cells were assembled the evolution of current and power vs. time was studied. Two types of commercially available graphite materials were used as electrodes, which differ mainly in shape and size. In some experiments, an external carbon source (acetate) increased the power generation rate. The maximum power density observed in the aforementioned condition was 19.57 ± 0.35 and 8.72 ± 1.39 mW/m(2) using rod and graphite disk electrodes, respectively. The better performance of the rod electrodes can be explained, at least in part, by an enhanced rate of mass transport by radial diffusion. DGGE fingerprints were used to study the electrogenic community growing over the electrodes. PMID:23142927

  13. Hybrid Dynamic Modeling and Control of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid automaton modeling approach that incorporates state space partitioning, phase dynamic modeling and control law synthesis by control strategy is utilized to develop a hybrid automaton model of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack shutdown. The shutdown operation is divided into several phases and their boundaries are decided according to a control strategy, which is a set of specifications about the dynamics of MCFC stack during shutdown. According to the control strategy, the specification of increasing stack temperature is satisfied in a phase that can be modeled accurately. The model for phase that has complex dynamic is approximated. The duration of this kind of phase is decreased to minimize the error caused by model approximation.

  14. Performance evaluation of direct borohydride–hydrogen peroxide fuel cells with electrocatalysts supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of direct borohydride–hydrogen peroxide fuel cells with electrocatalysts supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes is evaluated under various conditions. Electrocatalysts are reduced on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by NaH2PO2 and electrodes are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fuel cell testing. The maximum power density decreases with increasing NaBH4 concentration, likely owing to increases in NaBH4 decomposition and crossover rates and to production of increasing amounts of NaBO2. In contrast, the maximum power density increases with increasing H2O2 concentration, likely owing to increases in reactant concentrations. Moreover, increased operating temperatures improve decomposition and electrochemical reaction rates. A thin membrane increases fuel crossover, whereas a thick membrane decreases the maximum power density; consequently, the Nafion 212 membrane is the optimal thickness for use in fuel cells such as those studied here. Under selected conditions, the maximum power density is 101.9 mW/cm2. As operation time increases, fuel cell performance is degraded by oxidation and Na deposition. - Highlights: • Maximum power density decreases as NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) concentration increases. • Maximum power density increases as H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) concentration increases. • High operating temperatures cause fast electrochemical and decomposition reactions. • Nafion 212 is the most suitable membrane owing to its thickness. • Fuel cell performance decreases owing to oxidation and Na deposition

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  16. A Carbon Corrosion Model to Evaluate the Effect of Steady State and Transient Operation of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Pandy, Arun; Gummalla, Mallika; Atrazhev, Vadim V; Kuzminyh, Nikolay Yu; Sultanov, Vadim I; Burlatsky, Sergei F

    2014-01-01

    A carbon corrosion model is developed based on the formation of surface oxides on carbon and platinum of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrode. The model predicts the rate of carbon corrosion under potential hold and potential cycling conditions. The model includes the interaction of carbon surface oxides with transient species like OH radicals to explain observed carbon corrosion trends under normal PEM fuel cell operating conditions. The model prediction agrees qualitatively with the experimental data supporting the hypothesis that the interplay of surface oxide formation on carbon and platinum is the primary driver of carbon corrosion.

  17. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes for high current density operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shigeaki; Imanishi, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shigeki; Namba, Ryoichi

    2014-05-01

    We successfully developed cathode electrodes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) that enable operation at high current densities by incorporating vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the catalyst support; additionally, we prepared 236 cm2 membrane electrodes assemblies (MEAs) for vehicular use. The electrode structure improved the mass transport of reactants, i.e. oxygen, proton, electron and water, in systems performing at a 2.6 A cm-2 current density and 0.6 V with extremely low platinum (Pt) loading at the cathode (0.1 mg cm-2). The improved mass transport caused the 70 mV dec-1 Tafel slope to continue up to 1.0 A cm-2. The mass transport was improved because the pores were continuous, the catalyst support materials did not agglomerate and the catalyst layer made good electrical contact with the microporous layer. Utilizing wavy coil-shaped CNTs was also crucial. These CNTs displayed anti-agglomerative characteristics during the wet manufacturing process and maintained a continuous pore structure framing the layered catalyst structure. Because the CNTs had elastic characteristics, they might fill the space between catalyst and microporous layers to prevent flooding. However, the compressed CNTs in the cells were no longer vertically aligned. Therefore, vertically aligning the nanotubes was important during the MEA manufacturing process but was irrelevant for cell performance.

  18. Studies on metal catalysts and carbon materials for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaixia

    As a potential candidate for an environmentally benign and highly efficient electric power generation technology, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are now attracting great interest for various applications. The main objective of this project has been to investigate the interfacial interaction of Pt nanoparticles with their carbon supports, so as to determine ways to optimise the catalyst electrode and to increase its catalytic activity, thereby enhancing PEM fuel cell performance. We first studied the interfacial interaction (leading to adhesion) of Pt nanoparticles evaporated onto untreated and Ar+-treated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces, with, respectively, low and high surface defect densities; HOPG was used as a model for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon fibers. We found that those Pt nanoparticles have very weak interactions with their pristine carbon material supports, with no evidence of compound formation between them. Our analysis, however, indicated that the adhesion of Pt nanoparticles to their supports can be enhanced, using ion beams, plasmas, or other treatments to establish defects on the carbon substrate surface. In addition, by using multicomponent XPS analysis with symmetric lineshapes for each Pt4f spectral component (4f7/2,5/2), we attributed the component peaks to the existence of (i) surface oxidation on the platinum nanoparticles, and different electronic configurations of (ii) surface and (iii) bulk Pt atoms. One way of enhancing strong adhesion between them is by chemical functionalization of the support. Using mixed H2SO4/HNO3 acid treatments, we have characterized the surface chemistry of functionalized carbon fiber paper by combining infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, to give new insights into the often-used oxidation of graphene-containing materials. We have, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of transient O-, N- and S-containing species during the oxidation process, as well as

  19. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Wells, George F; Kong, Desheng; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater. PMID:21158405

  20. Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube−Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Cathode catalyst layer using supported Pt catalyst on ordered mesoporous carbon for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Tak; Yoon, Hae-Kwon; Song, In-Seob [Samsung SDI Co. Ltd., 575 Shin-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-391 (Korea); You, Dae Jong; Joo, Sang Hoon; Pak, Chanho; Chang, Hyuk [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 111, Suwon 440-600 (Korea)

    2008-06-01

    The development of a cathode catalyst layer based on a supported Pt catalyst using an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for direct methanol fuel cell is reported. An OMC with a mesopore structure between hexagonally arranged carbon nanorods is prepared using a template method. Platinum nanoparticles are supported on the OMC (Pt/OMC) with high metal loading of 60 wt.%. Compositional and morphological variations are made by varying the ionomer content and by compressing the catalyst layer to detect a parameter that determines the power performance. Increase in power density with decrease in the volume fraction of ionomer in the agglomerate comprising the Pt/OMC and the ionomer indicates that mass transport through the ionomer phase governs the kinetics of oxygen reduction. Impedance spectroscopic analysis suggests that a significant mass-transport limitation occurs at high ionomer content and in the compressed cathode. The power density of the optimum cathode layer, which employs a Pt/OMC catalyst with a Pt loading of 2 mg cm{sup -2}, is greater than that of a catalyst layer with 6 mg cm{sup -2} Pt-black catalyst at a voltage higher than 0.4 V. This would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of the membrane electrode assembly. (author)

  2. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hacer Doǧan; Emel Yildiz; Metin Kaya; Tülay Y Inan

    2013-08-01

    Two different commercial grade carbon black samples, Cabot Regal 400R (C1) and Cabot Mogul L (C2), were sulfonated with diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid. The resultant sulfonated carbon black samples (S–C) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Composite membranes were then prepared using S–C as fillers and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as polymer matrix with three different sulfonation degrees (DS = 60, 70 and 82%). Structure and properties of the composite membranes were characterized by FTIR, TGA, scanning electron microscopy, proton conduction, water uptake, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. Incorporation of S–C particles above 0.25 wt% caused decrease in chemical stability. Pristine and composite membranes prepared from SPEEK82 decomposed completely in <1 h, which is undesirable for fuel cell applications. SPEEK60 membrane having wt% of 0.25–0.5 with S–C particles led to higher proton conductivity than that of pristine membrane. No positive effect was observed on the properties of the composite membranes with the addition of S–C particles at high concentrations due to the agglomeration problems and decrease in the content of conductive polymer matrix.

  3. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  4. Enhanced catalytic properties from platinum nanodots covered carbon nanotubes for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhe; Chua, Daniel H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Poh, Chee Kok; Tian, Zhiqun; Lin, Jianyi [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Lee, Kian Keat [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NUSNNI), 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-01-01

    An efficient fabrication method for carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrode with a nanosized Pt catalyst is developed for high efficiency proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The integrated Pt/CNT layer is prepared by in situ growth of a CNT layer on carbon paper and subsequent direct sputter-deposition of the Pt catalyst. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrate that this Pt/CNT layer consists of a highly porous CNT layer covered by well-dispersed Pt nanodots with a narrow size distribution. Compared with conventional gas-diffusion layer assisted electrodes, the CNT-based electrode with a Pt/CNT layer acting as a combined gas-diffusion layer and catalyst layer shows pronounced improvement in polarization tests. A high maximum power density of 595 mW cm{sup -2} is observed for a low Pt loading of 0.04 mg cm{sup -2} at the cathode. (author)

  5. Transient evolution of carbon monoxide poisoning effect of PBI membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Ping; Chu, Hsin-Sen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300 (China); Yan, Yi-Yie; Hsueh, Kan-Lin [Energy and Environment Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310 (China)

    2007-07-10

    High temperature polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells are the focus of attention due to high CO tolerance and overcoming water managements. This paper develops a transient, one-dimensional mathematical model to predict CO tolerance, and validates it with experiments. Experimental results are measured at different temperatures. Fuel cell performance degradations with time are also measured under various fuel compositions. Transient evolutions of current density, H{sub 2} coverage, CO coverage, and ionic potential are shown during the CO poisoning process. The theoretical results show that hydrogen coverage decreases with time, reducing hydrogen oxidation reactions and dropping ionic potential loss. The effects of temperature, CO contents, and H{sub 2} dilutions on fuel cell performance and the time to reach steady t{sub ss} are all investigated. Predictions of fuel cell current density degradation also show good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  6. The effects of halides on the performance of coal gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cells: Final report, October 1986-October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.P.; Kunz, H.R.; Krasij, M.; Cote, H.A.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents the results of a program to determine the probable tolerable limits of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride present in the fuel and oxidant streams of molten carbonate fuel cells that are operating on gasified coal. A literature survey and thermodynamic analyses were performed to determine the likely effects of halides on cell performance and materials. Based on the results of these studies, accelerated corrosion experiments and electrode half-cell performance tests were conducted using electrolyte which contained chloride and fluoride. These data and the results of previous in-cell tests were used to develop a computer for predicting the performance decay due to these halides. The tolerable limits were found to be low (less than 1 PPM) and depend on the power plant system configuration, the operating conditions of the fuel cell stack, the cell design and initial electrolyte inventory, and the ability of the cell to scrub low levels of halide from the reactant streams. The primary decay modes were conversion of the electrolyte from pure carbonate to a carbonate-halide mixture and accelerated electrolyte evaporation. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Influence of carbon support microstructure on the polarization behavior of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guha, Abhishek; Schiraldi, David A. [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering and Case Advanced Power Institute, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, 2100 Adelbert Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106-7202 (United States); Zawodzinski, Thomas A. Jr. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Case Advanced Power Institute, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The influence of carbon support morphology on the polarization behavior of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly has been investigated in this communication. Nanometer sized platinum electrocatalyst particles were deposited on lower surface area fibrous (carbon nanofibers) and particulate carbon supports (carbon blacks) by the well-documented ethylene glycol route for supported electrocatalyst synthesis. These supported catalyst systems were subsequently utilized to prepare catalyst inks and membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) in conjunction with a perflurosulfonated ionomeric membrane-Nafion {sup registered}. Level of liquid Nafion binder in the supported catalyst inks was varied and the ramifications of such a variation on polarization behavior of the MEA determined. The trend in polarization performance was found to be independent of the carbon support morphology in the various ink compositions. The two varieties of carbon supports were also mixed together in various weight ratios and platinum was deposited by the glycol method. Key parameters such as the platinum content on carbon and platinum particle size were determined to be independent of the nature of the supports on which the particles had been deposited. The results indicate that lower surface area carbon supports of vastly contrasting morphologies can be interchangeably employed as catalyst support materials in a PEM fuel cell MEA. (author)

  8. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO2; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  9. Fabrication of carbon-polymer composite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by compression moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells are considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future energy and environmental pollution problems. These are the most promising power sources for road transportation and portable devices. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. A fuel cell stack consists of bipolar plates and membrane electrode assemblies (MEA). The bipolar plate is by weight, volume and cost one of the most significant components of a fuel cell stack. Major functions of bipolar plates are to separate oxidant and fuel gas, provide flow channels, conduct electricity and provide heat transfer. Bipolar plates can be made from various materials including graphite, metals, carbon / carbon and carbon/ polymer composites. Materials for carbon-polymer composites are relatively inexpensive, less corrosive, strong and channels can be formed by means of a moulding process. Carbon-polymer composites are of two type i.e; thermosetting and thermoplastic. For thermosetting composite a bulk molding compound (BMC) was prepared by adding graphite, vinyl ester resin, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and cobalt naphthalate. The BMC was thoroughly mixed, poured into a die mould of a bipolar plate with channels and hot pressed at a specific temperature and pressure. A bipolar plate was formed according to the die mould. Design of the mould is also discussed. Conducting polymers were also added to BMC to increase the conductivity of bipolar plates. Particle size of the graphite has also a significant effect on the conductivity of the bipolar plates. Thermoplastic composites were also prepared using polypropylene and graphite.

  10. A comparison of solar photovoltaics and molten carbonate fuel cells as commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In line with the worldwide trend, Korea has recognized the importance of renewable energy and extensively supported its exploitation. As of August 2009, the largest incentives for renewable energy are offered to solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have vastly increased the installations of this system. On the basis of total paid incentives, the second largest beneficiary is the fuel cell (FC) system. This support has contributed to the successful commercialization of the molten carbonate FC (MCFC) as a distributed generation system (DG). Considering the status of energy systems in Korea, solar PV and MCFC systems are likely to be further developed in the country. The present paper analyzes the exploitation of these two energy systems by conducting a feasibility study and a technology assessment in the Korea environment based on many assumptions, conditions and data involved. The feasibility study demonstrates the positive economic gains of the solar PV and MCFC power plants. The unit electricity generation cost of solar PV is twice that of an MCFC system. In addition, the study reveals the slightly greater profitability of the MCFC. Exact estimation of their future economies is impossible because of uncertainties in many future conditions and environments. Nevertheless, the development of solar cells with higher efficiency is undoubtedly the most critical factor in increasing future profits. On the other hand, reductions in the operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and the natural gas (NG) price are the most important issues in raising the viability of the MCFC system. (author)

  11. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  12. Transient analysis of carbon monoxide poisoning and oxygen bleeding in a PEM fuel cell anode catalyst layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    The presence of carbon monoxide in the fuel stream hinders the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell, known as carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Introducing oxygen in the fuel stream lessens CO poisoning. Since CO poisoning is a phenomenon that occurs over a substantial period of time, a transient model has been developed in this study, taking into account the effect of CO concentration, operating pressure and temperature, as well as oxygen bleeding on the performance of the cell. It is found that at a lower CO concentration the poisoning effect takes a much longer time to reach the steady state, even though for a better steady state anode performance. A higher operating temperature results in a better steady state performance, but the performance drops faster toward the steady state value at higher temperature. A higher operating pressure leads to an enhanced performance over the entire transient history, although the benefit diminishes as pressure is increased. Even with a small amount of oxygen (0.5%) introduced into the fuel stream, the anode performance can be improved significantly. Finally, it is observed that the use of pure hydrogen interspersed in carbon monoxide containing fuel improves the anode performance. However, performance recovery when operating on pure hydrogen is much slower than the performance degradation due to the CO poisoning. (author)

  13. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  14. Fuel cell; Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    More than 100 sets of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) have been installed by now, and accumulated operation performance exceeding 40 thousand hours, which is regarded as a development target, has been achieved. Further, there are also PAFCs that have achieved continuous operation performance exceeding 9,000 hours, thus being most approachable to practical use. On the other hand, developments of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), which operate at high temperatures, have high power generation efficiencies due to the capability of operating associatively with gas turbines or vapor turbines, and may use coal gasified gases as fuels, are carried out for an aim of realizing the practical use at the begging of the 21st century. Further, in recent years, researches and developments of the polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have been accelerated mainly in vehicle business for the purpose of using PEFC as power sources for movable bodies, and researches and development for accelerative development of cell stacks and power generation systems are executed. In this paper, situations of the researches and developments in respect to the above-mentioned four kinds of fuel cells are summarily introduced. (NEDO)

  15. Insights into the effect of structure-directing agents on structural properties of mesoporous carbon for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Arunchander; K G Nishanth; K K Tintula; S Gouse Peera; A K Sahu

    2015-04-01

    Synthesis of mesoporous carbon (MC) with well-defined morphologies and, wide range of surface area and pore size, is reported by organic–organic interaction between thermally decomposable surfactants (structure-directing agents) and the cost-effective carbon precursors, such as phloroglucinol and formaldehyde. Selected surfactants based on tri-block co-polymer, non-ionic and ionic, are used for synthesis of MCs with wide variation in their physical properties. The present method could be applied to large-scale production of porous carbon with desired surface area and pore morphology and would practically be relevant to many emerging technologies including electrochemical power sources such as super-capacitors and fuel cells. In the present study, we have successfully used MCs as gas-diffusion layers in fuel cell electrodes and established proper balance between air permeability and water management. The porous carbon contributes significantly to reduce mass transfer existing at high current density region resulting in improved performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  16. Ultrafine porous carbon fiber and its supported platinum catalyst for enhancing performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhancement of electrocatalytic activity of carbon-supported platinum catalysts has been essential for improving the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this paper, one kind of grounded ultrafine porous carbon fiber (UPCF), with an average diameter of the order of 100 nm and pore sizes of 5–30 nm, was used as a novel compound carbon support (CCS) to prepare a supported Pt catalyst (Pt/CCS) for the electrode catalyst layer in a PEMFC, and its associated membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The fabricated MEA was also tested in a single fuel cell to validate this Pt/CCS catalyst. The electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of Pt was determined to be 71.9 m2.g−1 for the CCS, which is much larger than the 54.6 m2.g−1 known to apply for carbon black support. Both the onset potential and half-wave potential of Pt/CCS were all positively shifted in comparison with Pt/C, based on linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The performance of a single fuel cell catalyzed by Pt/CCS showed 1.25 times higher power density than that catalyzed by Pt/C at room temperature. The cross-sectional morphology of the electrode indicated the chopped-fiber-form UPCF might construct a loose three-dimensionally layer-like catalyst that could reduce mass transform resistance and allow the water produced to escape easily

  17. Anode regeneration following carbon depositions in an industrial-sized anode supported solid oxide fuel cell operating on synthetic diesel reformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotić, Vanja; Schluckner, Christoph; Mathe, Jörg; Rechberger, Jürgen; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Carbon deposition is a primary concern during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fueled with carbon-containing fuels. It leads to cell degradation and thus reduces SOFC sustained operation and durability. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of carbon formation on the nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anode of an anode-supported SOFC and its regeneration. The cell was fueled with a synthetically produced diesel reformate to investigate and simulate the cell behavior under real operating conditions. For this purpose the cell was operated under load to determine the critical operating time. Rapid carbon generation, such as at open circuit voltage (OCV), can be prevented when the cell is under load. Carbon depositions were detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and further analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Industrial-size cells suitable for commercial applications were studied. This study proves the reversibility of carbon formation and the reproducibility of the regeneration process. It shows that carbon formations can be recognized and effectively, fully and cell-protecting regenerated. It indicates the excellent possibility of using SOFCs in the automotive industry as an auxiliary power unit (APU) or combined power-heat unit, operated with diesel reformate, without danger from cell degradation caused by carbon-containing fuels.

  18. Synthesis of carbon-supported titanium oxynitride nanoparticles as cathode catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A sol–gel route for the synthesis of rutile TiO2 was modified to synthesize TiOxNy-C. • N atoms were doped into TiOx nanoparticles solely by the heat-treatment under N2 gas. • The N2-treatment produced sites more active toward ORR compared with NH3-treatment. • TiOx doped with a small amount of N atoms are suggested to be responsible for ORR. -- Abstract: For use as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst in polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes, carbon-supported titanium oxynitride (TiOxNy-C) nanoparticles with a size of approximately 5 nm or less were synthesized without using NH3 gas. A sol–gel route developed for the synthesis of pure rutile TiO2 nanopowders was modified to prepare the carbon-supported titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiOx-C). For the first time, N atoms were doped into TiOx solely by heating TiOx-C under an inexpensive N2 atmosphere at 873 K for 3 h, which could be due to carbothermal reduction. The TiOx-C powder was also heated under NH3 gas at various temperatures (873–1273 K) and durations (3–30 h). This step resulted in the formation of a TiN phase irrespective of the heating conditions. Both N2- and NH3-treated TiOxNy-C did not crystallize well; however, the former showed a mass activity more than three times larger than that of the latter at 0.74 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode. Thus, titanium oxide nanoparticles doped with a small amount of N atoms are suggested to be responsible for catalyzing ORR in the case of N2-treated TiOxNy-C

  19. Performance characteristics of a direct carbon fuel cell/thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A hybrid system is put forward to recover the waste heat generated in DCFCs. • Main irreversible losses in the system are numerically characterized. • Operating current density interval that the TEG exerts its function is determined. • Equivalent maximum power density of the DCFC can be increased more than 50%. • Effects of some important parameters on the performance are discussed. - Abstract: A hybrid system mainly composed of a DCFC (Direct Carbon Fuel Cell), a TEG (Thermoelectric Generator) and a regenerator is put forward, where the DCFC electrochemically converts the chemical energy in the solid carbon into electricity and waste heat, and the TEG further converts the waste heat into electricity for additional power generation. The main irreversibilities in each element of the hybrid system are characterized, and the heat losses between the DCFC and the environment are also considered. Numerical expressions for the power output and efficiency of the hybrid system are respectively derived, from which the general performance characteristics are revealed. The fundamental relationship between the operating current density of the DCFC and the dimensionless electrical current of the TEG is obtained, and thus the region of the operating current density of the DCFC that the TEG exerts its function is determined. By using such a system, the equivalent maximum power density of the hybrid system allows to be 50% larger than that of the sole DCFC system. The effects of the operating current density, operating temperature, heat conductivity, and some integrated parameters on the performance of the hybrid system are discussed

  20. Diffusion layer characteristics for increasing the performance of activated carbon air cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of several different types of diffusion layers were systematically examined to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A diffusion layer of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (CB + PTFE) that was pressed onto a stainless steel mesh current collector achieved the highest cathode performance. This cathode also had a high oxygen mass transfer coefficient and high water pressure tolerance (>2 m), and it had the highest current densities in abiotic chronoamperometry tests compared to cathodes with other diffusion layers. In MFC tests, this cathode also produced maximum power densities (1610 ± 90 mW m−2) that were greater than those of cathodes with other diffusion layers, by 19% compared to Gore-Tex (1350 ± 20 mW m−2), 22% for a cloth wipe with PDMS (1320 ± 70 mW m−2), 45% with plain PTFE (1110 ± 20 mW m−2), and 19% higher than those of cathodes made with a Pt catalyst and a PTFE diffusion layer (1350 ± 50 mW m−2). The highly porous diffusion layer structure of the CB + PTFE had a relatively high oxygen mass transfer coefficient (1.07 × 10−3 cm s−1) which enhanced oxygen transport to the catalyst. The addition of CB enhanced cathode performance by increasing the conductivity of the diffusion layer. Oxygen mass transfer coefficient, water pressure tolerance, and the addition of conductive particles were therefore critical features for achieving higher performance AC air cathodes.

  1. Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- carbon nanocomposite as a catalyst for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalysts comprising platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) on carbon support are used in fuel cells for the hydrogen and electricity production by electrochemical oxidation of methanol. However, the catalyst is not the best in terms of its performance. Considering role of the support as significant towards efficiency and durability of the catalyst, there is need for introducing novel support materials to replace carbon alone. Deposition of various metallic NPs on ceramic-carbon (hybrid) supports has been reported to improve thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties of different types of catalyst. In search of better performing catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), hybrid supports having different ceramic materials should be synthesized. In this regard Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Carbon (nanocomposites) have been synthesized and applied as promising catalysts in the PEMFCs; results obtained for the nanocomposites were compared with Pt/carbon and Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Vulcan carbon was purified and functionalized prior to use; presence of oxygen containing functional groups on carbon was established from the FTIR spectrum, Hybrid support (1:8 by weight ratio of ceramic and carbon) were already prepared in aqueous 2-propanol employing sonication method on to which Pt NPs (10% by weight in all the cases) were deposited by simple chemical reduction of PtCl/sub 4/ by NaBH/sub 4/ under controlled conditions. The catalysts were subjected to various characterization techniques like TGA (for thermal stability), EDX (for chemical composition), SEM (for surface morphology) and XRD (for cell-shape and -volume, material density and average crystalline size). Catalysts efficiencies for the methanol oxidation were investigated through cyclic voltammetery (CV) by comparing electrochemical surface area, peak current, exchange current density and rate constant in the acidic and basic media. Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-carbon exhibited better catalytic efficiencies

  2. Design of Pt/Carbon Xerogel Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Job

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient catalytic layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs requires the preparation of highly-loaded and highly-dispersed Pt/C catalysts. During the last few years, our work focused on the preparation of Pt/carbon xerogel electrocatalysts, starting from simple impregnation techniques that were further optimized via the strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA method to reach high dispersion and a high metal weight fraction. The SEA method, which consists of the optimization of the precursor/support electrostatic impregnation through an adequate choice of the impregnation pH with regard to the support surface chemistry, leads to very well-dispersed Pt/C samples with a maximum 8 wt.% Pt after drying and reduction under H2. To increase the metal loading, the impregnation-drying-reduction cycle of the SEA method can be repeated several times, either with fresh Pt precursor solution or with the solution recycled from the previous cycle. In each case, a high dispersion (Pt particle size ~3 nm is obtained. Finally, the procedure can be simplified by combination of the SEA technique with dry impregnation, leading to no Pt loss during the procedure.

  3. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2012-01-01

    The materials that are used to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge composite prepared by coating a sponge with CNTs. Compared to the CNT-coated textile electrodes evaluated in prior studies, CNT-sponge electrodes had lower internal resistance, greater stability, more tunable and uniform macroporous structure (pores up to 1 mm in diameter), and improved mechanical properties. The CNT-sponge composite also provided a three-dimensional scaffold that was favorable for microbial colonization and catalytic decoration. Using a batch-fed H-shaped MFC outfitted with CNT-sponge electrodes, an areal power density of 1.24 W m -2 was achieved when treating domestic wastewater. The maximum volumetric power density of a continuously fed plate-shaped MFC was 182 W m -3. To our knowledge, these are the highest values obtained to date for MFCs fed domestic wastewater: 2.5 times the previously reported maximum areal power density and 12 times the previously reported maximum volumetric power density. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Analysis of carbon fiber brush loading in anodes on startup and performance of microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Adam J.

    2011-11-01

    Flat carbon anodes placed near a cathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) are adversely affected by oxygen crossover, but graphite fiber brush anodes placed near the cathode produce high power densities. The impact of the brush size and electrode spacing was examined by varying the distance of the brush end from the cathode and solution conductivity in multiple MFCs. The startup time was increased from 8 ± 1 days with full brushes (all buffer concentrations) to 13 days (50 mM), 14 days (25 mM) and 21 days (8 mM) when 75% of the brush anode was removed. When MFCs were all first acclimated with a full brush, up to 65% of the brush material could be removed without appreciably altering maximum power. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main source of internal resistance (IR) was diffusion resistance, which together with solution resistance reached 100 Ω. The IR using EIS compared well with that obtained using the polarization data slope method, indicating no major components of IR were missed. These results show that using full brush anodes avoids adverse effects of oxygen crossover during startup, although brushes are much larger than needed to sustain high power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Liangtao; Li, Kexun; Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Fu, Zhou

    2014-12-01

    The present work was to study silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon (AC) air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The treated cathodes were proved to be effective to enhance the performance of MFCs. The maximum power density of MFC with silver electrodeposition time of 50 s (Ag-50) cathode was 1080 ± 60 mW m-2, 69% higher than the bare AC air cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that zero-valent, monovalent and divalent silver were present to transform mutually, which illustrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode took place through four-electron pathway. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the electrodeposition method made the total resistance of the electrodes largely reduced. Meanwhile the deposited silver had no toxic effects on anode culture but inhibited the biofilm growth of the cathodes. This kind of antimicrobial efficient cathode, prepared with a simple, fast and economical method, was of good benefit to the performance improvement of MFCs.

  6. The Optimization of Matrix Preparation Process and Performance Testing for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component in the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC is electrolyte matrix, which provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of selected operating conditions on the performance of the matrix preparation. Slurries were prepared to produce matrices by the technique of tape casting. The characteristics of the slurries and matrices were examined by laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, and BET surface area analyzer. The testing results revealed that a slurry composition with 40 wt.% lithium aluminate was the optimal formulation to produce a good matrix with a pore size distribution of 0.1–0.4 μm and porosity of 50 vol.%. Coarse and fine LiAlO2 particles were added in the matrix slurry to enhance the mechanical strength. Several green sheets were heated and pressed to enhance the bulk density to get a dense matrix of MCFC. Finally, a single MCFC was assembled and tested. The testing results showed the matrix with 40% solid loading gave the maximum discharge current of 20 A at 0.56 V.

  7. Effect of photochemically oxidized carbon nanotubes on the deposition of platinum nanoparticles for fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, In Young; Lee, Sun Hyung; Park, Ki Chul; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Teshima, Katsuya [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kim, Chan [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Collage of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea); Oishi, Shuji; Endo, Morinobu [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kim, Yong Jung [Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The applicability of photochemically oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to support materials for fuel cell catalysts has been examined in comparison with the MWCNTs treated and untreated by nitric acid. The photochemical oxidation of MWCNTs under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, {lambda} = 172 nm) irradiation introduces oxygen functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes with generating new defects on their structure. The VUV-induced photochemical oxidation more preferentially introduces carbonyl and carboxyl groups, compared with nitric acid oxidation. The deposition manner of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles from their precursor ions (PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}) is positively correlated with the proportion of surface oxygen groups. This implies that the anchoring sites for the PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} are not the {pi} electron regions of the basal plane but the surface oxygen groups. For the electrochemical evaluation of Pt-deposited MWCNT catalysts, the photochemically oxidized MWCNTs have enhanced the active surface area and the performance of methanol oxidation, which is due to the high dispersion and dense deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the oxygen groups-rich surface. (author)

  8. SOME ASPECTS OF FUEL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Войтко, Ігор Іванович; Зубрій, О.О.; Козлова, О.М.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides literature data to improve solid oxide fuel cells by a direct methane fuel cell and electrode settings of uninterrupted space. The possibility of electrochemical generators SOFC as synthesis gas from natural gas. We describe progress in the creation of new nanomaterials for components SOFC and modern technologies for their manufacture. Briefly described features of the operation and use molten carbonate fuel cells and their accessories and SOFC in cogeneration system (three...

  9. Corrosion phenomena of alloys and electrode materials in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedenkopf, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe und Verfahren der Energietechnik; Bischoff, M.M. [MTU-Friedrichshafen GmbH, - Neue Technologien - ZEB -, Muenchen (Germany); Wochner, T. [MTU-Friedrichshafen GmbH, Abt. TQZ, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of different alloys and the electrical conductivity of the growing corrosion scales was investigated under simulated and real molten carbonate fuel cell conditions. The corrosion of the usually used NiO cathode material was also investigated. In several exposure tests in oxidizing atmospheres, the FeCrMnNi steel 1.3965 showed a higher corrosion resistance to the aggressive carbonate media than the FeCrNi alloy 1.4404 (SS316L). This superior corrosion resistance is explained by the formation of a mixed (Fe,Ni,Mn){sub x}Cr{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} spinel layer, which reduces the outward diffusion of iron ions more than the mixed (Fe,Ni)Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel formed on austenitic FeCrNi steels. Oxide debris, which spalls off the current collectors, was investigated by XRD. The corrosion scales spalled off mainly at the curved area of the current collector and not at the cathode/current collector interface. The debris was strongly magnetic and consisted of several, in some cases lithiated iron oxides, whereby {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite), {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) formed most of the debris. The investigations of the electrical conductivity of the corrosion scales have shown that the electrical conductivity is limited by the inner, Cr-containing oxide of the multi-layered corrosion scale. Cr-rich alloys which contain more than 20 wt.% Cr showed extremely high ohmic resistance of the corrosion scale, much higher than that of alloys containing less than 20 wt.% Cr due to the formation of highly conductive mixed spinel layers. Small additions of Al in the alloy increased the ohmic resistance of the corrosion scale by many orders of magnitude. Corrosion tests in the fuel environment showed, that common uncoated stainless steels are not suitable for the use as anodic current collectors.

  10. Effect of carbon paper substrate of the gas diffusion layer on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.F. [Fuel Cell Research Lab, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Ahmad, R.; Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States); Kannan, A.M., E-mail: amk@asu.ed [Fuel Cell Research Lab, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) were fabricated using non-woven carbon paper substrates with various thicknesses developed by Hollingsworth and Vose Co. Highly consistent carbon slurry containing Pureblack carbon and vapor grown carbon fiber (3:1 ratio) with 25 wt.% Teflon was prepared by using a dispersion agent, Novec-7300 in isopropyl alcohol. Micro-porous layer was coated by using a fully automated Coatema coating tool with a uniform carbon loading of 2.6-3 mg cm{sup -2} using carbon slurry. The surface morphology, contact angle and pore size distribution of the GDLs were examined using SEM, Goniometer and Hg Porosimeter, respectively. Various cathode GDLs assembled into MEAs were evaluated in a single cell PEMFC under various operating relative humidity (RH) conditions using H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air as reactants. The peak power density of the single cell using the optimum carbon paper substrate thickness was about 1400 and 700 mW cm{sup -2} with H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air at 60% RH, respectively. It was found that the pore diameter as well as the corresponding pore volumes of the GDLs played a key role in exhibiting the optimum fuel cell performance.

  11. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis; Cathrin Prestel; Anders E. C. Palmqvist

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate...

  12. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  13. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  14. Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2009-09-01

    Flat electrodes are useful in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as close electrode spacing improves power generation. Carbon cloth and carbon paper materials typically used in hydrogen fuel cells, however, are prohibitively expensive for use in MFCs. An inexpensive carbon mesh material was examined here as a substantially less expensive alternative to these materials for the anode in an MFC. Pretreatment of the carbon mesh was needed to ensure adequate MFC performance. Heating the carbon mesh in a muffle furnace (450°C for 30 min) resulted in a maximum power density of 922 mW/m2 (46 W/m3) with this heat-treated anode, which was 3% more power than that produced using a mesh anode cleaned with acetone (893 mW/m2; 45 W/m3). This power density with heating was only 7% less than that achieved with carbon cloth treated by a high temperature ammonia gas process (988 mW/m2; 49 W/m3). When the carbon mesh was treated by the ammonia gas process, powerincreased to 1015 mW/m2 (51 W/m3). Analysis of the cleaned or heated surfaces showed these processes decreased atomic O/C ratio, indicating removal of contaminants that interfered with charge transfer. Ammonia gas treatment also increased the atomic N/C ratio, suggesting that this process produced nitrogen related functional groups that facilitated electron transfer. These results show that low cost heat-treated carbon mesh materials can be used as the anode in an MFC, providing good performance and even exceeding performance of carbon cloth anodes. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. Carbon-tolerant solid oxide fuel cells using NiTiO3 as an anode internal reforming layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Zhenbin; Yang, Wenqiang; Peng, Ranran; Lu, Yalin

    2014-06-01

    In this work, adding a NiTiO3 (NTO) reforming layer is firstly adopted as a low cost method to improve the carbon tolerance in solid oxide fuel cells. XRD patterns suggest that NTO has a good chemical compatibility with the YSZ electrolyte, and NTO can be totally reduced to Ni and TiO2 when exposing to the H2 atmosphere. Maximum power densities for the cells with the NTO layers at 700 °C are 270 mWcm-2 with wet H2 fuel, and 236 mWcm-2 with wet methane fuel, respectively. Improved discharging stability for the cells with NTO layers has also been observed. The current density remains unchanged for the cells with NTO layers during a 26 h test, while it drops to zero within 1 h for the cells without NTO. Above electro-performance and long term stability tests suggest that fabricating a NTO reforming layer on the anode surface is an efficient and inexpensive method to realize highly carbon tolerant SOFCs.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes and Other Nanostructures as Support Material for Nanoparticulate Noble-Metal Catalysts in Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Veltzé, Sune; Skou, Eivind Morten

    platinum-alloy catalysts in the electrodes are required. To maximize the utilization of the noble metal it is frequently deposited as nanoparticles (1-5 nm) on a stabilizing support of carbon black. Carbon black provides good anchoring of the catalyst particles, but is prone to severe destructive oxidation...... fuel-cell electrodes. However, the low concentration of structural defects also poses challenges with regard to anchoring of the catalyst particles on the CNT surface. Thus, activation treatments introducing surface functional groups may be necessary. Also, the surface properties are responsible for...

  17. Carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures as support material for nanoparticulate noble-metal catalysts in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Elina, Yli-Rantala;

    platinum-alloy catalysts in the electrodes are required. To maximize the utilization of the noble metal it is frequently deposited as nanoparticles (1–5 nm) on a stabilizing support of carbon black. Carbon black provides good anchoring of the catalyst particles, but is prone to severe destructive oxidation...... fuel-cell electrodes. However, the low concentration of structural defects also poses challenges with regard to anchoring of the catalyst particles on the CNT surface. Thus, activation treatments introducing surface functional groups may be necessary. Also, the surface properties are responsible for...

  18. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  19. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2012-04-01

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  20. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  1. Effects of carbon capture on the performance of an advanced coal-based integrated gasification fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Rao, A.D.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G.S. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants combining gasification and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies are very promising for highly efficient and environmentally friendly power generation from coal. IGFC plant amenability to carbon capture for sequestration makes the technology more attractive given the increasing concern over global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. With the support of the US Department of Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Advanced Power and Energy Program has conducted a study to identify promising conceptual designs for IGFC plants. The most promising IGFC concept identified so far is a system with catalytic hydro-gasification, a pressurized (operating pressure of 10 bar) SOFC followed by a turbo-expander and a steam cycle. The design requirement for recycling de-carbonized anode exhaust back to the gasifier for hydro-gasification not only produces a synergistic integration of SOFC and gasification subsystems, but also makes carbon separation a natural result. The current analyses of this system show an efficiency of 58.4 per cent (coal higher heating value basis) while capturing 94 per cent of the CO{sub 2}. Using this system as a baseline case, this work investigates the sensitivity of IGFC system performance on the extent of carbon capture. It is shown that the proposed IGFC system can achieve ultra-high carbon capture ({gt} 99 per cent) at small system efficiency expense while reducing carbon capture to below 90 per cent actually diminishes the system efficiency because less fuel is converted in the SOFC.

  2. An investigation of a carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as a power generation alternative for Mars exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Mejia, Oscar Roberto

    The possibility of using a bifunctional carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as the core of a propulsion system for a Mars exploration rotorcraft is investigated here. This concept involves the production of electricity by a stack of fuel cells that rely on carbon monoxide as the fuel and oxygen as the oxidizer. These two reactants are harvested from the Martian atmosphere by employing the same stack of cells as an electrolyzing unit. The general objectives of this research are to: prove the feasibility of the concept, produce a comprehensive model that allows the prediction of performance, and offer recommendations for the successful implementation of the concept. In this work, it is pointed out and demonstrated that, at least in theory, the overall electrochemical reaction required by this concept can be achieved by transporting hydrogen protons, hydroxyl radicals, carbonate radicals, or oxygen ions between the electrodes. Complete sets of reactions are prescribed for different types of fuel cells. Anodic and cathodic reactions are presented for acid, alkaline, carbonate, and solid oxide electrolytes. Subsequently, a more detailed consideration of all relevant phenomena is done by coupling elements of chemical kinetics, electrodics, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics with experimental data, to complete the demonstration of the feasibility of the carbon dioxide-based bifunctional fuel cell system. The understanding and inclusion of key processes and mechanisms allows the construction of a model that predicts the performance of the power generation subsystem advocated here. The model adopted in this work couples mechanistics with elements derived from the application of linear regression modeling techniques. Mechanistics are used to determine: thermodynamic equilibrium potential, overvoltages due to activation, ohmic resistance, and mass transport. This approach is empirical in part because the numerical parametric expressions suggested here have to be precised

  3. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  4. Formate: an Energy Storage and Transport Bridge between Carbon Dioxide and a Formate Fuel Cell in a Single Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tracy; Purohit, Krutarth; Nguyen, Christopher; Biggs, Brenna; Mayoral, Salvador; Haan, John L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first device to our knowledge that uses a solar panel to power the electrochemical reduction of dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonate) into formate that is then used in the same device to operate a direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). The electrochemical reduction of carbonate is carried out on a Sn electrode in a reservoir that maintains a constant carbon balance between carbonate and formate. The electron-rich formate species is converted by the DFFC into electrical energy through electron release. The product of DFFC operation is the electron-deficient carbonate species that diffuses back to the reservoir bulk. It is possible to continuously charge the device using alternative energy (e.g., solar) to convert carbonate to formate for on-demand use in the DFFC; the intermittent nature of alternative energy makes this an attractive design. In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that performs reduction of carbonate, storage of formate, and operation of a DFFC. PMID:26510492

  5. High temperature corrosion of low and high alloy steels under molten carbonate fuel cell conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedenkopf, P.; Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of eight low and high alloy steels was investigated under simulating the conditions at the cathode of a molten carbonate fuel cell at 650 C. Different Li-containing iron oxides (LiFeO{sub 2} and LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8}) were formed in contact with the eutectic (Li, K)-carbonate melt depending on the Cr-content of the steel. These oxides show low solubility in the melt and protect the metallic material against further corrosive attack. Fast growing scales of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} were observed on the low alloy ferritic steel 10 CrMo 9 10. Higher alloy steels form LiFeO{sub 2} in contact with the melt and mixed Fe-Cr-spinels underneath. Steels with Cr-contents over 20 wt.% Cr form a mixed LiCr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} and LiCrO{sub 2} layer in contact with the metal. Marker experiments on the commercial steel 1.4404 (X2 CrNiMo 17 13 2) show that the outer LiFeO{sub 2} layer grows mainly by outward diffusion of iron ions (Fe{sup 3+}), whereas the inner (Fe,Ni)Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel layer grows inward. After 500 hours, LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} was formed between the spinel and the LiFeO{sub 2} layer, but it had disappeared after several thousand hours of exposure as it was fully transformed to LiFeO{sub 2}. Co-containing LiFeO{sub 2} was found after 500 hours on the high Co-containing steel 1.4971 (X12 CrCoNi 21 20), but is not stable after several thousand hours exposure. Co diffuses outward to form a protective LiCoO{sub 2} layer of a few microns in thickness. Protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers were not observed on steels with high Co-content ({>=}25 wt.% Cr) due to peroxide ions in the melt, which cause oxidation Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and flux to chromate, which is highly soluble in the melt. Further quantitative investigations on total corrosion considering the chromate formation have shown that high alloy steels with high amounts of Cr form mainly K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. (orig.) 22 refs.

  6. High temperature corrosion of low and high alloy steels under molten carbonate fuel cell conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of eight low and high alloy steels was investigated under simulating the conditions at the cathode of a molten carbonate fuel cell at 650 C. Different Li-containing iron oxides (LiFeO2 and LiFe5O8) were formed in contact with the eutectic (Li, K)-carbonate melt depending on the Cr-content of the steel. These oxides show low solubility in the melt and protect the metallic material against further corrosive attack. Fast growing scales of Fe3O4 and LiFe5O8 were observed on the low alloy ferritic steel 10 CrMo 9 10. Higher alloy steels form LiFeO2 in contact with the melt and mixed Fe-Cr-spinels underneath. Steels with Cr-contents over 20 wt.% Cr form a mixed LiCr1-xFexO2 and LiCrO2 layer in contact with the metal. Marker experiments on the commercial steel 1.4404 (X2 CrNiMo 17 13 2) show that the outer LiFeO2 layer grows mainly by outward diffusion of iron ions (Fe3+), whereas the inner (Fe,Ni)Cr2O4 spinel layer grows inward. After 500 hours, LiFe5O8 was formed between the spinel and the LiFeO2 layer, but it had disappeared after several thousand hours of exposure as it was fully transformed to LiFeO2. Co-containing LiFeO2 was found after 500 hours on the high Co-containing steel 1.4971 (X12 CrCoNi 21 20), but is not stable after several thousand hours exposure. Co diffuses outward to form a protective LiCoO2 layer of a few microns in thickness. Protective Cr2O3 layers were not observed on steels with high Co-content (≥25 wt.% Cr) due to peroxide ions in the melt, which cause oxidation Cr2O3 and flux to chromate, which is highly soluble in the melt. Further quantitative investigations on total corrosion considering the chromate formation have shown that high alloy steels with high amounts of Cr form mainly K2CrO4. (orig.)

  7. Effect of inlet fuel type on the degradation of Ni/YSZ anode of solid oxide fuel cell by carbon deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttichai Assabumrungrat

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the high operating temperature of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC (700-1100ºC, it is known that some hydrocarbon fuels can be directly used as inlet fuel instead of hydrogen by feeding straight to the anode. This operation is called a direct internal reforming SOFC (DIR-SOFC. However, the major difficulty of this operation is the possible degradation of anode by the carbon deposition, as the carbon species are easily formed. In the present work, the effect of inlet fuel (i.e. H2, synthesis gas (H2+CO, CH4, CH4+H2O, CH3OH+H2O, and C2H5OH+H2O on the degradation of nickel cermet (Ni/YSZ, which is the most common anode material of SOFC, was studied.It was found from the work that hydrogen and synthesis gas (CO+H2 are proper to be used as direct inlet fuels for DIR-SOFC with Ni/YSZ anode, since the carbon formation on Ni/YSZ occurred in the small quantity. The mixture of methane and steam (CH4+H2O can also be used as the inlet feed, but the H2O/CH4 ratio plays an important role. In contrast, pure methane (CH4, methanol with steam (CH3OH+H2O and ethanol with steam (C2H5OH+H2O are not suitable for using as direct inlet fuel for DIR-SOFC with Ni/YSZ anode even the higher H2O/CH3OH and H2O/C2H5OH ratios were applied.

  8. Investigation of altenative carbon materials for fuel-cell catalyst support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul

    large surface area and good anchoring properties make it a suited material for this purpose, it is prone to degradation in the fuel-cell environment. Thus alternative materials with higher durability than CB, but with similar (or better) capability of dispersion, are desired. Among them are highly...

  9. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell reversible performance loss induced by carbon monoxide produced during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoopman, B.; Vincent, R.; Rosini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Thivel, P.-X.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry measurements at the anode have been carried out and reveal the presence of carbon monoxide in steady-state operation, with pure hydrogen. Experiments have been performed both in single cell and in stack to find out its origin. The contamination of the anode catalyst is partly due the reverse-water gas shift (RWGS) with carbon dioxide from the cathode. However, this study shows a temperature-activated and time-related corrosion mechanism which appears under humidified hydrogen. Due to this degradation mechanism, a reversible 25 mV-loss of performances is observed and can be recovered by oxidizing carbon monoxide on the anode.

  10. Pt-free carbon-based fuel cell catalyst prepared from spherical polyimide for enhanced oxygen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabae, Yuta; Nagata, Shinsuke; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Isoda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    The development of a non-precious metal (NPM) fuel cell catalyst is extremely important to achieve globalization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells due to the cost and scarcity of platinum. Here, we report on a NPM cathode catalyst prepared by the pyrolysis of spherical polyimide nanoparticles that contain small amounts of Fe additive. 60 nm diameter Fe-containing polyimide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization of pyromellitic acid dianhydride and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene with Fe(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as an additive. The particles were subsequently carbonized by multistep pyrolysis to obtain the NPM catalyst while retaining the small particle size. The catalyst has good performance and promising durability for fuel cell applications. The fuel cell performance under a 0.2 MPa air atmosphere at 80 °C of 1.0 A cm−2 at 0.46 V is especially remarkable and better than that previously reported. PMID:26987682

  11. Pt-free carbon-based fuel cell catalyst prepared from spherical polyimide for enhanced oxygen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabae, Yuta; Nagata, Shinsuke; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Isoda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-precious metal (NPM) fuel cell catalyst is extremely important to achieve globalization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells due to the cost and scarcity of platinum. Here, we report on a NPM cathode catalyst prepared by the pyrolysis of spherical polyimide nanoparticles that contain small amounts of Fe additive. 60 nm diameter Fe-containing polyimide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization of pyromellitic acid dianhydride and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene with Fe(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as an additive. The particles were subsequently carbonized by multistep pyrolysis to obtain the NPM catalyst while retaining the small particle size. The catalyst has good performance and promising durability for fuel cell applications. The fuel cell performance under a 0.2 MPa air atmosphere at 80 °C of 1.0 A cm‑2 at 0.46 V is especially remarkable and better than that previously reported.

  12. Effects of carbon supports on Pt distribution, ionomer coverage and cathode performance for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Chul; Tokiwa, Haruki; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effects of the carbon supports on the Pt distribution, ionomer coverage and cathode performance of carbon-supported Pt catalysts, by using STEM observation, N2 adsorption analysis and electrochemical characterization. According to the STEM observation, the effective Pt surface area (S(e)Pt), which is determined by the location and size of the Pt particles on the supports, increases in the following order: c-Pt/CB cell performance in the high current density region. In spite of the highest Pt utilization (UPt) value (>90%) and uniform ionomer coverage, the c-Pt/CB catalyst shows the lowest cell performance due to the lower S(e)Pt value. On the other hand, the n-Pt/AB250 catalyst, for which all of the Pt particles exist only on the exterior surface, is found to be the most attractive in order to generate the large current densities required by actual fuel cell operation.

  13. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShanwenTao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  14. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.;

    2015-01-01

    anthracite and bituminous coals, as well as carbon black, were tested, revealing similar open circuit potential and activation energies in mixed 96-4vol% N2-CO2 and 50-50vol% CO-CO2 environments between 700 and 800°C. Bituminous coal showed the highest activity, likely associated to a high O/C ratio...... and hydrogen content. Based on acquired data, a reaction scheme was proposed for processes at the working electrode, including the role of bubble formation in the vicinity of the electrochemically active solid/molten medium interface....

  15. Carbon foam anode modified by urea and its higher electrochemical performance in marine benthic microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yubin; Lu, Zhikai; Zai, Xuerong; Wang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Electrode materials have an important effect on the property of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Carbon foam is utilized as an anode and further modified by urea to improve its performance in marine benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) with higher voltage and output power. The electrochemical properties of plain carbon foam (PC) and urea-modified carbon foam (UC) are measured respectively. Results show that the UC obtains better wettability after its modification and higher anti-polarization ability than the PC. A novel phenomenon has been found that the electrical potential of the modified UC anode is nearly 100 mV lower than that of the PC, reaching -570 ±10 mV ( vs. SCE), and that it also has a much higher electron transfer kinetic activity, reaching 9399.4 mW m-2, which is 566.2-fold higher than that from plain graphite anode (PG). The fuel cell containing the UC anode has the maximum power density (256.0 mW m-2) among the three different BMFCs. Urea would enhance the bacteria biofilm formation with a more diverse microbial community and maintain more electrons, leading to a lower anodic redox potential and higher power output. The paper primarily analyzes why the electrical potential of the modified anode becomes much lower than that of others after urea modification. These results can be utilized to construct a novel BMFC with higher output power and to design the conditioner of voltage booster with a higher conversion ratio. Finally, the carbon foam with a bigger pore size would be a potential anodic material in conventional MFC.

  16. Design, Construction and Operation of a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) in the 100-kW-Class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fuel cells, the electrochemical energy of the fuel is converted directly into electricity and heat. The electrochemical conversion is inherently related to high electrical efficiencies and very low pollutant emissions. Fuel cells with sufficiently high operating temperatures such as (1) the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), operating temperature: 200 oC, (2) the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), operating temperature: 650 oC and (3) the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), operating temperature: around 900 oC are best suited for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) applications. This is due to the fact, that the heat of the exothermic reaction taking place in the fuel cell can be used in the domestic, commercial and industrial sector for heating and hot water or steam production. At the present time, gas-engines or gas-turbines are the preferred CHP-technologies for these applications. Nowadays, the PAFC is commercially available. More than 160 plants, each with a power of 200 kW, have been installed world-wide. Ruhrgas has investigated the behaviour of a 200 kW PAFC at its research centre in Dorsten, Germany, and at the site of a local utility. High temperature fuel cells such as MCFC or SOFC promise electrical efficiencies above 50 % in simple cycle mode. Up to now, MCFC-test plants have been built and operated in the 100 kW to 1 MW power range. The largest MCFC ever operated consisted of 16 identical stacks of 125 kW each, resulting in a plant power of 2 MW. The initial experience with SOFC in this power-range is currently gained from the operation of a 100 kW plant. In this paper, the result of the construction and operation of a highly innovatively designed 280 kW MCFC will be presented. This plant has been designed, built and operated by a European consortium for the development and market introduction of the MCFC. Members of the consortium are MTU-Friedrichshafen GmbH, Haldor Topsoee NS, Elkraft A.m.b.H., RWE Energie AG and Ruhrgas AG. (author)

  17. Platinum and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles supported on ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrocatalytic performance for fuel cell reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Jie [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong (China); Chan, K.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: hrsccky@hku.hk; Ren, Jiawen [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong (China); Xiao Fengshou [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry and College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2005-05-20

    Highly ordered meso-porous carbon, denoted CMK-3 was synthesized by using mesoporous silicates, SBA-15 as the starting templating materials. The ordered mesoporous carbon was loaded with platinum and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles using alternative synthesis techniques. The metal loaded ordered mesoporous carbon powders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption isotherm experiments. Micrometer-scale and centimeter-scale electrodes containing the mesocarbon/nanometal electrocatalysts were tested for some typical fuel cell reactions. While the nanometal/mesocarbon catalysts have well-defined and uniform properties in the nanometer scale, they have mixed electrocatalytic performance. A synthesized Pt/mesocarbon electrocatalyst outperformed a commercial electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction on a gas-diffusion electrode. The Pt-Ru/mesocarbon electrocatalyst synthesized, however, was not as effective for methanol oxidation.

  18. Platinum and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles supported on ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrocatalytic performance for fuel cell reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Ding; Kwong Yu Chan; Jiawen Ren [Hong Kong Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Feng Shou Xiao [Jilin Univ., Changchun (China). State Key Lab. of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry

    2005-05-20

    Highly ordered meso-porous carbon, denoted CMK-3 was synthesized by using mesoporous silicates, SBA-15 as the starting templating materials. The ordered mesoporous carbon was loaded with platinum and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles using alternative synthesis techniques. The metal loaded ordered mesoporous carbon powders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption isotherm experiments. Micrometer-scale and centimeter-scale electrodes containing the mesocarbon/nanometal electrocatalysts were tested for some typical fuel cell reactions. While the nanometal/mesocarbon catalysts have well-defined and uniform properties in the nanometer scale, they have mixed electrocatalytic performance. A synthesized Pt/mesocarbon electrocatalyst outperformed a commercial electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction on a gas-diffusion electrode. The Pt-Ru/mesocarbon electrocatalyst synthesized, however, was not as effective for methanol oxidation. (Author)

  19. Platinum and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles supported on ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrocatalytic performance for fuel cell reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly ordered meso-porous carbon, denoted CMK-3 was synthesized by using mesoporous silicates, SBA-15 as the starting templating materials. The ordered mesoporous carbon was loaded with platinum and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles using alternative synthesis techniques. The metal loaded ordered mesoporous carbon powders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption isotherm experiments. Micrometer-scale and centimeter-scale electrodes containing the mesocarbon/nanometal electrocatalysts were tested for some typical fuel cell reactions. While the nanometal/mesocarbon catalysts have well-defined and uniform properties in the nanometer scale, they have mixed electrocatalytic performance. A synthesized Pt/mesocarbon electrocatalyst outperformed a commercial electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction on a gas-diffusion electrode. The Pt-Ru/mesocarbon electrocatalyst synthesized, however, was not as effective for methanol oxidation

  20. Carbon supported Cu-Pd nanoparticles as anode catalyst for direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon supported Cu-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a successive reduction method in aqueous solution and used as anode electrocatalyst for direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHFC). The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared electrocatalysts are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and fuel cell test. The results show that the size of the crystallite is around 12.5 nm, the Cu1Pd1/C catalyst presents the highest catalytic activity among all the resultant catalysts, and the DBHFC using Cu1Pd1/C as anode catalyst and Pt mesh (1 cm × 1 cm) as cathode electrode obtains the maximum power density as high as 39.8 mW cm-2 at a discharge current density of 80.1 mA cm-2 at 20 °C

  1. Processes of depositing platinum on carbon nanotubes and their effect on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhui Li; Jun Ding; Junfeng Chen; Zongqiang Mao; Cailu Xu; Dehai Wu

    2004-01-01

    The ultrafine platinum nanoparticles deposited on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (Pt/CNTs) were prepared by a chemical precipitation method and used as the catalyst of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The depositing process parameters such as the solution pH value, Pt content and treatment temperature were analyzed. The experimental results show that the optimum process parameters to prepare Pt/CNTs are the solution pH value of 7.0, the theoretical Pt content of 25% (mass fraction) and the heating temperature of 500℃, under the conditions the best performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell can be obtained and its voltage can reach 580 mV at a current density of 500 mA/cm2.

  2. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  3. Catalysts compositions for use in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.

    2015-12-01

    The present invention generally relates to the generation of electrical energy from a solid-state fuel. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a solid-oxide fuel cell for generating electrical energy from a carbon-based fuel, and to catalysts for use in a solid-oxide fuel cell.

  4. The Neural Network analysis for the single cell of Molten Carbonate Fuel cell (MCFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Dhakad, S.C.soni, Pankaj Agrawal, Prashant Baredaer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work try to trained the performance and evolution for the single cell of the MCFC by using the Neural Network tool in the MAT-Lab software. The data used for the Neural Network training are, simulated results, these are obtained for the single cell of the MCFC [1].The analysis carried out for n input vectors (known input variables i.e. temperature and load current and power as output vector. Figure 2 shown simulated powers at the different values of input variables, as load current & temperature. Figures 3 shown the trained results are obtained using model in the form of approximate feed forward neural network for the 4 layers & 2:3:2 neurons. Power as the output vector of the MCFC is well compare to the simulated results shown in figure 5.

  5. Manufacture of a polymer-based carbon nanocomposite as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Making single, double and triple-filler composites of P/G, P/EG, and P/CF. ► Investigating synergetic effect among carbon fillers in composite. ► Density, electrical-thermal conductivity, flexural, impact, hardness, permeability. ► Performing material selection among metallic, graphite, and composite bipolar plate. ► PEM fuel made by composite bipolar plate has been resulted in 812 mW/cm2. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to prepare a polymer-based carbon nanocomposite reinforced by carbon fiber cloth (CF) to be utilized as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. For this purpose, some single, double, and triple-filler composites were manufactured by using phenolic resin as polymer (P) and graphite (G), carbon fiber (CF) and expanded graphite (EG) as fillers. The production method was compression-molding technique. The electrical conductivity, flexural strength, toughness, hardness, porosity, and hydrogen permeability tests were then measured to determine the mechanical and physical properties. A triple-filler composite containing 45 wt.% G, 10 wt.% CF, 5 wt.% EG, reinforced by a layer of CF cloth, was selected as composite bipolar plate. The electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and flexural strength of this composite were 74 S/cm, 9.6 W/m K, and 74 MPa, respectively, which are higher than the specified value by department of energy in USA (DOE). The composite bipolar plate used in the single fuel cell assembly showed a maximum power density 810 mW/cm2. In this paper, a material selection was performed on the different materials of bipolar plates. It can be concluded that the composite bipolar plates are more suitable for high life time stationary applications

  6. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  7. Synthesizing 2D MoS2 Nanofins on carbon nanospheres as catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chua, Daniel H C

    2016-01-01

    Highly dense 2D MoS2 fin-like nanostructures on carbon nanospheres were fabricated and formed the main catalyst support structure in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These nanofins were observed growing perpendicular to the carbon nanosphere surface in random orientations and high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed 2D layers. The PEM fuel cell test showed enhanced electrochemical activity with good stability, generating over 8.5 W.mgPt(-1) as compared to standard carbon black of 7.4 W.mgPt(-1) under normal operating conditions. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy confirmed that the performance improvement is highly due to the excellent water management of the MoS2 lamellar network, which facilitates water retention at low current density and flood prevention at high current density. Reliability test further demonstrated that these nanofins are highly stable in the electrochemical reaction and is an excellent ORR catalyst support. PMID:27302135

  8. Synthesizing 2D MoS2 Nanofins on carbon nanospheres as catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chua, Daniel H. C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly dense 2D MoS2 fin-like nanostructures on carbon nanospheres were fabricated and formed the main catalyst support structure in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These nanofins were observed growing perpendicular to the carbon nanosphere surface in random orientations and high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed 2D layers. The PEM fuel cell test showed enhanced electrochemical activity with good stability, generating over 8.5 W.mgPt‑1 as compared to standard carbon black of 7.4 W.mgPt‑1 under normal operating conditions. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy confirmed that the performance improvement is highly due to the excellent water management of the MoS2 lamellar network, which facilitates water retention at low current density and flood prevention at high current density. Reliability test further demonstrated that these nanofins are highly stable in the electrochemical reaction and is an excellent ORR catalyst support.

  9. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  10. Separate Determination of Borohydride, Borate, Hydroxide, and Carbonate in the Borohydride Fuel Cell by Acid-Base and Iodometric Potentiometric Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Churikov, A. V.; S. L. Shmakov; Romanova, V. O.; Zapsis, K. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Ivanishchev, A. V.; Churikov, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for quantitative chemical analysis of the complex “borohydride-borate-hydroxide-carbonate-water” mixtures used as fuel in the borohydride fuel cell was developed and optimized. The methodology includes the combined usage of the acid-base and iodometric titration methods. The acid-base titration method, which simultaneously uses the technique of differentiation and computer simulation of titration curves, allows one to determine the contents of hydroxide (alkali), carbonate, and ...

  11. Design of Polymer-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Black-based Fuel Cell Catalysts with High Durability and Performance Under Non-humidified Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize a high catalyst utilization, better fuel cell performance and durability as well as low production cost, an efficient design strategy of the catalyst layer that can improve both the oxygen accessibility and structure stability is highly required. Here, we describe the preparation of fuel cell electrocatalysts with an efficient fuel cell performance and better stability based on hybrids of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon black (CB) which were wrapped by a proton conducting polymer, poly[2,2′-(2,6-pyridine)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole], before deposition of the platinum (Pt) metal catalyst. The catalyst mass activity after feeding only 10%-MWNTs to CB increased by 1.5 and 2 times than those of the MWNTs-based- and CB-based catalysts, respectively. The results also demonstrated that 90 wt% of the MWNTs in the catalyst layer allows it to be replaced by CB without any significant change in its durability and performance under 120 °C and non-humidified condition

  12. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Lund, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    a standard polyol method were prepared and fabricated as cathodes of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for PEMFC. Both the catalysts as such and the MEAs made out of them were evaluated regarding to thermal and electrochemical stability using traditional carbon black (Vulcan XC72) as a reference. Thermal...... gravimetric analysis (TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), polarization curve and impedance spectroscopy were applied on the samples under accelerated stress conditions. The carbon nano-materials demonstrated better stability as support for nano-sized platinum catalyst under PEMFC related operating conditions. Due...... to different morphology of the nano carbons compared to Vulcan XC 72 the electrode structures may still need optimization to improve overall cell performance....

  13. Adsorption behavior of low concentration carbon monoxide on polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Mitsushima, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of CO on the anode around the concentration of 0.2 ppm allowed by ISO 14687-2 is investigated in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). CO and CO2 concentrations in the anode exhaust are measured during the operation of a JARI standard single cell at 60 °C cell temperature and 1000 mA cm-2 current density. CO coverage is estimated from the gas analysis and CO stripping voltammetry. The cell voltage decrease as a result of 0.2 ppm CO is 29 mV and the CO coverage is 0.6 at the steady state with 0.11 mg cm-2 of anode platinum loading. The CO coverage as a function of CO concentration approximately follows a Temkin-type isotherm. Oxygen permeated to the anode through a membrane is also measured during fuel cell operation. The exhaust velocity of oxygen from the anode was shown to be much higher than the CO supply velocity. Permeated oxygen should play an important role in CO oxidation under low CO concentration conditions.

  14. Microbial Fuel Cell-driven caustic potash production from wastewater for carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on the novel formation of caustic potash (KOH) directly on the MFC cathode locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt (kalicinite) while producing, instead of consuming electrical power. Using potassium-rich wastewater as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber, has resulted in the formation of caustic catholyte directly on the surface of the cathode electrode. Analysis of this liquid has shown to be highly alkaline (pH>13) and act as a CO2 sorbent. It has been later mineralised to kalicinite thus locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt. This work demonstrates an electricity generation method as a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route towards CO2 sequestration that perhaps leads to a carbon negative economy. Moreover, it shows a potential application for both electricity production and nutrient recovery in the form of minerals from nutrient-rich wastewater streams such as urine for use as fertiliser in the future. PMID:27133363

  15. Structural assembly effects of Pt nanoparticle-carbon nanotube-polyaniline nanocomposites on the enhancement of biohydrogen fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this work, we designed various polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites with platinum (Pt) nanoparticle-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), employed them as anodic catalysts, and studied their structural assembly effects with regard to enhancing biohydrogen fuel cell performance. Of two proposed structures, the PANI/Pt/MWCNTs multilayer nanocomposites showed superior electrocatalytic activities in the hydrogen oxidation reaction and in fuel cell power density relative to the Pt/MWCNTs-PANI core-shell design. These enhancements were attributed to the active interface formed between the Pt nanoparticles and polyaniline nanofibers, where the higher electronic and ionic conductivities of the thin PANI nanofiber layers in contact with Pt active sites were better than with the PANI bound Pt/MWCNTs. We also investigated the change in the electronic state of the composites and the charge-transfer rate caused by varying the structural assembly. Finally, the role of each catalyst component was examined to understand its individual effect on fuel cell performance and to understand its structural assembly effect on enhanced power density.

  16. Structural assembly effects of Pt nanoparticle-carbon nanotube-polyaniline nanocomposites on the enhancement of biohydrogen fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoa, Le Quynh, E-mail: hoa@p.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sugano, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Saito, Masato [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamiya, Eiichi, E-mail: tamiya@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this work, we designed various polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites with platinum (Pt) nanoparticle-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), employed them as anodic catalysts, and studied their structural assembly effects with regard to enhancing biohydrogen fuel cell performance. Of two proposed structures, the PANI/Pt/MWCNTs multilayer nanocomposites showed superior electrocatalytic activities in the hydrogen oxidation reaction and in fuel cell power density relative to the Pt/MWCNTs-PANI core-shell design. These enhancements were attributed to the active interface formed between the Pt nanoparticles and polyaniline nanofibers, where the higher electronic and ionic conductivities of the thin PANI nanofiber layers in contact with Pt active sites were better than with the PANI bound Pt/MWCNTs. We also investigated the change in the electronic state of the composites and the charge-transfer rate caused by varying the structural assembly. Finally, the role of each catalyst component was examined to understand its individual effect on fuel cell performance and to understand its structural assembly effect on enhanced power density.

  17. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, Jr., J. L.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.; Bushnell, C. L.; Nickols, R. C.; Gelting, R. L.; Katz, M.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Smith, R.; Smith, S. W.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-08-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study activity of Task 1, preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization has been completed by Bechtel National, Inc. Work under Task 2 defined design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication has been made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated under Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects. Components for the mobile test facility are being ordered.

  18. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  19. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  20. In-line deoxygenation for organic carbon detections in seawater using a marine microbial fuel cell-biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Soon Bee; Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is a key predictor for membrane biofouling in seawater desalination reverse osmosis (SWRO). Microbial fuel cells have been considered as biosensors for the detection of biodegradable organics. However, the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) is known to completely suppress the signal production (i.e., current) of a typical MFC. This study describes AOC detection in normal oxygenated seawater by coupling an electrochemical cell for DO removal with a MFC-biosensor for AOC detection. The electrochemical deoxygenation for oxygen removal caused no interference in the AOC detection. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.991) between the AOC concentration and current production from the MFC biosensor was achieved. The coupling of an electrochemical cell with a MFC-biosensor can be effectively used as an online, rapid and inexpensive measure of AOC concentrations and hence as an indicator for biofouling potential of seawater. PMID:25679497

  1. On-demand supply of slurry fuels to a porous anode of a direct carbon fuel cell: Attempts to increase fuel-anode contact and realize long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengguo; Yi, Hakgyu; Lee, Donggeun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel idea that might allow resolution of the two biggest challenges that hinder practical use of direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC). This work involved 1) the use of three types of porous Ni anode with different pore sizes, 2) size matching between the anode pores and solid fuel particles in a molten-carbonate (MC) slurry, and 3) provision of a continuous supply of fuel-MC slurry through the porous Ni anode. As a result, larger numbers of smaller pores in the anode were preferred for extending the triple phase boundary (TPB), as long as the fuel particles were sufficiently small to have full access to the inner pore spaces of the anode. For example, the maximal power density achieved in the case of optimal size matching, reached 645 mW cm-2, which is 14-times greater than that for the case of poorest size-matching and 64-times larger than that for a non-porous anode, and lasted for more than 20 h. After 20 h of steady operation at a fixed current density (700 mA cm-2), the electric potential slightly decreased due to partial consumption of the fuel. The cell performance readily recovered after restarting the supply of MC-fuel slurry.

  2. Oxidative Treatment to Improve Coating and Electrochemical Stability of Carbon Fiber Paper with Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Sols for Potential Applications in Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solution coating of metal oxide layer directly onto carbon paper. • Most uniform Metal oxide coating on functionalized carbon paper. • Highest electrochemical stability for metal oxide coated functionalized carbon paper. - Abstract: Regular hydrophobized carbon paper cannot be used for unitized regenerative fuel cell applications as it corrodes at high potentials on the oxygen electrode side. Reported here are the oxidative treatment and dip-coating of carbon paper (Spectracarb™ 2050A-0850) with Nb-doped TiO2 sols (anatase phase) to increase the corrosion resistance of the carbon paper at the interface between catalyst layer and gas diffusion backing layer. Coating of carbon paper with Nb-doped TiO2 sols generates a reasonably uniform layer of TiO2 and covers the individual carbon fibers well only if the carbon paper is oxidatively functionalized prior to coating. This can be reasoned with a better wetting of the functionalized carbon paper by the sol-gel and the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and the large number of functional groups on the surface of oxidized carbon paper, which is in good agreement with previous observation for carbon nanotubes. The resistance towards oxidation of coated and uncoated samples of untreated and functionalized carbon paper was probed by cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 at 1.2 V versus Ag/AgCl for up to 72 hours to mimic the conditions in a unitized regenerative fuel cell. Among these four cases studied here, functionalized carbon paper coated with a layer of Nb-doped TiO2 shows the highest stability towards electrochemical oxidation while uncoated functionalized carbon paper is the least stable due to the large number of available oxidation sites. These results clearly demonstrate that a coating of carbon fibers with TiO2 generates a lasting protection against oxidation under conditions encountered at the oxygen electrode side of unitized regenerative fuel cells

  3. One-step synthesis of Pt-supported carbon nanohorns for fuel cell electrode by arc plasma in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-step synthesis of Pt-loaded carbon nanoparticles including single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) by arc plasma in liquid nitrogen was demonstrated using Pt-contained graphite anode. The size distribution of Pt particles can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of Pt in the graphite anode. In the observation by transmission electron microscope, the diameter of less than 5 nm of Pt particles were observed as approximately 90% among the Pt particles when Pt was contained in the anode at 1.3 at.%. When Pt concentration in the anode was decreased to 0.4 at.%, the percentage of Pt particles whose diameter is less than 5 nm decreased to approximately 60%. It was verified that the as-grown Pt-loaded products produced by this method can be useful for the power generation by polymer electrolyte fuel cell

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell: An experimental analysis of a 1 kW system fed by landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel cylindrical geometry 1 kW MCFC is analysed. • A description of the considered experimental set-up is provided. • The results of a suitable experimental campaign are discussed. • The MCFC is fed by hydrogen, landfill gas and different mixtures of them. • A comparative analysis of the so fuelled MCFC performance results is performed. - Abstract: In this paper the results of an on-site experimental analysis carried out on a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) fed by different fuels (hydrogen, landfill gas and different mixtures of them) are presented. The examined MCFC is one of the experimental devices of an innovative power plant located at the urban landfill of Giugliano in Campania (Naples, Italy). Here, electricity is produced through four cogenerative reciprocating engines and one cogenerative gas turbine fed by landfill gas, operating since 2003. At the same site, two different fuel cells are installed for scientific purposes. During the considered experimental campaign, the MCFC is initially supplied by hydrogen for testing the system at the best operating conditions. Afterward, the fuel cell is fed by mixtures of different ratios of hydrogen and reformed landfill gas. For this reason, the system is equipped with an external reformer and a suitable gas cleaning. In order to analyse the system energy performance under varying electricity loads (obtained through an electronic device), several tests were carried out. In addition, several stress tests were also performed aiming at analysing the system endurance when fed by landfill gas. The experimental results concerning the produced electric currents and voltages show satisfactory performance of the system, while the obtained operating temperatures and cell reliability still need to be improved

  5. Influence of selected coal contaminants on graphitic carbon electro-oxidation for application to the direct carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, John; Allen, Jessica; Wibberley, Louis; Donne, Scott

    2014-08-01

    A novel method examining the fundamental electrochemical behaviour of carbon is outlined here involving the use of a half cell set-up and solid sacrificial anode. Using this method, electrochemical oxidation of graphite is assessed using selective contamination of a graphite electrode with major coal contaminants identified in selected Australian black coals using X-ray diffraction. Contaminants identified include anatase, alumina, pyrite, quartz, kaolin and montmorillonite. From the systematic introduction of these contaminants it is shown that clay materials, such as kaolin and montmorillonite, act catalytically to increase the rate of graphite oxidation. Metal oxides and sulfides such as anatase, alumina and pyrite give a limited increase in the normalised current, whereas quartz gives a significant decrease in performance. This demonstrates a clear effect of the solid phase interaction of these contaminants on the electrochemical oxidation of graphite since the same effect is not observed when the contaminants are added instead to the molten carbonate electrolyte.

  6. The Performance of Electron-Mediator Modified Activated Carbon as Anode for Direct Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Six different electron mediators were immobilized on the activated carbon (AC anode and their effects on performance of a direct glucose alkaline fuel cell were explored. 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (NQ, methyl viologen (MV, neutral red (NR, methylene blue (MB, 1, 5-dichloroanthraquinone (DA and anthraquinone (AQ were doped in activated carbon (AC, respectively, and pressed on nickel foam to fabricate the anodes. NQ shows comparable performance with MV, but with much lower cost and environmental impact. With NQ-AC anode, the fuel cell attained a peak power density of 16.10 Wm−2, peak current density of 48.09 Am−2, and open circuit voltage of 0.76 V under the condition of 1 M glucose, 3 M KOH, and ambient temperature. Polarization curve, EIS and Tafel measurements were also conducted to explore the mechanism of performance enhancement. The high performance is likely due to the enhanced charge transfer and more reactive sites provided on the anode.

  7. Nanoporous carbon supported platinum-copper nanocomposites as anode catalysts for direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NPC supported Pt-Cu nanocomposites are used firstly as anode catalysts for DBHFC. • The average size of the Pt-Cu nanocrystals is around 2.3 nm. • The DBHFC with Pt2Cu/NPC anode shows the maximum power density of 89 mW cm−2. -- Abstract: Nanoporous carbon (NPC) supported Pt-Cu nanocomposites (PtxCu/NPC) with different Pt/Cu molar ratios have been successfully synthesized via NaBH4 reduction method and used as anode catalysts for direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHFC). The as-synthesized PtxCu/NPC electrocatalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), rotating disc electrode (RDE) and fuel cell test. It has been found that the PtCu nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of the NPC support with average size of about 2.3 nm. Besides, the PtxCu/NPC catalysts show higher activities for borohydride oxidation than that of monometallic Pt/NPC and Vulcan XC-72 carbon supported Pt2Cu (Pt2Cu/XC-72) catalysts. Especially, the DBHFC equipped with Pt2Cu/NPC as anode catalyst shows the maximum power density of 89 mW cm−2 at 25 °C

  8. In situ microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus dos Santos Peixoto, Luciana; Min, Booki; Martins, Gilberto;

    2011-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of biodegra......The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of...... biodegradable organic content of domestic wastewater. A stable current density of 282±23mA/m2 was obtained with domestic wastewater containing a BOD5 of 317±15mg O2/L at 22±2°C, 1.53±0.04mS/cm and pH 6.9±0.1. The current density showed a linear relationship with BOD5 concentration ranging from 17±0.5mg O2/L to...

  9. Platinum–boron doped graphene intercalated by carbon black for cathode catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enhance the electrochemical properties, especially durability and cell performance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell, electron deficient boron is doped into graphene, followed by deposition of Pt nanoparticles. Successful synthesis of Pt-boron doped graphene (Pt–B–Gr) by pyrolytic process is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy analyses. Pt–B–Gr is intercalated by different amount of CB (carbon black) based on Pt–B–Gr/CBx (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and applied to cathode in proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The ECSA (electrochemical active surface area) is increased with CB content up to 30 wt.% of Pt–B–Gr from 21.4 to 33.6 m2 g−1 beyond which it is rather slightly decreased to 29.6 m2 g−1. The ADT (accelerated durability test) is conducted where the ECSA is compared at every 400 cycles up to 1200 cycles for durability. The result exhibits that boron doping into graphene significantly enhances the durability. It might be attributed to more tight binding between Pt and B due to the electron transfer from graphene to boron. The cell performance is enhanced and it is attributed to the combined effect of B-doping and intercalation. - Highlights: • Graphene was successfully doped with boron using pyrolytic process. • Pt nanoparticles were deposited onto boron-doped graphene. • Pt-boron doped graphene was intercalated by carbon black to prevent restacking. • Boron doping significantly enhanced the durability. • The combined effect of boron doping and intercalation enhanced the cell performance

  10. Characteristics of the carbon paper heat-treated to different temperatures and its influence on the performance of PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous conducting carbon paper acts as an electrode backing material in a fuel cell. It not only assists in the flow of electrons and gases but also provides mechanical support to the MEA. The electrically conducting carbon paper (porosity ∼70%) was prepared using laminated assembly of chopped carbon fiber porous preforms and applying combined paper making and composite making technique. The green paper was subjected to different heat treatment temperatures (HTT), which was found to influence the characteristics of the paper significantly. The processing of the paper was carried out at a very fast carbonization rates, 900 oC/h as compared to 10-20 oC/h used conventionally, making the complete process highly cost efficient. The paper when used in the unit fuel cell assembly showed I-V performance comparable to that of the commercially available Toray carbon paper

  11. Heat balance of a molten carbonate fuel cell production hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell-CoCell; Waermehaushalt einer Karbonat-Brennstoffzelle zur Wasserstoffherstellung fuer eine Polymerelektrolyt-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamek, L.

    2006-10-17

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being used in decentralised power plants, as they can reform hydrocarbon bound fuels internally, e.g. natural gas with a energy density of 10 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions, and the efficiency of this mode of operation is around 50 %. However in comparison to other fuel cell systems the power density is only 5 kW/m{sup 3}. The power density of a polymerelectrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is much higher (50 kW/m{sup 3}). These systems can be run with an efficiency of 50 %, too. Therefore they need hydrogen as a fuel, with an energy density of 2,9 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions. Efficiency decreases to 35 to 40% using Methane as fuel, because of the reforming losses. The power density than is 6 kW/m3 and therefore as high as for a MCFC-system. Acombination of MCFC and PEFC, the so called CoCell, offers the following advantages: - A highly energetic, hydrocarbon based fuel can be used, e.g. Methane. - A high electrical efficiency is achieved. - The power density of this system is higher than for a fuel cell with reformer. In the CoCell the MCFC is working as electricity producing reformer for the PEFC. The off heat of the MCFC is used for reforming, whereby hydrogen is available, being utilised further in the power dense PEFC. The reforming capacity of the MCFC is limited by the internal heat balance. If the endothermic reforming consumes more heat than supplied by the material streams and the fuel cell waste heat, the stack cools down. The performance of such a combined fuel cell system has been evaluated in this thesis using the thermodynamic simulation software Aspen. Calculations reducing the utilisation in the MCFC by various heating techniques showed, that additional heat is supplied most efficiently by increasing the current density of the MCFC. Thereby the stack is heated electrically and the power density of the system is increased by the improved power density of the MCFC. The reduction of the utilisation is achieved

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

    2002-09-01

    This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three

  13. Preparation and characterization of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) / SPEEK bilayer membranes and SPEEK / polyimide (PI) blend membranes for direct alcohols fuel cells / (DAFC) performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maab, Husnul

    2009-01-01

    Summary This research work is based on the preparation of membranes from SPEEK with reduced fuel cross-over following two different approach: 1) the preparation of bilayer membranes from in-home sulfonated PEEK (Vitrex) and a thin layer of in-home prepared carbon molecular sieve (CMS) from polyimide (Matrimid 5218); 2) blending of SPEEK with polyimide polymers. In both ways, it was possible to decrease the fuel cross-over in both direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel ce...

  14. Control of Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZENITH, Federico

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. Fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen, methanol or other chemical compounds directly into electricity, without combustion or thermal cycles. They are efficient, scalable and silent devices that can provide power to a wide variety of utilities, from portable electronics to vehicles, to nation-wide electric grids. Whereas studies about the design of fuel ...

  15. Control of Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZENITH, Federico

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells.Fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen, methanol or other chemical compounds directly into electricity, without combustion or thermal cycles. They are efficient, scalable and silent devices that can provide power to a wide variety of utilities, from portable electronics to vehicles, to nation-wide electric grids.Whereas studies about the design of fuel ce...

  16. Inkjet printing of carbon supported platinum 3-D catalyst layers for use in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, André D.; Kim, Edward Y.; Humes, Virgil P.; Kizuka, Jeremy; Thompson, Levi T.

    We present a method of using inkjet printing (IJP) to deposit catalyst materials onto gas diffusion layers (GDLs) that are made into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC). Existing ink deposition methods such as spray painting or screen printing are not well suited for ultra low (Monarch 700, Black Pearls 2000, etc.). Our ink jet printed MEAs with catalyst loadings of 0.020 mg Pt cm -2 have shown Pt utilizations in excess of 16,000 mW mg -1 Pt which is higher than our traditional screen printed MEAs (800 mW mg -1 Pt). As a further demonstration of IJP versatility, we present results of a graded distribution of Pt/C catalyst structure using standard Johnson Matthey (JM) catalyst. Compared to a continuous catalyst layer of JM Pt/C (20% Pt), the graded catalyst structure showed enhanced performance.

  17. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  18. Anti corrosion layer for stainless steel in molten carbonate fuel cell - comprises phase vapour deposition of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride layer then oxidising layer in molten carbonate electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Forming an anticorrosion protective layer on a stainless steel surface used in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) - comprises the phase vapour deposition (PVD) of a layer comprising at least one of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride and then forming a protective layer in situ...... by replacement of the nitride ions with oxide ions in the molten carbonate electrolyte....

  19. Forest fuel and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fuel, i.e., branches and tops that remain after felling, are not considered to give a net surplus of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. In order to, if possible, verify this theory a survey was made of the literature concerning different carbon flows related to forest fuel. Branches and needles that are not utilised as fuel nonetheless eventually become decomposed to carbon dioxide. Branches and stem wood are broken down in occasional cases to 60-80% already within 5-6 years but the decomposition rate varies strongly. A small amount of existing data suggest that branches and stems are broken down almost completely within 60-70 years, and earlier in some cases. Lignin is the component in needles and wood that is the most resistant to decomposition. Decomposition is favoured by optimal temperature and moisture, ground contact and ground animals. Material that is mulched during soil preparation is decomposed considerably faster than material that lies on the soil surface. Felling residues that are left on the soil are a large momentary addition to the soil's reserves of organic material but after a number of years the difference in soil organic material is small between places where fuel has been removed and places where felling residues have been left. High nitrogen deposition, fire control and effective forestry are factors that contribute to the increases in the reserves of soil organic material. It appears to be a good approximation to consider the forest fuel as being a neutral fuel as regards carbon dioxide in a longer perspective. In comparison with other biofuels and fossil fuels, forest fuel appears, together with Salix, to be the fuel that results in very little extra discharge of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases during its production, transport and processing. 70 refs, 5 figs, tabs

  20. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  1. Graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth for flexible electrodes of glucose fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we fabricated flexible electrodes for a miniaturized, simple structured, and flexible glucose biofuel cell (BFC) using a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC). The areas of the anode and cathode electrodes were 3 × 10 mm2. The anode area was coated with the enzyme glucose oxidase, and the cathode area was coated with the enzyme bilirubin oxidase. No ion-exchange film was needed because glucose oxidase selectively oxidizes glucose and bilirubin oxidase selectively reduces oxygen. The power density of the BFC with GCFC electrodes in a phosphate buffer solution of 200 mM glucose solution at room temperature was 34.3 µW/cm2 at 0.43 V. The power density of a BFC using carbon fiber cloth (CFC) without graphene modification was 18.5 µW/cm2 at 0.13 V. The BFC with the GCFC electrode continued to function longer than 24 h with a power density higher than 5 µW/cm2. These effects were attributed to the much larger effective surface areas of the GCFC electrodes that maintain more enzymes than those of the CFC electrodes.

  2. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2V produced the highest power of 1330±60mWm-2 for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. High-efficiency intermediate temperature solid oxide electrolyzer cells for the conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingbo; Chen, Hao; Dogdibegovic, Emir; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Cheng, Mojie; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in the intermediate temperature region was investigated by utilizing a reversible solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The current-potential (i-V) curve exhibited a nonlinear characteristic at low current density. Differentiation of i-V curves revealed that the cell area specific resistance (ASR) was current-dependent and had its maximum in electrolysis mode and minimum in fuel cell mode. Impedance measurements were performed under different current densities and gas compositions, and the results were analyzed by calculating the distribution of relaxation times. The ASR variation resulted from the difference in electrochemical reactions occurring on the Ni-YSZ electrode, i.e., Ni-YSZ is a better electrode for CO oxidation than for CO2 reduction. Coke formation on Ni-YSZ played a crucial role in affecting its electrolysis performance in the intermediate temperature region. The ASR apex was associated with a decrease in cell temperature during electrolysis due to the endothermic nature of CO2 reduction reaction. It was postulated that such a decrease in temperature and rise in CO concentration led to coke formation. As a consequence, higher temperature (>700 °C), higher CO2 concentration (>50%), and the presence of hydrogen or steam are recommended for efficient CO2 reduction in solid oxide electrochemical cells.

  4. Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of activated carbon cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2013-09-01

    High-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) air cathodes were constructed using a combination of inexpensive materials for the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst and the electrode separator. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based electrode separator enabled high coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in MFCs with activated carbon (AC) cathodes without significantly decreasing power output. MFCs with AC cathodes and PVA separators had CEs (43%-89%) about twice those of AC cathodes lacking a separator (17%-55%) or cathodes made with platinum supported on carbon catalyst (Pt/C) and carbon cloth (CE of 20%-50%). Similar maximum power densities were observed for AC-cathode MFCs with (840 ± 42 mW/m2) or without (860 ± 10 mW/m2) the PVA separator after 18 cycles (36 days). Compared to MFCs with Pt-based cathodes, the cost of the AC-based cathodes with PVA separators was substantially reduced. These results demonstrated that AC-based cathodes with PVA separators are an inexpensive alternative to expensive Pt-based cathodes for construction of larger-scale MFC reactors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly durable silica-coated Pt/carbon nanotubes for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaowarat, Wattanachai; Li, Oi Lun Helena; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Pt/CNTs) have been used as an electrocatalyst in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). These catalysts show higher activity in oxygen reduction reaction in PEMFCs than conventional carbon-black-supported Pt nanoparticles. However, their durability is lower than that of other metal-alloy-based or nonmetal-based catalysts. In this study, Pt/CNTs were synthesized by solution plasma followed by coating with silica layer by the sol-gel method using a cationic surfactant [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)]. This material can be used as a cathode in PEMFCs. The silica layer was coated on the surface of Pt/CNTs to prevent agglomeration and detachment of Pt nanoparticles from carbon nanotubes during operation. The formation of silica layers significantly improved the durability of the Pt/CNT catalysts under acidic conditions. After 300 cycles of the cyclic voltammetry test in 0.5#M sulfuric acid (H2SO4), silica-coated Pt/CNTs increased the durability by 43.0 and 24.0% compared with those of noncoated commercial Pt/C and Pt/CNTs, respectively.

  6. Improvements of electrical properties containing carbon nanotube in epoxy/graphite bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HongKi; Rim, HyungRyul; Lee, JaeYoung; Lee, Jongmin; Yoon, JeongMo; Bae, WooJung; Yang, SeungWeon

    2008-10-01

    The epoxy based graphite bipolar plate containing carbon nanotube (CNT) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has been prepared and the electrical properties were compared. The density of graphite composite bipolar plate showed from 1.85 to 0.94 as expanded graphite content is increased from 10 to 50 w/o. The improvement of electrical properties was accomplished by addition of CNT. Rapid increase of conductivity was found due to the compensation between increases of the electrical pathway by addition of CNT and sufficient electrical contact among isolated large graphite particle. The polarisation curves of bipolar plate were measured at 1 M H2SO4 solution with 1 mV/sec of scan rate and the value of 1.903 uA/cm2 of corrosion rate was obtained. PMID:19198477

  7. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  8. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovskis, Johanna K.; Prestel, Cathrin; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  9. Carbon nanotubes as electrode substrate material for PEM fuel cells; Kohlenstoff-Nanoroehrchen als Elektrodenmaterial fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soehn, Matthias

    2010-06-21

    This thesis reports an enhanced method to deposit nanoscaled noble metal catalysts (Pt/Ru) uniformly on carbon nanotubes based on wet chemical reduction of anorganic precursors via ethylene glycol. This well-known method is widely used to deposit noble metal catalyst particles on carbon black. Unfortunately, carbon nanotubes tend to agglomerate and therefore form bundles which cannot be penetrated by the precursor. Thus, effectiveness of the substrate is reduced. The new method prevents this by suspending the CNTs in butyl acetate by means of ultrasonic dispersion leading to a homogenous distribution. Because the butyl acetate is almost unpolar, it is nearly immiscible with the water-based ethylene glycol mixture. This problem has been solved by adding liquid Nafion {sup registered} which acts as an emulsifying agent. Thus an emulsion is created by ultrasonic treatment. This results in 30 {mu}m-sized droplets of butyl acetate with a layer of CNTs and Nafion {sup registered}. The large interface to the ethylene glycol phase yields a large surface for homogenous catalyst deposition. The prepared samples showed a narrow size distribution ({+-}0.5 nm) of small noble metal particles with loading up to 50% by weight and an average particle size of 3 nm. They are investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA-MS and CV. The added Nafion {sup registered} improves catalyst utilisation by establishing a proton conductive path to the catalyst particles. Furthermore, different manufacturing techniques for the CNT electrodes are evaluated. Thin layer Membrane-Electrode-Assemblies (MEAs) are prepared by the airbrush technique. Electrode thickness, composition and structure as well as membrane thickness is varied and the MEAs are tested in a single-cell hydrogen-oxygen-fed PEM fuel cell. The cells are characterised by cyclic IV curves which are recorded over an extended period of time, showing power densities up to 770mWcm-2 at a platinum loading of 0.3mgcm-2. Additionally, the MEAs are

  10. Iron-rich nanoparticle encapsulated, nitrogen doped porous carbon materials as efficient cathode electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.

  11. Spatial proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance under carbon monoxide poisoning at a low concentration using a segmented cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; Bethune, Keith; Rocheleau, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The impact of the fuel contaminant CO, which was intentionally injected in to the hydrogen stream at a concentration of 2 ppm, on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance distribution was studied using a segmented cell system and spatial electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The cell was operated under a galvanostatic control of the overall cell current at 0.8 A cm-2, and tests were carried out under H2/O2, H2/air, and H2/H2 gas configurations. Upon CO injection the voltage decreased by 0.080, 0.300, and 0.320 V for O2, air, and H2 cathode gases, respectively. The voltage drop was accompanied by changes in the current density distributions. Inlet segments 1-4 showed a decrease in current due to CO adsorption on Pt, while, downstream segments 7-10 exhibited an increase in current. The performance completely recovered within 1-2 h after CO injection was stopped. The conversion of CO proceeds through a combination of catalytic and electrochemical oxidation reactions; however, the catalytic oxidation of CO is likely the dominant process. It was found that an increased membrane gas permeability can mitigate the impact of CO, mainly due to the catalytic oxidation of adsorbed CO on the Pt anode by the permeated O2.

  12. Sustainable design of high-performance microsized microbial fuel cell with carbon nanotube anode and air cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-08-27

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising alternative energy source that both generates electricity and cleans water. Fueled by liquid wastes such as wastewater or industrial wastes, the microbial fuel cell converts waste into energy. Microsized MFCs are essentially miniature energy harvesters that can be used to power on-chip electronics, lab-on-a-chip devices, and/or sensors. As MFCs are a relatively new technology, microsized MFCs are also an important rapid testing platform for the comparison and introduction of new conditions or materials into macroscale MFCs, especially nanoscale materials that have high potential for enhanced power production. Here we report a 75 μL microsized MFC on silicon using CMOS-compatible processes and employ a novel nanomaterial with exceptional electrochemical properties, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as the on-chip anode. We used this device to compare the usage of the more commonly used but highly expensive anode material gold, as well as a more inexpensive substitute, nickel. This is the first anode material study done using the most sustainably designed microsized MFC to date, which utilizes ambient oxygen as the electron acceptor with an air cathode instead of the chemical ferricyanide and without a membrane. Ferricyanide is unsustainable, as the chemical must be continuously refilled, while using oxygen, naturally found in air, makes the device mobile and is a key step in commercializing this for portable technology such as lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care diagnostics. At 880 mA/m2 and 19 mW/m2 the MWCNT anode outperformed the others in both current and power densities with between 6 and 20 times better performance. All devices were run for over 15 days, indicating a stable and high-endurance energy harvester already capable of producing enough power for ultra-low-power electronics and able to consistently power them over time. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. The single cell of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell with sodium carbonate-SDC (samarium-doped ceria) as electrolyte and biodiesel as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, F.; Nuryanto, A.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this research NSDC (composite of Na2CO3-SDC) was prepared by the sol-gel method to produce NSDC1 and also by the ceramic method to produce NSDC2. The prepared NSDC then were analyzed by XRD embedded with Le Bail refinement to study the change of characteristic peaks, their crystal structure, and their cell parameters. Meanwhile, the measurement of impedance was conducted to study the electrical conductivity of the prepared materials. A single cell was prepared by coating NSDC-L (a composite of NSDC with Li0.2Ni0.7Cu0.1O2) on both surfaces of NSDC. The NSDC-L was used as anode and cathode. The ionic conductivity of NSDC1 and NSDC2 at 400 oC are 4.1109 x 10-2 S.cm-1 and 1.6231 x 10-2 S.cm-1, respectively. Both electrolytes have ionic conductivity higher than 1 x 10-4 S.cm-1, therefore, can be categorized as good electrolyte [1]. However, the NSDC1 shows electrodeelectrolyte conduction. It indicates the existence of electronic migration from electrolyte- electrode or vice versa. Those may cause a short circuit during fuel cell operation and will reduce the fuel cell performance fastly. The single cell tests were conducted at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C. The single fuel cell with NSDC1 and NSDC2 as electrolyte show maximum power density at 400 °C with the power density of 3.736 x 10-2 mW.cm-2 and 2.245 x 10-2 mW.cm-2, respectively.

  14. Ru-decorated Pt nanoparticles on N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Anne-Charlotte Elisabeth Birgitta; Yang, R.B.; Haugshøj, K.B.;

    2013-01-01

    We present atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a new method for the preparation of highly dispersed Ru-decorated Pt nanoparticles for use as catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The nanoparticles were deposited onto N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at 250 °C using trimethyl...... controlled size and composition can be deposited, with up-scaling prospects....

  15. Microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a promising technology for sustainable production of alternative energy and waste treatment. A microbial fuel cell transformation chemical energy in the chemical bonds in organic compounds to electrical energy through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. It has been known for many years that it is possible to generate electricity directly by using bacteria to break down organic substrates. Key words: microbial fuel cells (MFC), biosensor, wastewater treatment

  16. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  17. Life cycle assessment of molten carbonate fuel cells: State of the art and strategies for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Andi; Santoni, Francesca; Della Pietra, Massimiliano; McPhail, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to review and provide an up to date international life cycle thinking literature with particular emphasis on life cycle assessment (LCA), applied to Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs), a technology forcefully entering the field of decentralized heat and power generation. Critical environmental issues, comparison of results between studies and improvement strategies are analyzed and highlighted. The findings stress that MCFC environmental performance is heavily influenced by the current use of non-renewable energy and high material demand of rare minerals which generate high environmental burdens in the manufacturing stage, thereby confirming the prominent role of these processes in a comprehensive LCA study. The comparison of operational phases highlights that MCFCs are robust and able to compete with other mature technologies contributing substantially to airborne emissions reduction and promoting a switch to renewable fuels, however, further progress and market competitiveness urges adoption of an eco-efficiency philosophy to forge the link between environmental and economic concerns. Adopting a well-organized systematic research driven by life cycle models and eco-efficiency principles stakeholders will glean valuable information to make well balanced decisions for improving performance towards the concept 'producing more quality with less resources' and accelerate market penetration of the technology.

  18. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  19. Carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon core-sheath nanostructures as highly active, metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Young Jin; Park, Chiyoung; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Seok-Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Park, Gu-Gon; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2014-04-14

    A facile, scalable route to new nanocomposites that are based on carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon (CNT/HDC) core-sheath nanostructures is reported. These nanostructures were prepared by the adsorption of heteroatom-containing ionic liquids on the walls of CNTs, followed by carbonization. The design of the CNT/HDC composite allows for combining the electrical conductivity of the CNTs with the catalytic activity of the heteroatom-containing HDC sheath layers. The CNT/HDC nanostructures are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and displayed one of the best performances among heteroatom-doped nanocarbon catalysts in terms of half-wave potential and kinetic current density. The four-electron selectivity and the exchange current density of the CNT/HDC nanostructures are comparable with those of a Pt/C catalyst, and the CNT/HDC composites were superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and poison tolerance. Furthermore, an alkaline fuel cell that employs a CNT/HDC nanostructure as the cathode catalyst shows very high current and power densities, which sheds light on the practical applicability of these new nanocomposites. PMID:24554521

  20. Fuel cells technologies for fuel processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhawat, Dushyant, II; Berry, David A, I

    2014-01-01

    Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient

  1. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  2. Nickel and cobalt electrodeposited on carbon fiber cloth as the anode of direct hydrogen peroxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cheng, Kui; Xiao, Xue; Yin, Jinling; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber cloth (CFC) supported Ni and Co electrodes are prepared by electrodeposition (Ni/CFC and Co/CFC). Their catalytic performance for H2O2 electrooxidation in KOH solution is investigated and compared with Au/CFC electrode. Ni/CFC electrode exhibits higher catalytic activity than Au/CFC and Co/CFC electrodes. The performance of a direct peroxide-peroxide fuel cell (DPPFC) with Ni/CFC anode and Pd/CFC cathode is examined. The cell shows a peak power density of 21.6 mW cm-2 at 20 °C and 53.8 mW cm-2 at 50 °C. The cell performance is improved with the increase of anolyte and catholyte flow rate and operation temperature. Results indicates that the performance of DPPFC with low-cost Ni/CFC anodes is comparable with those using precious metal anodes, e.g., Au/CFC and Pd/CFC.

  3. Treatment of carbon fiber brush anodes for improving power generation in air–cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Yujie

    2010-04-02

    Carbon brush electrodes have been used to provide high surface areas for bacterial growth and high power densities in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A high-temperature ammonia gas treatment has been used to enhance power generation, but less energy-intensive methods are needed for treating these electrodes in practice. Three different treatment methods are examined here for enhancing power generation of carbon fiber brushes: acid soaking (CF-A), heating (CF-H), and a combination of both processes (CF-AH). The combined heat and acid treatment improve power production to 1370 mW m-2, which is 34% larger than the untreated control (CF-C, 1020 mW m-2). This power density is 25% higher than using only acid treatment (1100 mW m-2) and 7% higher than that using only heat treatment (1280 mW m-2). XPS analysis of the treated and untreated anode materials indicates that power increases are related to higher N1s/C1s ratios and a lower C-O composition. These findings demonstrate efficient and simple methods for improving power generation using graphite fiber brushes, and provide insight into reasons for improving performance that may help to further increase power through other graphite fiber modifications. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Durability of Electrocatalyst Based on Coating of Carbon Black with Polybenzimidazole and their Application in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Hirata, Shinsuke; Berber, Mohamed R; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-06-15

    Improvement of durability of the electrocatalyst has been the key issue to be solved for the practical application of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. One of the promising strategies to improve the durability is to enhance the oxidation stability of the carbon-supporting materials. In this report, we describe in detail the mechanism of the stability improvement of carbon blacks (CBs; Vulcan and Ketjen) by coating with polybenzimidazole (PBI). Nitrogen adsorption experiments reveal that the PBI coating of CBs results in the capping of the gates of the CB-micropores by the PBI. Since the surface of the micropores inside the CBs are inherently highly oxidized, the capping of such pores effectively prevents the penetration of the electrolyte into the pore and works to avoid the further oxidation of interior of the micropore, which is proved by cyclic voltammogram measurements. Above mechanism agrees very well with the dramatic enhancement of the durability of the membrane electrode assembly fabricated using Pt on the PBI-coated CBs as an electrocatalyst compared to the conventional Pt/CB (PBI-non coated) catalyst. PMID:27227977

  5. Recent Advances in Carbon Supported Metal Nanoparticles Preparation for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaovi Holade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is the oldest studied and most challenging of the electrochemical reactions. Due to its sluggish kinetics, ORR became the major contemporary technological hurdle for electrochemists, as it hampers the commercialization of fuel cell (FC technologies. Downsizing the metal particles to nanoscale introduces unexpected fundamental modifications compared to the corresponding bulk state. To address these fundamental issues, various synthetic routes have been developed in order to provide more versatile carbon-supported low platinum catalysts. Consequently, the approach of using nanocatalysts may overcome the drawbacks encountered in massive materials for energy conversion. This review paper aims at summarizing the recent important advances in carbon-supported metal nanoparticles preparation from colloidal methods (microemulsion, polyol, impregnation, Bromide Anion Exchange… as cathode material in low temperature FCs. Special attention is devoted to the correlation of the structure of the nanoparticles and their catalytic properties. The influence of the synthesis method on the electrochemical properties of the resulting catalysts is also discussed. Emphasis on analyzing data from theoretical models to address the intrinsic and specific electrocatalytic properties, depending on the synthetic method, is incorporated throughout. The synthesis process-nanomaterials structure-catalytic activity relationships highlighted herein, provide ample new rational, convenient and straightforward strategies and guidelines toward more effective nanomaterials design for energy conversion.

  6. Long-Term Performance of Chemically and Physically Modified Activated Carbons in Air Cathodes of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-31

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Activated carbon (AC) is a low-cost and effective catalyst for oxygen reduction in air cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but its performance must be maintained over time. AC was modified by three methods: 1)pyrolysis with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (AC-Fe), 2)heat treatment (AC-heat), and 3)mixing with carbon black (AC-CB). The maximum power densities after one month with these AC cathodes were 35% higher with AC-Fe (1410±50mW m-2) and AC-heat (1400±20mW m-2), and 16% higher with AC-CB (1210±30mW m-2) than for plain AC (1040±20mW m-2), versus 1270±50mW m-2 for a Pt control. After 16months, the Pt cathodes produced only 250±10mW m-2. However, the AC-heat and AC-CB cathodes still produced 960-970mW m-2, whereas plain AC produced 860±60mW m-2. The performance of the AC cathodes was restored to >85% of the initial maximum power densities by cleaning with a weak acid solution. Based on cost considerations among the AC materials, AC-CB appears to be the best choice for long-term performance.

  7. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-06-03

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m-2) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m-2, Eonset = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Potential Materials for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Sri Harsha

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is the cost of the catalyst material in manufacturing the fuel cell. In the present study, the major focus in PEMFCs has been in reduction of the cost of the catalyst material using graphene, thin film coated and Organometallic Molecular catalysts. The present research is focused on improving the durability and active surface area of the catalyst materials with low platinum loading using nanomaterials to reduce the effective cost of the fuel cells. Performance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, oxygen reduction and surface morphology studies were performed on each manufactured material. Alkaline fuel cells with anion exchange membrane get immense attention due to very attractive opportunity of using non-noble metal catalyst materials. In the present study, cathodes with various organometallic cathode materials were prepared and investigated for alkaline membrane fuel cells for oxygen reduction and performance studies. Co and Fe Phthalocyanine catalyst materials were deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) support materials. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated using Tokuyama Membrane (#A901) with cathodes containing Co and Fe Phthalocyanine/MWCNTs and Pt/C anodes. Fuel cell performance of the MEAs was examined.

  9. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  10. In situ functionalisation of mesoporous carbon electrodes with carbon nanotubes for proton exchange membrane fuel-cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work presented here, an attempt is made to study the effect of different carbon supports on the mesostructural properties as well as electrochemical behaviour of Pt/carbon supports. In this respect, the functionalised samples have been synthesised by using CMK-3, nickelocene as nickel source and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for growth of carbon nanotubes. The platinum catalysts (Pt 20 wt.%) were obtained through a conventional wet impregnation method. All the materials have been characterised by XRD (small- and high-) angle, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the mesostructural structure had been partially destroyed by functionalisation of CMK-3 with NiO and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Moreover, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) studies revealed the formation of smaller platinum crystallite sizes compared to Vulcan-supported samples. Furthermore, electrochemical evaluation indicates that CMK-3–CNT–20Pt gives a specific surface area of 58.9 m2 g−1. Finally, the polarisation curves for the fabricated membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with Pt loading of 0.5 mg cm−2 demonstrated that the CMK-3–CNT–20Pt catalyst shows better performance than industrial catalysts and even Vulcan–40% Pt. - Highlights: • In situ functionalisation of ordered mesoporous carbon with carbon nanotubes. • Novel electrocatalytic activity of functionalised mesostructured carbon. • Simultaneous effect of surface area and reactivity on electrocatalytic activity

  11. Activity and stability studies of platinized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as fuel cell electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish;

    2015-01-01

    A non-covalent functionalization for multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been used as an alternative to the damaging acid treatment. Platinum nanoparticles with similar particle size distribution have been deposited on the surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The interaction between...

  12. Study of combined heat, hydrogen and power system based on a molten carbonate fuel cell fed by biogas produced by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Treated biogas can be used to generate CHHP using a Molten carbonate fuel cell. • Anaerobic digestion system will be able to supply fuel for the DFC1500™ unit. • Use locally available feedstock to production electric power, hydrogen and heat. • Application energy end-uses on the university. • CHHP system will reduce energy consumption, fossil fuel usage, and GHG emissions. - Abstract: To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the fuel cell system at peak capacity. Following the resource assessment study, the team selects FuelCell Energy DFC1500TM unit as a MCFC. The CHHP system provides electricity to power the university campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, back-up power and other needs. In conclusion, the CHHP system will be able to reduce fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus

  13. Proceedings of the fuel cells `95 review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.

  14. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  15. Fuel Cell Applied Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Richardson

    2006-09-15

    Since November 12, 2003, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology has been operating a 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell to provide electrical and thermal energy to its campus. The project was made possible by funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a partnership with the provincial Alberta Energy Research Institute; a private-public partnership, Climate Change Central; the federal Ministry of Western Economic Development; and local natural gas supplier, ATCO Gas. Operation of the fuel cell has contributed to reducing NAIT's carbon dioxide emissions through its efficient use of natural gas.

  16. Electrochemical properties of Atomic layer deposition processed CeO2 as a protective layer for the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano-structured CeO2-coated Ni by Atomic Layer Deposition, crystalline as-deposited. • Progressive transformation into a complex surface stable in molten carbonates. • Lower Ni solubility with CeO2 protective coating. • Feasibility of CeO2 coating in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell cathode conditions. - Abstract: In order to increase the lifetime and performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell, it is compulsory to control the corrosion and dissolution of the state of the art porous nickel oxide cathode. A protective coating constituted by more stable oxides appears to be the best approach. Previous research on CeO2 coatings obtained by DC reactive magnetron sputtering to protect the Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode gave promising results but it was necessary to improve the coating adhesion. In this paper Atomic Layer Deposition, producing high quality, homogeneous and conformal layers, was used to obtain thin layers of CeO2 (20 nm and 120 nm) deposited over porous nickel. CeO2-Ni coated samples were tested as cathodes in Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62-38 mol %) eutectic mixture under standard cathode atmosphere (CO2/air 30:70 vol. %). Structural and morphological characterizations of the nickel coated cathode before and after electrochemical tests in the molten carbonate melt are reported together with the Open Circuit Potential evolution all over 230 h for both the bare porous nickel and the CeO2-coated samples

  17. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  18. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  19. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  20. Numerical simulations of carbon monoxide poisoning in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells with various flow channel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simulations of CO poisoning in HT-PEMFC with different flow channels are conducted. ► Parallel and serpentine designs result in least and most CO effects, respectively. ► General CO distributions in CLs are similar with different flow channel designs. - Abstract: The performance of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) is significantly affected by the carbon monoxide (CO) in hydrogen fuel, and the flow channel design may influence the CO poisoning characteristics by changing the reactant flow. In this study, three-dimensional non-isothermal simulations are carried out to investigate the comprehensive flow channel design and CO poisoning effects on the performance of HT-PEMFCs. The numerical results show that when pure hydrogen is supplied, the interdigitated design produces the highest power output, the power output with serpentine design is higher than the two parallel designs, and the parallel-Z and parallel-U designs have similar power outputs. The performance degradation caused by CO poisoning is the least significant with parallel flow channel design, but the most significant with serpentine and interdigitated designs because the cross flow through the electrode is stronger. At low cell voltages (high current densities), the highest power outputs are with interdigitated and parallel flow channel designs at low and high CO fractions in the supplied hydrogen, respectively. The general distributions of absorbed hydrogen and CO coverage fractions in anode catalyst layer (CL) are similar for the different flow channel designs. The hydrogen coverage fraction is higher under the channel than under the land, and is also higher on the gas diffusion layer (GDL) side than on the membrane side; and the CO coverage distribution is opposite to the hydrogen coverage distribution

  1. Optimal design and operation of a biogas fuelled MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cells) system integrated with an anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a biogas fuelled hybrid system, obtained by integrating a molten carbonate fuel cell with a micro-turbine is considered. The size of the plant is selected on the basis of the maximum biogas production registered by monitoring the annual operation of an anaerobic digestion plant. The system produces electricity and supplies heat to the digester. Heat is necessary to keep correct operating temperature of the bacteria. A model of the system components is built and the plant optimization is performed. Design parameters are the fuel cell temperature, pressure ratio, inlet turbine temperature, reforming temperature, recirculation percentage, size of the two subsystems. Two competing objective functions are considered: the energy efficiency and the unit cost of electricity. The Pareto front shows that efficiencies close to 50% are obtained, with unit costs comparable with market prices of electricity. The off-design conditions caused by variations in biogas production and thermal request of the digester are also considered. Experimental data from the digester are used to investigate these variations. The optimal operation is selected depending on the daily heat request and biogas production. Possible economic and energy benefits that can be achieved by adding natural gas are also investigated. -- Highlights: ► Multi-objective design of a biogas fuelled MCFC hybrid system. ► Integration of the system with anaerobic digester. ► Experimental analysis of the digester operation. ► Analysis of the optimal system operation during a typical week. ► Evaluation of the effects produced with natural gas addition.

  2. Review of UK fuel cell. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The advancement of fuel cell technology in recent years has made commercial viability a reality in many disciplines in the UK. The Carbon Trust and the Department of Trade and Industry have jointly undertaken a study to facilitate and encourage the penetration of fuel cells into the commercial market both at home and overseas. This document summarises the findings of the study and concludes that stationary fuel cells have the greatest potential for market stimulation.

  3. In situ functionalisation of mesoporous carbon electrodes with carbon nanotubes for proton exchange membrane fuel-cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiee, Leila, E-mail: Leila.samiee83@gmail.com; Shoghi, Fatemeh; Maghsodi, Akram

    2014-02-14

    In the work presented here, an attempt is made to study the effect of different carbon supports on the mesostructural properties as well as electrochemical behaviour of Pt/carbon supports. In this respect, the functionalised samples have been synthesised by using CMK-3, nickelocene as nickel source and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for growth of carbon nanotubes. The platinum catalysts (Pt 20 wt.%) were obtained through a conventional wet impregnation method. All the materials have been characterised by XRD (small- and high-) angle, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the mesostructural structure had been partially destroyed by functionalisation of CMK-3 with NiO and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Moreover, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) studies revealed the formation of smaller platinum crystallite sizes compared to Vulcan-supported samples. Furthermore, electrochemical evaluation indicates that CMK-3–CNT–20Pt gives a specific surface area of 58.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Finally, the polarisation curves for the fabricated membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with Pt loading of 0.5 mg cm{sup −2} demonstrated that the CMK-3–CNT–20Pt catalyst shows better performance than industrial catalysts and even Vulcan–40% Pt. - Highlights: • In situ functionalisation of ordered mesoporous carbon with carbon nanotubes. • Novel electrocatalytic activity of functionalised mesostructured carbon. • Simultaneous effect of surface area and reactivity on electrocatalytic activity.

  4. Fuel cells : emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets

  5. Polarization losses under dynamic load cycle using multiwall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst in PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Yuyun; Indriyati, Chaldun, Elsy Rahimi; Devianto, Hary

    2016-02-01

    Durability is one of the most important issues that are still being a hindrance for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In this study, the degradation of PEMFC using multiwall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst (Pt/CNT) was investigated under dynamic load cycle procedure. The degradation was characterized by current density-voltage curves, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra. The load-cycle procedure was carried out for 50 cycles, where one cycle consisted of three steps (OCV-load current-constant voltage). An analysis of cell overpotentials indicated that the predominant source of performance degradation was due to ohmic losses, especially significant increase in the area specific resistance (Ra). After 50 cycles, Ra was calculated three times higher than that before durability test, from 0.67 to 1.74 Ωcm2. Based on the results from SEM images and FTIR spectra, there was no evidence of membrane degradation or thinning. Noticeable degradation was only observed from the increase in the interface gap between membrane, catalyst layer, and gas diffusion layer.

  6. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  7. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  8. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  9. Pt-Ru electrocatalysts supported on ordered mesoporous carbon for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, J.R.C.; Pastor, E. [Dpto de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de la Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38071 - La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Alcaide, F.; Alvarez, G. [Dpto de Energia, CIDETEC, P Miramon, 196, 20009 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Calvillo, L.; Lazaro, M.J. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Pt-Ru electrocatalysts supported on ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) were prepared by the formic acid method. Catalysts were characterized applying energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation was studied electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry, and current-time curves were recorded in a methanol solution in order to establish the activity towards this reaction under potentiostatic conditions. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the Pt-Ru catalysts supported on CMK-3 carbon were compared with those of electrocatalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72 and commercial catalyst from E-TEK. Additionally, in order to complete this study, Pt electrocatalysts supported on CMK-3 and Vulcan XC-72 were prepared by the same method and were used as reference. Results showed that the Pt-Ru/CMK-3 catalyst presented the best electrocatalytic activity towards the CO oxidation and, therefore, good perspectives to its application in DMFC anodes. On the other hand, the activity of the Pt-Ru/CMK-3 catalyst towards methanol oxidation was higher than that of the commercial Pt-Ru/C (E-TEK) catalyst on all examined potentials, confirming the potential of the bimetallic catalysts supported on mesoporous carbons. (author)

  10. Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W. B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S. J.

    Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured so that the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45-53 percent (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

  11. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; McCatty, Stephen A.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  12. Lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofiber mats with supercritically deposited Ag nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber mats were prepared from a natural product of lignin. • The freestanding mats were flexible with BET specific surface area of ∼583 m2/g. • The mats were surface-deposited with Ag nanoparticles via the scCO2 method. • Novel electrocatalytic systems of Ag/ECNFs exhibited high activities towards ORR. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) (11, 15, and 25 wt.%) were deposited on the surface of the freestanding and mechanically flexible mats consisting of lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) by the supercritical CO2 method followed by the thermal treated at 180 °C. The electrochemical activity of Ag/ECNFs electrocatalyst systems towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution using the rotating disk/rotating ring disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) technique. The SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated that, the spherical AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the ECNF surface with sizes in the range of 2-10 nm. The electrocatalytic results revealed that, all of the Ag/ECNFs systems exhibited high activity in ORR and demonstrated close-to-theoretical four-electron pathway. In particular, the mass activity of 15 wt.% Ag/ECNFs system was the highest (119 mA mg−1), exceeding that of HiSPEC 4100™ commercial Pt/C catalyst (98 mA mg−1). This study suggested that the lignin-derived ECNF mats surface-deposited with AgNPs would be promising as cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline fuel cells

  13. Photothermally induced bromination of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Martin; Franzka, Steffen; Cappuccio, Franco; Peinecke, Volker; Heinzel, Angelika; Hartmann, Nils

    2015-05-01

    A facile photothermal procedure for direct functionalization of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials is demonstrated. Through irradiation with a microfocused beam of an Ar+-laser at λ = 514 nm in gaseous bromine and distinct laser powers and pulse lengths local bromination of the carbon/polymer material takes place. At a 1/e spot diameter of 2.1 μm, functionalized surface areas with diameters down to 5 μm are fabricated. In complementary experiments large-area bromination is investigated using an ordinary tungsten lamp. For characterization contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in conjunction with labeling techniques are employed. After irradiation bromine groups can easily be substituted by other chemical functionalities, e.g. azide and amine groups. This provides a facile approach in order to fabricate surface patterns and gradient structures with varying wetting characteristics. Mechanistic aspects and prospects of photothermal routines in micropatterning of carbon/polymer materials are discussed.

  14. Graphite coated with manganese oxide/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites as anodes in marine benthic microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yubin, E-mail: ffyybb@ouc.edu.cn; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Yelong; Meng, Yao

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/MWCNTs composites anode exhibits faster reaction kinetics. • The surfaces of MnO{sub 2}/MWCNTs composites anode exhibits better wettability. • A BMFC using the modified anode have excellent power output. - Abstract: Improving anode performance is of great significance to scale up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) for its marine application to drive oceanography instruments. In this study, manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2})/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are prepared to be as novel anodes in the BMFCs via a direct redox reaction between permanganate ions (MnO{sub 4}{sup −}) and MWCNTs. The results indicate that the MnO{sub 2}/MWCNTs anode has a better wettability, greater kinetic activity and higher power density than that of the plain graphite (PG) anode. It is noted that the MnO{sub 2} (50% weight percent)/MWCNTs anode shows the highest electrochemical performance among them and will be a promising material for improving bioelectricity production of the BMFCs. Finally, a synergistic mechanism of electron transfer shuttle of Mn ions and their redox reactions in the interface between modified anode and bacteria biofilm are proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance.

  15. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  16. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  17. Alumina-carbon nanofibers nanocomposites obtained by spark plasma sintering for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, A.; Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Oviedo, Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain); Rocha, V.G.; Fernandez, A. [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    There is an increasing demand of multifunctional materials for a wide variety of technological developments. Bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells are an example of complex functionality components that must show among other properties high mechanical strength, electrical, and thermal conductivity. The present research explored the possibility of using alumina-carbon nanofibers (CNFs) nanocomposites for this purpose. In this study, it was studied for the first time the whole range of powder compositions in this system. Homogeneous powders mixtures were prepared and subsequently sintered by spark plasma sintering. The materials obtained were thoroughly characterized and compared in terms of properties required to be used as bipolar plates. The control on material microstructure and composition allows designing materials where mechanical or electrical performances are enhanced. A 50/50 vol.% alumina-CNFs composite appears to be a very promising material for this kind of application. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2011-12-15

    Decolorization of dye wastewater before discharge is pivotal because of its immense color and toxicities. In this study, a granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell (GACB-MFC) was used without using any expensive materials like Nafion membrane and platinum catalyst for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and bioelectricity generation. After 48 hours of GACB-MFC operation, 73% color was removed at anode and 77% color was removed at cathode. COD removal was 71% at the anode and 76% at the cathode after 48 hours. Toxicity measurements showed that cathode effluent was almost nontoxic after 24 hours. The anode effluent was threefold less toxic compared to original dye wastewater after 48 hours. The GACB-MFC produced a power density of 1.7 W/m(3) with an open circuit voltage 0.45 V. One of the advantages of the GACB-MFC system is that pH was automatically adjusted from 12.4 to 7.2 and 8.0 at the anode and cathode during 48 hours operation. PMID:21718812

  19. Load cycle durability of a graphitized carbon black-supported platinum catalyst in polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Chikara; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Kawashima, Kazuhito; Tashiro, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    We focus on Pt degradation occurring during fuel cell vehicle (FCV) combined drive cycles involving load and open circuit voltage (OCV) just after startup and during idling. Load cycle durability is evaluated as a function of OCV/load holding time, load rate and relative humidity (RH) with a graphitized carbon black-supported platinum catalyst (Pt/GCB) in the cathode. The degradation of Pt/GCB is suppressed for shorter OCV holding times, lower load rates and lower RH. Scanning ion microscopy (SIM) images of membrane cross-sections indicate that the amount of Pt deposited in the membrane decreases during drive cycles involving load with short OCV holding times. Investigations of the Pt distribution in the cathode catalyst layer (CL) by using scanning TEM-EDX show that the dissolution of Pt is suppressed on the membrane side in the CL. The Pt dissolution is accelerated by the high Pt oxidation due to the long OCV holding time. A load cycle with both long OCV holding time and low load inhibits the Pt2+ migration into the membrane but accelerates the Pt particle growth due to electrochemical Ostwald ripening; meanwhile, a load cycle with long OCV holding time at lower RH prevents both the Pt dissolution and particle growth.

  20. Effect of the porous carbon layer in the cathode gas diffusion media on direct methanol fuel cell performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun-Young [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea); Kim, Hee-Tak; Son, In-Hyuk; Han, Sangil [Energy Lab, Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Co., LTD, 575, Shin-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-391 (Korea); Lee, Eun Sook [Energy Research Center, Jinwoo Engineering, Co., LTD., 143-2, Gwelang-Ri, Jungnam-Myun, Hwasung-City, Kyunggi-Do 445-963 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    The effect of cathode gas diffusion media with microporous layers (MPLs) on direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performances is studied by combining electrochemical analysis and physicochemical investigation. The membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) using MPL-modified cathode gas diffusion layers (GDLs, GDL-1) showed slightly better performances (117 mW cm{sup -2}) at 0.4 V and 70 C than commercial GDL (SIGRACET {sup registered} product version: GDL-35BC, SGL Co.) DMFC MEAs (110 mW cm{sup -2}). This might be due to high gas permeability, uniform pore distributions, and low water transport coefficient including methanol crossover. For GDL-1, the air permeability was 31.0 cm{sup 3} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, while the one for SGL 35BC GDLs was 21.7 cm{sup 3} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Also, the GDL-1 in the pore-size distribution diagrams had distinct peaks due to more uniform distributions of macropores and micropores with smaller holes between aggregates of carbon particles compared to GDL-35 BC as confirmed by SEM images. Furthermore, the MEA using GDL-1 for the cathode had a lower water transfer coefficient compared to an MEA with a commercial 35 BC GDL. (author)

  1. Functionalized carbon nanotube-poly(arylene sulfone) composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cells with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Pak, Chanho; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Yoon Hoi; Chang, Hyuk; Seung, Doyoung; Choi, Yeong Suk; Park, Jong-Bong; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    A new type of composite membrane, consisting of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and sulfonated poly(arylene sulfone) (sPAS), is prepared for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The CNTs modified with sulfonic acid or PtRu nanopaticles are dispersed within the sPAS matrix by a solution casting method to afford SO 3CNT-sPAS or PtRu/CNT-sPAS composite membranes, respectively. Characterization of the composite membranes reveals that the functionalized CNTs are homogeneously distributed within the sPAS matrix and the composite membranes contain smaller ion clusters than the neat sPAS. The composite membranes exhibit enhanced mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength, strain and toughness, which leads to improvements in ion conductivity and methanol permeability compared with the neat sPAS membrane. In DMFC performance tests, the use of a PtRu/CNT-sPAS membrane yields high power density compared with the neat sPAS membrane, which demonstrates that the improved properties of the composite membranes induce an increase in power density. The strategy for CNT-sPAS composite membranes presented in this work can potentially be extended to other CNT-polymer composite systems.

  2. Binder-free graphene and manganese oxide coated carbon felt anode for high-performance microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyong; Liang, Peng; Yang, Xufei; Jiang, Yong; Bian, Yanhong; Chen, Chengmeng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-15

    A novel anode was developed by coating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and manganese oxide (MnO2) composite on the carbon felt (CF) surface. With a large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity, this binder-free anode was found to effectively enhance the enrichment and growth of electrochemically active bacteria and facilitate the extracellular electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with the rGO/MnO2/CF anode delivered a maximum power density of 2065mWm(-2), 154% higher than that with a bare CF anode. The internal resistance of the MFC with this novel anode was 79Ω, 66% lower than the regular one's (234Ω). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses affirmed that the rGO/MnO2 composite significantly increased the anodic reaction rates and facilitated the electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. The findings from this study suggest that the rGO/MnO2/CF anode, fabricated via a simple dip-coating and electro-deposition process, could be a promising anode material for high-performance MFC applications. PMID:26918615

  3. Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air–Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-08-28

    Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m2, which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m 2) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m2). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Long-term performance of activated carbon air cathodes with different diffusion layer porosities in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes are inexpensive and useful alternatives to Pt-catalyzed electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but information is needed on their long-term stability for oxygen reduction. AC cathodes were constructed with diffusion layers (DLs) with two different porosities (30% and 70%) to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen transfer on power. The 70% DL cathode initially produced a maximum power density of 1214±123mW/m 2 (cathode projected surface area; 35±4W/m 3 based on liquid volume), but it decreased by 40% after 1 year to 734±18mW/m 2. The 30% DL cathode initially produced less power than the 70% DL cathode, but it only decreased by 22% after 1 year (from 1014±2mW/m 2 to 789±68mW/m 2). Electrochemical tests were used to examine the reasons for the degraded performance. Diffusion resistance in the cathode was found to be the primary component of the internal resistance, and it increased over time. Replacing the cathode after 1 year completely restored the original power densities. These results suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ~750mW/m 2 after 1 year. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, Kevin C; Farmer, Joseph C

    2015-04-28

    A method, according to one embodiment, includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode.

  6. Anticorrosion Coating of Carbon Nanotube/Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Film on the Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Show; Toshimitsu Nakashima; Yuta Fukami

    2013-01-01

    Composite film of carbon nanotube (CNT) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was formed from dispersion fluids of CNT and PTFE. The composite film showed high electrical conductivity in the range of 0.1–13 S/cm and hydrophobic nature. This composite film was applied to stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as anticorrosion film. This coating decreased the contact resistance between the surface of the bipolar plate and the membrane electrode assemb...

  7. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide;

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance of...

  8. European Fuel Cells R&D Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. D.; Maguire, J.

    1994-09-01

    A review is presented on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells, and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission's activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  9. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim Z

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  10. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  11. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  12. Fuel cell cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  13. Pyrolytic carbon-caoted nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved nuclear fuel kernel having at least one pyrolytic carbon coating and a silicon carbon layer is provided in which extensive interaction of fission product lanthanides with the silicon carbon layer is avoided by providing sufficient UO2 to maintain the lanthanides as oxides during in-reactor use of said fuel

  14. Planar polyphthalocyanine cobalt absorbed on carbon black as stable electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guofeng; Li, Zhongfang; Wang, Suwen; Yu, Xianjin [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, 12 Zhangzhou Road, Zibo 255049, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-08-01

    In this work, a novel catalyst is prepared by dispersing planar polyphthalocyanine cobalt (PPcCo) synthesized by polymerizing cobalt (II)-4, 4',4'',4'''-phthalocyanine tetracarboxylic acid (TcPcCo) using a high surface area carbon powder (Vulcan XC 72), and then heat-treated in argon (Ar) atmosphere. The polymer and PPcCo/C catalysts are characterized systematically by a variety of methods, such as ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results show that the PPcCo obtained is stable below 600 C. The active site of PPcCo/C is CoN{sub 4} in phthalocyanine ring, and the PPcCo is dispersed homogeneously on the surface of XC 72. Electrocatalytic properties and electrochemical stability of the catalysts in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} are evaluated by RDE measurements. The initial potential for O{sub 2} reduction in O{sub 2}-saturated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is 0.81 V and it catalyzed O{sub 2} reduction mainly through a four-electron process. Almost no performance degradation is observed over continuous cyclic voltammetry (CV) at 10,000 cycles (4 days). Polarization curves obtained by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) at 200 cycles also show no change. PPcCo/C catalysts display significant electrocatalytic performance for O{sub 2} reduction, tolerance towards methanol, and long-term stability. (author)

  15. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  16. Fuel cells; Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, K. Andreas [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2012-07-01

    In Germany, the fuel cell technology is characterized by projects and demonstration activities within the National Innovation Programme. Above all, the field tests for fuel cell vehicles under the Clean Energy Partnership, and the field tests for domestic power systems within the project Callux stand out in public. The subsidized market launch of home energy systems in Japan received a great encouragement. Technologically further progresses in the field of reliability and durability were achieved. This is confirmed by the successful and highly publicized trip of three B-Class F-Cell vehicles around the world. In the next few years, the hydrogen infrastructure increasingly becomes important.

  17. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrang, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  18. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, R. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Nickols, R. C.; Katz, M.; Iczkowski, R. P.; Fredley, R. R.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Smith, S. W.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During the first quarter, effort was initiated in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task-4 developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study task, a study baseline fuel cell system and module configuration were established. Studies to determine user requirements and to characterize the fuel cell power block and coal gasifier subsystems were initiated. Cell stack design was initiated with completion of preliminary design requirements for the cell cathodes. Laboratory tests were also initiated to identify alternative materials for separator plates, reactant manifold seals, and electrolyte tile fillers. A mechanical tape casting technique for producing 18 x 24 inch sheets of electrolyte matrix tape was successfully demonstrated in Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical and experimental studies were initiated to define the effects of known sulfur contaminants on cell performance. A literature survey was initiated to identify other possible contaminants. Planning and design efforts for construction of a mobile cell test unit were initiated. The mobile unit will be used to verify the molten carbonate cell's ability to operate on gasified coal by tests at a gasifier site.

  19. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  20. Organic fuel cell methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A liquid organic, fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  1. Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-07-28

    Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances

  2. Scientific Assessment in support of the Materials Roadmap enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerri, I.; Lefebvre-Joud, F.; Holtappels, Peter;

    A group of experts from European research organisations and industry have assessed the state of the art and future needs for materials' R&D for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The work was performed as input to the European Commission's roadmapping exercise on materials for the European...

  3. Proceedings of the fourth annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of the program was to develop the essential technology for private sector commercialization of various fuel cell electrical generation systems, which promise high fuel efficiencies (40--60%), possibilities for cogeneration, modularity, possible urban siting, and low emissions. Purpose of this meeting was to provide the R and D participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with a forum. With the near commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells, major emphasis was on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. 22 papers were given in 3 formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells; solid oxide fuel cells; and systems and phosphoric acid. In addition, the proceedings also include a welcome to METC address and comments on the Fuel Cells program from the viewpoint of EPRI and DOE's vehicular fuel cell program. Separate abstracts have been prepared

  4. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  5. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, Marvin

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  7. Multiscale porous fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao

    Porous electrodes are widely used in fuel cells to enhance electrode performance due to their high surface area. Increasingly, such electrodes are designed with both micro-scale and nano-scale features. In the current work, carbon based porous materials have been synthesized and utilized as bioelectrode support for biofuel cells, analysis of such porous electrodes via rotating disk electrode has been enhanced by a numerical model that considers diffusion and convection within porous media. Finally, porous perovskite metal oxide cathodes for solid oxide fuel cell have been modeled to simulate impedance response data obtained from symmetric cells. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) were fabricated to mimic the microenvironment of carbon fiber paper based porous electrodes. They were also miniature electrodes for small-scale applications. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed a homogeneously intertwined matrix. Biocatalysts can fully infiltrate this matrix to form a composite, with a significantly enhanced glucose oxidation current---that is 6.4 fold higher than the bare carbon fiber electrodes. Based on the CNT based porous matrix, polystyrene beads of uniform diameter at 500 nm were used as template to tune the porous structure and enhance biomolecule transport. Focused ion beam (FIB) was used to observe the morphology both at the surface and the cross-section. It has been shown that the template macro-pores enhanced the fuel transport and the current density has been doubled due to the improvement. Like commonly used rotating disk electrode, the porous rotating disk electrode is a system with analytically solved flow field. Although models were proposed previously with first order kinetics and convection as the only mass transport at high rotations, some recent findings indicated that diffusion could play an important role at all disk rotation rates. In the current proposed model, enzymatic kinetics that follow a Ping

  8. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  9. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  10. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes. With the...... thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  11. Anticorrosion Coating of Carbon Nanotube/Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Film on the Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite film of carbon nanotube (CNT and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was formed from dispersion fluids of CNT and PTFE. The composite film showed high electrical conductivity in the range of 0.1–13 S/cm and hydrophobic nature. This composite film was applied to stainless steel (SS bipolar plates of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC as anticorrosion film. This coating decreased the contact resistance between the surface of the bipolar plate and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA of the PEMFC. The output power of the fuel cell is increased by 1.6 times because the decrease in the contact resistance decreases the series resistance of the PEMFC. Moreover, the coating of this composite film protects the bipolar plate from the surface corrosion.

  12. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Applicability of analytical protocols for the characterisation of carbon-supported platinum group metal fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Linkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticulate size of fuel cell electrocatalysts raises significant challenges in the analytical techniques used in their structural and electrochemical characterisation. For this reason, the applicability of analytical protocols in the qualitative and quantitative characterisation of nanophase fuel cell electrocatalysts was investigated. A set of structural and chemical properties influencing the performance of the electrocatalysts was identified. A large range of analytical tools was employed in characterising the electrocatalysts of interest. High accuracy and precision in the quantitative and qualitative structural and electrochemical characterisation of Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C nanophase electrocatalysts was demonstrated. Certain techniques were deemed to be highly applicable in discriminating between high- and low-performance electrocatalysts based on their structural and electrochemical properties. The goal of this effort is to contribute to the development of South Africa’s capabilities in the emerging hydrogen economy.

  15. Fuel cell generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber

  16. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  17. High-capacity carbon-coated titanium dioxide core-shell nanoparticles modified three dimensional anodes for improved energy output in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Ting; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) electrodes have been intensively investigated as alternatives to conventional plate electrodes in the development of high-performance microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the energy output of the MFCs with the 3D anodes is still limited for practical applications. In this study, a 3D anode modified with a nano-structured capacitive layer is prepared to improve the performance of an microbial fuel cell (MFC). The capacitive layer composes of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and egg white protein (EWP)-derived carbon assembled core-shell nanoparticles, which are integrated into loofah sponge carbon (LSC) to obtain a high-capacitive 3D electrode. The as-prepared 3D anode produces a power density of 2.59 ± 0.12 W m-2, which is 63% and 201% higher than that of the original LSC and graphite anodes, respectively. The increased energy output is contributed to the enhanced electrochemical capacitance of the 3D anodes as well as the synergetic effects between TiO2 and EWP-derived carbon due to their unique properties, such as relatively high surface area, good biocompatibility, and favorable surface functionalization for interfacial microbial electron transfer. The results obtained in this study will benefit the optimized design of new 3D materials to achieve enhanced performance in MFCs.

  18. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical performance and carbon anti-coking ability of solid oxide fuel cells with silver modified nickel-yttrium stabilized zirconia anode by electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Kong, Xiaowei; Wang, Jinghui; Sun, Kening; Zhou, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, silver (Ag) particles are introduced into the conventional Ni/YSZ anode by utilizing electroless plating method to improve its carbon anti-coking ability in hydrocarbons. The experimental results show that electrochemical performances of the decorated cells in H2, CH4 and C2H6 are all increased as compared to the cell with unmodified Ni/YSZ anode, which are verified by impedance spectrums as well. The durability experiment is carried out for as long as 24 h at the current density of 0.33 A/cm2 where the modified anode is subjected to dry C2H6 indicating the anti-coking ability of the anode is greatly improved. Scanning electron microscope shows that the slight decreasing in the cell terminal voltage can be attributed to the minimized carbon deposition which maybe resulted from the aggregation of silver particles at high temperature. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scanning results after long-term stability operation of the anode suggest that the carbon deposition can be depressed effectively both inside the anode and on the surface of the anode. Therefore, the results show that silver is a promising candidate material for modifying the Ni/YSZ anode with regard to improving electrochemical performance and suppressing the carbon deposition when taking the hydrocarbons as fuels.

  20. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  1. Prospect of carbon-based solid oxide fuel cells%碳基燃料固体氧化物燃料电池发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏芳; 彭苏萍

    2013-01-01

      以煤炭、石油、天然气为代表的化石燃料是中国乃至世界的主要能源资源,其平均发电效率低(30%左右),环境危害大,迫切需要改进.燃料电池是一种高效发电装置,将燃料的化学能直接转换为电能.在各种燃料电池中,固体氧化物燃料电池(SOFC)可以直接使用各种含碳燃料,很容易与现有能源资源供应系统兼容,一次发电效率高(50%~60%);SOFC采用全固态结构,长期稳定性好;不使用贵金属催化剂,成本低廉.SOFC尤其适用于分布式发电系统和动力电源系统.基于我国能源结构的现状和稀土资源优势,很有必要发展碳基燃料SOFC.在SOFC从示范运行逐步走向产业化应用的过程中,迫切需要进一步提高其长期稳定性并降低成本,所以今后的研究重点是碳基燃料SOFC关键材料和系统集成创新,解决其中的材料设计和制备、碳基燃料反应特性、电池构造、理论模拟、系统集成与运行过程中的基础科学和技术问题,为高效率、低成本、稳定可靠的碳基燃料SOFC系统产业化奠定基础.%Fossil fuel such as coal,oil and nature gas is the main energy resource in China even in the world. It has low power generation efficiency (approximately 30 %) and a great environmental impact,which needs to be improved. The fuel cell which could turn chemical energy directly into electrical energy is a kind of high efficiency power generation device (50 %~60 %). In all kinds of fuel cells,solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) could use many kinds of carbon-based fuels which could be easily compatible with the existed energy resource supply system and has high power generation efficiency. All solid structures are adopted in SOFC system and excellent long term stability is observed during operation when using this kind of fuel cell. Low cost is obtained because no precious metal catalyst is used in SOFC. SOFC is especially suitable for distributed

  2. 碳基燃料固体氧化物燃料电池发展前景%Prospect of carbon-based solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏芳; 彭苏萍

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel such as coal,oil and nature gas is the main energy resource in China even in the world. It has low power generation efficiency (approximately 30 %) and a great environmental impact,which needs to be improved. The fuel cell which could turn chemical energy directly into electrical energy is a kind of high efficiency power generation device (50 %~60 %). In all kinds of fuel cells,solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) could use many kinds of carbon-based fuels which could be easily compatible with the existed energy resource supply system and has high power generation efficiency. All solid structures are adopted in SOFC system and excellent long term stability is observed during operation when using this kind of fuel cell. Low cost is obtained because no precious metal catalyst is used in SOFC. SOFC is especially suitable for distributed generation system and power supply system. Because of the energy structure and the superiority of rare earth resource in China,it is necessary to develop carbon-based SOFC. Improving long term stability and reducing costs are needed in the process from model operation to industrialization of SOFC. Several techniques of the carbon-based SOFC need to be focused on in the future,such as key materials,innovation by systematic integration,design and preparation of material,reaction characteristics of carbon-based fuels,cell structure,theoretical modeling and the problems of foundation science and technique in SOFC integration and operation. The measures above establish the foundation of industrialization for high efficiency,low cost and reliable carbon-based SOFC system.%  以煤炭、石油、天然气为代表的化石燃料是中国乃至世界的主要能源资源,其平均发电效率低(30%左右),环境危害大,迫切需要改进.燃料电池是一种高效发电装置,将燃料的化学能直接转换为电能.在各种燃料电池中,固体氧化物燃料电池(SOFC)可以直接使用各种含碳燃料,很容

  3. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In...

  4. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  5. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning of platinum-graphite catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: comparison between platinum-supported on graphite and intercalated in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilquin, J. Y.; Côté, R.; Guay, D.; Dodelet, J. P.; Denès, G.

    Platinum intercalated in graphite and Pt supported on graphite have been synthesized as catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in order to test the effect of carbon monoxide adsorption on their electrochemical properties. These materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron activation analysis and cyclic voltammetry in Nafion-based films in contact with H 2SO 4 solution at pH 0.5 Pt intercalates are indeed tridimensional Pt cluster inclusions in a perturbed graphite matrix. Hydrogen electrosorption measurements demonstrate that Pt supported on graphite has three times more active sites than Pt intercalated in graphite even if Pt loadings (16 ± 4 Pt wt.%) and the size of Pt clusters (3.4 ± 0.4 nm) are similar for both catalysts. Pt supported on graphite and intercalated in graphite are equally poisoned by carbon monoxide.

  7. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  8. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  9. A Simple Surface Modification of NiO Cathode with TiO2 Nano-Particles for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TiO2-modified Ni powders, prepared by the simple method (ball-milling and subsequent annealing) without resorting to any complex coating process, eventually form nickel titanate passive layer at high temperature. It as good corrosion resistance in molten carbonates media and higher electrical conductivity at high temperature. In addition, the modified cathode increases the degree of lithiation during the operation of MCFC. These positive effects provide a decrease in the internal resistance and improve the cell performance. Results obtained from this study can be applied to develop the surface modification of cathode materials and the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are efficient energy conversion devices to convert chemical energy into electrical energy through the electrochemical reaction. Because of a lot of advantages of MCFC operated at high temperature, many researchers have been trying to apply it to large-scaled power generations, marine boats, and so on. Among various cathode materials, nickel oxide, NiO, is the most widely used cathode for MCFCs due to its stability and high electrical conductivity, but the degradation of cathode material, so-called NiO dissolution, prevents a long-term operation of MCFC. In order to overcome the drawback, numerous studies have been performed. One of the most useful ways to enhance the surface property and maintain the bulk property of the host materials is the surface modification. The most common modification method is coating and these coating procedures which need some complicated steps with the use of organic materials, but it restricts the large-scale fabrication. In this study, to improve the electrochemical performance, we have prepared an alternative MCFC cathode material, TiO2-modified NiO, by simple method without resorting to any complex coating process. Results obtained in this study can provide an effective way to mass-produce the cathode materials applied

  10. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in...

  11. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  12. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  13. Fuel cell leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and device for leak testing vessels such as fuel cells or tanks which are large enough for a person to move around within holding a small hand held ball or balloon type device which is provided with a large aperture. In leak testing a vessel, the aperture portion of the device is pressed against the inside wall of the vessel with sufficient pressure to form an airtight seal between the inside of the device and the wall. While maintaining the airtight seal, the device is moved over the full inside surface of the cell. If there is a hole in the cell, the device which is very compliant will tend to collapse as it passes over the hole due to a resilient pressure drop created by the hole allowing the air to escape from the device to the atmosphere

  14. Operando XAFS study of carbon supported Ni, NiZn, and Co catalysts for hydrazine electrooxidation for use in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon supported Ni, Ni0.87Zn0.13, and Co hydrazine electrooxidation catalysts were synthesized by an impregnation/freeze-drying procedure followed by thermal annealing for use as anode catalyst of direct hydrazine hydrate fuel cells (DHFCs). The cell performance of DHFCs changed significantly when different catalysts were used as anode. Ammonia generation from anode outlet at open circuit voltage (OCV) condition was higher for Co/C than for Ni-based catalysts. To better understand the cause of different performance and selectivity of each anode catalyst, extensive ex-situ and operando characterization was carried out. Operando XAFS measurement of Ni–K and Co–K edge shows the potential dependence of atomic structure of Ni/C, Ni0.87Zn0.13/C, and Co/C during hydrazine electrooxidation reaction

  15. Position of fuel cells in Italy; Situation des piles a combustible en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Mottini, N.

    2000-02-01

    The main researches concerning the fuel cells in Italy are the PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) and the MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell). This reports takes stock of these two techniques in Italy, explaining the running of these two types of cells and relating the Italian situation (development and research program, development programs of fuel cells vehicles). (O.M.)

  16. Fuel cells for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having first briefly illustrated the basic design, construction and operating principles of fuel cells, this paper assesses the progress that has been achieved to date in the development of the phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells. Special attention is given to the design, performance and cost characteristics of the phosphoric acid fuel cells. For example, the paper cites the IFC/Toshiba 4.8 and 11.0 MW models, which have attained efficiencies of 37.5 and 41.0% respectively, and points out that these fuel cells, with efficiencies comparable to those of conventional poly-fuelled and combined cycle power plants, offer the advantages of compact size and better environmental compatibility with respect to the latter. However, fuel cells cannot yet compete with the lower per kWh costs of fossil fuel power plants. The paper concludes with an assessment of Italian fuel cell commercialization efforts, especially those centered around the use of methane fuelled PAFC's, and reviews the status of coordinated international research programs involving Japan, the USA and Italy

  17. An efficient scenario-based stochastic programming for optimal planning of combined heat, power, and hydrogen production of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed for planning the location and operation of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Plants (MCFCPPs) in distribution networks when used for Combined Heat, Power, and Hydrogen (CHPH) simultaneously. Uncertainties of electrical and thermal loads forecasting; the pressures of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide imported to MCFCPPs; and the nominal temperature of MCFCPPs are considered using a scenario-based method. In the method, scenarios are generated using Roulette Wheel Mechanism (RWM) based on Probability Distribution Functions (PDF) of input random variables. Using this method, probabilistic specifics of the problem are distributed and the problem is converted to a deterministic one. The type of the objective functions, placement, and operation of MCFCPPs as CHPH change this problem to a mixed integer nonlinear one. So, multi-objective Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA) and Pareto optimal method are employed for solving the multi-objective problem and for compromising between the objective functions. During the simulation process, a set of non-dominated solutions are stored in a repository. The 69-bus distribution system is used for evaluating the proper function of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A scenario-based stochastic programming is proposed for optimal planning of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Plants (MCFCPP). • The effect of Combined Heat, Power, and Hydrogen production (CHPH) is considered simultaneously. • Uncertainties of electrical and thermal loads forecasting are considered. • Uncertainties of the pressures of H2, O2 and CO2 importing to MCFCPP, and the nominal temperature of MCFCPP are considered. • Generation of thermal energy, hydrogen, and total emission of MCFCPPs and network are managed

  18. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  19. Novel carbon-supported Fe-N electrocatalysts synthesized through heat treatment of iron tripyridyl triazine complexes for the PEM fuel cell oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) was used as a ligand to prepare iron-TPTZ (Fe-TPTZ) complexes for the development of a new oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The prepared Fe-TPTZ complexes were then heat-treated at temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 1100 deg. C to obtain carbon-supported Fe-N catalysts (Fe-N/C). These catalysts were characterized in terms of catalyst composition, structure, and morphology by several instrumental methods such as energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With respect to the ORR activity, the Fe-N/C catalysts were also evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, as well as rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes. The results showed that among the heat-treated catalysts, that obtained at a heat-treatment temperature of 800 deg. C is the most active ORR catalyst. The overall electron transfer number for the catalyzed ORR was determined to be between 3.5 and 3.8, with 10-30% H2O2 production. The ORR catalytic activity of this catalyst was also tested in a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. At a cell voltage of 0.30 V, this fuel cell can give a current density of 0.23 A cm-2 with a maximum MEA power density of 0.070 W cm-2 indicating that this catalyst has potential to be used as a non-noble catalyst in PEM fuel cells

  20. Investigation of carbon supported PtW catalysts as CO tolerant anodes at high temperature in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2016-09-01

    The CO tolerance mechanism and the stability of carbon supported PtW electrocatalysts are evaluated in the anode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at two different temperatures. The electrocatalysts are characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron spectroscopy. Employed electrochemical techniques include cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping, fuel cell polarization, and online mass spectrometry. At a cell temperature of 85 °C, the PtW/C catalyst shows higher CO tolerance compared to Pt/C due an electronic effect of WOx in the Pt 5d band, which reduces the CO adsorption. An increase in hydrogen oxidation activity in the presence of CO is observed for both the catalysts at a higher temperature, due to the decrease of the Pt-CO coverage. A reduction in the current densities occurs for the PtW/C catalyst in both polarization curves and cyclic voltammograms after 5000 cycles of the anode in the range of 0.1-0.7 V vs. RHE at 50 mVs-1. This decrease in performance is assigned to the dissolution of W, with a consequent increase in the membrane resistivity. However, the observed decline of performance is small either in the presence of pure H2 or in the presence of H2/CO.

  1. A CNT (carbon nanotube) paper as cathode gas diffusion electrode for water management of passive μ-DMFC (micro-direct methanol fuel cell) with highly concentrated methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel MEA (membrane electrode assembly) structure of passive μ-DMFC (micro-direct methanol fuel cell) controls water management and decreases methanol crossover. The CNT (carbon nanotube) paper replacing CP (carbon paper) as GDL (gas diffusion paper) enhances water back diffusion which passively prevents flooding in the cathode and promotes low methanol crossover. Moreover, the unique structure of CNT paper can also enhance efficiency of oxygen mass transport and catalyst utilization. The passive μ-DMFC with CNT-MEA exhibits significantly higher performance than passive μ-DMFC with CP-MEA and can operate in high methanol concentration, showing the peak power density of 23.2 mW cm−2. The energy efficiency and fuel utilization efficiency are obviously improved from 11.54% to 22.7% and 36.61%–49.34%, respectively, and the water transport coefficient is 0.47 which is lower than previously reported passive μ-DMFC with CP. - Highlights: • This novel GDL (gas diffusion layer) solves water management and methanol crossover. • This GDL creates a hydraulic pressure in the cathode increasing water back diffusion. • This GDL improves the electrical conductivity and activity of catalyst

  2. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  3. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  4. Amine-terminated ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes for enhanced interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens anode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Zou, Long; Wen, Guo-Yun; Liu, Ding-Yu; Qiao, Yan

    2016-05-01

    An amine-terminated ionic liquid (IL-NH2) is applied to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for improving the interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) anode in Microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The introduction of thin layer of ILs does not change the morphology of CNTs a lot but increases surface positive charges as well as nitrogen functional groups of the CNTs based anode. The CNT-IL composite not only improves the adhesion of S. putrefaciens cells but also promotes both of the flavin-mediated and the direct electron transfer between the S. putrefaciens cells and the anode. It is interesting that the CNT-IL is more favorable for the mediated electron transfer than for the direct electron transfer. The CNT-IL/carbon cloth anode delivers 3-fold higher power density than that of CNT anode and shows great long-term stability in the batch-mode S. putrefaciens MFCs. This CNT-IL could be a promising anode material for high performance MFCs.

  5. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  6. PEM fuel cell diagnostic tools

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haijiang

    2011-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Diagnostic Tools presents various tools for diagnosing PEM fuel cells and stacks, including in situ and ex situ diagnostic tools, electrochemical techniques, and physical/chemical methods. The text outlines the principles, experimental implementation, data processing, and application of each technique, along with its capabilities and weaknesses. The book covers many diagnostics employed in the characterization and determination of fuel cell performance. It discusses commonly used conventional tools, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning elec

  7. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Gabrielle

    2004-12-03

    This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at the Sheraton Edison Hotel, Edison, New Jersey. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plant under a contract with the Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. A DFC{reg_sign}300 fuel cell, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT was selected for the project. The fuel cell successfully operated from June 2003 to May 2004. This report discusses the performance of the plant during this period.

  8. Fuel cells problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive, accessible introduction to fuel cells, their applications, and the challenges they pose Fuel cells-electrochemical energy devices that produce electricity and heat-present a significant opportunity for cleaner, easier, and more practical energy. However, the excitement over fuel cells within the research community has led to such rapid innovation and development that it can be difficult for those not intimately familiar with the science involved to figure out exactly how this new technology can be used. Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions, Second Edition addresses this i

  9. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  10. Performance and durability of carbon black-supported Pd catalyst covered with silica layers in membrane-electrode assemblies of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keitaro; Ito, Mizuki; Sato, Yasushi; Takenaka, Sakae; Kishida, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Pd metal particles supported on a high surface area carbon black (Pd/CB) were covered with silica layers to improve the durability under severe cathode condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The performance and the durability of the silica-coated Pd/CB (SiO2/Pd/CB) were investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE) in aqueous HClO4 and single cell test of the membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs). SiO2/Pd/CB showed excellent durability exceeding Pt/CB during potential cycle in single cell test as well as in RDE measurement while Pd/CB significantly degraded. Furthermore, the MEA using SiO2/Pd/CB as the cathode catalyst showed higher performance than that using Pd/CB even in the initial state. The catalytic activity of SiO2/Pd/CB was higher than that of Pd/CB, and the drop of the cell performances due to the inhibition of electron conduction, proton conduction, and oxygen diffusion by the silica layer was not significant. It has been shown that the silica-coating is a very practical technique that can stabilize metal species originally unstable in the cathode condition of PEMFCs without a decrease in the cell performance.

  11. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate. PMID:23858864

  12. Nb-doped TiO2/carbon composite supports synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, Keerthi; Neburchilov, Vladimir; Alzate, Vanesa; Baker, Ryan; Neagu, Roberto; Zhang, Jiujun; Campbell, Stephen; Ye, Siyu

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we report the use of both ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and microwave-assisted polyol reduction methods to synthesize Nb-doped TiO2/carbon (25 wt% Nb0.07Ti0.93O2/75 wt% carbon) composite supports and Pt0.62Pd0.38 alloy catalysts, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized supports and their Pt0.62Pd0.38 supported catalysts are evaluated using several methods including XRD, TEM, BET surface area analysis, TGA, as well as ICP-MS elemental analysis. The electronic conductivities and thermal/chemical stabilities of the supports are also evaluated with respect to their possible use as catalyst supports. Electrochemical measurements for oxygen reduction activity of the Pt0.62Pd0.38 alloy catalysts supported on oxide/carbon composites are also carried out in order to check their suitability for possible PEM fuel cell applications. The results show that 20wt%Pt0.62Pd0.38/25 wt%(Nb0.07Ti0.93O2)-75 wt%C catalysts exhibit enhanced mass activities compared to those of commercially available 48wt% Pt/C and home-made 20wt% Pt62Pd38/C catalysts.

  13. X-ray evaluation of the boundary between polymer electrolyte and platinum and carbon functionalization to conduct protons in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Kazuki; Ogura, Yuta; Izumi, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is important to secure proximate diffusion paths of reactants and electrons. One approach is to optimize the boundary between polymer electrolyte and Pt nanoparticle surface. Based on synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure to monitor directly the status of catalysts in PEFCs, it was found that Pt sites were reduced to Pt0 by alcohols contained in polymer electrolyte dispersion solution during the preparation of cathode of PEFC. As in membrane electrolyte assembly, only the Pt sites not covered by polymer electrolyte re-oxidized to Pt2+/4+. Thus, the interface between Pt and polymer electrolyte was evaluated. The other approach is to functionalize carbon surface with sulfonate/sulfate group to conduct protons. Similar level of proton conductivity was observed in current-voltage dependence compared to using polymer electrolyte, but polymer electrolyte was advantageous to lose less voltage for activation. Based on this comparison, optimum catalyst on cathode is proposed comprising surface sulfonate/sulfate group on carbon mixed with polymer electrolyte. Further optimization of cathode catalyst is proposed to functionalize carbon with sulfonate group linked to fluorocarbon branch.

  14. Three-dimensional carbon- and binder-free nickel nanowire arrays as a high-performance and low-cost anode for direct hydrogen peroxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ke; Guo, Fen; Gao, Yinyi; Zhang, Dongming; Cheng, Kui; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-12-01

    A novel three-dimensional carbon- and binder-free nickel nanowire arrays (Ni NAs) electrode is successfully fabricated by a facile galvanostatic electrodeposition method using polycarbonate membrane as the template. The Ni NAs electrode achieves a oxidation current density (divided by the electroactive surface areas of Ni) of 25.1 mA cm-2 in 4 mol L-1 KOH and 0.9 mol L-1 H2O2 at 0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) accompanied with a desirable stability, which is significantly higher than the catalytic activity of H2O2 electro-oxidation achieved previously with precious metals as catalysts. The impressive electrocatalytic performance is largely attributed to the superior 3D open structure and high electronic conductivity, which ensures the high utilization of Ni surfaces and makes the electrode have higher electrochemical activity. The apparent activation energy of H2O2 electro-oxidation on the Ni NAs catalyst is 13.59 kJ mol-1. A direct peroxide-peroxide fuel cell using the Ni NAs as anode exhibits a peak power density of 48.7 mW cm-2 at 20 °C. The electrode displays a great promise as the anode of direct peroxide-peroxide fuel cell due to its low cost, high activity and stability.

  15. Vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotube anode and nickel silicide integrated high performance microsized (1.25 μl) microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2012-02-08

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an environmentally friendly method for water purification and self-sustained electricity generation using microorganisms. Microsized MFCs can also be a useful power source for lab-on-a-chip and similar integrated devices. We fabricated a 1.25 μL microsized MFC containing an anode of vertically aligned, forest type multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m 2 of current density and 392 mW/m 3 of power density. The MWCNTs increased the anode surface-to-volume ratio, which improved the ability of the microorganisms to couple and transfer electrons to the anode. The use of nickel silicide also helped to boost the output current by providing a low resistance contact area to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Corrosion protection of aluminum bipolar plates with polyaniline coating containing carbon nanotubes in acidic medium inside the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyab, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the corrosion resistance of conductive polymer coating (polyaniline) that coated aluminum bipolar plates in acidic environment inside the PEM fuel cell (0.1 M H2SO4) was investigated using electrical conductivity, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the coating morphology. The results show that the addition of CNTs to polyaniline coating enhanced the electrical conductivity and the corrosion resistance of polyaniline polymer. The inhibition efficiency of polyaniline polymer increased with increasing CNTs concentration. The best inhibition was generally obtained at 0.8% CNTs concentration in the acidic medium. This was further confirmed by decreasing the oxygen and water permeability and increasing coating adhesion in the presence of CNTs. EIS measurements indicated that the incorporation of CNTs in coating increased both the charge transfer and pore resistances while reducing the double layer capacitance.

  17. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  18. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  19. Application of a composite structure of carbon nanoparticles and Nb-TiO2 nanofibers as electrocatalyst support for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alex; Hui, Rob; Ignaszak, Anna; Zhang, Jiujun; Jones, Deborah J.

    2012-07-01

    Platinum catalyst nanoparticles (20 wt.%) were deposited on a mixed support, which consisted of 25 at.% Nb doped TiO2 nanofibers and carbon agglomerates. XRD analysis revealed that titania was present in the rutile phase. The catalyst was characterized electrochemically with respect to durability and oxygen reduction activity. Based on cyclic voltammetry tests, the Nb-TiO2/C supported catalyst was more stable compared to a commercially available carbon supported Pt catalyst (E-tek) over 1000 cycles. The apparent active Pt area decreased by 5% due to cycling, whereas in the case of Pt/C the decrease was 23%. The oxygen reduction performance was comparable for both cases. For example, during the anodic sweep the mass activity at 0.9 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) was 19 A gPt-1 and 20 A gPt-1 for the freshly prepared in-house prepared and commercial catalysts, respectively. After the durability experiment both types of catalysts yielded a mass activity of 17 A gPt-1. Fuel cell tests with a single cell configuration were also carried out with the Nb-TiO2/C supported catalyst on the cathode side (gas diffusion electrode), yielding a peak power density of 0.34 W cm-2 at 75 °C when pure oxygen was supplied on the cathode side.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of sodium borohydride on carbon supported Pt-Zn nanoparticle bimetallic catalyst and its implications to direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Pt-Zn/C catalyst as anode catalyst for DBHFC were facilely synthesized. • The average particle size of Pt-Zn bimetallic nanoparticles is approximately 2.5 nm. • The Zn-doping can apparently improve the catalytic activity for BH4− electrochemical oxidation. • The maximum power density of DBHFC employing Pt-Zn/C as anode catalyst is as high as 79.9 mW cm−2 at 79.5 mA cm−2 and 25 °C. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Zn bimetallic nanoparticle electrocatalysts (Pt-Zn/C) are facilely prepared by a modified NaBH4 reduction method in aqueous solution at room temperature and investigated as alternative anode catalysts for direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHFC). The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared nanospherical electrocatalysts are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and fuel cell test. Based on results of TEM and XRD, the Pt-Zn nanoparticles show average particle size of approximately 2.5 nm on the carbon surface. The fundamental electrochemical results show that the Pt-Zn/C catalysts exhibit much higher catalytic activity and stability for the direct oxidation of BH4− than Pt/C catalyst since Pt atoms are partly substituted by Zn atoms in Pt-Zn catalyst. Among various Pt-Zn catalysts with different compositions, the Pt67Zn33/C catalyst presents the highest catalytic activity for BH4− electrooxidation. The DBHFC using Pt67Zn33/C as anode catalyst and Pt/C as cathode catalyst obtains the maximum power density as high as 79.9 mW cm−2 at 79.5 mA cm−2 and 25 °C

  1. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H2SO4 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  2. Enzymatic fuel cells: Recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest in replacing non-selective metal catalysts, currently used in low temperature fuel cells, with enzymes as catalysts. Specific oxidation of fuel and oxidant by enzymes as catalysts yields enzymatic fuel cells. If the catalysts can be immobilised at otherwise inert anode and cathode materials, this specificity of catalysis obviates the requirement for fuel cell casings and membranes permitting fuel cell configurations amenable to miniaturisation to be adopted. Such configurations have been proposed for application to niche areas of power generation: powering remotely located portable electronic devices, or implanted biomedical devices, for example. We focus in this review on recent efforts to improve electron transfer between the enzymes and electrodes, in the presence or absence of mediators, with most attention on research aimed at implantable or semi-implantable enzymatic fuel cells that harvest the body's own fuel, glucose, coupled to oxygen reduction, to provide power to biomedical devices. This ambitious goal is still at an early stage, with device power output and stability representing major challenges. A comparison of performance of enzymatic fuel cell electrodes and assembled fuel cells is attempted in this review, but is hampered in general by lack of availability of, and conformity to, standardised testing and reporting protocols for electrodes and cells. We therefore highlight reports that focus on this requirement. Ultimately, insight gained from enzymatic fuel cell research will lead to improved biomimetics of enzyme catalysts for fuel cell electrodes. These biomimetics will mimic enzyme catalytic sites and the structural flexibility of the protein assembly surrounding the catalytic site.

  3. Fuel cells sector profile in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to environmental concerns, Norway's environment, transportation and energy sectors are implementing programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and build a hydrogen-based society that promotes fuel cell technology and the use of other renewable energy sources. This paper presents a market overview of the fuel cell sector in Norway and describes the opportunities for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. As a signatory nation of the Kyoto Protocol, Norway has committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1 per cent above 1990 levels over the 2008 to 2012 period. In addition to its interest in fuel cell technology, Norway is researching hydrogen storage in metal hydrides. With the introduction of fuel cell powered vehicles in Norway, the Ministry of Transport is offering incentives for the purchase of zero-emission cars. Opportunities in fuel cell applications include power electronics, maritime applications, stationary applications and road transportation. In addition, Norway's petroleum industry is interested in technologies associated with the development of solid oxide fuel cells that allow for cleaner offshore production of oil and gas. The Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) strengthens scientific cooperation between Canadian and Norwegian companies in research areas such as fuel cell development, transportation applications and hydrogen storage. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve fuel cell projects. Considerations for market-entry in Norway were outlined. The use of a

  4. Fuel cells: Hydrogen induced insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2016-06-01

    Coupling high ionic and low electronic conductivity in the electrolyte of low-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells remains a challenge. Now, the electronic conductivity of a perovskite electrolyte, which has high proton conductivity, is shown to be heavily suppressed when exposed to hydrogen, leading to high fuel cell performance.

  5. Electrochemical properties of polyethyleneimine-functionalized Pt-PEI/carbon black as a catalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pt content of Pt-PEI-CB is higher than that of Pt-CB. • Cell performance is related to Pt particle size, dispersion and metallic Pt content. • PEI functionalized to CB plays an important role for durability of electrocatalyst. - Abstract: Pt nanoparticles is successfully deposited onto polyethyleneimine-functionalized carbon black by a noncovalent method, where the functionalization is carried out using 0.1 wt. %, 0.4 wt. %, 0.6 wt. % and 0.8 wt. % polyethyleneimine (PEI) solution and denoted as Pt-xPEI-CB (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8). The functionalization of carbon black (CB) by PEI affects the Pt nanoparticle size, dispersion and Pt content deposited on CB, preventing Pt nanoparticles from agglomeration. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) images clearly show a significant agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles for Pt-CB. X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) analysis shows the highest metallic Pt content for Pt-0.4PEI-CB and the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) fabricated with that also shows the highest power generation: that is, 1.05 W/cm2 at 2.31 A/cm2. Electrochemical active surface areas (ECSAs) for Pt-xPEI-CB are estimated to be 58.4 m2/g, 49.7 m2/g, 54.4 m2/g, 52.7 m2/g and 42.5 m2/g for x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. Cationic PEI also plays an important role for the durability of electrochemical catalyst: that is, the electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) after 1200 cycle operation for Pt-CB is more significantly decreased by 72% than those of Pt-xPEI-CBs

  6. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage;

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...

  8. Hydrophobic carbon nanostructured layer as bi-functional gas diffusion media and catalyst support for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Benito, S.; Beek, J.M. van; Hulsman, L.H.; Lefferts, L. [Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Catalytic Processes and Materials, IMPACT and MESA

    2010-07-01

    Carbon nanostructures have been grown in-situ on a carbon paper substrate constituting the gas diffusion media (GDM). Firstly, metal nanoparticles (such as Ni and/or Pt) from a precursor are deposited on the carbon substrate by chemical or physical methods. Secondly, carbon nanostructures are grown by catalytic chemical vapor decomposition of ethylene. By changing the growth conditions, the wettability of the layers can be tuned without further PTFE addition. Finally, platinum nanoparticles are deposited on the carbon nanostructures. Morphology, porosity, wettability and electrical conductivity are characterized by techniques such as SEM, contact angle, XRD, 4 point probe electrical conductivity, BET and MIP. (orig.)

  9. High performance, high durability non-precious metal fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Schmoeckel, Alison K.

    2016-03-15

    This invention relates to non-precious metal fuel cell cathode catalysts, fuel cells that contain these catalysts, and methods of making the same. The fuel cell cathode catalysts are highly nitrogenated carbon materials that can contain a transition metal. The highly nitrogenated carbon materials can be supported on a nanoparticle substrate.

  10. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  11. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene-Based Composites for Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates and Development of Educational Tools in Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Gaxiola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this project we developed conductive thermoplastic resins by adding varying amounts of three different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB), synthetic graphite (SG) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) to a polypropylene matrix for application as fuel cell bipolar plates. This component of fuel cells provides mechanical support to the stack,…

  12. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  13. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  14. Preparation and properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Shu-Hang; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Yen, Chuan-Yu.; Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Yen, Ming-Yu.; Liu, Po-Lan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Tsai, Ming-Chi [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Su, Ay [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Tao-Yuan 32003 (China); Lin, Yu-Feng [Plastics Industry Development Center, Tai-Chung 40768 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with different molecular weights 400 and 2000 poly(oxyalkylene)-amine bearing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy (POA400-DGEBA and POA2000-DGEBA) oligomers. The oxidized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) are converted to the acid chloride-functionalized MWCNTs, followed by the reaction with POA-DGEBAs to prepare the MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA and MWCNTs/POA2000-DGEBA. FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) reveal that the POA-DGEBAs are covalently attached to the surface of MWCNTs. The morphology of MWCNTs/POA-DGEBA is observed by TEM. The POA400-DGEBA coated on the MWCNTs is thicker and more uniform. However, the coating of POA2000-DGEBA on the MWCNTs shows a worm-like bulk substance and the MWCNT surface is bare. In addition, the flexural strength and the bulk electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates are measured 59% and 505% higher than those of the original composite bipolar plates by adding 8 phr of MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA. The maximum current density and power density of the single cell test for the nanocomposite bipolar plate with 4 phr MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA are 1.32 A cm{sup -2} and 0.533 W cm{sup -2}, respectively. The overall performance confirms the functionalized MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates prepared in this study are suitable for PEMFC application. (author)

  15. Matrix member for containing fuel cell acid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A matrix member for carrying the acid electrolyte of a fuel cell comprised of a first layer containing a carbon material and a second layer containing a silicon carbide material. A further matrix member is disclosed wherein the mean pore size of the member is substantially equal to or less than that mean pore size of at least one of the fuel cell electrodes

  16. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    fabrication techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is......The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... into the current collector electrodes. This design is based on catalytic in situ growth of carbon nanotubes and atomic layer deposition of active catalyst particles. The additional two fuel cell designs utilize a porous silicon structure as the mechanical support, using respectively a spray coated...

  17. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon black for polymer exchange membrane fuel cell applications; Preparacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao de eletrocatalisadores suportados em carbono funcionalizado para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcelo do

    2008-12-18

    The fuel cell technology associated with the growing exigency of low environmental impact energy became prosperous in the world energy scenery. The fuel cell is basically a device that converts directly the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical and thermal energy with a continuous operation by the constant feed of a fuel. Especially, the carbon black Vulcan XC72 is usually employed as an electro catalyst support, and some factors as an accessible and high surface area in order to get maximum particles dispersion, pore size, adequate pore distribution and the presence of functional groups in the carbon black surface are considered fundamental characteristics for an innovative materials development. However, the Vulcan XC72 still reveals insufficient conditions for these purposes. This study consists in the preparation and in the physical chemical characterization of functionalized carbon black by hydrogen peroxide and by polymeric chains with proton conduction properties, and its posterior utilization as electro catalyst support for PEMFC and DMFC application. After the carbon functionalization, an improvement in the carbon black dispersion in water media was observed, a beneficial effect for electro catalyst preparation. It was also observed, that the functional groups and the polymeric chains worked as stabilizers in the particle growing, producing much more homogeneous electrocatalysts, exhibiting smaller average particle size. Especially, in the case of polymeric chains functionalization, a decrease in the ohmic drop was observed for this system, attributed to an improvement in the proton transference. (author)

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of high-loading, highly dispersed Pt/carbon aerogel catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhijun Guo; Hong Zhu; Xinwei Zhang; Fanghui Wang; Yubao Guo; Yongsheng Wei

    2011-06-01

    A Pt supported on carbon aerogel catalyst has been synthesized by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The Pt supported on carbon aerogel catalyst was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show a uniform dispersion of spherical Pt nanoparticles 2.5–3.0 nm in diameter. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt/carbon aerogel catalyst for methanol oxidation at room temperature. The Pt/carbon aerogel catalyst shows higher electrochemical catalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than a commercial Pt/C catalyst of the same Pt loading.

  19. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  20. PEM fuel cell failure mode analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haijiang

    2011-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation. The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discus

  1. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  2. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  3. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  4. Conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates made from PVDF, PET and co-continuous PVDF/PET filled with carbon additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, L.; Mighri, F.; Deyrail, Y. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, QC (Canada); Elkoun, S. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sherbrooke University, QC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and characterise electrically conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and bipolar plates (BPPs). These BPPs were made from highly conductive blends of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), as matrix phase. The conductive materials were developed from carefully formulated blends composed of conductive carbon black (CB) powder and, in some cases, graphite synthetic flakes mixed with pure PET, PVDF or with PVDF/PET systems. They were first developed by twin-screw extrusion process then compression-molded to give BPP final shape. As the developed blends have to meet properties suitable for BPP applications, they were characterised for their rheological properties, electrical through-plane resistivity (the inverse of conductivity), oxygen permeability, flexural and impact properties. Results showed that lower resistivity was obtained with PVDF/CB blends due to the higher interfacial energy between the PVDF matrix and CB and also the higher density and crystallinity of PVDF, compared to those of PET. It was also observed that the lowest resistivity values were obtained with mixing PVDF and PET at controlled compositions to ensure PVDF/PET co-continuous morphology. Also, slow cooling rates helped to attain the lowest values of through-plane resistivity for all studied blends. This behaviour was related to the higher crystallinity obtained with low cooling rates leading to smaller amorphous regions in which carbon particles are much more concentrated. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Enhanced Oxygen and Hydroxide Transport in a Cathode Interface by Efficient Antibacterial Property of a Silver Nanoparticle-Modified, Activated Carbon Cathode in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Jia; Liu, Guohong; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Yujie

    2016-08-17

    A biofilm growing on an air cathode is responsible for the decreased performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). For the undesired biofilm to be minimized, silver nanoparticles were synthesized on activated carbon as the cathodic catalyst (Ag/AC) in MFCs. Ag/AC enhanced maximum power density by 14.6% compared to that of a bare activated carbon cathode (AC) due to the additional silver catalysis. After operating MFCs over five months, protein content on the Ag/AC cathode was only 38.3% of that on the AC cathode, which resulted in a higher oxygen concentration diffusing through the Ag/AC cathode. In addition, a lower pH increment (0.2 units) was obtained near the Ag/AC catalyst surface after biofouling compared to 0.8 units of the AC cathode, indicating that less biofilm on the Ag/AC cathode had a minor resistance on hydroxide transported from the catalyst layer interfaces to the bulk solution. Therefore, less decrements of the Ag/AC activity and MFC performance were obtained. This result indicated that accelerated transport of oxygen and hydroxide, benefitting from the antibacterial property of the cathode, could efficiently maintain higher cathode stability during long-term operation. PMID:27441786

  6. A facile one-pot self-assembly approach to incorporate SnOx nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbon with soft templating for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unique SnOx (x = 1,2)/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites (denoted as SnOx/OMC) are firstly synthesized through a ‘one-pot’ synthesis together with the soft template self-assembly approach. The obtained SnOx/OMC nanocomposites with various SnOx contents exhibit uniform pore sizes between 3.9 and 4.2 nm, high specific surface areas between 497 and 595 m2 g−1, and high pore volumes between 0.39 and 0.48 cm3 g−1. With loading of Pt, Pt–SnOx/OMC with relatively low SnOx content exhibits superior electrocatalytic performance, long-term durability, and resistance to CO poisoning for methanol oxidation, as compared to Pt/OMC, PtRu/C and Pt–SnOx/C, which may be attributed not only to the synergetic effect of embedded SnOx, but also to the highly ordered mesostructure with high specific surface areas and large pore volumes affording plenty of surface area for support of Pt nanoparticles. This work supplies an efficient way to synthesize novel ordered mesoporous carbon self-supported metallic oxide as catalyst support and its further potential application to reduce the cost of catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. (paper)

  7. A facile one-pot self-assembly approach to incorporate SnOx nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbon with soft templating for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingqiang; Zhai, Zhicheng; Luo, Zhigang; Liu, Yingju; Liang, Zhurong; Fang, Yueping

    2014-04-01

    Unique SnOx (x = 1,2)/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites (denoted as SnOx/OMC) are firstly synthesized through a ‘one-pot’ synthesis together with the soft template self-assembly approach. The obtained SnOx/OMC nanocomposites with various SnOx contents exhibit uniform pore sizes between 3.9 and 4.2 nm, high specific surface areas between 497 and 595 m2 g-1, and high pore volumes between 0.39 and 0.48 cm3 g-1. With loading of Pt, Pt-SnOx/OMC with relatively low SnOx content exhibits superior electrocatalytic performance, long-term durability, and resistance to CO poisoning for methanol oxidation, as compared to Pt/OMC, PtRu/C and Pt-SnOx/C, which may be attributed not only to the synergetic effect of embedded SnOx, but also to the highly ordered mesostructure with high specific surface areas and large pore volumes affording plenty of surface area for support of Pt nanoparticles. This work supplies an efficient way to synthesize novel ordered mesoporous carbon self-supported metallic oxide as catalyst support and its further potential application to reduce the cost of catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

  8. Carbon incorporated FeN/C electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction enhancement in direct methanol fuel cells: X-ray absorption approach to local structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Nonprecious iron nitride catalysts demonstrate an excellent anti-methanol crossover performance; it could be benefic for the applications in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). → H2O2 is poorly yielded in the electrochemical test. It could be helpful for a proton exchange membrane, since H2O2 would etch the membrane. → Tafel plot and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) both give that electron transfer numbers are close to 4 in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), indicating the major product as H2O. → Fe-C contributes to the FeCN/C catalyst by using EXAFS analysis. FeCN nanoparticles would disperse on C supports and may give ORR activity. - Abstract: The C-containing iron nitride electrocatalyst is fabricated by chelating N-containing species and Fe2+ with a carbon support under heat treatment in an NH3 atmosphere, which induces the oxygen reduction reaction activity. This is the first demonstration of forming FexC species on iron nitride materials. The correlation between the electrochemical properties and structures are aided to elucidate their features under investigation by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A rotating ring disk electrode test is conducted in sulfuric acid solution and the results reveal the low H2O2 yield and approximately 4e- transfer process of the carbon-containing FeN/C electrocatalyst.

  9. Gas diffusion layers coated with a microporous layer containing hydrophilic carbon nanotubes for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under both low and high humidity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Tatsumi; Nakajima, Hironori; Okamura, Kosuke

    2015-06-01

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) coated with a hydrophobic microporous layer (MPL) composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been commonly used to improve the water management characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). However, the hydrophobic MPL coated GDL designed to prevent dehydration of the membrane under low humidity conditions is generally inferior at reducing flooding under high humidity conditions. It is therefore important to develop a robust MPL coated GDL that can enhance the PEFC performance regardless of the humidity conditions. In the present study, a GDL coated with an MPL containing hydrophilic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed. The less hydrophobic pores incorporating CNTs are effective at conserving the membrane humidity under low humidity conditions. The MPL with CNTs is also effective at expelling excess water from the catalyst layer while maintaining oxygen flow pathways from the GDL substrate, allowing the mean flow pore diameter to be decreased to 2 μm without reducing the ability of the MPL to prevent flooding under high humidity conditions. An MPL coated GDL with a CNT content of 4 mass% exhibits significantly higher performance under both low and high humidity conditions than a hydrophobic MPL coated GDL.

  10. Iron-nitrogen-activated carbon as cathode catalyst to improve the power generation of single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yajun; Mo, Xiaoping; Li, Kexun; Pu, Liangtao; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC), iron-nitrogen-activated carbon (Fe-N-C) as an excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst was prepared here using commercial activated carbon (AC) as matrix and employed in single chamber MFC. In MFC, the maximum power density increased to 2437±55mWm(-2), which was 2 times of that with AC. The open circuit potential (OCP) of Fe-N-C cathode (0.47) was much higher than that of AC cathode (0.21V). The R0 of Fe-N-C decreased by 47% from 14.36Ω (AC) to 7.6Ω (Fe-N-C). From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species were present, which played an important role in the ORR performance of Fe-N-C. These results demonstrated that the as-prepared Fe-N-C material provided a potential alternative to Pt in AC air cathode MFC for relatively desirable energy generation and wastewater treatment. PMID:26898678

  11. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  12. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  13. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology at FuelCell Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' FuelCell Energy, Inc. (Danbury, CT) is a world leader in the development and manufacture of high temperature carbonate fuel cells for clean electric power generation and currently offers power plant products ranging in size from 250 kilowatts to multi-megawatts. With its recent acquisition of Global Thermoelectric, Inc. (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) it is also a leading developer of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. The goal of SOFC development is to commercialize low-cost SOFCs for commercial and light industrial applications ranging in product size from 3 to 10 kilowatts for applications up to 100 kilowatts. When successfully commercialized, these products will be complementary to FuelCell Energy's larger scale product line. The commercialization of SOFC technology requires the development of enabling cell and stack technology combined with an engineering focus on system efficiency and cost reduction. This paper highlights the current status of FuelCell Energy's SOFC technology, including: Review of the integrated single co-fire cell manufacturing process. The performance of production cells made using this process. Long-term testing exceeding 20,000 h. Stack developments that have enabled a significant improvement in life and performance. Development of natural gas fuel cell prototype systems. (author)

  14. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  15. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  16. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  17. Fuel cells and hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Andrew [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Mingos, Michael P. (eds.) [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    2011-07-01

    This book contains the following five contributions: 1. Solid oxide fuel cells (S.C. Singhal and X.-D. Zhou); 2. Electrocatalysis of direct alcohol fuel cells: Quantitative DEMS studies (H. Wang and H.D. Abruna); 3. Mechanical and transport properties of Nafion: Effects of temperature and water activity (J. Benziger, A. Bocarsly, M.J. Cheah, P.Majsztrik, B. Satterfield and Q. Zhao); 4. The use of heteropoly acids in proton exchange fuel cells (S. Sachdeva, J. A. Turner, J.L. Horana and A. M. Herring); 5. perspective on the storage of hydrogen: Past and future (M. T. Kelly).

  18. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    harvested from the cells. This is completely avoided at the elevated temperatures with the additional benefit of increased kinetics. In the presented work an experimental setup for testing direct dimethyl ether high temperature fuel cells is described, proposing a novel design of an evaporator for a burst...... the experiments have been conducted at atmospheric pressure. Experiments with varying amounts of PBI in the cathode catalyst layer has shown that there is a minimum content limit for the preparation of a well dispersed catalyst ink of 15 carbon to PBI weight ratio in the currently used ink formulation......Modern way of life demands enormous amounts of energy, which so far has been mainly produced by combustion of various types of fossil fuel. Increased amounts of atmospheric CO2 and global warming leading to severe climate changes are the consequence. There is a need to make the energy production...

  19. Dimethoxymethane and trimethoxymethane as alternative fuels for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raghuram; Scott, Keith

    The electrooxidation of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and trimethoxymethane (TMM) was studied at different platinum-based electrocatalysts deposited onto a titanium mesh substrate by thermal decomposition of chloride precursors. Half-cell tests showed an increase in oxidation current for the methoxy fuels at the platinum electrode with the alloying of ruthenium and tin. Increase in reaction temperature and reactant concentration showed an increase in current density for the mesh-based anodes similar to carbon-supported catalysts. Single fuel cell tests, employing the titanium mesh anode with PtRu and PtSn catalysts showed maximum power densities up to 31 mW cm -2 and 48 mW cm -2 for 1.0 mol dm -3 aqueous solutions of DMM and TMM, respectively at 60 °C using oxygen.

  20. New tigers in the fuel cell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Service, R.F.

    2000-06-16

    At last researchers have made critical strides in developing commercially viable fuel cells that extract electricity from natural gas, ethane and other fossil fuels. A new generation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) such as that described in a paper by Hibino et al in this issue of Science (pp 2031-2033) convert hydrocarbons directly into electricity at low temperatures. New designs overcome the earlier problem of carbon atoms sticking to the anode of the cell and ruining it. Scott Barnett and his colleagues at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, have used an atomic spray-painting technique to grow yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes much thinner than the standard 150 micrometer membranes so oxygen ions can slip through them at temperatures closer to 600{degree}C and also developed a nickel-spiked cerium-oxide anode that works at those temperatures. Lower operating temperatures mean fuel cells could be constructed from steel rather than costly heat-resistant alloys. Another group of researchers have developed a copper based anode that reduces carbon buildup. The novel design of Hibino's groups, at Nagoya University, Japan has a cerium oxide wafer with a nickel anode on one side and a ceramic composite cathode which passes oxygen to form ions which react at the anode to form CO{sub 2} water and electricity. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 photo.

  1. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  2. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  3. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  4. Nitrogen-doped carbon black as methanol tolerant electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped metal free carbon catalysts were prepared via pyrolysis of polyaniline-coated carbon in different ratios with varying nitrogen content. The surface states and surface composition were investigated using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). XPS analysis confirms the presence of pyridinic and pyrollic nitrogen in the carbon network that is responsible for the oxygen reduction activity. The shift in onset potential of oxygen reduction on C:N (1:1) is ∼0.3 V more positive compared to Vulcan carbon, shows improved activity toward oxygen reduction reaction in acidic electrolyte. Hydrodynamic voltammetric studies confirm that the reduction of oxygen follows the 4e− pathway which leads to the formation of water.

  5. Chelating agent assisted heat treatment of carbon supported cobalt oxide nanoparticle for use as cathode catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt-based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) have been successfully incorporated cobalt oxide (Co3O4) onto Vulcan XC-72 carbon powder by thermal decomposition of Co-ethylenediamine complex (ethylenediamine, NH2CH2CH2NH2, denoted en) at 850 oC. The catalysts were prepared by adsorbing the cobalt complexes [Co(en)(H2O)4]3+, [Co(en)2(H2O)2]3+ and [Co(en)3]3+ on commercial XC-72 carbon black supports, loading amount of Co with respect to carbon black was about 2%, the resulting materials have been pyrolyzed under nitrogen atmosphere to create CoOx/C catalysts, donated as E1, E2, and E3, respectively. The composite materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical compositions of prepared catalysts were determined using inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The catalytic activities for ORR have been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction of E2 is superior to that of E1 and E3. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) containing the synthesized CoOx/C cathode catalysts were fabricated and evaluated by single cell tests. The E2 cathode performed better than that of E1 and E3 cathode. This can be attributed to the enhanced activity for ORR, in agreement with the composition of the catalyst that CoO co-existed with Co3O4. The maximum power density 73 mW cm-2 was obtained at 0.3 V with a current density of 240 mA cm-2 for E2 and the normalized power density of E2 is larger than that that of commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C-ETEK. -- Highlights: → Non-noble catalysts have been attracting increasing attention due to become a low-cost alternative catalyst for oxygen reduction in PEMFC. → This method for the production of nanoparticle cobalt oxides which can be incorporated into Vulcan XC-72

  6. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  7. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  9. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  10. Carbon nanotube solar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klinger

    Full Text Available We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement.

  11. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  12. Experimental investigation of carbon monoxide poisoning effect on a PBI/H3PO4 high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen;

    2015-01-01

    anode humidity level reduced the cell performance loss caused by CO poisoning. When the fuel cell was operated with pure H2, the cell performance was not significantly affect by the change in anode dew point temperature in the range of room temperature and 60 °C. CO2 in anode stream resulted in slight...

  13. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  14. Mechanistic investigation and modelling of anode reaction in the molten carbonate fuel cell; Mechanistische Untersuchung und Modellierung der Anodenreaktion in der Karbonat-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Markus Roman

    2011-04-27

    Considering distributed energy generation, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) have best prospects to fulfil the demands of the highly competing energy market. To establish MCFC technology in the market, various requirements need to be met. These are on the one hand the reduction of the specific costs per kW and the simultaneous increase in efficiency of the MCFCs. On the other hand, an extended lifetime of MCFC stacks in general and especially when biofuels are used is required. Detailed knowledge of electrodes' reaction mechanisms is essential for successful technical improvements or cost reduction measures. In this thesis, the complex anodic reaction mechanism in the molten carbonate fuel cell is studied in detail, with the objective to develop a fundamental understanding of the physical and electrochemical processes taking place at the anode, and to identify the factors influencing the performance of fuel cell stacks. These include a detailed study of the simultaneously performed oxidation reactions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and its kinetic parameters, the detailed analysis of mass transport, adsorption and charge transfer and the observation of degradation phenomena, which have a declining effect on cell performance and lifetime. In order to gain this knowledge, several testing facilities have been used: anode half-cells and single cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied as analyzing tool for physical and electrochemical phenomena, whose results have been integrated in the development of an equivalent circuit. Linking the elements of the equivalent circuit with physical process parameters has been done by using a numerical model for the MCFC-anode. The impedance measurements of the MCFC anodes result in four characteristic resistances: ohmic resistance, high-frequency resistance, low-frequency resistance and cumulative resistance. The strongly temperature dependent high-frequency resistance is influenced by the electrode

  15. Chemically Synthesised Pt Particles on Surface Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes as an Effective Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; yari; Sajjad; Sadaghat; Sharehjini

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The synthesis, physical characterization and electrochemical analysis of Pt particles prepared using the surface oxidized carbon nanotubes prepared by chemically anchoring Pt onto the surface of the CNTs with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 by refluxing for 10 h to introduce surface functional groups.The particles of Pt are synthesized by reduction with sodium borohydride of H2PtCl6. The electro-oxidation of liquid methanol of this catalyst as a thin layer on glassy carbon electrode is investigated at room te...

  16. Design and exergetic analysis of a novel carbon free tri-generation system for hydrogen, power and heat production from natural gas, based on combined solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikaris, N.; Hofmann, Ph.; Spyrakis, S. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panopoulos, K.D. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) are able to operate in two modes: (a) the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) that produce electricity and heat and (b) the Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) that consume electricity and heat to electrolyse water and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The present paper presents a carbon free SOEC/SOFC combined system for the production of hydrogen, electricity and heat (tri-generation) from natural gas fuel. Hydrogen can be locally used as automobile fuel whereas the oxygen produced in the SOEC is used to combust the depleted fuel from the SOFC, which is producing electricity and heat from natural gas. In order to achieve efficient carbon capture in such a system, water steam should be used as the SOEC anode sweep gas, to allow the production of nitrogen free flue gases. The SOEC and SOFC operations were matched through modeling of all components in Aspenplus trademark. The exergetic efficiency of the proposed decentralised system is 28.25% for power generation and 18.55% for production of hydrogen. The system is (a) carbon free because it offers an almost pure pressurised CO{sub 2} stream to be driven for fixation via parallel pipelines to the natural gas feed, (b) does not require any additional water for its operation and (c) offers 26.53% of its energetic input as hot water for applications. (author)

  17. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  18. Proceedings of the third annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.J. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop the essential technology for private sector characterization of the various fuel cell electrical generation systems. These systems promise high fuel to electricity efficiencies (40 to 60 percent), distinct possibilities for cogeneration applications, modularity of design, possibilities of urban siting, and environmentally benign emissions. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the research and development (R D) participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with the opportunity to present key results of their research and to establish closer business contacts. Major emphasis was on phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide technology efforts. Research results of the coal gasification and gas stream cleanup R D activities pertinent to the Fuel Cells Program were also highlighted. Two hundred seventeen attendees from industry, utilities, academia, and Government participated in this 2-day meeting. Twenty-three papers were given in three formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells R D (9 papers), solid oxide fuel cells (8 papers), phosphoric acid fuel cells R D (6 papers). In addition to the papers and presentations, these proceedings also include comments on the Fuel Cells Program from the viewpoint of DOE/METC Fuel Cell Overview by Rita A. Bajura, DOE/METC Perspective by Manville J. Mayfield, Electric Power Research Institute by Daniel M. Rastler, Natural Gas by Hugh D. Guthrie, and Transportation Applications by Pandit G. Patil.

  19. Enhanced activity and stability of Pt/TiO2/carbon fuel cell electrocatalyst prepared using a glucose modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetola, Christopher; Trevani, Liliana; Easton, E. Bradley

    2015-10-01

    Two TiO2-C composite materials were prepared through a conventional sol gel synthesis using Vulcan XC-72 carbon black. The carbon was initially functionalised to form acid treated Vulcan (ATV) prior to TiO2 deposition. In one composite, the ATV was further modified through glucose adsorption (G-ATV) in order to facilitate the growth of small and uniform TiO2 nanoparticles on the carbon surface. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited on TiO2/G-ATV and TiO2/ATV supports through reduction of H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 at 0 °C. The electrochemical properties of the two composite catalysts were compared with in house Pt/C catalyst. We observed a three-fold increase in TiO2 loading (14 wt%) on glucose doped carbon surface compared with just acid treated support (5 wt%). The beginning of life (BOL) electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of Pt/14 wt%TiO2/G-ATV catalyst was 40.4 m2 g-1 compared to 37.1 m2 g-1 obtained for Pt on 5 wt% TiO2/ATV despite increased TiO2 loadings on the former. Furthermore these composite catalysts showed enhanced oxygen reduction activity and better durability during accelerated stress tests which was attributed to an electronic interaction between Pt and the TiO2 on the support.

  20. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable...

  1. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-07-31

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [University of South Carolina; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina; Popov, Branko [University of South Carolina; Chao, Yuh [University of South Carolina; Xue, Xingjian [University of South Carolina

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  4. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  5. Nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Nalini P.; Li, Xuguang; Nallathambi, Vijayadurda; Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P.; Colon-Mercado, Hector; Wu, Gang; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalysts for oxygen reduction were synthesized by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursors. The electrocatalytic properties of catalysts were studied as a function of surface pre-treatments, nitrogen and oxygen concentrations, and heat-treatment temperatures. On the optimum catalyst, the onset potential for oxygen reduction is approximately 0.76 V (NHE) and the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced at 0.5 V (NHE) is approximately 3% under our experimental conditions. The characterization studies indicated that pyridinic and graphitic (quaternary) nitrogens may act as active sites of catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. In particular, pyridinic nitrogen, which possesses one lone pair of electrons in addition to the one electron donated to the conjugated {pi} bond, facilitates the reductive oxygen adsorption. (author)

  6. Cyclophosphazene based conductive polymer-carbon nanotube composite as novel supporting material for methanol fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Dakshinamoorthy; Selvaraj, Vaithilingam

    2016-06-15

    This present study reports the development of novel catalyst support of amine terminated cyclophosphazene/cyclophosphazene/hexafluoroisopropylidenedianiline-carbon nanotube (ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT) composite. The ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT composite has been used as a catalyst support for platinum (Pt) and platinum-gold (Pt-Au) nanoparticles towards electrooxidation of methanol in alkaline medium. The obtained anode materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Electrocatalytic performances of Pt/ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT and Pt-Au/ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT catalysts were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping and chronoamperometric techniques. The electrooxidation of methanol and CO stripping results conclude that the metal nanocatalyst embedded with ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT composite shows significantly higher anodic oxidation current, more CO tolerance and lower onset potential when compared to that of the Pt/CNT and Pt/C (Vulcan carbon) catalysts. PMID:27016917

  7. Nitrogen-doped graphene/CoNi alloy encased within bamboo-like carbon nanotube hybrids as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Yuan, Heyang; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; He, Zhen; Chen, Junhong

    2016-03-01

    Cost-effective catalysts are of key importance to the successful deployment of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation from organic wastes. Herein, a novel catalyst prepared by one-step synthesis strategy is reported. The catalyst features N-doped bamboo-like carbon nanotube (BCNT) in which CoNi-alloy is encapsulated at the end and/or the middle section of the tube with many graphene layers inside inner cavities of BCNT (N-G@CoNi/BCNT). The prepared N-G@CoNi/BCNT exhibits a high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with an early onset potential of 0.06 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a comparable exchange current density to that of commercial Pt/C. The excellent catalytic activity is further evidenced by a high electron transfer number of 3.63. When being applied in MFCs, the N-G@CoNi/BCNT yields an average current density of 6.7 A m-2, slightly lower than that of Pt/C but with a less mass transfer potential loss. The cost of the N-G@CoNi/BCNT for constructing a 1-m2 cathode electrode is 200 times lower than that of Pt/C. With such a competitive price and excellent electrocatalytic-activity resulting from its unique morphology, CoNi-alloy/nitrogen dopants, considerable specific surface area, and carbon-coated alloy/graphene hybridization, the present catalyst is a promising candidate for ORR catalysts in MFCs for energy recovery from wastes.

  8. Nitrogen-doped Co/Co9S8/partly-graphitized carbon as durable catalysts for oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Dai, Ying; Chen, Baibing; Zou, Jinlong; Jiang, BaoJiang; Fu, Honggang

    2016-03-01

    Durability of catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the key factor for governing the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The cobalt (Co) chelated polyaniline (PANI) is used as the nitrogen and carbon sources to prepare the N-doped Co/Co9S8/partly-graphitized carbon (Co/Co9S8/NPGC) catalysts. Structure-activity correlations for Co/Co9S8/NPGC are explored by tuning the heating temperature (600-1000 °C) to investigate how the active components (Co/Co9S8) and N-doped functionalities (N-species) influence the ORR activity. As temperature increases, the gradual crystallization of Co originating from the reduction of Co9S8 is conducted to form the Co/Co9S8 heterojunction. MFCs with Co/Co9S8/NPGC (800 °C) cathode obtain the highest power density (1156 mW m-2) and the lowest charge transfer resistance (11.1 Ω) after 75 d running, which are better than commercial Pt/C (10 wt.%). Although the sole Co9S8 plays a limited role in ORR, the resulting Co/Co9S8 is found to be indispensable to achieve high activity and durability in MFCs cathodes. The dominant ORR pathways of Co/Co9S8/NPGC (800 and 900 °C) are the four-electron O2 reduction, which are attributed to the co-existence of pyridinic N, graphitic N and Co-Nx species. These new N-doped metal sulfide/PGC composites show promise for applications in MFCs.

  9. Single-Step Fabrication Using a Phase Inversion Method of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Activated Carbon Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2014-10-14

    Air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to have high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction, but they must also be easy to manufacture, inexpensive, and watertight. A simple one-step, phase inversion process was used here to construct an inexpensive MFC cathode using a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder and an activated carbon catalyst. The phase inversion process enabled cathode preparation at room temperatures, without the need for additional heat treatment, and it produced for the first time a cathode that did not require a separate diffusion layer to prevent water leakage. MFCs using this new type of cathode produced a maximum power density of 1470 ± 50 mW m–2 with acetate as a substrate, and 230 ± 10 mW m–2 with domestic wastewater. These power densities were similar to those obtained using cathodes made using more expensive materials or more complex procedures, such as cathodes with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diffusion layer, or a Pt catalyst. Even though the PVDF cathodes did not have a diffusion layer, they withstood up to 1.22 ± 0.04 m of water head (∼12 kPa) without leakage, compared to 0.18 ± 0.02 m for cathodes made using PTFE binder and PDMS diffusion layer. The cost of PVDF and activated carbon ($3 m–2) was less than that of the stainless steel mesh current collector ($12 m–2). PVDF-based AC cathodes therefore are inexpensive, have excellent performance in terms of power and water leakage, and they can be easily manufactured using a single phase inversion process at room temperature.

  10. Hexacyanoferrate-adapted biofilm enables the development of a microbial fuel cell biosensor to detect trace levels of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in oxygenated seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Quek, Soon Bee; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    A marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) type biosensor was developed for the detection of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in ocean water for the purpose of online water quality monitoring for seawater desalination plants prone to biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The anodophilic biofilm that developed on the graphite tissue anode could detect acetate as the model AOC to concentrations as low as 5 µM (120 µg/L of AOC), which is sufficiently sensitive as an online biofouling risk sensor. Although the sensor was operated at a higher (+200 ± 10 mV) than the usual (-300 mV) anodic potential, the presence of oxygen completely suppressed the electrical signal. In order to overcome this outcompeting effect of oxygen over the anode as electron acceptor by the bacteria, hexacyanoferrate (HCF(III)) was found to enable the development of an adapted biofilm that transferred electrons to HCF(III) rather than oxygen. As the resultant of the reduced HCF(II) could readily transfer electrons to the anode while being re-oxidised to HCF(III), the marine MFC biosensor developed could be demonstrated to work in the presence of oxygen unlike traditional MFC. The possibility of operating the marine MFC in batch or continuous (in-line) mode has been explored by using coulombic or potentiometric interpretation of the signal. PMID:24942462

  11. Effect of sulfonated carbon nanofiber-supported Pt on performance of Nafion {sup registered} -based self-humidifying composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, T.F. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li, 32023 (China); Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 (China); Liao, S.H.; Li, C.Y.; Chen-Yang, Y.W. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li, 32023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the Nafion {sup registered} -based self-humidifying composite membrane (N-SHCM) with sulfonated carbon nanofiber-supported Pt (s-Pt/CNF) catalyst, N-s-Pt/CNF, is successfully prepared using the solution-casting method. The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) images of N-s-Pt/CNF indicate that s-Pt/CNF is well dispersed in the Nafion {sup registered} matrix due to the good compatibility between Nafion {sup registered} and s-Pt/CNF. Compared with those of the non-sulfonated Pt/CNF-containing N-SHCM, N-Pt/CNF, the properties of N-s-Pt/CNF, including electronic resistivity, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, dimensional stability, and catalytic activity, significantly increase. The maximum power density of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) fabricated with N-s-Pt/CNF operated at 50 C under dry H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} condition is about 921 mW cm{sup -2}, which is approximately 34% higher than that with N-Pt/CNF. (author)

  12. Bifunctional quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit biofilm growth and enhance performance for activated carbon air-cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yinan; An, Jingkun; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The slow diffusion of hydroxyl out of the catalyst layer as well as the biofouling on the surface of cathode are two problems affecting power for membrane-less air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In order to solve both of them simultaneously, here we simply modify activated carbon air-cathode using a bifunctional quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) by forced evaporation. The maximum power density reaches 1041 ± 12 mW m-2 in an unbuffered medium (0.5 g L-1 NaCl), which is 17% higher than the control, probably due to the accelerated anion transport in the catalyst layer. After 2 months, the protein content reduced by a factor of 26 and the power density increases by 33%, indicating that the QAC modification can effectively inhibit the growth of cathodic biofilm and improve the stability of performance. The addition of NaOH and QAC epoxy have a negative effect on power production due to the clogging of pores in catalyst layer.

  13. Highly effective and CO-tolerant PtRu electrocatalysts supported on poly(ethyleneimine) functionalized carbon nanotubes for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly efficient and CO tolerant PtRu electrocatalysts supported on amino-rich, cationic poly(ethyleneimine) polyelectrolyte functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs) has been developed. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms, CO stripping, chronoamperometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PtRu particles with average size ∼2.5 nm are well dispersed on PEI-MWCNTs. The peak current for the methanol oxidation reaction on 40% PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs is 636mAmgPt−1, 5.7 times higher than 112mA mgPt−1 measured on the 40% PtRu supported on acid treated MWCNTs (PtRu/AO-MWCNTs) under identical conditions. PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs catalysts exhibit a superior electrocatalytic activity and stability for the methanol oxidation reaction due to its high tolerance toward CO poisoning as compared with PtRu/AO-MWCNTs for direct methanol fuel cells

  14. Low-cost adsorbent derived and in situ nitrogen/iron co-doped carbon as efficient oxygen reduction catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun; Wei, Liling; Su, Min; Wang, Gang; Shen, Jianquan

    2016-08-01

    A novel low-cost adsorbent derived and in situ nitrogen/iron co-doped carbon (N/Fe-C) with three-dimensional porous structure is employed as efficient oxygen reduction catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The electrochemical active area is significantly improved to 617.19m(2)g(-1) in N/Fe-C by Fe-doping. And N/Fe-C (4.21at.% N, 0.11at.% Fe) exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity with the oxygen reduction potential of -0.07V (vs. Ag/AgCl) which is comparable to commercial Pt/C. In MFCs tests, the maximum power density and output voltage with N/Fe-C are enhanced to 745mWm(-2) and 562mV (external resistance 1kΩ), which are 11% and 0.72% higher than Pt/C (0.5mgPtcm(-2)), respectively. Besides, the long-term stability of N/Fe-C retains better for more than one week. Moreover, the charge transfer resistance (Rct) values are recorded by the impedance measurements, and the low Rct of N/Fe-C is also result in better catalytic activity. PMID:27155262

  15. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral pH solutions used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The ammonia treated ACs exhibited better catalytic performance in rotating ring-disk electrode tests than their untreated precursors, with the bituminous based AC most improved, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.12 V (untreated, Eonset = 0.08 V) and n = 3.9 electrons transferred in oxygen reduction (untreated, n = 3.6), and the hardwood based AC (treated, E onset = 0.03 V, n = 3.3; untreated, Eonset = -0.04 V, n = 3.0). Ammonia treatment decreased oxygen content by 29-58%, increased nitrogen content to 1.8 atomic %, and increased the basicity of the bituminous, peat, and hardwood ACs. The treated coal based AC cathodes had higher maximum power densities in MFCs (2450 ± 40 mW m-2) than the other AC cathodes or a Pt/C cathode (2100 ± 1 mW m-2). These results show that reduced oxygen abundance and increased nitrogen functionalities on the AC surface can increase catalytic performance for oxygen reduction in neutral media. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Valerie J.; Nieto Delgado, Cesar; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 °C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral pH solutions used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The ammonia treated ACs exhibited better catalytic performance in rotating ring-disk electrode tests than their untreated precursors, with the bituminous based AC most improved, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.12 V (untreated, Eonset = 0.08 V) and n = 3.9 electrons transferred in oxygen reduction (untreated, n = 3.6), and the hardwood based AC (treated, Eonset = 0.03 V, n = 3.3; untreated, Eonset = -0.04 V, n = 3.0). Ammonia treatment decreased oxygen content by 29-58%, increased nitrogen content to 1.8 atomic %, and increased the basicity of the bituminous, peat, and hardwood ACs. The treated coal based AC cathodes had higher maximum power densities in MFCs (2450 ± 40 mW m-2) than the other AC cathodes or a Pt/C cathode (2100 ± 1 mW m-2). These results show that reduced oxygen abundance and increased nitrogen functionalities on the AC surface can increase catalytic performance for oxygen reduction in neutral media.

  17. Portable Fuel Cells for Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, Mark; Ibrahim, Samir; Learn, Thomas; Kenyon, Kenneth; Haberman, David; Hoffman, Stephanie; Salter, Carlton [Enable Fuel Cell Company, 2120 West Greenview Drive Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Enable Fuel Cells (Enable) is developing small passive proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These fuel cells are well-suited for use with many portable consumer products. The fuel cells have been demonstrated with applications such as radios, flat screen TVs, CD players, fluorescent and incandescent lighting, global positioning systems and toy trains. In this paper we present operational data and discuss issues that arise in comparing fuel cells with batteries. (author)

  18. System Studies of Fuel Cell Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaari, Timo

    2001-01-01

    This thesis concerns system studies of power plants wheredifferent types of fuel cells accomplish most of the energyconversion. Ever since William Grove observed the fuel cell effect inthe late 1830s fuel cells have been the subject or more or lessintense research and development. Especially in the USA theseactivities intensified during the second part of the 1950s,resulting in the development of the fuel cells used in theApollo-program. Swedish fuel cell activities started in themid-1960s, w...

  19. Fuel cells for portable, mobile and hybrid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of fuel cell systems for a variety of low-power applications (below 1000 watts) means they can be used for applications such as portable power sources and mobile power sources. The energy and power are separate elements in a fuel cell system. The power is provided by the fuel cell stack (output characteristics are dependent on the cell active area, number of cells, and operating conditions), and the energy is defined by the fuel (hydrogen) storage. The authors indicated that proton exchange membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate for small fuel cell systems, since they have a temperature range ambient to 90 Celsius, ambient air (non-humidified), and load following response. In addition, they possess a solid electrolyte, high power density and specific power, and low-pressure operation. Simplicity of operation is the key to the design of a fuel cell system. The parameters to be considered include hydrogen supply, air supply, water management, and thermal management. Some of the options available for fuels are: compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based hydrogen storage. Some of the factors that will help in determining market penetration are: rapid cost reduction with volume, fuel infrastructure, proven reliability, and identification of applications where fuel cells provide superior performance. 2 figs

  20. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2004-10-26

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  1. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  2. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  3. Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry is one of the building blocks of the new economy. Currently, the global energy industry is going through a transformation from high carbon content fuels like crude oil to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen. Fuel cells are the backbone of the hydrogen economy. Advances in fuel cell technology have the potential to improve the living standards of people in all countries. New sources of financial capital, however, remain a problem. In the fuel cell industry, the future of a firm often depends upon the success or failure of a few key products. This tends to make these firms very risky to invest in and, as a result, makes it difficult for these firms to secure financial investment capital. Oil price movements remain one very important source of risk to fuel cell companies. Conventional wisdom suggests that higher oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources like fuel cells and the stock prices of publicly traded fuel cell companies tend to perform well when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices, however, have the opposite effect. Consequently, oil price movements may affect the rates of return of the companies currently in the fuel cell industry. In this paper, we empirically analyze the stock price sensitivity of a sample of fuel cell companies to oil price risk. In particular, we look at both the impact and magnitude of oil price changes on fuel cell stock prices. Both symmetric and asymmetric oil price changes are considered. Our results indicate that oil price risk is not an important source of risk that impacts the equity returns of fuel cell companies. We find that market risk factors are much more important. We then offer suggestions on how to manage this risk. These results are useful for managers, investors, policy makers, and others who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy. (author)

  4. Preparation of gas diffusion layers for PEMFC fuel cells using carbon fibers; Elaboracao de uma camada de difusao de gas a partir de fibras de carbono para aplicacao em celulas combustiveis do tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.N.; Kunsti, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Departamento de Metalurgia (PPGEM) - Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Corrosao (LAPEC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vargas, J.V.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana - Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, PR (Brazil); Amico, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Departamento de Materiais, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The electrode/membrane system, called MEA, is the fundamental unit of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell). Within the MEA, the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is the bridge between the flow field and the catalyst layer. One of the important elements in a GDL is the substrate, typically a carbon cloth or paper, that has to be an excellent electrical conductor and show mechanical strength along with thermal and chemical stability. In this work, GDLs were produced from a suspension containing short carbon fibers in water-based polyurethane and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) resins with appropriate characteristics to be used in low temperature fuel cells. The obtained GDL was characterized regarding its wettability, electrical conductivity and morphological aspects, evaluated by SEM. (author)

  5. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  6. 熔融碳酸盐燃料电池材料的腐蚀与防护%CORROSION AND PROTECTION FOR MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾潮流; 吴维

    2001-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is an energy conversion device that converts chemical energy into electricity by oxidation of hydrogen or fossil fuels. The state-of-the-art MCFC consists of a porous anode made of nickel with 2 to 10% Cr chromium,a matrix tile of LiA1O2 and a porous in situ oxidized and lithiated nickel oxide cathode. The cells are connected in series by metal bipolar plates usually made of Fe or Ni-based alloys. The development of the MCFC has reached the MWscale pilot plant stage,but the corrosion problems of major materials greatly inhibit the commercial applications of the MCFC.Corrosion in the MCFC takes two principal forms,i.e.the dissolution of NiO cathode and the corrosion of hardware such as separator plates. Despite the relatively many papers,the corrosion mechanism in the MCFC still continues to be not fully understood. Present paper reviewed the research progresses in corrosion and protection of the anode,cathode and bipolar plates of the MCFC.Some problems yet to be elucidated were suggested.%熔融碳酸盐燃料电池(MCFC)是一种通过氢或矿物燃料的氧化将化学能直接转化成电能的能源转化装置.目前电池一般由含Cr量为2-10%(mass)的多孔Ni-Cr合金阳极、LiAlO2电解质板及多孔NiO阴极组成.单体电池间通过材质为Fe或Ni基合金的金属双极板串联连接.目前MCFC已达MW级水平,但主要电池材料的腐蚀极大地阻碍了其商业化应用.MCFC中的腐蚀主要表现为2种形式,即NiO阴极的溶解和金属部件如双极板的腐蚀.目前已有不少有关MCFC材料腐蚀的研究报道,但对其腐蚀机制仍未完全澄清.本文综述这方面的研究进展,并提出待澄清的若干问题.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Supported Pt-Ru-Ni as Methanol Electro-Oxidation Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Ye; Shengzhou Chen; Xinfa Dong; Weiming Lin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-Ni catalysts were prepared by chemical reduction of metal precursors with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The crystallographic properties and composition of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and the catalytic activity and stability for methanol electro-oxidation were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear sweep voltammetries (LSV), and chronoamperometry (CA). The results show that the catalysts exhibit face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.The particle size of Pt-Ru-Ni/CNTs catalyst is about 4.8 nm. The catalytic activity and stability of the Pt-Ru-Ni/CNTs catalyst are higher than those of Pt-Ru/CNTs catalyst.

  8. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P

    2012-08-06

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  9. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  10. Fabrication, testing and modelling of palladium membranes for fuel cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Robin Jonathan.; Stone, Richard; Richard Stone

    2004-01-01

    Increasing carbon emissions and insecurities in oil supply have led to heightened interest in hydrogen powered fuel cells. Preferably, the cell runs on hydrogen gas, though due to the sensitivity of the catalytic components in the fuel cell to carbon monoxide, the hydrogen must be extremely pure (typically

  11. DoD Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Gabrielle

    2007-04-30

    A grant was awarded to PPL EnergyPlus, LLC for two (2) 250kW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells at Pepperidge Farm, Inc. on 9/30/03. Pepperidge Farm subsequently signed a contract for one 250kW fuel cell. A request was made and granted to apply the award for the second fuel cell to the Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers (see attached email). This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at Pepperidge Farm, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut and a fuel cell power plant located at Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers, New York, New York. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plants under a contract with Pepperidge Farm and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. Two DFC 300 fuel cells, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT were selected for the project. The fuel cell located at Pepperidge Farm successfully operated from January 16, 2006 to January 15, 2007. The fuel cell located at Sheraton New York Hotel & Tower successfully operated from May 19, 2005 to May 18, 2006.This report discusses the performance of these plants during these periods.

  12. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  13. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  14. Catalytic activity vs. size correlation in platinum catalysts of PEM fuel cells prepared on carbon black by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nores-Pondal, F.J.; Granada, M.; Corti, H.R. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vilella, I.M.J.; de Miguel, S.R.; Scelza, O.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Universidad Nacional del Litoral) - CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Troiani, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    In this work nanoparticulated platinum catalysts have been prepared on carbon Vulcan XC-72 using three methods starting with chloroplatinic acid as a precursor: (i) formic acid as a reductor agent; (ii) impregnation method followed by reduction in hydrogen atmosphere at moderated temperature; and (iii) microwave-assisted reduction in ethylene glycol. The catalytic and size studies were also performed on a commercial Pt catalyst (E-Tek, De Nora). The characterization of the particle size and distribution was performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the catalytic and electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts were determined by studying the cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction (CHD) and the behavior under cyclic voltammetry (CV) in sulfuric acid solutions. The measured electrochemical activity, along with the hydrogen chemisorption of the catalysts allows the estimation of effective particle sizes, which are much larger than those measured by TEM and XRD. The catalysts prepared by reduction with formic acid and ethylene glycol (microwave-assisted) show electrochemical activities very close to those of the commercial catalyst, and are almost insensitive to the Pt dispersion or Pt particle size. The chemical activity in CHD correlates well with the metallic dispersion determined by hydrogen chemisorption, indicating similar accesibility of H{sub 2} and cyclohexane to the catalyst surface. (author)

  15. A comparison of redox polymer and enzyme co-immobilization on carbon electrodes to provide membrane-less glucose/O2 enzymatic fuel cells with improved power output and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengaraj, Saravanan; Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2011-12-15

    Glassy carbon and graphite electrodes modified with films of enzyme and osmium redox polymer, cross linked with poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether, were used for elaboration of a glucose/O(2) enzymatic fuel cell. The redox polymers [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(polyvinylimidazole)(10)Cl](+) and [Os(4,4'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(polyvinylimidazole)(10)Cl](+) were selected to facilitate transfer of electrons from the glucose oxidase (GOx) active site to the T1 Cu site of multicopper oxygenases of Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThLacc) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD). Maximum power density at pH 5.5 of 3.5 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.35 V was obtained for an assembled membrane-less fuel cell based on ThLacc on glassy carbon as cathode, in the presence of 0.1 M glucose, 37 °C, with lower power observed at pH 7.4 and 4.5. Replacement of the ThLacc cathode with that of MvBOD produced 10 μW cm(-2) at 0.25 V under pseudo-physiological conditions. Replacement of glassy carbon with graphite as base electrode material resulted in increased redox polymer loading, leading to an increase in power output to 43 μW cm(-2) at 0.25 V under similar conditions. Improved stabilization of biofilms was achieved through covalent anchoring of enzyme and redox polymer on graphite electrodes, derivatized via electrochemical reduction of the diazonium cation generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine. Enzymatic fuel cells using this approach retained 70% power at 24 h, whereas fuel cells prepared without chemical anchoring to graphite retained only 10% of power over the same interval. PMID:22005596

  16. Template synthesis of aligned carbon nanotube arrays using glucose as a carbon source: Pt decoration of inner and outer nanotube surfaces for fuel-cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenhai [Department of Chemistry Key Lab of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, Qiang; Li, Jinghong [Department of Chemistry Key Lab of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-03-25

    A facile method is developed to synthesize aligned arrays of open-ended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via in situ glucose polymerization in the inner pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates under hydrothermal conditions, followed by carbonization at high temperature. Pt nanoparticles are decorated on the surfaces of the as-prepared CNTs using the incipient wet method based on the use of NaBH{sub 4} as a reductant. Characterization of the resulting structures by transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the Pt nanoparticles are anchored on both the inner and outer walls of CNTs, thus giving rise to a shell-core-shell-like nanotube composite. The electrocatalytic properties of the Pt-CNT-Pt electrodes are investigated for methanol oxidation by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric measurements. It is found that the hybrid electrodes show superior catalytic performance compared to commercial carbon-black-supported Pt. The increased catalytic efficiency of Pt might be a result of the unique morphology of these structures. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  18. Fuel choice, nuclear energy, climate and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the second time since the start of commercial nuclear electricity generation, an accident has the world wondering if uranium will be among the future fuel choices in electricity production. Unfortunate when one considers the low-carbon footprint of this energy option. An accident involving a nuclear power plant, or more appropriately the perceived risks associated with an accident at a nuclear power plant, is but one of the issues that makes the impact assessment process related to nuclear energy projects challenging. Other aspects, including the time scales associated with their siting, licensing, operation and decommissioning, also contribute to the challenge. Strategic environmental assessments for future fuel choices in electricity generation, particularly ones that consider the use of life cycle assessment information, would allow for the effective evaluation of the issues identified above. But more importantly from an impact assessment perspective, provide for a comparative assertion for public disclosure on the environmental impacts of fuel choice. This would provide the public and government decision makers with a more complete view of the role nuclear energy may be able to play in mitigating the climate and carbon impacts of increased electricity production, and place issues of cost, complexity and scale in a more understandable context.

  19. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  20. Fuel cell commercialization — beyond the 'Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells' (NOMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfass, J. A.; Glenn, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells (NOMO) was released in Oct. 1988 by the American Public Power Association. Its goal was to identify a manufacturer for commercializing a multi-megawatt fuel cell power plant with attractive cost and performance characteristics, supported by a realistic, yet aggressive commercialization plan, leading to mid-1990s application. Energy Research Corporation's program to commercialize its 2-MW internal-reforming carbonate fuel cell was selected. The program was refined in the development of the Principles and Framework for Commercializing Direct Fuel Cell Power Plants, which defines buyer responsibilities for promotion and coordination of information development, supplier responsibilities for meeting certain milestones and for sharing the results of success in a royalty agreement, and risk management features. Twenty-three electric and gas utilities in the US and Canada have joined the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group to support the buyers' obligations in this program. The City of Santa Clara, CA; Electric Power Research Institute; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Southern California Gas Company; Southern California Edison; National Rural Electric Cooperative Association; and Pacific Gas & Electric, have formed the Santa Clara Demonstration Group to build the first 2-MW power plant. The preliminary design for this demonstration is nearly complete. Integrated testing of a 20-kW stack with the complete balance-of-plant, has been successfully accomplished by Pacific Gas & Electric at its test facility in San Ramon, CA.