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Sample records for carbonate crystals precipitated

  1. Carbonate crystals precipitated by freshwater bacteria and their use as a limestone consolidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarreño, Dania V; Inkpen, Robert; May, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation is known to be a natural phenomenon associated with a wide range of bacterial species. Recently, the ability of bacteria to produce carbonates has been studied for its value in the conservation of limestone monuments and concrete. This paper describes investigations of carbonate crystals precipitated by freshwater bacteria by means of histological (Loeffler's methylene blue and alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff stain) and fluorescence (CTC [5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride]) stains, determination of cell viability inside carbonate crystals, and pore size reduction in limestone by image analysis. Carbonate crystals were found to be composed of bacteria embedded in a matrix of neutral and acid polysaccharides. Cell viability inside the carbonate crystals decreased with time. On stone, bacteria were found to form carbonate crystals, with only a few bacteria remaining as isolated cells or as cell aggregates. Pore size was reduced by about 50%, but no blockage was detected. Taken together, the results of this research provide some reassurance to conservators that biocalcification by bacteria could be a safe consolidation tool in a restoration strategy for building stone conservation.

  2. The preparation and crystal types of precipitated Calcium Carbonate%沉淀碳酸钙的制备与晶型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方卫民

    2000-01-01

      This review introduces the basic principle and the preparation method of a series of crystal types that calcium carbonate is precipitated and discusses various factors for control particle size.%  本文介绍了生产沉淀CaCO3的基本原理和各种晶型的制备方法控制粒径大小的因素。

  3. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, relevant advances on graphene as a building block of integrated circuits (ICs have been demonstrated. Graphene growth and device fabrication related processing has been steadily and intensively powered due to commercial interest; however, there are many challenges associated with the incorporation of graphene into commercial applications which includes challenges associated with the synthesis of this material. Specifically, the controlled deposition of single layer large single crystal graphene on arbitrary supports, is particularly challenging. Previously, we have reported the first demonstration of the transformation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon (FIBID-C into patterned graphitic layers by metal-assisted thermal treatment (Ni foils. In this present work, we continue exploiting the FIBID-C approach as a route for graphene deposition. Here, thin patterned Fe layers are used for the catalysis of graphenization and graphitization. We demonstrate the formation of high quality single and few layer graphene, which evidences, the possibility of using Fe as a catalyst for graphene deposition. The mechanism is understood as the minute precipitation of atomic carbon after supersaturation of some iron carbides formed under a high temperature treatment. As a consequence of the complete wetting of FIBID-C and patterned Fe layers, which enable graphene growth, the as-deposited patterns do not preserve their original shape after the thermal treatment

  4. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Optimum conditions for microbial carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2010-11-01

    The type of bacteria, bacterial cell concentration, initial urea concentration, reaction temperature, the initial Ca(2+) concentration, ionic strength, and the pH of the media are some factors that control the activity of the urease enzyme, and may have a significant impact on microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP). Factorial experiments were designed based on these factors to determine the optimum conditions that take into consideration economic advantage while at the same time giving quality results. Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859 was used at constant temperature (25°C) and ionic strength with varying amounts of urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentration. The results indicate that the rate of ureolysis (k(urea)) increases with bacterial cell concentration, and the bacterial cell concentration had a greater influence on k(urea) than initial urea concentration. At 25 mM Ca(2+) concentration, increasing bacterial cell concentration from 10(6) to 10(8)cells mL⁻¹ increased the CaCO(3) precipitated and CO(2) sequestrated by over 30%. However, when the Ca(2+) concentration was increased 10-fold to 250 mM Ca(2+), the amount of CaCO(3) precipitated and CO(2) sequestrated increased by over 100% irrespective of initial urea concentration. Consequently, the optimum conditions for MCP under our experimental conditions were 666 mM urea and 250 mM Ca(2+) at 2.3×10⁸ cells mL⁻¹ bacterial cell concentration. However, a greater CaCO(3) deposition is achievable with higher concentrations of urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cells so long as the respective quantities are within their economic advantage. X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray analyzes confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO(3) and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with little vaterite crystals.

  6. Calcium carbonate precipitation in the Cueva di Watapana on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitates as low Mg-calcite and aragonite in slightly brackish water in a cave in the Pleistocene Middle Terrace of southern Bonaire. The calcium carbonate precipitates at the atmosphere-water interface forming floating calcite scales (calcite ice). Aragonite crystals frequently

  7. Atmospheric deposition of organic carbon via precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavorivska, Lidiia; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; DeWalle, David R.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the major pathway for removal of organic carbon (OC) from the atmosphere, affecting both atmospheric and landscape processes. Transfers of OC from the atmosphere to land occur as wet deposition (via precipitation) and as dry deposition (via surface settling of particles and gases). Despite current understanding of the significance of organic carbon inputs with precipitation to carbon budgets, transfers of organic matter between the atmosphere and land are not explicitly included in most carbon cycle models due to limited data, highlighting the need for further information. Studies regarding the abundance of OC in precipitation are relatively sparse, in part due to the fact that concentrations of organics in precipitation and their associated rates of atmospheric deposition are not routinely measured as a part of major deposition monitoring networks. Here, we provide a new data synthesis from 83 contemporary studies published in the peer reviewed literature where organic matter in precipitation was measured around the world. We compiled data regarding the concentrations of organic carbon in precipitation and associated rates of atmospheric deposition of organic carbon. We calculated summary statistics in a common set of units, providing insights into the magnitude and regional variability of OC in precipitation. A land to ocean gradient is evident in OC concentrations, with marine sites generally showing lower values than continental sites. Our synthesis highlights gaps in the data and challenges for data intercomparison. There is a need to concentrate sampling efforts in areas where anthropogenic OC emissions are on the rise (Asia, South America), as well as in remote sites suggesting background conditions, especially in Southern Hemisphere. It is also important to acquire more data for marine rainwater at various distances from the coast in order to assess a magnitude of carbon transfer between the land and the ocean. Our integration of

  8. Precipitation and Crystallization Kinetics in Silica Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Fabian; Rieder, Julian; Klein, Regina; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Melero-Garcia, Emilio; García-Ruiz, Juan-Manuel; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2017-02-17

    Silica gardens are extraordinary plant-like structures resulting from the complex interplay of relatively simple inorganic components. Recent work has highlighted that macroscopic self-assembly is accompanied by the spontaneous formation of considerable chemical gradients, which induce a cascade of coupled dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation processes occurring over timescales as long as several days. In the present study, this dynamic behavior was investigated for silica gardens based on iron and cobalt chloride by means of two synchrotron-based techniques, which allow the determination of concentration profiles and time-resolved monitoring of diffraction patterns, thus giving direct insight into the progress of dissolution and crystallization phenomena in the system. On the basis of the collected data, a kinetic model is proposed to describe the relevant reactions on a fundamental physicochemical level. The results show that the choice of the metal cations (as well as their counterions) is crucial for the development of silica gardens in both the short and long term (i.e. during tube formation and upon subsequent slow equilibration), and provide important clues for understanding the properties of related structures in geochemical and industrial environments.

  9. Oxygen precipitation behavior in heavily arsenic doped silicon crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haringer, Stephan; Gambaro, Daniela; Porrini, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Silicon crystals containing different levels of arsenic concentration and oxygen content were grown, and samples were taken at various positions along the crystal, to study the influence of three main factors, i.e. the initial oxygen content, the dopant concentration and the thermal history, on the nucleation of oxygen precipitates during crystal growth and cooling in the puller. The crystal thermal history was reconstructed by means of computer modeling, simulating the temperature distribution in the crystal at several growth stages. The oxygen precipitation was characterized after a thermal cycle of 4 h at 800 °C for nuclei stabilization +16 h at 1000 °C for nuclei growth. Oxygen precipitates were counted under microscope on the cleaved sample surface after preferential etching. Lightly doped silicon samples were also included, as reference. Our results show that even in heavily arsenic doped silicon the oxygen precipitation is a strong function of the initial oxygen concentration, similar to what has been observed for lightly doped silicon. In addition, a precipitation retardation effect is observed in the arsenic doped samples when the dopant concentration is higher than 1.7×1019 cm-3 compared to lightly doped samples with the same initial oxygen content and crystal thermal history. Finally, a long permanence time of the crystal in the temperature range between 450 °C and 750 °C enhances the oxygen precipitation, showing that this is an effective temperature range for oxygen precipitation nucleation in heavily arsenic doped silicon.

  10. Ice crystal precipitation at Dome C site (East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santachiara, G.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, falling ice crystals were collected on glass slides covered with a thin layer of 2% formvar in chloroform at the Dome Concordia site (Dome C), Antarctica. Samplings were performed in the framework of the 27th Italian Antarctica expedition of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica in the period 21 February-6 August 2012. Events of clear-sky precipitations and precipitations from clouds were considered and the replicas obtained were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Several shapes of ice crystals were identified, including "diamond dust" (plates, pyramids, hollow and solid columns), and crystal aggregates varying in complexity. Single events often contained both small (10 μm to 50 μm) and large (hundreds of microns) crystals, suggesting that crystals can form simultaneously near the ground (height of a few hundred metres) and at higher layers (height of thousands of metres). Images of sampled crystal replicas showed that single bullets are not produced separately, but by the disintegration of combinations of bullets. Rimed ice crystals were absent in the Dome C samples, i.e. the only mode of crystal growth was water vapour diffusion. On considering the aerosol in the sampled crystals, we reached the conclusion that inertial impaction, interception and Brownian motion were insufficient to explain the scavenged aerosol. We therefore presume that phoretic forces play a role in scavenging during the crystal growth process.

  11. Mass Transfer and Kinetics Study of Heterogeneous Semi-Batch Precipitation of Magnesium Carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.

    2014-01-01

    on the dissolution of Mg(OH)(2). In the researched system, the main driver of the precipitation kinetics was the mass transfer of CO2. Nesquehonite (MgCO3 center dot 3H(2)O), as needle-like crystals, was precipitated as the main product. Raman spectroscopy can serve as a potential tool to monitor the carbonation......Precipitation kinetics and mass transfer of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) hydrates from a reaction of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)(2)) and CO2 were analyzed. The effect of CO2 flow rate and mixing intensity on precipitation was investigated under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Raman...... spectroscopy was used to determine the composition of the solids during semi-batch crystallization. The obtained spectra revealed the dissolution of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of MgCO3. The precipitation rate increased with higher gas flow rate. The rotation speed of the stirrer had a significant effect...

  12. Relationship Between Equilibrium Forms of Lysozyme Crystals and Precipitant Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Arunan

    1996-01-01

    Molecular forces, such as electrostatic, hydrophobic, van der Waals and steric forces, are known to be important in determining protein interactions. These forces are affected by the solution conditions and changing the pH, temperature or the ionic strength of the solution can sharply affect protein interactions. Several investigations of protein crystallization have shown that this process is also strongly dependent on solution conditions. As the ionic strength of the solution is increased, the initially soluble protein may either crystallize or form an amorphous precipitate at high ionic strengths. Studies done on the model protein hen egg white lysozyme have shown that different crystal forms can be easily and reproducibly obtained, depending primarily on the anion used to desolubilize the protein. In this study we employ pyranine to probe the effect of various anions on the water structure. Additionally, lysozyme crystallization was carried out at these conditions and the crystal form was determined by X-ray crystallography. The goal of the study was to understand the physico-chemical basis for the effect of changing the anion concentration on the equilibrium form of lysozyme crystals. It will also verify the hypothesis that the anions, by altering the bulk water structure in the crystallizing solutions, alter the surface energy of the between the crystal faces and the solution and, consequently, the equilibrium form of the crystals.

  13. Pore-size-dependent calcium carbonate precipitation controlled by surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Andrew G; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Allard, Lawrence F; Bañuelos, José L; Rother, Gernot; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Cole, David R; Waychunas, Glenn A

    2014-06-03

    Induced mineral precipitation is potentially important for the remediation of contaminants, such as during mineral trapping during carbon or toxic metal sequestration. The prediction of precipitation reactions is complicated by the porous nature of rocks and soils and their interaction with the precipitate, introducing transport and confinement effects. Here X-ray scattering measurements, modeling, and electron microscopies were used to measure the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation in a porous amorphous silica (CPG) that contained two discrete distributions of pore sizes: nanopores and macropores. To examine the role of the favorability of interaction between the substrate and precipitate, some of the CPG was functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) similar to those known to enhance nucleation densities on planar substrates. Precipitation was found to occur exclusively in macropores in the native CPG, while simultaneous precipitation in nanopores and macropores was observed in the functionalized CPG. The rate of precipitation in the nanopores estimated from the model of the X-ray scattering matched that measured on calcite single crystals. These results suggest that the pore-size distribution in which a precipitation reaction preferentially occurs depends on the favorability of interaction between substrate and precipitate, something not considered in most studies of precipitation in porous media.

  14. Microbially Mediated-Precipitation of Cadmium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Serku; Kim, Yumi; Lee, Youngjae; Rohl, Yul

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the microbially mediated precipitation of cadmium using microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths and to characterize the mineralogical properties of the precipitates. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained carbonate forming microorganisms such as Proteus mirabilis. The microorganisms mediated Cd-precipitation with Cd-acetate, but no precipitates were formed without the microbes in D-1 medium. XRD analysis showed the precipitates were poorly crystalline Cd-carbonates (CdCO3). SEM and TEM-EDS analyses showed that the Cd-carbonate minerals were irregular in shape, 20-30 nm in size, and composed of C, O, and Cd. Therefore, microbially mediated precipitation of cadmium carbonates could be used as a precursor of CdO nanoparticles and could play an important role in Cd immobilization in Cd-contaminated water as well as CO2 fixation in natural environments.

  15. Formation of nuclei during precipitation in metallic mixed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming that the energy of a mixed crystal can be calculated by simple addition of neighboring bonds, the nuclear formation energy is calculated for precipation in a super-saturated binary mixed crystal. From this can be determined the frequency of the formation of nuclei. From the calculation of a numerical example we can obtain, for the degree of sub-cooling at which the frequency of the formation of nuclei reaches its maximum, satisfactory agreement with available measurements of the rate of precipitation.

  16. Analysis of Shannon entropy for protein crystallization and prediction of crystallization pH and precipitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Priede, Mónica; García-Granda, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    This is a new attempt at analysing crystallization data from Protein Data Bank. In line with the idea that crystallization conditions are intimately related with amino acid sequences, we have computed the Shannon entropy of polypeptides and polynucleotides and we have discovered a relationship between Shannon entropy and molecular weight, and also between the entropy of polypeptides, and the precipitants used in crystallization experiments. In fact, the Shannon entropy and the molecular weight of proteins are good precipitant predictors. On the other hand, we have proposed the hypothesis that homologous proteins may have similar crystallization conditions, and we have tried to find evidence that supports it, predicting the crystallization pH of a large amount of polypeptide sequences by means of a nearest neighbour approach combined with local sequence alignment.

  17. Biogrout, ground improvement by microbial induced carbonate precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Paassen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogrout is a new ground improvement method based on microbially induced precipitation of calcium carbonate (MICP). When supplied with suitable substrates, micro-organisms can catalyze biochemical conversions in the subsurface resulting in precipitation of inorganic minerals, which change the mechan

  18. The large-scale process of microbial carbonate precipitation for nickel remediation from an industrial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Li, Weila; Zhan, Lu; Huang, Minsheng; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam

    2016-12-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation is known as an efficient process for the remediation of heavy metals from contaminated soils. In the present study, a urease positive bacterial isolate, identified as Bacillus cereus NS4 through 16S rDNA sequencing, was utilized on a large scale to remove nickel from industrial soil contaminated by the battery industry. The soil was highly contaminated with an initial total nickel concentration of approximately 900 mg kg(-1). The soluble-exchangeable fraction was reduced to 38 mg kg(-1) after treatment. The primary objective of metal stabilization was achieved by reducing the bioavailability through immobilizing the nickel in the urease-driven carbonate precipitation. The nickel removal in the soils contributed to the transformation of nickel from mobile species into stable biominerals identified as calcite, vaterite, aragonite and nickelous carbonate when analyzed under XRD. It was proven that during precipitation of calcite, Ni(2+) with an ion radius close to Ca(2+) was incorporated into the CaCO3 crystal. The biominerals were also characterized by using SEM-EDS to observe the crystal shape and Raman-FTIR spectroscopy to predict responsible bonding during bioremediation with respect to Ni immobilization. The electronic structure and chemical-state information of the detected elements during MICP bioremediation process was studied by XPS. This is the first study in which microbial carbonate precipitation was used for the large-scale remediation of metal-contaminated industrial soil.

  19. Microbially induced and microbially catalysed precipitation: two different carbonate factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The landmark paper by Schlager (2003) has revealed three types of benthic carbonate production referred to as "carbonate factories", operative at different locations at different times in Earth history. The tropical or T-factory comprises the classical platforms and fringing reefs and is dominated by carbonate precipitation by autotrophic calcifying metazoans ("biotically controlled" precipitation). The cool or C-factory is also biotically controlled but via heterotrophic, calcifying metazoans in cold and deep waters at the continental margins. A further type is the mud-mound or M-factory, where carbonate precipitation is supported by microorganisms but not controlled by a specific enzymatic pathway ("biotically induced" precipitation). How exactly the microbes influence precipitation is still poorly understood. Based on recent experimental and field studies, the microbial influence on modern mud mound and microbialite growth includes two fundamentally different processes: (1) Metabolic activity of microbes may increase the saturation state with respect to a particular mineral phase, thereby indirectly driving the precipitation of the mineral phase: microbially induced precipitation. (2) In a situation, where a solution is already supersaturated but precipitation of the mineral is inhibited by a kinetic barrier, microbes may act as a catalyser, i.e. they lower the kinetic barrier: microbially catalysed precipitation. Such a catalytic effect can occur e.g. via secreted polymeric substances or specific chemical groups on the cell surface, at which the minerals nucleate or which facilitate mechanistically the bonding of new ions to the mineral surface. Based on these latest developments in microbialite formation, I propose to extend the scheme of benthic carbonate factories of Schlager et al. (2003) by introducing an additional branch distinguishing microbially induced from microbially catalysed precipitation. Although both mechanisms could be operative in a M

  20. Rock fracture grouting with microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James M.; MacLachlan, Erica; El Mountassir, Gráinne; Lunn, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation has been proposed for soil stabilization, soil strengthening, and permeability reduction as an alternative to traditional cement and chemical grouts. In this paper, we evaluate the grouting of fine aperture rock fractures with calcium carbonate, precipitated through urea hydrolysis, by the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii. Calcium carbonate was precipitated within a small-scale and a near field-scale (3.1 m2) artificial fracture consisting of a rough rock lower surfaces and clear polycarbonate upper surfaces. The spatial distribution of the calcium carbonate precipitation was imaged using time-lapse photography and the influence on flow pathways revealed from tracer transport imaging. In the large-scale experiment, hydraulic aperture was reduced from 276 to 22 μm, corresponding to a transmissivity reduction of 1.71 × 10-5 to 8.75 × 10-9 m2/s, over a period of 12 days under constantly flowing conditions. With a modified injection strategy a similar three orders of magnitude reduction in transmissivity was achieved over a period of 3 days. Calcium carbonate precipitated over the entire artificial fracture with strong adhesion to both upper and lower surfaces and precipitation was controlled to prevent clogging of the injection well by manipulating the injection fluid velocity. These experiments demonstrate that microbially induced carbonate precipitation can successfully be used to grout a fracture under constantly flowing conditions and may be a viable alternative to cement based grouts when a high level of hydraulic sealing is required and chemical grouts when a more durable grout is required.

  1. Synthesis of BiFeO3 by carbonate precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Kothai; Rajeev Ranjan

    2012-04-01

    Magnetoelectric multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) was synthesized by a simple carbonate precipitation technique of metal nitrate solutions. X-ray powder diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the precipitate consists of an intimate mixture of crystalline bismuth carbonate and an amorphous hydroxide of iron. The precipitate yielded BiFeO3 at an optimal calcination temperature of ∼560°C. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed 1:1 ratio between Bi and Fe in the oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirmed that Fe to be in +3 oxidation states both in the precipitated powder and BiFeO3. The synthesized BFO exhibits a very weak ferromagnetic correlation at room temperature and the degree of which increases slightly on cooling down to 10 K suggesting alteration in the long range spatial modulation of the spins arrangement as compared to the bulk BiFeO3.

  2. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (-4.3 to -16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from -27.5 to -25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic carbonate

  3. The skeletal organic matrix from Mediterranean coral Balanophyllia europaea influences calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Goffredo

    Full Text Available Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions.

  4. Formate oxidation driven calcium carbonate precipitation by Methylocystis parvus OBBP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, G; De Muynck, W; Ho, A.; Arvaniti, EC; Hosseinkhani, B; Ramos, JA; Rahier, H; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) applied in the construction industry poses several disadvantages such as ammonia release to the air and nitric acid production. An alternative MICP from calcium formate by Methylocystis parvus OBBP is presented in this study to overcome these disadv

  5. Microbially-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Roh, Yul

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of carbonate minerals using microorganisms (Wu Do-1) enriched from rhodoliths. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that Wu Do-1 mainly contained Proteus mirabilis. The pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.3 over the first 4 days of incubation due to microbial oxidation of organic acids, after which it increased to 7.8 over the remaining incubation period. XRD analysis showed that the precipitates were Mg-rich cal- cite (MgxCa(1-x)CO3), whereas no precipitates were formed without the addition of Wu Do-1 in D-1 medium. SEM-EDS analyses showed that the Mg-rich calcite had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of Ca, Si and Mg with an extracelluar polymeric substance (EPS). In addition, TEM-EDS analyses revealed they were hexagon in shape, 500-700 nm in size, and composed of Ca, Mg, C, and O. These results indicated that Wu Do-1 induced precipitation of Mg-rich calcite on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Ca and/or Mg ions. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate nanoparticles may play an important role in metal and carbon biogeochemistry, as well as in carbon sequestration in natural environments.

  6. The nacre protein perlucin nucleates growth of calcium carbonate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, S; Arnoldi, M; Khoshnavaz, S; Treccani, L; Kuntz, M; Mann, K; Grathwohl, G; Fritz, M

    2003-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous solution was used to investigate native nacre of the marine snail Haliotis laevigata on the microscopic scale and the interaction of purified nacre proteins with calcium carbonate crystals on the nanoscopic scale. These investigations were controlled by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy (LM) and biochemical methods. For investigations with AFM and SEM, nacre was cleaved parallel to the aragonite tablets in this biogenic polymer/mineral composite. Multilamellar organic sheets consisting of a core of chitin with layers of proteins attached on both sides lay between the aragonite layers consisting of confluent aragonite tablets. Cleavage appeared to occur between the aragonite tablet layer and the protein layer. AFM images revealed a honeycomb-like structure to the organic material with a diameter of the 'honeycombs' equalling that of the aragonite tablets. The walls of the structures consisted of filaments, which were suggested to be collagen. The flat regions of the honeycomb-like structures exhibited a hole with a diameter of more than 100 nm. When incubated in saturated calcium carbonate solution, aragonite needles with perfect vertical orientation grew on the proteinacous surface. After treatment with proteinase K, no growth of orientated aragonite needles was detected. Direct AFM measurements on dissolving and growing calcite crystals revealed a surface structure with straight steps the number of which decreased with crystal growth. When the purified nacre protein perlucin was added to the growth solution (a super-saturated calcium carbonate solution) new layers were nucleated and the number of steps increased. Anion exchange chromatography of the water-soluble proteins revealed a mixture of about 10 different proteins. When this mixture was dialysed against saturated calcium carbonate solution and sodium chloride, calcium carbonate crystals precipitated together with perlucin leaving the other proteins

  7. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  8. Model of apparent crystal growth rate and kinetics of seeded precipitation from sodium aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bin; LIU Zhi-jian; XU Xiao-hui; ZHOU Qiu-sheng; PENG Zhi-hong; LIU Gui-hua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the population balance equation in a batch crystallizer characteristic of seeded precipitation, a model to calculate the rate of apparent crystal growth of aluminum hydroxide from the size distribution was deve-loped. The simulation results indicate that the rate of apparent crystal growth during seeded precipitation exhibits a manifest dependence on the crystal size. In general, there is an obvious increase in the apparent crystal growth rate with the augment in crystal size. The apparent activation energy increases with the increase of characteristic crystal size, which indicates that the growth of small crystals is controlled by surface chemical reaction; it is gradually controlled by both the surface reaction and diffusion with the augment in crystal size.

  9. Magnesium isotope fractionation in bacterial mediated carbonate precipitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, I. J.; Pearce, C. R.; Polacskek, T.; Cockell, C.; Hammond, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential component of life, with pivotal roles in the generation of cellular energy as well as in plant chlorophyll [1]. The bio-geochemical cycling of Mg is associated with mass dependant fractionation (MDF) of the three stable Mg isotopes [1]. The largest MDF of Mg isotopes has been recorded in carbonates, with foraminiferal tests having δ26Mg compositions up to 5 ‰ lighter than modern seawater [2]. Magnesium isotopes may also be fractionated during bacterially mediated carbonate precipitation and such carbonates are known to have formed in both modern and ancient Earth surface environments [3, 4], with cyanobacteria having a dominant role in carbonate formation during the Archean. In this study, we aim to better constrain the extent to which Mg isotope fractionation occurs during cellular processes, and to identify when, and how, this signal is transferred to carbonates. To this end we have undertaken biologically-mediated carbonate precipitation experiments that were performed in artificial seawater, but with the molar Mg/Ca ratio set to 0.6 and with the solution spiked with 0.4% yeast extract. The bacterial strain used was marine isolate Halomonas sp. (gram-negative). Experiments were run in the dark at 21 degree C for two to three months and produced carbonate spheres of various sizes up to 300 μm in diameter, but with the majority have diameters of ~100 μm. Control experiments run in sterile controls (`empty` medium without bacteria) yielded no precipitates, indicating a bacterial control on the precipitation. The carbonate spheres are produced are amenable to SEM, EMP and Mg isotopic analysis by MC-ICP-MS. Our new data will shed light on tracing bacterial signals in carbonates from the geological record. [1] Young & Galy (2004). Rev. Min. Geochem. 55, p197-230. [2] Pogge von Strandmann (2008). Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 9 DOI:10.1029/2008GC002209. [3] Castanier, et al. (1999). Sed. Geol. 126, 9-23. [4] Cacchio, et al. (2003

  10. Ultrasound influence upon calcium carbonate precipitation on bacterial cellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin; Jipa, Iuliana; Dobre, Tanase; Dobre, Loredana

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) on the calcium carbonate deposition on bacterial cellulose membranes was investigated using calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) as starting reactants. The composite materials containing bacterial cellulose-calcium carbonate were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and color measurements. The polymorphs of calcium carbonate that were deposited on bacterial cellulose membranes in the presence or in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation were calcite and vaterite. The morphology of the obtained crystals was influenced by the concentration of starting solutions and by the presence of ultrasonic irradiation. In the presence of ultrasonic irradiation the obtained crystals were bigger and in a larger variety of shapes than in the absence of ultrasounds: from cubes of calcite to spherical and flower-like vaterite particles. Bacterial cellulose could be a good matrix for obtaining different types of calcium carbonate crystals.

  11. Amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation by cellular biomineralization in mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiang

    Full Text Available The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation.

  12. Efifciency of Concrete Crack-healing based on Biological Carbonate Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Mian; QIAN Chunxiang; LI Ruiyang; RONG Hui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the capacity for crack-repair in concrete by developing a new way. The self-healing agent based on biological carbonate precipitation was developed. Crack-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens with this biochemical agent was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the precipitation in cracks. The healing efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water permeability after crack healing as well.The experimental results show that the applied biochemical agent can successfully improve the self-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens as larger cracks can be healed. The cracks with a width of 0.48 mm in the specimens with the biochemical agent are nearly fully healed by the precipitation after 80d repair. SEM and XRD analysis results demonstrate that the white precipitation in cracks is calcium carbonate, which displays spherical crystal morphology. Meanwhile, the water permeability test result shows that the biochemical agent can significantly decrease the water permeability of the cement paste specimens, the water permeability of specimens with the biochemical agent respectively decreases by 84%and 96%after 7 d and 28 d immersion in water, however the control specimens only respectively decrease by 41%and 60%, which indicates that the bacteria-based concrete appears to be a promising approach to increase concrete durability.

  13. Effect of some organic solvent-water mixtures composition on precipitated calcium carbonate in carbonation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate particles were obtained during carbonation of calcium hydroxide slurry with carbon dioxide. Aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol and glycerol were used as solvents. Concentration of organic additives in the reactive mixture was from 0% to 20% (vol). Precipitation process were performed in a stirred tank reactor equipped with gas distributor. Multimodal courses of particles size distribution were determined for produced CaCO3 particles. Calcium carbonate as calcite was precipitated in all experiments. The mean Sauter diameter of CaCO3 particles decreased when the concentration of all used organic additives increased. The amount of small particle fraction in the product increased with the increasing concentration of organic solvents. Similar physical properties of used liquid phase resulted in the similar characteristics of obtained particles.

  14. Precipitation of Co(2+) carbonates from aqueous solution: insights on the amorphous to crystalline transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Ángeles; Jiménez, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    water content. It was surprising the low solubility product (Ksp) of the new phase Co2CO3(OH)2 in the order of 10-30 and this could explain its appearance only after 7 days of aging. On the other hand, the high solubility product of amorphous is consistent with its instantaneous precipitation at the beginning of the reaction. Solution calorimetry shows a higher value of exothermic solution enthalpy for crystalline cobalt hydroxide carbonate and hence, the solubility result are confirmed. Although geochemical models indicated that aqueous solution was supersaturated with respect both phases, the sequence of obtained phases (first amorphous and next crystalline) indicate that the evolution of the saturation index has to be dropped with respect to amorphous phase with time. These results points towards a simultaneous dissolution of the amorphous and the precipitation of crystalline phase Co2CO3(OH)2 at the first stages of the reaction. González-López, J. ; Fernández-González, Á. ; Jiménez, A. (2015) Prepublication: Crystallization of nanostructured cobalt hydroxide carbonate at ambient conditions: a key precursor of Co3O4. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1180/minmag.2015.079.7.02

  15. Diffusion-reaction compromise the polymorphs of precipitated calcium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wang; Wenlai Huang; Yongsheng Han

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion is seldom considered by chemists and materialists in the preparation of materials while it plays an important role in the field of chemical engineering.If we look at crystallization at the atomic level,crystal growth in a solution starts from the diffusion of ions to the growing surface followed by the incorporation of ions into its lattice.Diffusion can be a rate determining step for the growth of crystals.In this paper,we take the crystallization of calcium carbonate as an example to illustrate the microscopic processes of diffusion and reaction and their compromising influence on the morphology of the crystals produced.The diffusion effect is studied in a specially designed three-cell reactor.Experiments show that a decrease of diffusion leads to retardation of supersaturation and the formation of a continuous concentration gradient in the reaction cell,thus promoting the formation of cubic calcite particles.The reaction rate is regulated by temperature.Increase of reaction rate favors the formation of needle-like aragonite particles.When diffusion and reaction play joint roles in the reaction system,their compromise dominates the formation of products,leading to a mixture of cubic and needle-like particles with a controllable ratio.Since diffusion and reaction are universal factors in the preparation of materials,the finding of this paper could be helpful in the controlled synthesis of other materials.

  16. Carbon Nanoparticles in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Eren San; Mustafa Okutan; O(g)uz K(o)ysal; Yusuf Yer-li

    2008-01-01

    Fullerene G60,C70,single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets are doped to nematic liquid crystal(LC)host in the same percentage.Planar samples of these mixtures are prepared and our measurements constitute an optimization basis for possible applications.Fullerene balls are found to be the best compatible material for optical aims and reorientation of LC molecules,while the carbon nanotubes experience some reorientation possibility in LC media and graphene layers are good barriers to preserve reorientation.

  17. PEDOGENIC CARBONATE δ13C AND ENVIRONMENTAL PRECIPITATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Catoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotopic analysis is a useful tool for investigating paleoenvironments, as the pedogenic carbonate δ13C is related to δ13CSOM and to the proportions of C3/C4 plants. In this work we interpreted the paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of carbonate precipitation in soils formed under different climates and during different geological ages. Samples were taken from a Bk (PR1, Holocene and from two Bkm horizons (PR2 and PR3, Pleistocene. When the mean δ13C plant values and the most plausible paleotemperatures were used in the evaluation, PR1 showed a lower percentage of C4 plants (48% than Pleistocene soils (~53%, in agreement with paleoclimate changes. When instead the δ13C values of current plants were used for PR1, C4 plants ranged from 59 (12°C to 66% (18°C, suggesting two possible interpretations: either plant species changed during the Holocene, or the plant mean values normally used in the literature are not suitable for Pleistocene reconstructions

  18. Model of phosphorus precipitation and crystal formation in electric arc furnace steel slag filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Wallace, Scott; Comeau, Yves

    2012-02-07

    The objective of this study was to develop a phosphorus retention mechanisms model based on precipitation and crystallization in electric arc furnace slag filters. Three slag columns were fed during 30 to 630 days with a reconstituted mining effluent at different void hydraulic retention times. Precipitates formed in columns were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. The proposed model is expressed in the following steps: (1) the rate limiting dissolution of slag is represented by the dissolution of CaO, (2) a high pH in the slag filter results in phosphorus precipitation and crystal growth, (3) crystal retention takes place by filtration, settling and growth densification, (4) the decrease in available reaction volume is caused by crystal and other particulate matter accumulation (and decrease in available reaction time), and (5) the pH decreases in the filter over time if the reaction time is too low (which results in a reduced removal efficiency). Crystal organization in a slag filter determines its phosphorus retention capacity. Supersaturation and water velocity affect crystal organization. A compact crystal organization enhances the phosphorus retention capacity of the filter. A new approach to define filter performance is proposed: saturation retention capacity is expressed in units of mg P/mL voids.

  19. From Carbon Nanotube Crystals to Carbon Nanotube Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhengjun; ZHAO Ye; ZHOU Ya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the very initial deposition stages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) and xylene (C8H10) for growing carbon nanotubes, and made clear that the mechanism for the self-organization behaviors of nanotubes at different growth stages by this approach. For instance, the organization of nanotubes into flower-like structures at prolonged deposition is developed from the crystal-like structures formed at early growth stages, both of which are closely related to and determined by the very initial deposition stages of this CVD approach. Based on this approach, ways have been established to build up different architectures of carbon nanotubes, by controlling the initial deposition stages of the CVD process, with which we have realized the selective growth of self-organized carbon nanotube structures. This study provides a new idea for growing carbon nanotube architectures by CVD.

  20. Carbonate precipitation by the thermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A model of carbon flow for an ancient microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, L.L.; Van Cleave, K. A.; Ostrom, P.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted using the archaeon bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus to determine chemical and isotopic fractionation of organic and inorganic carbon into mineral phases. Carbonate precipitation was induced in two different experiments using A. fulgidus to determine the relative abundance of organically derived carbon incorporated into carbonate minerals as well as to define any distinct phases or patterns that could be attributed to the precipitation process. One experiment used a medium containing 13C-depleted organic carbon and 13C-enriched inorganic carbon, and the other used a 14C-labeled organic carbon source. Results indicated that 0.9 - 24.8% organic carbon was incorporated into carbonates precipitated by A. fulgidus and that this process was mediated primarily by pH and CO2 emission from cells. Data showed that the carbon in the CO2 produced from this microorganism is incorporated into carbonates and that the rate at which precipitation occurs and the dynamics of the carbonate precipitation process are strongly mediated by the specific steps involved in the biochemical process for lactate oxidation by A. fulgidus.

  1. Carbonate precipitation by the thermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus: a model of carbon flow for an ancient microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ostrom

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted using the archaeon bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus to determine chemical and isotopic fractionation of organic and inorganic carbon into mineral phases. Carbonate precipitation was induced in two different experiments using A. fulgidus to determine the relative abundance of organically derived carbon incorporated into carbonate minerals as well as to define any distinct phases or patterns that could be attributed to the precipitation process. One experiment used a medium containing 13C-depleted organic carbon and 13C-enriched inorganic carbon, and the other used a 14C-labeled organic carbon source. Results indicated that 0.9–24.8% organic carbon was incorporated into carbonates precipitated by A. fulgidus and that this process was mediated primarily by pH and CO2 emission from cells. Data showed that the carbon in the CO2 produced from this microorganism is incorporated into carbonates and that the rate at which precipitation occurs and the dynamics of the carbonate precipitation process are strongly mediated by the specific steps involved in the biochemical process for lactate oxidation by A. fulgidus.

  2. Mechanism of calcium phosphates precipitation in liquid crystals; Mecanisme de precipitation de phosphates de calcium dans des cristaux liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelot, B.; Zemb, T

    2004-04-01

    The possibility of using as a precursor an easily wet meso-porous powder would be a breakthrough in the preparation of nuclear waste storage ceramics. A concentrated solution containing ions to be stored would wet a dry powder and then, subjected to mild compression, lead to a micro-crystalline matrix of calcium phosphate at acceptable temperatures. Since no porous calcium phosphate different from calcined bone (patented) is described as porous precursor, we have compared the different synthesis routes towards meso-porous ceramics. First, we considered homogeneous precipitation of slats in water: using initially off-stoichiometry in reaction, micron-sized hydroxyapatite particles are produced with a specific surface up to 100 m{sup 2}/g. Then, we consider the classical route of precipitation of an hybrid material in the miscibility gap of a phase diagram, when an hexagonal liquid crystal is used a matrix for precipitation. The surfactant family consists in single chain surfactants containing phosphates as head-group to poison the growing surface of calcium phosphate nano-domains. Since the reaction is still too brutal, we considered using a cat-anionic precursor material of controllable surface charge. For certain concentrations and molar ratios, a new structure not yet described in surfactant precipitation literature is observed: since the periodicity is lower than twice the chain length, a disordered constant curvature monolayer (instead of the classical cylinder of twice chain length diameter) of surfactant is implied. Finally, we have investigated synthesis routes implying slow dissolution of pre-formed calcium phosphate in an already existing hexagonal matrix. For all these routes of synthesis, micro-structural determinations using SAXS, WARS and BET are performed, with a special attention to comparison of the precipitation material, the matrix obtained with all elements present, and also the material obtained after calcinations. (authors)

  3. Elucidating the Effect of Biomolecule Structure on Calcium Carbonate Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, K. E.; Duckworth, O.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to a steady increase in atmospheric concentration. This greenhouse gas has been identified as a key driver of climate change and also has lead to increased acidification of marine and terrestrial waters. Calcium carbonate precipitation at the Earth's surface is an integral linkage in the global carbon cycle, especially in regards to regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide. As concern for the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels grows, the need to understand calcium carbonate systems escalates concurrently. Calcium carbonate phases are the most abundant group of biominerals; therefore, elucidating the mechanism of biomineralization is critical to understanding CaCO3 precipitation and may aid in the development of novel carbon sequestration strategies. The ubiquity of microorganisms leads to an extensive number of biomolecules present in the Earth's systems, and thus an extensive range of possible effects on CaCO3 formation. Carboxylic acids are very common biomolecules and have a relatively simple structure, thus making them an ideal family of model compounds. This study examines the kinetics, thermodynamics, phase, and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals precipitated in the presence of carboxylate-containing biomolecules, including citric acid, succinic acid, and aspartic acid. The experiments utilize a unique (NH4)2CO3 gas-diffusion reactor, which allows in-situ measurements of chemical conditions during the precipitation and growth of crystals. Continuous monitoring of the in-situ conditions of pCO2, pH, [Ca2+], and optical absorbance provides data on the supersaturation at which nucleation occurs and the kinetics of mineral growth. The use of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction provides information on the morphology and mineralogy of precipitates. The combination of these data sets will provide an in-depth view of the ideal concentration of calcium ions required for solution saturation

  4. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  5. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery.

  6. Pore-scale study of the effect of secondary carbonate precipitation on the dissolution of primary minerals using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport processes involving dissolution and/or precipitation are pervasive in Earth, energy, and environmental systems. One typical example is geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Among these reactive processes, it is commonly encountered that a second phase precipitates while the primary phase dissolves, and the precipitation and dissolution reactions are fully coupled with each other. In the case of mineral trapping of CO2, the primary silicate mineral dissolves due to a decrease of pH caused by the dissolution of CO2 into the solution; meanwhile the dissolved CO2 can react with cations to form a secondary precipitate of carbonate mineral. Although the effect of precipitation of secondary solid phase on the dissolution of the primary solid phase has been studied extensively, the results reported in the literature are often inconclusive and sometimes even contradict one another. The reason is that the coupled dissolution and precipitation processes are controlled by several factors whose contribution is difficult to ascertain, including the dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, temperature and pressure, pH and species concentration of the solution, physicochemical properties of the primary and secondary minerals, as well as the nucleation and crystal mechanisms of the precipitates, etc. In this study, a pore-scale (mesoscopic) model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to investigate the effects of secondary precipitation on the dissolution of the primary mineral. The model can predict coupled multiple physicochemical processes including fluid flow, mass transport, chemical reaction, dissolution, precipitation consisting of nucleation and crystal growth, as well as dynamical evolution of pore geometries. Effects of dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, molar volumes of primary and secondary minerals, initial powder size and surface roughness of the primary mineral, as well as nucleation and crystal growth

  7. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, M.; Munoz, M.; Guillot, S.; Cathelineau, M.; Picard, C.; Quesnel, B.; Boulvais, P.; Couteau, C.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  8. Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eZhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate represents a large portion of carbon reservoir and is used commercially for a variety of applications. Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP, a by-product of microbial activities, plays an important metal coprecipitation and cementation role in natural systems. This natural process occurring in various geological settings can be mimicked and used for a number of biotechnology such as metal remediation, carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery and construction restoration. In this study, different metabolic activities leading to calcium carbonate precipitation, their native environment, and potential applications and challenges are reviewed.

  9. STEREOREGULAR POLY(CYCLOHEXENE CARBONATE)S: UNIQUE CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-peng Wu; Shi-dong Jiang; Xiao-bing Lu; Wei-min Ren; Shou-ke Yan

    2012-01-01

    An example of crystalline CO2-based polymer from the asymmetric alternating copolymerization of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide is reported.Isotacticity of poly(cyclohexene carbonate) (PCHC) has the critical influence on the crystallinity,and only copolymers with a isotacticity of more than 90% are crystallizable.The stereoregular PCHC is a typical semi-crystalline thermoplastic,and possesses a high melting point (Tm) of 215-230℃ and a decomposition temperature of ca.310℃.The spherulitic morphology of (R)-PCHC grows in a clockwise spiral from a center,and that of (S)-PCHC is a counterclockwise spiral,while the stereocomplex of (S)-PCHC/(R)-PCHC (1/1 mass ratio) presents lath-like dendritic crystal.The novel crystalline CO2-based polycarbonate represents a rare example of optically active polymers with unique crystallization behavior.Our findings reflect the critical influence of stereoregularity on the crystallization for this kind of polymeric materials,and may lead to developments of thermal-resistance CO2 copolymers for application in engineering thermoplastics.

  10. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.

    2001-01-12

    The objective of this project was to identify conditions at which carbon dioxide induced precipitation occurred in crude oils. Establishing compositions of the relevant liquid and solid phases was planned. Other goals of the project were to determine if precipitation occurred in cores and to implement thermodynamic and compositional models to examine the phenomenon. Exploring kinetics of precipitation was also one of the project goals. Crude oil from the Rangely Field (eastern Colorado) was used as a prototype.

  11. GFP facilitates native purification of recombinant perlucin derivatives and delays the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Weber

    Full Text Available Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in manifold ways with different mineral phases and interfaces. Therefore, the relevance of such proteins for biotechnological processes is still in its infancy. Here we report a simple and reproducible purification procedure for a GFP-tagged lectin involved in biomineralization, originally isolated from mother-of-pearl in abalone shells. An optimization of E. coli host cell culture conditions was the key to obtain reasonable yields and high degrees of purity by using simple one-step affinity chromatography. We identified a dual functional role for the GFP domain when it became part of a mineralizing system in vitro. First, the GFP domain improved the solubility of an otherwise insoluble protein, in this case recombinant perlucin derivatives. Second, GFP inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation in a concentration dependent manner. This was demonstrated here using a simple bulk assay over a time period of 400 seconds. At concentrations of 2 µg/ml and higher, the inhibitory effect was observed predominantly for HCO(3 (- as the first ionic interaction partner, but not necessarily for Ca(2+. The interference of GFP-tagged perlucin derivatives with the precipitation of calcium carbonate generated different types of GFP-fluorescent composite calcite crystals. GFP-tagging offers therefore a genetically tunable tool to gently modify mechanical and optical properties of synthetic biocomposite minerals.

  12. High precipitation rate in a Middle Triassic carbonate platform: Implications on the relationship between seawater saturation state and carbonate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Marco; Preto, Nereo; Marangon, Alessandro; Gattolin, Giovanni; Meda, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional geological modeling of the Middle Triassic Latemar carbonate platform is coupled with facies modal analysis to estimate its carbonate precipitation rate (G). The 3D model, strongly constrained by field data, encompasses a specific stratigraphic interval of the platform, bounded by two isochronous surfaces. Modal analysis of thin sections allows estimating the proportion of syndepositional vs postdepositional carbonate in the facies associations of the platform. This, together with the 3D facies distribution in the model that takes into account lateral and vertical facies variability, permits to calculate the volumes of syndepositional carbonate preserved at Latemar between the two considered isochrones. Given the peculiar characteristics of the platform, that does not show evidences of strong dissolution processes or large carbonate mass loss through export in the nearby basins, results can be used to estimate the average precipitation rate of the platform in the considered time interval. This estimate allows discussion in relation to models of ocean water saturation state (Ω) with respect to carbonates in the geological past, and comparison to the calculated precipitation rates of modern tropical coral reef ecosystems at global and reef scale. A high G value is found at Latemar and represents the first empirical confirmation that, in the Triassic, extremes in Ω may have triggered high carbonate precipitation in shallow water settings; moreover, comparison to modern reefs points to a possible common relationship that may link seawater Ω and precipitation rate in carbonate platform ecosystems through geological time.

  13. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumul......By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed...

  14. Deposition of the platinum crystals on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique and the affecting factors for depositing platinum on the carbon nanotubes were investigated. The results show that the deposited platinum crystals in the atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen have a small size and a homogeneous distribution on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. The pretreatment would decrease the platinum particles on the carbon nanotubes significantly.

  15. Optimization of Calcium Carbonate Precipitation for Carbonate Mineralization Bacteria%碳酸盐矿化菌诱导碳酸钙沉淀条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竹文坤; 罗学刚

    2012-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH value, precipitation time, reaccant concentration, the crystal formation additive on the yield of calcium carbonate precipitation induced by carbonate mineralization bacteria were investigated through single-factor and orthogonal tests. The morphology, thermal property, elements and structure of the calcium carbonate were characterized by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and flouner transform infrared spectroscopy (IR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermal analyzer (TG) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the optimum conditions of calcium carbonate precipitation induced by carbonate mineralization bacteria were temperature of 40 ℃, pH value of 8, time of 3 d, Ca2+ concentration of 1.5 mol/L and Mg2+ concentration of 0.05 mol/L. Precipitation sediment contain mainly C, O, Ca elements and a little of organic matter, its crystal structure, morphology and packing density were changed by different external conditions, in order to improve the yield of calcium carbonate precipitation, and to provide bases for the efficiency of microbial remediation technology.%通过单因素及正交试验研究了温度、pH值、沉淀时间、反应物浓度和成核剂5个因素对微生物诱导CaCO3沉淀量的影响,以期提高微生物沉积碳酸钙的产率,为微生物修复技术的时效性提供参考.采用X射线粉末衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、热分析仪(TG)、能谱分析(EDS)对CaCO3样品形貌、结构、热性质、元素等进行表征分析.结果表明,沉淀物质主要含有C、O、Ca元素和少量有机质,其晶型、形貌和堆积密度随外界条件改变而不同.微生物诱导CaCO3沉淀的最佳外界条件是:pH值为8,Mg2+浓度0.05 mol/L,温度40℃,沉淀时间3d,Ca2+浓度1.5 mol/L.

  16. Can Mg isotopes be used to trace cyanobacteria-mediated magnesium carbonate precipitation in alkaline lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokova, L. S.; Mavromatis, V.; Bundeleva, I.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Bénézeth, P.; Pearce, C.; Gérard, E.; Balor, S.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2011-07-01

    The fractionation of Mg isotopes was determined during the cyanobacterial mediated precipitation of hydrous magnesium carbonate precipitation in both natural environments and in the laboratory. Natural samples were obtained from Lake Salda (SE Turkey), one of the few modern environments on the Earth's surface where hydrous Mg-carbonates are the dominant precipitating minerals. This precipitation was associated with cyanobacterial stromatolites which were abundant in this aquatic ecosystem. Mg isotope analyses were performed on samples of incoming streams, groundwaters, lake waters, stromatolites, and hydromagnesite-rich sediments. Laboratory Mg carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted in the presence of purified Synechococcus sp cyanobacteria that were isolated from the lake water and stromatolites. The hydrous magnesium carbonates nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) and dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)25(H2O)) were precipitated in these batch reactor experiments from aqueous solutions containing either synthetic NaHCO3/MgCl2 mixtures or natural Lake Salda water, in the presence and absence of live photosynthesizing Synechococcus sp. Bulk precipitation rates were not to affected by the presence of bacteria when air was bubbled through the system. In the stirred non-bubbled reactors, conditions similar to natural settings, bacterial photosynthesis provoked nesquehonite precipitation, whilst no precipitation occurred in bacteria-free systems in the absence of air bubbling, despite the fluids achieving a similar or higher degree of supersaturation. The extent of Mg isotope fractionation (Δ26Mgsolid-solution) between the mineral and solution in the abiotic experiments was found to be identical, within uncertainty, to that measured in cyanobacteria-bearing experiments, and ranges from -1.4 to -0.7 ‰. This similarity refutes the use of Mg isotopes to validate microbial mediated precipitation of hydrous Mg carbonates.

  17. Soil Organic Carbon and Labile Carbon Along a Precipitation Gradient and Their Responses to Some Environmental Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Ping; ZHOU Guang-Sheng; GAO Su-Hua; GUO Jian-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from a field survey in 2001 along the Northeast China transect (NECT), a precipitation gradient,and a short-term simulation experiment under ambient CO2 of 350 μmol mol-1 and doubled CO2 of 700 μmol mol-1 with different soil moisture contents of 30%-45%, 45%-60%, and 60%-80% soil water holding capacity, the distribution of soil organic carbon and labile carbon along the NECT, their relationships with precipitation and their responses to CO2 enrichment and soil moisture changes were analyzed. The results indicated that the soil labile carbon along the gradient was significantly related to soil organic carbon (r = 0.993, P < 0.001). The soil labile carbon decreased more rapidly with depth than organic carbon. The soil organic and labile carbon along the gradient decreased with decrease in longitude in both the topsoils and subsoils, and the coefficient of variation for the labile carbon was greater than that for the organic carbon. Both the soil organic carbon and labile carbon had significant linear relationships with precipitation,with the correlation coefficient of soil organic carbon being lower (0.677 at P <0.001) than that of soil labile carbon (0.712 at P < 0.001). In the simulation experiment with doubled and ambient CO2 and different moisture contents, the coefficient of variation for soil organic carbon was only 1.3%, while for soil labile carbon it was 29.7%. With doubled CO2 concentration (700μmol mol-1), soil labile carbon decreased significantly at 45% to 60% of soil moisture content. These indicated that soil labile carbon was relatively more sensitive to environmental changes than soil organic carbon.

  18. [Distribution of soil organic carbon in surface soil along a precipitation gradient in loess hilly area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Guang-hui; Luan, Li-li; Li, Zhen-wei; Geng, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Along the 368-591 mm precipitation gradient, 7 survey sites, i.e. a total 63 investigated plots were selected. At each sites, woodland, grassland, and cropland with similar restoration age were selected to investigate soil organic carbon distribution in surface soil (0-30 cm), and the influence of factors, e.g. climate, soil depth, and land uses, on soil organic carbon distribution were analyzed. The result showed that, along the precipitation gradient, the grassland (8.70 g . kg-1) > woodland (7.88 g . kg-1) > farmland (7.73 g . kg-1) in concentration and the grassland (20.28 kg . m-2) > farmland (19.34 kg . m-2) > woodland (17.14 kg . m-2) in density. The differences of soil organic carbon concentration of three land uses were not significant. Further analysis of pooled data of three land uses showed that the surface soil organic carbon concentration differed significantly at different precipitation levels (Psoil organic carbon concentration (r=0.838, Psoil organic carbon increased with annual precipitation 0. 04 g . kg-1 . mm-1, density 0.08 kg . m-2 . mm-1. The soil organic carbon distribution was predicted with mean annual precipitation, soil clay content, plant litter in woodland, and root density in farmland.

  19. Nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates in HSLC and HSLA steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the composition, quantity and particle size distribution of nano-scaled precipitates with size less than 20 nm in high strength low carbon (HSLC) steel and their effects on mechanical properties of HSLC steel by means of mass balance calculation of nano-scaled precipitates measured by chemical phase analysis plus SAXS method, high-resolution TEM analysis and thermodynamics calculation, as well as temper rapid cooling treatment of ZJ330. It is found that there existed a large quantity of nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 18 nm in low carbon steel produced by CSP and they are mainly Fe-O-C and Fe-Ti-O-C precipitates formed below temperature A1. These precipitates have ob- vious precipitation strengthening effect on HSLC steel and this may be regarded as one of the main reasons why HSLC steel has higher strength. There also existed a lot of iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 36 nm in HSLA steels.

  20. Nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates in HSLC and HSLA steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jie; WU HuaJie; LIU YangChun; KANG YongLin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the composition, quantity and particle size distribution of nano-scaled precipitates with size less than 20 nm in high strength Iow carbon (HSLC) steel and their effects on mechanical properties of HSLC steel by means of mass balance calculation of nano-scaled precipitates measured by chemical phase analysis plus SAXS method, high-resolution TEM analysis and thermodynamics calculation, as well as temper rapid cooling treatment of ZJ330. It is found that there existed a large quantity of nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 18 nm in Iow carbon steel produced by CSP and they are mainly Fe-O-C and Fe-Ti-O-C precipitates formed below temperature A1. These precipitates have obvious precipitation strengthening effect on HSLC steel and this may be regarded as one of the main reasons why HSLC steel has higher strength. There also existed a lot of iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 36 nm in HSLA steels.

  1. Disordered nano-wrinkle substrates for inducing crystallization over a wide range of concentration of protein and precipitant

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Anindita Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    There are large number of proteins, the existence of which are known but not their crystal structure, because of difficulty in finding the exact condition for their crystallization. Heterogeneous nucleation on disordered porous substrates with small yet large distribution of pores is considered a panacea for this problem, but a universal nucleant, suitable for crystallizing large variety of proteins does not really exist. To this end, we report here a nano-wrinkled substrate which displays remarkable ability and control over protein crystallization. Experiments with different proteins show that on these substrates, crystals nucleate even at very low protein concentration in buffer. Small number of very large crystals appear for precipitant concentrations varied over orders of magnitude ~0.003-0.3M; for some proteins, crystals appear even without addition of any precipitant, not seen with any other heterogeneous substrates. In essence, these substrates significantly diminish the influence of the above two para...

  2. An Investigation of the Effects of Black Carbon on Precipitation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsien-Liang Rose

    Black carbon (BC), the byproduct of incomplete combustion, is considered to be the second most important anthropogenic climate forcing agent after carbon dioxide. BC warms the atmosphere by absorbing solar radiation (direct effect), alters cloud and precipitation formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (indirect effect), and modifies cloud distribution via cloud burn-off (semi-direct effect). Currently, there are large discrepancies in general circulation model estimates of the influence of BC on precipitation. Even less known is how BC changes precipitation on regional scales. In the drought-stricken western United States (WUS), where BC emissions are known to affect the hydrological cycle, an investigation on how BC influences precipitation is warranted. In this study, we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF Chem) model (version 3.6.0) with the newly chemistry- and microphysics-coupled Fu-Liou-Gu radiation scheme to study how black carbon affects precipitation by separating BC-related effects into direct and semi-direct, and indirect effects. In this three-part study, we use a recent wet year (2005) to investigate black carbon effects. We first examine BC effects during a heavy wintertime heavy precipitation event (7-11 January 2005), a heavy summertime precipitation week for comparison to the wintertime event (20-24 July 2005), and finally, examine these same effects for the months of January to June 2005 to investigate month-long trends. We find that BC suppresses precipitation, predominantly through its direct and semi-direct effects. The direct and semi-direct effects warm the air aloft, and cool the lower levels of the atmosphere (surface dimming) through the reduction of downward shortwave radiation flux at the surface. These changes in vertical temperature increase the stability of the atmosphere and reduce convective precipitation. Convective precipitation reduction accounts for approximately 60 75% of the total

  3. Thermodynamic Simulation of Carbonate Cements-Water-Carbon Dioxide Equilibrium in Sandstone for Prediction of Precipitation/Dissolution of Carbonate Cements

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yiping; Feng, Mingshi; Zhong, Xinyan; Shang, Ruishu; Huang, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Carbonate cements, such as calcite, dolomite, ferrocalcite and ankerite, play important roles in the formation of pores in sandstones: precipitation of carbonate cements modifies pores and inhibits compaction, while dissolution creates secondary pores. This work proposed a precipitation-dissolution model for carbonate cements-CO2-H2O system by means of ion equilibrium concentration ([M2+], M = Ca, Mg, Fe or Mn) with different factors, such as temperature, depth, pH, P CO 2 , variable rock com...

  4. Crystal growth and morphology of calcium oxalates and carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the research described in this thesis is to establish a relationship between the crystal structure and morphology of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate crystals grown from aqueous solutions. Starting point is the PBC (Periodic Bond Chain) theory formulated by Hartman and Perdo

  5. Seafloor-precipitated carbonate fans in the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member, Johnnie Formation, Death Valley Region, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Pruss, Sara Brady; Corsetti, Frank A.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2008-01-01

    Cm-sized carbonate seafloor fans occur in the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation, Death Valley, USA. The fans formed in a mixed carbonate-clastic succession near storm wave base at the base of parasequences on a storm-dominated ramp. Petrographic observations indicate that the fans were originally precipitated as aragonite and later inverted to calcite during diagenesis. Although not directly dated, the Rainstorm Member preserves a large magnitude negative carbon isotopi...

  6. Synthesis of porous carbon balls from spherical colloidal crystal templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngchan; Cho, Chang-Yeol; Kang, Ji-Hwan; Cho, Young-Sang; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2012-07-17

    Spherical inverse opal (IO) porous carbon was produced utilizing silica colloidal crystal spheres as templates. The spherical colloidal crystals were obtained through the self-assembly of monodisperse particles inside an emulsion droplet with confined geometry. The templates were inverted using a carbon precursor, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resol. We demonstrated a two-step synthesis involving the subsequent infiltration of the PF resol precursor into the spherical colloidal crystal template and a one-step synthesis using a silica colloidal solution containing dissolved PF resol. In the former case, the sizes of the IO carbon balls were controlled by the size of the colloidal crystal templates, and diameters of a few micrometers up to 50 μm were obtained. The average diameter of the macropores created by the silica particles was 230 nm. Moreover, meso-/macroporous IO carbon balls were created using block-copolymer templates in the PF resol. In the one-step synthesis, the concentration of PF resol in the colloidal solution controlled the diameter of the IO carbon balls. IO balls smaller than 3 μm were obtained from the direct addition of 5% PF resol. The one-step synthesis produced rather irregular porous structures reflecting the less ordered crystallization processes inside the spherical colloidal crystals. Nitrogen adsorption and cyclic voltammetry measurements were conducted to measure the specific area and electroactive surface area of the IO carbon balls. The specific area of the mesopores-incorporated IO carbon balls was 1.3 times higher than that of bare IO carbon balls. Accordingly, the meso-/macroporous porous carbon balls exhibited higher electrocatalytic properties than the macroporous carbon balls.

  7. Precipitation behavior of carbides in high-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao; Shi, Chang-min [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy; Li, Ji-hui [Yang Jiang Shi Ba Zi Group Co., Ltd, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-15

    A fundamental study on the precipitation behavior of carbides was carried out. Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the precipitation and transformation behaviors of carbides. Carbide precipitation was of a specific order. Primary carbides (M7C3) tended to be generated from liquid steel when the solid fraction reached 84 mol.%. Secondary carbides (M7C3) precipitated from austenite and can hardly transformed into M23C6 carbides with decreasing temperature in air. Primary carbides hardly changed once they were generated, whereas secondary carbides were sensitive to heat treatment and thermal deformation. Carbide precipitation had a certain effect on steel-matrix phase transitions. The segregation ability of carbon in liquid steel was 4.6 times greater that of chromium. A new method for controlling primary carbides is proposed.

  8. Effects of synthesis factors on the morphology, crystallinity and crystal size of hydroxyapatite precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lian-feng; WANG Wei-hua; ZHANG Wen-guang; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The growing necessity of biomaterials has increased the interest in hydroxyapatite. Small differences in particle sizes, stoichiometry, morphology, crystallinity could lead to different clinical behaviors. In the present work, stoichiometry and nanocrystal hydroxyapatite were prepared by wet chemical precipitation method.The effects of concentration of reagents, reaction temperatures and reaction time were studied. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, X - ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy were used to characterize the precipitated hydroxyapatite powders. X -ray Diffraction and TEM micrographs results showed that crystallinity, morphology and particle sizes were largely dependent on reaction temperature. Chemical analysis showed that the purity of the precipitated hydroxyapatite depends on reaction time and reaction temperature. Degree of supersaturation and stirring could affect the crystallization process. Particles showed acicular morphology, and had a size of 20 -30 nm in length at 20 ℃and 37 ℃ and 150 - 160 nm in length at 75 ℃. Particles were monocrystalline at 20 ℃ and 37 ℃, and were polycrystalline at 55 ℃ and 75 ℃. The results showed that hydroxyapatite powders with different particle size and morphology could be obtained with carefully controlled reaction conditions.

  9. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiduk, P. I., E-mail: gaiduk@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Belarusian State University, prosp. Nezavisimosti 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lundsgaard Hansen, J., E-mail: johnlh@phys.au.dk; Nylandsted Larsen, A., E-mail: anl@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bregolin, F. L., E-mail: f.lipp-bregolin@hzdr.de; Skorupa, W., E-mail: W.Skorupa@hzdr.de [Department of Semiconductor Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-06-09

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumulation of carbon in the SiSn layers after high temperature carbon implantation and high temperature thermal treatment. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects and formation of dopant-defect complexes are suggested to be responsible for the effects. The possibility for carbon assisted segregation-free high temperature growth of heteroepitaxial SiSn/Si and GeSn/Si structures is argued.

  10. Can Mg isotopes be used to trace cyanobacteria-mediated magnesium carbonate precipitation in alkaline lakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Shirokova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The fractionation of Mg isotopes was determined during the cyanobacterial mediated precipitation of hydrous magnesium carbonate precipitation in both natural environments and in the laboratory. Natural samples were obtained from Lake Salda (SE Turkey, one of the few modern environments on the Earth's surface where hydrous Mg-carbonates are the dominant precipitating minerals. This precipitation was associated with cyanobacterial stromatolites which were abundant in this aquatic ecosystem. Mg isotope analyses were performed on samples of incoming streams, groundwaters, lake waters, stromatolites, and hydromagnesite-rich sediments. Laboratory Mg carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted in the presence of purified Synechococcus sp cyanobacteria that were isolated from the lake water and stromatolites. The hydrous magnesium carbonates nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O and dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH25(H2O were precipitated in these batch reactor experiments from aqueous solutions containing either synthetic NaHCO3/MgCl2 mixtures or natural Lake Salda water, in the presence and absence of live photosynthesizing Synechococcus sp. Bulk precipitation rates were not to affected by the presence of bacteria when air was bubbled through the system. In the stirred non-bubbled reactors, conditions similar to natural settings, bacterial photosynthesis provoked nesquehonite precipitation, whilst no precipitation occurred in bacteria-free systems in the absence of air bubbling, despite the fluids achieving a similar or higher degree of supersaturation. The extent of Mg isotope fractionation (Δ26Mgsolid-solution between the mineral and solution in the abiotic experiments was found to be identical, within uncertainty, to that measured in cyanobacteria-bearing experiments, and ranges from −1.4 to −0.7 ‰. This similarity refutes

  11. Exploring Carbon Nanomaterial Diversity for Nucleation of Protein Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govada, Lata; Leese, Hannah S.; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Kassen, Sean; Chain, Benny; Khurshid, Sahir; Menzel, Robert; Hu, Sheng; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Chayen, Naomi E.

    2016-02-01

    Controlling crystal nucleation is a crucial step in obtaining high quality protein crystals for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and carbon black provide a range of surface topographies, porosities and length scales; functionalisation with two different approaches, gas phase radical grafting and liquid phase reductive grafting, provide routes to a range of oligomer functionalised products. These grafted materials, combined with a range of controls, were used in a large-scale assessment of the effectiveness for protein crystal nucleation of 20 different carbon nanomaterials on five proteins. This study has allowed a direct comparison of the key characteristics of carbon-based nucleants: appropriate surface chemistry, porosity and/or roughness are required. The most effective solid system tested in this study, carbon black nanoparticles functionalised with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether of mean molecular weight 5000, provides a novel highly effective nucleant, that was able to induce crystal nucleation of four out of the five proteins tested at metastable conditions.

  12. An unusual isotopic fractionation of boron in synthetic calcium carbonate precipitated from seawater and saline water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yingkai; LI Shizhen; WEI Haizhen; SUN Aide; ZHOU Weijian; LIU Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic calcium carbonate precipitation from natural seawater and saline water at various pH values was carried out experimentally. The results show the clear positive relationships between boron concentration and δ11B of inorganic calcium carbonate with the pH of natural seawater and saline water. However, the variations of boron isotopic fractionation between inorganic calcite and seawater/saline water with pH are inconsistent with the hypothesis that B(OH)4- is the dominant species incorporated into the biogenic calcite structure. The isotopic fractionation factors α Between synthetic calcium carbonate precipitate and parent solutions increase systematically as pH increases, from 0.9884 at pH 7.60 to 1.0072 at pH 8.60 for seawater and from 0.9826 at pH 7.60 to 1.0178 at pH 8.75 for saline water. An unusual boron isotopic fractionation factor of larger than 1 in synthetic calcium carbonate precipitated from seawater/saline water at higher pH is observed, which implies that a substantial amount of the isotopically heavier B(OH)3 species must be incorporated preferentially into synthetic inorganic carbonate. The results propose that the incorporation of B(OH)3 is attributed to the formation of Mg(OH)2 at higher pH of calcifying microenvironment during the synthetic calcium carbonate precipitation. The preliminary experiment of Mg(OH)2 precipitated from artificial seawater shows that heavier 11B is enriched in Mg(OH)2 precipitation, which suggests that isotopically heavier B(OH)3 species incorporated preferentially into Mg(OH)2 precipitation.This result cannot be applied to explain the boron isotopic fractionation of marine bio-carbonate because of the possibility that the unusual environment in this study appears in formation of marine bio-carbonate is infinitesimal. We, however, must pay more attention to this phenomenon observed in this study, which accidentally appears in especially natural environment.

  13. Thermodynamic Research on Precipitates in Low Carbon Nb-Microalloyed Steels Produced by Compact Strip Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song XIANG; Guoquan LIU; Yang LI; Changrong LI; Andong WANG

    2007-01-01

    Microalloying element Nb in low carbon steels produced by compact strip production (CSP) process plays an important role in inhibiting recrystallization, decreasing the transformation temperature and grain refinement.With decreasing the rolling temperature, dislocations can be pinned by carbonitrides and the strength is increased. Based on the two sublattice model, with metal atom sublattice and interstitial atom sublattice,a thermodynamic model for carbonitride was established to calculate the equilibrium between matrix and carbonitride. In the steel produced by CSP, the calculation results showed that the starting temperature of precipitation of Ti and Nb are 1340℃ and 1040℃, respectively. In the range of 890-950℃, Nb rapidly precipitated. And the maximum of the atomic fraction of Nb in carbonitride was about 0.68. The morphologies and energy spectrum of the precipitates showed that (NbTi) (CN) precipitated near the dislocations. The experiment results show that Nb rapidly precipitated when the temperature was lower than 970℃, and the atomic fraction of Nb in carbonitride was about 60%-80%. The calculation results are in agreement with the experiment data. Therefore the thermodynamic model can be a useful assistant tool in the research on the precipitates in the low carbon steels produced by CSP.

  14. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Li Yao; Wang-Hua Xu; Ai-Min Ding; Jin-Mao Zhu

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrograph (FT-IR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The possible formation mechanism of CaCO3 in the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system was discussed.

  15. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  16. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) as countermeasure to mist formation in amine based carbon capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Anderlohr, C.; Rogiers, P.; Brachert, L.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Schaber, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study is to our knowledge the first to evaluate the potential of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) to prevent aerosol formation issues inside amine based carbon capture installations. A WESP is a suitable option since this study proves that it is very efficient for the removal of the mist

  17. Variation in soil carbon stocks and their determinants across a precipitation gradient in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiz, G.; Bird, M.I.; Domingues, T.F.; Schrodt, F.; Schwartz, M.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the influence of climate, soil properties and vegetation characteristics on soil organic carbon (SOC) along a transect of West African ecosystems sampled across a precipitation gradient on contrasting soil types stretching from Ghana (15°N) to Mali (7°N). Our findings derive from a total

  18. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-02-21

    This project was undertaken to understand fundamental aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) induced asphaltene precipitation. Oil and asphaltene samples from the Rangely field in Colorado were used for most of the project. The project consisted of pure component and high-pressure, thermodynamic experiments, thermodynamic modeling, kinetic experiments and modeling, targeted corefloods and compositional modeling.

  19. Facile Precipitation Method for Morphological Tuning of Cu{sub 2}O Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Sik; Huh, Young Duk [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    We have developed a simple method for tuning the morphologies of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals were prepared by precipitation at room temperature from a mixture of Cu(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O, N,N,N',N'- tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TMEDA), ascorbic acid, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). TMEDA was used to promote the formation of copper-TMEDA complexes. A variety of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystal morphologies were obtained simply by varying the concentrations of TMEDA and ascorbic acid. Aggregated Cu{sub 2}O microspheres are formed at higher concentrations of ascorbic acid in the absence of TMEDA. Aggregated Cu{sub 2}O microcubes are formed at lower concentrations of ascorbic acid and higher concentrations of TMEDA. The crystal growth mechanism of these Cu{sub 2}O morphologies is explained.

  20. Enrichment of 88Sr in continental waters due to calcium carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Netta; Gavrieli, Ittai; Halicz, Ludwik; Sandler, Amir; Stein, Mordechai; Lazar, Boaz

    2017-02-01

    δ88/86Sr data published over the last few years suggest that continental waters are enriched with 88Sr as compared to the rocks in their drainage basins. In an attempt to understand this phenomenon, this study established the fractionation in the 88Sr/86Sr ratio during precipitation of continental carbonates (i.e., carbonates precipitated on land from surface, pedogenic, or ground waters), and evaluated the contribution of this process to the 88Sr-enrichment in rivers. For this, stable and radiogenic Sr isotopes (88Sr, 87Sr and 86Sr) were measured in calcite samples and their precipitating waters collected in various continental environments, such as soil, cave, streams and groundwater. The results indicate that continental carbonates are 88Sr-depleted relative to their precipitating waters, placing them as one of the most 88Sr-depleted reservoirs on earth. The average difference in δ88/86Sr values between waters and solid CaCO3 (tufas or speleothems) that they precipitate is Δcarb-water = - 0.218 ± 0.014 ‰ (1SD). An even larger fractionation (εcarb-water = - 0.285 ± 0.02 ‰) was measured in groundwater with particularly high carbonate-alkalinity and high carbonate precipitation rate that depleted ∼65% of the Sr in the groundwater, resulting in substantial 88Sr-enrichment in the residual dissolved Sr (δ88/86Sr = 0.656 ‰). Results also suggest that pedogenic carbonate precipitation in soil profile removes 50-85% of the Sr from the recharging soil-water, thereby increasing the δ88/86Sr value of the soil-water from ∼ 0.18 ‰ to 0.3 ‰- 0.6 ‰. Similar 88Sr-enrichment was observed in drip water from a karst cave. A maximum removal flux of Sr into continental carbonates of about 20 Gmol(Sr)ṡy-1 is required to yield the reported 88Sr-enrichment in global rivers (δ88/86Sr = 0.32 ‰) relative to their rock sources when using the fractionation factor derived in this study, Δcarb-water = - 0.218 ‰, and the published δ88/86Sr composition of marine

  1. On the crystal structure of Cr2N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Oh, Chang-Seok; Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Chang Gil; Kim, Sung-Joon; Takaki, Setsuo

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structure of Cr(2)N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the analyses of selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns, the crystal structure of Cr(2)N was confirmed to be trigonal (P31m) and was characterized by three sets of superlattice reflections: (001), ((11/33)0)and ((11/33)1). These could be explained in terms of the epsilon-type occupational ordering of nitrogen. The static concentration waves (SCWs) method was applied to describe the ordered superstructure of Cr(2)N. The occupation probability function (OPF) for describing the distribution of N atoms in the Cr(2)N superstructure was derived based on the superlattice reflections obtained in the SAD patterns and could be expressed as: n(r)=c-1/6eta1cos2piz+4/3eta3cos(2pi/3)(x+y+3z). The crystallographic models for epsilon-type ordering, mainly suggested in the Fe-N system, were discussed in comparison to the present model.

  2. Biomimetic Precipitation of Uniaxially Grown Calcium Phosphate Crystals from Full-Length Human Amelogenin Sols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vuk Uskokovié; Wu Li; Stefan Habelitz

    2011-01-01

    Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2 - 4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of a dense amelogenin matrix is presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aims to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the synthesis of fibrous apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant full-length human amelogenin matrix in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated from supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions in the presence of dispersed amelogenin assemblies. It was shown earlier and confirmed in this study that binding of amelogenin onto apatite surfaces presents the first step that leads to substrate-specific crystal growth. In this work, we report enhanced nucleation and growth under conditions at which amelogenin and apatite carry opposite charges and adsorption of the protein onto the apatite seeds is even more favored. Experiments at pH below the isoelectric point of amelogenin showed increased protein binding to apatite and at low Ca/P molar ratios resulted in a change in crystal morphology from plate-like to fibrous and rod-shaped. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in the supernatant did not show drastic decreases throughout the titration period, indicating controlled precipitation from the protein suspension metastable with respect to calcium phosphate. It is argued that ameloblasts in the developing enamel may vary the density of the protein matrix at the nano scale by varying local pH, and thus control the interaction between the mineral and protein phases. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study has thus proven as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of

  3. A thermodynamic solution model for calcium carbonate: Towards an understanding of multi-equilibria precipitation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Marcel; Bowen, Paul; Lemaître, Jacques

    2009-12-15

    Thermodynamic solubility calculations are normally only related to thermodynamic equilibria in solution. In this paper, we extend the use of such solubility calculations to help elucidate possible precipitation reaction pathways during the entire reaction. We also estimate the interfacial energy of particles using only solubility data by a modification of Mersmann's approach. We have carried this out by considering precipitation reactions as a succession of small quasi-equilibrium states. Thus possible equilibrium precipitation pathways can be evaluated by calculating the evolution of surface charge, particle size and/or interfacial energy during the ongoing reaction. The approach includes the use of the Kelvin's law to express the influence of particle size on the solubility constant of precipitates, the use of Nernst's law to calculate surface potentials from solubility calculations and relate this to experimentally measured zeta potentials. Calcium carbonate precipitation and zeta potential measurements of well characterised high purity calcite have been used as a model system to validate the calculated values. The clarification of the change in zeta potential on titration illustrates the power of this approach as a tool for reaction pathway prediction and hence knowledge based tailoring of precipitation reactions.

  4. Effect of Ultrasound on Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagterveld, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling comprises the formation of hard mineral deposits on process or membrane equipment and calcium carbonate is the most common scaling salt. Especially in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems, scale formation has always been a serious limitation, causing flux decline, membrane degradation, loss

  5. Thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotube crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Li-Jun; Liu Ji; Liu Zheng; Qiu Cai-Yu; Zhou Hai-Qing; Sun Lian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this work,the thermal properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) crystal are studied. The thermal conductivity of the SWCNT crystal is found to have a linear dependence on temperature in the temperature range from 1.9 K to 100.0 K. In addition,a peak (658 W/mK) is found at a temperature of about 100.0 K. The thermal conductivity decreases gradually to a value of 480 W/mK and keeps almost a constant in the temperature range from 100.0 K to 300.0 K. Meanwhile,the specific heat shows an obvious linear relationship with temperature in the temperature range from 1.9 K to 300.0 K. We discuss the possible mechanisms for these unique thermal properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube crystal.

  6. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B; Spycher, Nicolas; Hubbard, Susan S; Zhang, Guoxiang; Williams, Kenneth H; Taylor, Joanna; Fujita, Yoshiko; Smith, Robert

    2011-09-23

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH4

  7. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Joanna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT, and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes

  8. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup

  9. Combined hydrogen production and storage with subsequent carbon crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Gutierrez, Humberto R; Fonseca, Dania A; Narayanan, Deepa L; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Jain, Puja; Clifford, Caroline E B

    2006-06-21

    We provide evidence of low-temperature hydrogen evolution and possible hydrogen trapping in an anthracite coal derivative, formed via reactive ball milling with cyclohexene. No molecular hydrogen is added to the process. Raman-active molecular hydrogen vibrations are apparent in samples at atmospheric conditions (300 K, 1 bar) for samples prepared 1 year previously and stored in ambient air. Hydrogen evolves slowly at room temperature and is accelerated upon sample heating, with a first increase in hydrogen evolution occurring at approximately 60 degrees C. Subsequent chemical modification leads to the observation of crystalline carbons, including nanocrystalline diamond surrounded by graphene ribbons, other sp2-sp3 transition regions, purely graphitic regions, and a previously unidentified crystalline carbon form surrounded by amorphous carbon. The combined evidence for hydrogen trapping and carbon crystallization suggests hydrogen-induced crystallization of the amorphous carbon materials, as metastable hydrogenated carbons formed via the high-energy milling process rearrange into more thermodynamically stable carbon forms and molecular hydrogen.

  10. Proteomic analysis of proteins selectively associated with hydroxyapatite, brushite, and uric acid crystals precipitated from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Lauren A; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the intracrystalline protein profiles of hydroxyapatite (HA), brushite (BR), and uric acid (UA) crystals precipitated from the same urine samples. HA, BR, and UA crystals were precipitated on two different occasions from the same pooled healthy urine. Crystals were washed to remove surface-bound proteins, and their composition was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). SDS-PAGE was used for visual comparison of the protein content of the demineralised crystal extracts, which were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HA comprised nanosized particles interspersed with organic material, which was absent from the BR and UA crystals. The number and type of individual proteins differed between the 3 minerals: 45 proteins were detected in the HA crystal extracts and 77 in the BR crystals, including a number of keratins, which were regarded as methodological contaminants. After excluding the keratins, 21 proteins were common to both HA and BR crystals. Seven nonkeratin proteins were identified in the UA extracts. Several proteins consistently detected in the HA and BR crystal extracts have been previously implicated in kidney stone disease, including osteopontin, prothrombin, protein S100A9 (calgranulin B), inter-α-inhibitor, α1-microglobulin bikunin (AMBP), heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, all of which are strong calcium binders. We concluded that the association of proteins with HA, BR, and UA crystals formed in healthy urine is selective and that only a few of the numerous proteins present in healthy urine are likely to play any significant role in preventing stone pathogenesis.

  11. Bioprecipitation of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Bacteria Isolated from Saline Environments Grown in Culture Media Amended with Seawater and Real Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Silva-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate by isolated bacteria from seawater and real brine obtained in a desalination plant growth in culture media containing seawater and brine as mineral sources has been studied. However, only bioprecipitation was detected when the bacteria were grown in media with added organic matter. Biomineralization process started rapidly, crystal formation taking place in the beginning a few days after inoculation of media; roughly 90% of total cultivated bacteria showed. Six major colonies with carbonate precipitation capacity dominated bacterial community structure cultivated in heterotrophic platable bacteria medium. Taxonomic identification of these six strains through partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed their affiliation with Gram-positive Bacillus and Virgibacillus genera. These strains were able to form calcium carbonate minerals, which precipitated as calcite and aragonite crystals and showed bacterial fingerprints or bacteria calcification. Also, carbonic anhydrase activity was observed in three of these isolated bacteria. The results of this research suggest that microbiota isolated from sea water and brine is capable of precipitation of carbonate biominerals, which can occur in situ with mediation of organic matter concentrations. Moreover, calcium carbonate precipitation ability of this microbiota could be of importance in bioremediation of CO2 and calcium in certain environments.

  12. The influence of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Triswantoro; Endarko

    2016-04-01

    The influences of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation in water have been successfully investigated. The study used three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T whilst the electron discharge was generated from television flyback transformer type BW00607 and stainless steel SUS 304 as an electrode. The water sample with an initial condition of 230 mg/L placed in the reactor with flow rate 375 mL/minutes, result showed that the electron discharge can be reduced contain of calcium carbonate the water sample around 17.39% within 2 hours. Meanwhile for the same long period of treatment and flow rate, around 56.69% from initial condition of 520 mg/L of calcium carbonate in the water sample can be achieved by three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T. When the combination of three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T and the electron discharge used for treatment, the result showed that the combination of electron discharge and magnetic field methods can be used to precipitate calcium carbonate in the water sample 300 mg/L around 76.66% for 2 hours of treatment. The study then investigated the influence of the polar position of the magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation. Two positions of magnetic field were tested namely the system with alternated polar magnetics and the system without inversion of the polar magnetics. The influence of the polar position showed that the percentage reduction in levels of calcium carbonate in the water sample (360 mg/L) is significant different. Result showed that the system without inversion of the polar magnetics is generally lower than the system with alternated polar magnetics, with reduction level at 30.55 and 57.69%, respectively.

  13. Inhibition of Sporosarcina pasteurii under anoxic conditions: implications for subsurface carbonate precipitation and remediation via ureolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Derek; Dodds, Kevin; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Butler, Ian B; Elphick, Stephen C

    2012-08-07

    The use of Sporosarcina pasteurii to precipitate calcium carbonate in the anoxic subsurface via ureolysis has been proposed for reducing porosity and sealing fractures in rocks. Here we show that S. pasteurii is unable to grow anaerobically and that the ureolytic activity previously shown under anoxic conditions is a consequence of the urease enzyme already present in the cells of the aerobically grown inoculum. The implications are discussed, suggesting that de novo synthesis of urease under anoxic conditions is not possible and that ureolysis may decline over time without repeated injection of S. pasteurii as the urease enzyme degrades and/or becomes inhibited. Augmentation with a different ureolytic species that is able to grow anaerobically or stimulation of natural communities may be preferable for carbonate precipitation over the long term.

  14. Bioactive coatings on Portland cement substrates: Surface precipitation of apatite-like crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Daniel [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States); Higuita, Natalia [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States); Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica CES-EIA (GIBEC), Carrera 43 A No. 52 Sur - 99, Sabaneta (Colombia); Garcia, Felipe [Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica CES-EIA (GIBEC), Carrera 43 A No. 52 Sur - 99, Sabaneta (Colombia); Ferrell, Nicholas [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States); Hansford, Derek J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States)], E-mail: hansford.4@osu.edu

    2008-04-01

    We report a method for depositing bioactive coatings onto cement materials for bone tissue engineering applications. White Portland cement substrates were hydrated under a 20% CO{sub 2} atmosphere, allowing the formation of CaCO{sub 3}. The substrates were incubated in a calcium phosphate solution for 1, 3, and 6 days (CPI, CPII, and CPIII respectively) at 37 deg. C to induce the formation of carbonated apatite. Cement controls were prepared and hydrated with and without CO{sub 2} atmosphere (C+ and C- respectively). The presence of apatite-like crystals was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The substrate cytocompatibility was evaluated via SEM after 24 hour cell cultures. SEM revealed the presence Ca(OH){sub 2} on C-, and CaCO{sub 3} on C+. Apatite-like crystals were detected only on CPIII, confirmed by phosphorus EDS peaks only for CPIII. Cells attached and proliferated similarly well on all the substrates except C-. These results prove the feasibility of obtaining biocompatible and bioactive coatings on Portland cement for bone tissue engineering applications.

  15. Experimental fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during degassing of carbon dioxide and precipitation of calcite from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.; Winde, V.; Escher, P.; von Geldern, R.; Böttcher, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    system of the solution was controlled by both, degassing and carbonate precipitation, still leading to an enrichment of the heavier carbon isotope in the residual DIC. The experimental results are evaluated for both periods, and the influence of salinity and pH is extracted. Acknowledgement: Parts of this study were supported by BMBF within the BIOACID project

  16. Crystallization and precipitation of phosphate from swine wastewater by magnesium metal corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Liu, Jiahui; Jiang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a unique approach for magnesium dosage in struvite precipitation by Mg metal corrosion. The experimental results showed that using an air bubbling column filled with Mg metal and graphite pellets for the magnesium dosage was the optimal operation mode, which could significantly accelerate the corrosion of the Mg metal pellets due to the presence of graphite granules. The reaction mechanism experiments revealed that the solution pH could be used as the indicator for struvite crystallization by the process. Increases in the Mg metal dosage, mass ratio of graphite and magnesium metal (G:M) and airflow rate could rapidly increase the solution pH. When all three conditions were at 10 g L-1, 1:1 and 1 L min-1, respectively, the phosphate recovery efficiency reached 97.5%. To achieve a high level of automation for the phosphate recovery process, a continuous-flow reactor immersed with the graphite-magnesium air bubbling column was designed to harvest the phosphate from actual swine wastewater. Under conditions of intermittently supplementing small amounts of Mg metal pellets, approximately 95% of the phosphate could be stably recovered as struvite of 95.8% (±0.5) purity. An economic analysis indicated that the process proposed was technically simple and economically feasible.

  17. Separation of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol-based fermentations of Klebsiella pneumoniae by alcohol precipitation and dilution crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Sujun; ZHANG Daijia; SUN Yaqin; XIU Zhilong

    2007-01-01

    The separation of 1,3-propanediol from the glycerol-based fermentation broth of Klebsiella pneumoniae plays an important role during the microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.In this paper,the separation of 1,3-propanediol from fermentative broth by a combination of ultrafiltration and alcohol dilution crystallization was investigated.The broth was first filtered by ultrafiltration,and 99%of cells,89.4% of proteins and 69% of nucleic acids were removed.The obtained broth was further condensed by vacuum distillation,and then alcohol was added.The macromolecular impurities,such as nucleic acids,polysaccharides and proteins,were precipitated,and inorganic and organic salts were crystallized.The optimal volume ratio of alcohol added to the condensed fermentation broth was determined to tivity decreased by 97.4%,89.7% and 95.8%,respectively,compared with the fermentative broth.The influences of pH and water content in condensed broth on alcohol precipitation and dilution crystallization were also investigated.The experimental results indicated that alcohol precipitation and dilution crystallization was feasible and effective for the separation of 1,3-propanediol from actual fermentation broth.

  18. Exploring biotic vs. abiotic controls on syngenetic carbonate and clay mineral precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Gabriela S.; McKenzie, Judith A.; Martinez Ruiz, Francisca; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2016-04-01

    A possible syngenetic relationship between carbonate and clay mineral precipitation has been reported for sedimentary rocks deposited in both lacustrine and marine sedimentary environments throughout the geological record. In particular, the mineral dolomite is often found associated with Mg-rich clays, such as stevensite. It is notable that this carbonate/clay association has been recorded in numerous samples taken from modern dolomite precipitating environments; for example, the Coorong lakes, South Australia, coastal sabkhas, Abu Dhabi, UAE and coastal hypersaline lagoons (Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho) east of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An HRTEM study of samples from these three locations indicates a possible physical/chemical association between the Ca-dolomite and Mg-rich clays, demonstrating a probable co-precipitation. To test this hypothesis, we have conducted a series of biotic and abiotic laboratory experiments. If this syngenesis actually occurs in nature, what, if any, are the biogeochemical processes controlling these precipitation reactions? Our experiments were designed to determine the extent of the biotic versus abiotic component influencing the mineral precipitation and, in the case of a biotic influence, to understand the mechanism through which microorganisms might mediate the formation of clay minerals. The experiments were carried out in the Geomicrobiology Laboratory of ETH Zürich using cultures of living microbes and artificial organic compounds that simulate functional groups present in natural biofilms formed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition, pure inorganic experiments were designed to understand possible physico-chemical conditions for diagenetic processes that could induce dissolution of Mg-carbonates and precipitation of Mg-rich clays. Our results show a remarkable biotic influence during the formation of clay minerals. Specifically, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), released by microbes in their

  19. Thermodynamic Simulation of Carbonate Cements-Water-Carbon Dioxide Equilibrium in Sandstone for Prediction of Precipitation/Dissolution of Carbonate Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yiping; Feng, Mingshi; Zhong, Xinyan; Shang, Ruishu; Huang, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Carbonate cements, such as calcite, dolomite, ferrocalcite and ankerite, play important roles in the formation of pores in sandstones: precipitation of carbonate cements modifies pores and inhibits compaction, while dissolution creates secondary pores. This work proposed a precipitation-dissolution model for carbonate cements-CO2-H2O system by means of ion equilibrium concentration ([M2+], M = Ca, Mg, Fe or Mn) with different factors, such as temperature, depth, pH, [Formula: see text], variable rock composition and overpressure. Precipitation-dissolution reaction routes were also analyzed by minimization of the total Gibbs free energy (ΔG). Δ[M2+], the variation of [Ca2+], [Fe2+], [Mg2+] or [Mn2+] for every 100 m of burial depths, is used to predict precipitation or dissolution. The calculation results indicate that the increasing temperature results in decrease of equilibrium constant of reactions, while the increasing pressure results in a relatively smaller increase of equilibrium constant; As a result, with increasing burial depth, which brings about increase of both temperature and pressure, carbonate cements dissolve firstly and produces the maximal dissolved amounts, and then precipitation happens with further increasing depth; For example, calcite is dissolving from 0.0 km to 3.0 km with a maximal value of [Ca2+] at depth of 0.8 km, and then precipitates with depth deeper than 3.0 km. Meanwhile, with an increasing CO2 mole fraction in the gaseous phase from 0.1% to 10.0% in carbonate systems, the aqueous concentration of metal ions increases, e.g., dissolved amount of CaFe0.7Mg0.3(CO3)2 increases and reaches maximum of 1.78 mmol·L-1 and 8.26 mmol·L-1 at burial depth of 0.7 km with CO2 mole fraction of 0.1% and 10.0%, respectively. For the influence of overpressure in the calcite system, with overpressure ranging from 36 MPa to 83 MPa, pH reaches a minimum of 6.8 at overpressure of 51 MPa; meanwhile, Δ[Ca2+] increases slightly from -2.24 mmol·L-1 to

  20. Effect of Temperature on Precipitation Rate of Calcium Carbonate Produced through Microbial Metabolic Process of Bio Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Yane Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering. But plain concrete is a brittle material and has little resistance to cracking. The cracking in concrete promotes deterioration such as the corrosion of reinforcing rebar, therefore, repair in filling the crack is often carried out. Recently, repair methods using bio-based materials associated with microbial metabolic processes leading to precipitation of calcium carbonate have been intensively studied. In this study, influencing factors on the precipitation rate depending on the constituents of bio-based material comprising yeast, glucose and calcium acetate mixed in tris buffer solution was examined for improving the rate of initial reactions. In addition, effect of temperature change on the amount of calcium carbonate precipitation was also investigated. The precipitates were identified by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the increase of temperature lead to a change on calcium carbonate precipitation and caused the pH decrease under 7.0.

  1. Green backlighting for TV liquid crystal display using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepierre, Gabriel; Mahfouz, Rami; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J.; Dijon, Jean

    2010-08-01

    A methodology to evaluate the emission characteristics of carbon nanotube layers in the context of liquid crystal display backlighting has been elaborated. Carbon nanotube layers with emission characteristics compatible with backlighting have been demonstrated for growth temperature as low as 400 °C, thanks to the use of plasma pretreatment before growth. This very low growth temperature allows to use soda lime glass for the backlight unit and thus to expect very low cost and very low power consumption devices with this technology.

  2. Seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon in precipitation over urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of carbon species in rainwater (bulk deposition) was studied for the first time at two sites located in urban area of Poznań City and protected woodland area (Jeziory), in central Poland, between April and December 2013. The mean concentration of total carbon (TC) for the first site was 5.86 mg L(-1), whereas for the second, 5.21 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration accounted for, on average, 87 and 91 % of total carbon in precipitation at urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Significant changes in TC concentrations in rainwater were observed at both sites, indicating that atmospheric transformation, transport, and removal mechanisms of carbonaceous particles were affected by seasonal fluctuations in biogenic/anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions (i.e., precipitation height and type, atmospheric transport). During the warm season, the DOC concentration in rainwater was mostly influenced by mixed natural and anthropogenic sources. In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc. In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p urban and non-urban sites. These data imply that carbonaceous compounds are of crucial importance in atmospheric chemistry and should be considered as an important parameter while considering wet deposition, reactions with different substances, especially over polluted environments.

  3. CVD synthesis of carbon-based metallic photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zakhidov, A A; Baughman, R H; Iqbal, Z

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensionally periodic nanostructures on the scale of hundreds of nanometers, known as photonic crystals, are attracting increasing interest because of a number of exciting predicted properties. In particular, interesting behavior should be obtainable for carbon- based structures having a dimensional scale larger than fullerenes and nanotubes, but smaller than graphitic microfibers. We show here how templating of porous opals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allows us to obtain novel types of graphitic nanostructures. We describe the synthesis of new cubic forms of carbon having extended covalent connectivity in three dimensions, which provide high electrical conductivity and unit cell dimensions comparable to optical wavelengths. Such materials are metallic photonic crystals that show intense Bragg diffraction. (14 refs).

  4. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-16

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  5. Study on Precipitation Process of Spherical Calcium Carbonate Controlled by Polyaspartic Acid%PASP调控球形碳酸钙沉积过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士林; 宋微

    2013-01-01

    Using polyaspartic acid (PASP) as the organic template,the precipitation process of calcium carbonate in aqueous solution was examined by the carbonation method.The precipitated samples were characterized by FTIR,XRD,SEM and Granularity analyzer.Moreover,the form and growth process of crystal nucleus and morphology changes of precipitated calcium carbonate were analyzed according to the biomimetic mineralization theory.The results showed that crystal transformation of calcium carbonate from calcite to vaterite and its morphology changes from rhombic to sphere is produced in the presence of polyaspartic acid.The average size of precipitated particles has reduced 64.3%,and the distribution of particle size tends to narrow.The main reason was that the distance of both adjacent COO-was matchedto that of both oxygen atoms in the 12 spatial configuration ligands of Ca2+.The spherical particles with small crystal on its surface was formed via mesomorphic,thus crystal growth was inhibited because of polyaspartic acid adsorbed on the surface of particle.%本文以聚天冬氨酸(PASP)为有机质模板,采用碳化法研究了水溶液中碳酸钙的沉积过程,利用FT-IR、XRD、SEM及粒度分析等方法对碳酸钙沉积样品晶型和晶貌进行了表征,并结合生物矿化的基本原理分析了晶体形成和成长变化过程.结果表明,有机质PASP能够调控碳酸钙沉积由方解石型转变为球霰石型,晶体形貌由菱形转变为球形,同时晶体平均粒径减小64.3%,且粒径分布收窄.主要原因是PASP模板中相邻两-COO-间距离与Ca2+的12配位体空间构型中的两个氧原子间距离相匹配,碳酸钙颗粒经过介晶形成了表面为小颗粒附着的球形晶体,PASP吸附在颗粒表面能够抑制晶体生长.

  6. Isolation and metagenomic characterization of bacteria associated with calcium carbonate and struvite precipitation in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A; Muñoz-Palazon, B; Rivadeneyra, A; Poyatos, J M; Rivadeneyra, M A; Martinez-Toledo, M V

    2015-01-01

    A bench-scale pure moving bed bioreactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) used for the treatment of urban wastewater was analyzed for the identification of bacterial strains with the potential capacity for calcium carbonate and struvite biomineral formation. Isolation of mineral-forming strains on calcium carbonate and struvite media revealed six major colonies with a carbonate or struvite precipitation capacity in the biofouling on the membrane surface and showed that heterotrophic bacteria with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate and struvite constituted ~7.5% of the total platable bacteria. These belonged to the genera Lysinibacillus, Trichococcus, Comamomas and Bacillus. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities in the suspended cells and membrane biofouling showed a high degree of similarity in all the samples collected with respect to bacterial assemblage. The study of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified through pyrosequencing suggested that ~21% of the total bacterial community identified in the biofouling could potentially form calcium carbonate or struvite crystals in the pure MBBR-MBR system used for the treatment of urban wastewater.

  7. Bioremediation of Cd by strain GZ-22 isolated from mine soil based on biosorption and microbially induced carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jun; Yuan, Zhimin; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Yiyue; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an emerging and promising bioremediation technology to restore the environment polluted by heavy metals. Carbonate-biomineralization microbe can immobilize heavy metals from mobile species into stable crystals. In the present manuscript, laboratory batch studies were conducted to evaluate the Cd removal ability based on biosorption and MICP, using carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 isolated from a mine soil. This strain was identified as a Bacillus sp. according to 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Results of batch experiments revealed that MICP of the strain GZ-22 showed a greater potential to remove Cd than biomass biosorption under different impact factors such as pH, initial Cd concentration, and contact time. The optimum pH for MICP was 6 (50.34 %), while for biomass biosorption, it was 5 (38.81 %). When the initial concentration of Cd was 10 mg/L, removal efficiency induced by MICP was 53.06 % after 3 h, which was about 11 % greater than the removal efficiency induced by adsorption. The Cd removal efficiency increased as reaction time. The maximum removal efficiency based on MICP can reach 60.72 % at 10 mg/L for 48 h compared with 56.27 % by biosorption. X-ray diffractomer (XRD) revealed that Cd was transformed into CdCO3 by MICP of GZ-22. The present illustrated that the carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 can offer an effective and eco-friendly approach to immobilize soluble Cd and that MICP may play an important role in heavy metal bioremediation.

  8. Synthesis of Tin Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Composite by Homogeneous Precipitation and Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jining; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2004-07-01

    Nanosized tin oxide particles have shown excellent performance when used as anode material in lithium ion batteries. To further improve their electrochemical properties, functionalized carbon nanotubes were introduced during the homogenous precipitation synthesis. Various material characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA and BET were performed to check their crystalline, micro- and nano-structure, thermal stability and surface area. Compared with blank tin oxide nanoparticles, much finer tin oxide nanoparticles with higher surface area were observed with the presence of functional carbon nanotubes. It is proposed that functional carbon nanotubes play an important role for nanoparticles' nucleation, growth, coagulation processes. The potential application of this composite in lithium ion batteries is discussed.

  9. Co-precipitation of copper and niobium carbide in a low carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Michael Scott

    Co-precipitation of niobium carbide and body-centered cubic (BCC) copper in ferrite was investigated as a high strength, low carbon, chromium-free alternative to conventional high performance structural steels that rely on a tempered martensitic microstructure. Theoretical nucleation and growth rate models for BCC copper and niobium carbide were constructed using calculated thermodynamic driving forces in conjunction with classical theories for the homogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth of coherent, spherical precipitates. The maximum calculated nucleation and growth rates for niobium carbide were found to be 1.0 x 106 nuclei/cm3s at 666°C and 1.0 nm/s at 836°C, respectively, for an austenitizing temperature of 1170°C. For BCC copper in ferrite, the maximum calculated nucleation and growth rates were determined to be 8.0 x 1015 nuclei/cm 3s at 612°C and 0.038 nm/s at 682°C, respectively, for all austenitizing temperatures. Three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) microscopy revealed the presence of nano-scale BCC copper clusters in approximately the same number density predicted by the theoretical nucleation model. Using an experimentally determined "effective" activation energy for copper in iron, the normalized theoretical nucleation rate curve compared very well with the normalized hardness response after 5 minutes of aging and effectively described the experimental short-time aging behavior of a low carbon, niobium bearing steel. The size and morphological evolution as well as the growth and coarsening behavior of copper precipitates were investigated through conventional TEM during isothermal direct aging at 550°C for a niobium and niobium-free steel. Although niobium carbide precipitation was not characterized, niobium additions provided increased hardness upon direct aging and showed a much higher resistance to overaging, than a niobium-free steel, for long isothermal aging times. In both steels for aging times up to five hours, both 9R type and BCC

  10. Precipitation of Hemicelluloses from DMSO/Water Mixtures Using Carbon Dioxide as an Antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerich Haimer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical antisolvent precipitation is a relatively recent technology which can be used for controlled preparation of polymer particles from solutions. This is done by the addition of an antisolvent to a polymer solution causing supersaturation of the polymer, especially under supercritical conditions. The particle size of the precipitates can be adjusted mainly by the rate of supersaturation. Spherical xylan or mannan particles having a narrow particle size distribution were precipitated from hemicellulose solutions in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO or DMSO/water mixtures by carbon dioxide as an antisolvent. By depending on the type of hemicellulose, the DMSO/H2O ratio, and the precipitation conditions such as pressure and temperature, the resulting particle size can be adjusted within a wide range from less than 0.1 to more than 5 m. Nano- and microstructured native xylans and mannans as obtained can be used in many applications such as encapsulation of active compounds, slow release agents, or chromatographic separation materials.

  11. Concentration, sources and flux of dissolved organic carbon of precipitation at Lhasa city, the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays important role in climate system, but few data are available on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study 89 precipitation samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of southern Tibet, from March to December 2013. The average concentration and wet deposition fluxes of DOC was 1.10 mg C/L and 0.62 g C m-2.yr-1, respectively. Seasonally, low DOC concentration and high flux appeared during monsoon period, which were in line with heavy precipitation amount, reflecting dilution effect of precipitation for the DOC. Compared to other regions, the values of Lhasa were lower than those of large cites (e.g. Beijing and Seoul) mainly because of less air pollution of Lhasa. The relationship between DOC and ion analysis showed that DOC of Lhasa was derived mainly from the natural sources, followed by burning activities. Furthermore, △14C value of DOC indicated that fossil combustion contributed around 20% of the precipitation DOC of Lhasa, indicating that the atmosphere of Lhasa has been influenced by vehicle emissions. Therefore, although atmosphere of Lhasa is relatively clean, pollutants emitted from local sources cannot be ignored.

  12. Isotactic polypropylene carbon nanotube composites -- crystallization and ordering behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Judith, Robert; Gombos, Erin; McIntyre, Michael; Schoen, Scott; Cebe, Peggy; Mattera, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The field of Polymer Nanocomposites (PNCs) is growing steadily in recent years. We use carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to affect the crystallization behavior of the polymers. Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) is very widely used and is a good model system to understand the physics of other similar polymers. iPP/CNT PNCs form α, β, and γ crystallographic phases under a variety of crystallization conditions: non-isothermal and isothermal melt crystallization, shear, stress, fiber extrusion, etc. The crystal growth is altered from spherulitic to α-fibrillar upon the nucleation effect of CNTs. We are studying the effect of different temperature treatment schemes and different isothermal crystallization conditions. We found also that the smectic ordering in iPP is improved by the introduction of CNTs. We use Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Wide Angle X-ray scattering, Microscopic Transmission Ellipsometry and Avrami analysis. Research supported by: Assumption College Faculty Development Grant, funding for students' stipends, instrumentation and supplies, the NSF Polymers Program of the DMR, grant (DMR-0602473) and NASA grant (NAG8-1167).

  13. Effect of Mg/Ca ratios on microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu; Seref Sonmez, M.; Kurt, M. Ali

    2016-04-01

    Influence of Mg/Ca ratios on microbially induced carbonate mineralogy were investigated by series of experiments carried out under various environmental conditions (Mg/Ca ratio, temperature and salinity). Halophilic bacterial cultures used for biomineralization experiments were isolated from hypersaline Lake Acıgöl (Denizli, SW Turkey), displaying extreme water chemistry with an average pH around 8.6 (Balci eta l.,2015). Enriched bacterial culture used in the experiments consisted of Halomonas saccharevitans strain AJ275, Halomonas alimentaria strain L7B; Idiomarina sp. TBZ29, 98% Idiomarina seosensis strain CL-SP19. Biomineralization experiments were set up using above enriched culture with Mg/Ca ratios of 0.05, 1, 4 and 15 and salinity of 8% and 15% experiments at 30oC and 10oC. Additionally, long-term biomineralization experiments were set up to last for a year, for Mg/Ca=4 and Mg/Ca=15 experiments at 30oC. For each experimental condition abiotic experiments were also conducted. Solution chemistry throughout incubation was monitored for Na, K, Mg, Ca, bicarbonate, carbonate, ammonium and phosphate for a month. At the end of the experiments, precipitates were collected and morphology and mineralogy of the biominerals were investigated and results were evaluated using the software DIFFRAC.SUITE EVA. Overall the preliminary results showed chemical precipitation of calcite, halite, hydromagnesite and sylvite. Results obtained from biological experiments indicate that, low Mg/Ca ratios (0.05 and 1) favor chlorapatite precipitation, whereas higher Mg/Ca ratios favor struvite precipitation. Biomineralization of dolomite, huntite and magnesite is favorable at high Mg/Ca ratios (4 and 15), in the presence of halophilic bacteria. Moreover, results indicate that supersaturation with respect to Mg (Mg/Ca=15) combined with NaCl (15%) inhibits biomineralization and forms chemical precipitates. 15% salinity is shown to favor chemical precipitation of mineral phases more than

  14. Enzyme precipitate coatings of glucose oxidase onto carbon paper for biofuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischback, Mike; Kwon, Ki Young; Lee, Inseon; Shin, Su Jeong; Park, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Byoung Chan; Kwon, Yongchai; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Jungbae; Ha, Su

    2012-02-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFC) have a great potential as a small power source, but their practical applications are being hampered by short lifetime and low power density. This study describes the direct immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the carbon paper in the form of highly stable and active enzyme precipitation coatings (EPCs), which can improve the lifetime and power density of BFCs. EPCs were fabricated directly onto the carbon paper via a three-step process: covalent attachment (CA), enzyme precipitation, and chemical crosslinking. GOx-immobilized carbon papers via the CA and EPC approaches were used as an enzyme anode and their electrochemical activities were tested under the BFC-operating mode. The BFCs with CA and EPC enzyme anodes produced the maximum power densities of 50 and 250 µW/cm(2) , respectively. The BFC with the EPC enzyme anode showed a stable current density output of >700 µA/cm(2) at 0.18 V under continuous operation for over 45 h. When a maple syrup was used as a fuel under ambient conditions, it also produced a stable current density of >10 µA/cm(2) at 0.18 V for over 25 h. It is anticipated that the direct immobilization of EPC on hierarchical-structured electrodes with a large surface area would further improve the power density of BFCs that can make their applications more feasible.

  15. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  16. Experimental modelling of Calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of phototrophic anaerobic bacteria Rhodovulum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundeleva, Irina; Shirokova, Liudmila; Benezeth, Pascale; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kompantseva, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Carbonate biomineralization is considered as one of the main natural processes controlling CO2 levels in the atmosphere both in the past and at present time. Haloalcaliphilic Rhodovulum sp. A-20s isolated from soda lake in southern Siberia and halophilic neutrophilic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 isolated from hypersaline water body in Crimea steppe represent a large group of phototrophic bacteria likely to be involved in CaCO3 formation in soda and saline lakes. These bacteria use organic substrates for non-oxygenic photosynthesis and thus may mediate CaCO3 precipitation without CO2 consumption in highly-saline, highly-alkaline, NaHCO3-rich solutions. In order to provide the link between surface properties of bacteria and their ability to precipitate Ca carbonate, we used a combination of electrophoretic mobility measurements, surface titration and Ca ion adsorption using dead (autoclaved), inactivated (NaN3 - treated) and live cells at 25 °C as a unction of pH (3-11) and NaCl concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 M). Zeta potential of both bacteria is identical for active, NaN3-inactivated and dead cells at high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl). The pH of isoelectric point is below 3 and zeta-potential decreases or remain negative up to pH 11. However, at lower ionic strength (0.1 M and 0.01 M NaCl) for live cells the potential increases towards positive values in the alkaline solutions (pH of 9 to 10). Similar to previous results on cyanobacteria (Martinez et al., 2009) there is a net increase in zeta-potential towards more positive values at pH = 10.4 for active cells. In order to better understand this phenomenon, experiments with different concentration of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions as well as experiments with live cultures in the darkness have been carried out. The presence in solution of Ca2+ (0.01 and 0.001 M) and the absence of light in experiment do not change significantly the potential of the cells. However, the presence in solution of HCO3- strongly reduces the zeta

  17. Control on Crystal Forms of Ultrafine Barium Carbonate Particles and Study on its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Barium carbonate particles were prepared by using homogeneous precipitation method and co-precipitation method respectively. Through adding different crystalline controlling modifiers, Barium carbonate particles in five different shapes including linear, needle-like, pillarlike, sphere-like and dumbbell-like were synthesized. These particles were characterized by SEM and XRD, and their synthetic mechanism was discussed in this paper.

  18. Characteristics of Particulate Carbon in Precipitation during the Rainy Season in Xiamen Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring wet deposition of organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC aerosol is crucial for the understanding of their circulation and climate effect. To further understand the wet deposition of particulate carbon (OC and EC, precipitation samples were collected from April to August 2014 on Xiamen Island in China. EC and water insoluble organic carbon (WIOC concentrations were analyzed using a thermal optical method to investigate temporal variations and wet deposition fluxes. The average EC and WIOC concentrations were 7.3 μgC·L−1 and 495.3 μgC·L−1, respectively, which are both comparable to the results reported in European areas. EC and WIOC concentrations were higher in spring than in summer. Higher EC concentrations were found in April, which were probably associated with the transport of air masses from northern continental areas. Higher WIOC concentrations were found in May and were mainly attributed to air masses from the South China Sea. Lower concentrations of EC and WIOC in the summer were primarily due to the clean air masses transported from the ocean. The wet deposition flux was calculated as the product of concentration and precipitation amount. Average wet deposition fluxes of EC and WIOC were estimated to be 0.6 mgC·m−2·month−1 and 36.7 mgC·m−2·month−1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of EC and WIOC exhibited similar concentration trends. The largest flux in EC wet deposition occurred in April (1.8 mgC·m−2·month−1, while the largest flux in WIOC wet deposition occurred in May (63.1 mgC·m−2·month−1.

  19. Optical Properties of Small Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Geier, M.; Arienti, M.

    2013-12-01

    The optical properties of ice crystals play a fundamental role in modeling atmospheric radiation and hydrological cycle, which are critical in monitoring climate change. While Black Carbon (BC) is recognized as the dominant absorber with positive radiative forcing (warming) (Ramanathan & Carmichael, 2008), in-situ observations (Cappa, et al, 2012) indicate that the characterization of the mixing state of BC with ice crystals and other non-BC particles in global climate models (Ghan & Schwartz, 2007) needs further investigation. The limitation in the available mixing models is due to the drastically different absorbing properties of BC compared to other aerosols. We explore the scattering properties of ice crystals (in shapes commonly found in cirrus clouds and contrails - Yang, et al. 2012) with the inclusion of BC particles. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) (Yurkin & Hoekstra, 2011) is utilized to directly calculate the optical properties of the crystals with multiple BC inclusions, modeled as a distribution of spheres. The results are then compared with the most popular models of internal and external mixing (Liou, et al. 2011). The DDA calculations are carried out over a broad range of BC particle sizes and volume fractions within the crystal at the 532 nm wavelength and for ice crystals smaller than 50 μm. The computationally intensive database generated in this study is critical for understanding the effect of different types of BC inclusions on the atmosphere radiative forcing. Examples will be discussed to illustrate the modification of BC optical properties by encapsulation in ice crystals and how the parameterization of the BC mixing state in global climate models can be improved. Acknowledgements Support by Sandia National Laboratories' LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) is gratefully acknowledged. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  20. Analysis of the carbon source for diamond crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; XU Bin; LI MuSen

    2008-01-01

    The lattice constants of diamond and graphite at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) were calculated on the basis of linear expansion coefficient and elastic constant. According to the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the valence electron structures (VESs) of diamond, graphite crystal and their common planes were calculated. The relationship between diamond and graphite structure was analyzed based on the boundary condition of the improved Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory by Cheng (TFDC). It was found that the electron densities of common planes in graphite were not continuous with those of planes in diamond at the first order of approximation. The results show that during the course of diamond single crystal growth at HPHT with metal catalyst, the carbon sources forming diamond structure do not come from the graphite structure directly. The diamond growth mechanism was discussed from the viewpoint of valence electron structure.

  1. Performance of separation processes for precipitated calcium carbonate produced with an innovative method from steelmaking slag and carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eTeir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experiments were performed to determine the filterability of calcium carbonate produced with an alternative calcium carbonate production concept. The concept uses steelmaking slag as raw material and has potential to fix CO2 emissions and utilize steelmaking slag, simultaneously. As calcium carbonate is precipitated in a solution containing ammonium chloride, calcium chloride and ammonia, the product needs to be washed and hence filtered. In this work different separation processes, including washing, filtering and drying, were tested on two calcium carbonate slurries produced from steel converter slag and CO2 by a laboratory-scale pilot facility, with the aim of obtaining a solid product with a low chloride content using a minimum amount of washing water. The order of maximum filtration rates achievable of the calcium carbonate slurries was determined by experimental work. The tests included pressure filtration and vacuum filtration and the test series contained altogether 21 different filtration cycles with varying combinations of filtering, washing, and drying steps. The filtered cakes were analyzed by their residual moisture content, chloride content and conductivity, and the filtrates by their residual solids content, chloride content and conductivity. Pressure filtration gave a high capacity (400-460 kg/m2h and a low cake residual moisture content (12-14 wt-%. Vacuum filtration gave slightly higher filtration rates (500-610 kg/m2h at the lowest residual chloride contents of the cakes, but the cake residual moisture also stayed higher (25-26 wt-%. As the vacuum filtration tests used a filter cloth with higher permeability than that of the pressure filtration tests, a slightly higher filtration rate was expected. However, both filtration technologies seem suitable for filtering and washing calcium carbonate prepared with the studied method as a residual chloride content as low as 10 ppm of the filtered solids can be achieved

  2. Bioleaching of incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger – precipitation of metallic salt crystals and morphological alteration of the fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Jiang Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the bioleaching of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger, and its effect on the fungal morphology, the fate of the ash particles, and the precipitation of metallic salt crystals during bioleaching. The fungal morphology was significantly affected during one-step and two-step bioleaching; scanning electron microscopy revealed that bioleaching caused distortion of the fungal hyphae (with up to 10 μm hyphae diameter and a swollen pellet structure. In the absence of the fly ash, the fungi showed a linear structure (with 2–4 μm hyphae diameter. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the precipitation of calcium oxalate hydrate crystals at the surface of hyphae in both one-step and two-step bioleaching. Calcium oxalate precipitation affects bioleaching via the weakening of the fly ash, thus facilitating the release of other tightly bound metals in the matrix.

  3. Characterization of urease and carbonic anhydrase producing bacteria and their role in calcite precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2011-03-01

    Urease and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are key enzymes in the chemical reaction of living organisms and have been found to be associated with calcification in a number of microorganisms and invertebrates. Three bacterial strains designated as AP4, AP6, and AP9 were isolated from highly alkaline soil samples using the enrichment culture technique. On the basis of various physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these three bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp., B. megaterium, and B. simplex. Further, these Bacillus species have been characterized for the production of urease and CA in the process of biocalcification. One of the isolates, AP6 produced 553 U/ml of urease and 5.61 EU/ml CA. All the strains were able to produce significant amount of exopolymeric substances and biofilm. Further, efficacy of these strains was tested for calcite production ability and results were correlated with urease and CA. Isolate AP6 precipitated 2.26 mg calcite/cell dry mass (mg). Our observations strongly suggest that it is not only urease but CA also plays an important role in microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation process. The current work demonstrates that urease and CA producing microbes can be utilized in biocalcification as a sealing agent for filling the gaps or cracks and fissures in constructed facilities and natural formations alike.

  4. Biocontainment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a biosealant obtained from microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) was evaluated as an alternative to an epoxy-coating system. A bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859, which metabolizes urea and precipitates calcite in a calcium-rich environment, was used in this study to generate the biosealant on a PCB-contaminated concrete surface. Concrete cylinders measuring 3 in (76.2 mm) by 6 in (152.4 mm) were made in accordance with ASTM C33 and C192 and used for this purpose. The PCB, urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentrations were set at 10 ppm, 666 mM, 250 mM, and about 2.1 × 10(8) cells mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the biosealed surfaces reduced water permeability by 1-5 orders of magnitude, and had a high resistance to carbonation. Since the MCP biosealant is thermally stable under temperatures of up to 840 °C, the high temperatures that normally exist in the surrounding equipment, which may contain PCB-based fluids, have no effect on the biosealed surfaces. Consequently, there is greater potential to obtain a stronger, coherent, and durable surface by MCP. No measurable amount of PCBs was detected in the permeating water, indicating that the leaching water, if any, will have a minimum impact on the surrounding environment.

  5. Properties of atomic intercalated carbon K4 crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Masahiro; Takami, Seiichi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    The stability of atomic intercalated carbon $K_{4}$ crystals, XC$_{2}$ (X=H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb or Sr) is evaluated by geometry optimization and frozen phonon analysis based on first principles calculations. Although C $K_{4}$ is unstable, NaC$_{2}$ and MgC$_{2}$ are found to be stable. It is shown that NaC$_{2}$ and MgC$_{2}$ are metallic and semi conducting, respectively.

  6. Ellipsometric investigations of photonic crystals based on carbon nanofibers

    CERN Document Server

    Rehammar, R; Arwin, H; Kinaret, J M; Campbell, E E B

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are used as components of planar photonic crystals (PC). Square and rectangular lattices as well as random patterns of vertically aligned CNF were fabricated and their properties studied using ellipsometry. Conventional methods of ellipsometric analysis used in thin film ellipsometry are not applicable to these samples due to their nanostructured nature. We show that detailed information such as symmetry directions and the band structure of these novel materials can be extracted from considerations of the polarization state in the specular beam.

  7. Crystallization of Carbon Oxygen Mixtures in White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2010-01-01

    We determine the phase diagram for dense carbon/ oxygen mixtures in White Dwarf (WD) star interiors using molecular dynamics simulations involving liquid and solid phases. Our phase diagram agrees well with predictions from Ogata et al. and Medin and Cumming and gives lower melting temperatures than Segretain et al. Observations of WD crystallization in the globular cluster NGC 6397 by Winget et al. suggest that the melting temperature of WD cores is close to that for pure carbon. If this is true, our phase diagram implies that the central oxygen abundance in these stars is less than about 60%. This constraint, along with assumptions about convection in stellar evolution models, limits the effective S factor for the $^{12}$C($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{16}$O reaction to S_{300} <= 170 keV barns.

  8. Antisolvent precipitation of novel xylitol-additive crystals to engineer tablets with improved pharmaceutical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this work was to develop stable xylitol particles with modified physical properties, improved compactibility and enhanced pharmaceutical performance without altering polymorphic form of xylitol. Xylitol was crystallized using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various hydrophilic polymer additives, i.e., polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a range of concentrations. The crystallization process did not influence the stable polymorphic form or true density of xylitol. However, botryoidal-shaped crystallized xylitols demonstrated different particle morphologies and lower powder bulk and tap densities in comparison to subangular-shaped commercial xylitol. Xylitol crystallized without additive and xylitol crystallized in the presence of PVP or PVA demonstrated significant improvement in hardness of directly compressed tablets; however, such improvement was observed to lesser extent for xylitol crystallized in the presence of PEG. Crystallized xylitols produced enhanced dissolution profiles for indomethacin in comparison to original xylitol. The influence of additive concentration on tablet hardness was dependent on the type of additive, whereas an increased concentration of all additives provided an improvement in the dissolution behavior of indomethacin. Antisolvent crystallization using judiciously selected type and concentration of additive can be a potential approach to prepare xylitol powders with promising physicomechanical and pharmaceutical properties.

  9. Atom probe tomography of secondary γ′ precipitation in a single crystal Ni-based superalloy after isothermal aging at 1100 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, X.P., E-mail: xptan1985@gmail.com [IM 2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mangelinck, D.; Perrin-Pellegrino, C. [IM 2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Rougier, L. [LSMX, MXG, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gandin, Ch.-A. [CEMEF, UMR 7635 CNRS, MINES ParisTech, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Jacot, A. [LSMX, MXG, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ponsen, D.; Jaquet, V. [Snecma-SAFRAN Group, Service YQGC, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Bimodal size distribution of γ′ precipitates occurs after isothermal aging at 1100 °C. • Characterization of secondary γ′ by atom probe tomography. • It is proposed that the secondary γ′ occurs via a non-classical nucleation. • The coarsening of secondary γ′ precipitates well obeys the classical LSW theory. - Abstract: Secondary γ′ precipitation in a commercial single crystal Ni-based superalloy after the 1100 °C isothermal aging has been investigated by atom probe tomography. After the isothermal aging for 300 s, 1800 s and 3600 s, a bimodal size distribution of larger primary γ′ precipitates and numerous smaller secondary γ′ precipitates was obtained. It is proposed that the secondary γ′ precipitated via a non-classical nucleation mode. The coarsening of secondary γ′ precipitates well obeys the classical LSW theory.

  10. Influence of precipitating agents on thermodynamic parameters of protein crystallization solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavros, Philemon; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Nounesis, George

    2016-09-01

    X-ray crystallography is the most powerful method for determining three-dimensional structures of proteins to (near-)atomic resolution, but protein crystallization is a poorly explained and often intractable phenomenon. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was used to measure the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) of temperature-driven unfolding of two globular proteins, lysozyme, and ribonuclease A, in various salt solutions. The mixtures were categorized into those that were conducive to crystallization of the protein and those that were not. It was found that even fairly low salt concentrations had very large effects on thermodynamic parameters. High concentrations of salts conducive to crystallization stabilized the native folded forms of proteins, whereas high concentrations of salts that did not crystallize them tended to destabilize them. Considering the ΔH and TΔS contributions to the ΔG of unfolding separately, high concentrations of crystallizing salts were found to enthalpically stabilize and entropically destabilize the protein, and vice-versa for the noncrystallizing salts. These observations suggest an explanation, in terms of protein stability and entropy of hydration, of why some salts are good crystallization agents for a given protein and others are not. This in turn provides theoretical insight into the process of protein crystallization, suggesting ways of predicting and controlling it. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 642-652, 2016.

  11. Morphology and Precipitation Kinetics of MnS in Low-Carbon Steel During Thin Slab Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hao; KANG Yong-lin; ZHAO Zheng-zhi; SUN Hao

    2006-01-01

    The morphology of manganese sulfide formed during thin slab continuous casting process in low-carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) technique was investigated. Using transmission electron microscopy analysis, it was seen that a majority of manganese sulfides precipitated at austenite grain boundaries, the morphologies of which were spherical or close to the spherical shape and the size of MnS precipitates ranged from 30 nm to 100 nm. A mathematical model of the manganese sulfide precipitation in this process was developed based on classical nucleation theory. Under the given conditions, the starting and finishing precipitation temperatures of MnS in the continuous casting thin slab of the studied low-carbon steel are 1 189 ℃ and 1 171 ℃, respectively, and the average diameter of MnS precipitates is about 48 nm within this precipitation temperature range. The influences of chemical components and thermo-mechanical processing conditions on the precipitation behavior of MnS in the same process were also discussed.

  12. Crystal morphology and carbon/carbon composition of solid oxalate in cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, E R; Smith, B N

    1979-12-01

    Morphology, crystal structure, and carbon isotopic composition of calcium oxalate from representative species from the family Cactaceae were determined using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Crystals from one species in the Opuntieae tribe of the Cactaceae were druses with acute points composed of the monohydrate form of calcium oxalate (whewellite). Crystals from three species in the Cereeae tribe were the dihydrate form of calcium oxalate (weddellite) forming druses made up of tetragonal and isodiametric crystallites. The oxalate was relatively enriched in (13)C isotope (-7.3 to - 8.7 per thousand) compared with woody fibers (-13.3 to 14.1 per thousand) from the same plants.

  13. Crystal Morphology and 13Carbon/12Carbon Composition of Solid Oxalate in Cacti 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, E. R.; Smith, B. N.

    1979-01-01

    Morphology, crystal structure, and carbon isotopic composition of calcium oxalate from representative species from the family Cactaceae were determined using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Crystals from one species in the Opuntieae tribe of the Cactaceae were druses with acute points composed of the monohydrate form of calcium oxalate (whewellite). Crystals from three species in the Cereeae tribe were the dihydrate form of calcium oxalate (weddellite) forming druses made up of tetragonal and isodiametric crystallites. The oxalate was relatively enriched in 13C isotope (-7.3 to - 8.7 ‰) compared with woody fibers (-13.3 to 14.1 ‰) from the same plants. Images PMID:16661115

  14. Carbonate precipitation in brine – a potential trigger for tropospheric ozone depletion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs at high latitudes were discovered 20 years ago and are attributed to bromine explosions. However, an unresolved issue is the explanation of how the acid-catalyzed reaction cycle is triggered in atmospheric particles derived from alkaline sea water. By simulating the chemistry occuring in polar regions over recently formed sea ice, we can model successfully the transformation of inert sea-salt bromide to reactive bromine monoxide (BrO and the subsequent ODE when precipitation of calcium carbonate from freezing sea water is taken into account. In addition, we found the temperature dependence of the equilibrium BrCl+Br−↔Br2Cl− to be important.

  15. Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate--Cellulose nanofibrils composite filler on paper properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Cho, Byoung-Uk; Won, Jong Myoung

    2016-01-20

    A new concept of composite filler was developed by using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and cationic starch (C-starch). In this study, cellulose nanofibrils were utilized in two different ways: a PCC-CNF composite filler and a papermaking additive in sheet forming. The aim was to elucidate their effects on flocculation, filler retention and the strength and optical properties of handsheets. The highest filler retention was obtained by using the PCC-CNF composite filler in paper sheets. The paper filled with the composite fillers had much higher bursting and tensile strengths than conventional PCC loading. It was also found that the paper prepared with PCC-CNF composite fillers became denser with increasing the filler content of paper.

  16. Mechanistic Study of Magnesium Carbonate Semibatch Reactive Crystallization with Magnesium Hydroxide and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.;

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates semibatch precipitation of magnesium carbonate at ambient temperature and pressure using Mg(OH)(2) and CO2 as starting materials. A thermal analysis method was developed that reflects the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of magnesium carbonate. The method...... the liquid and solid phases. A stirring rate of 650 rpm was found to be the optimum speed as the flow rate of CO2 was 1 L/min. Precipitation rate increased with gas flow rate, which indicates that mass transfer of CO2 plays a critical role in this precipitation case. Magnesium carbonate trihydrate...

  17. Ca-carbonates precipitation and limestone genesis — the microbiogeologist point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanier, Sabine; Le Métayer-Levrel, Gaële; Perthuisot, Jean-Pierre

    1999-07-01

    Experiments show that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. In heterotrophy, the passive carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. It is induced by several metabolic pathways of the nitrogen cycle (ammonification of amino-acids, degradation of urea and uric acid, dissimilatory reduction of nitrates) and of the sulphur cycle (dissimilatory reduction of sulphates). The active carbonatogenesis is independent of the mentioned metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. In autotrophy, non-methylotrophic methanogenesis and cyanobacterial photosynthesis also may contribute to the precipitation of carbonates (autotrophic carbonates). As carbonatogenesis is neither restricted to particular taxonomic groups of bacteria nor to specific environments, it has been an ubiquitous phenomenon since Precambrian times. Carbonatogenesis is the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. After a phase of latency, there is an exponential increase of bacterial numbers together with the accumulation of metabolic end-products. These induce a pH increase and an accumulation of carbonate and hydrogenocarbonate ions in the medium. This phase ends into a steady state when most part of the initial enrichment is consumed and there is a balance between death and growth in bacterial populations. Particulate carbonatogenesis occurs during the exponential phase and ends more or less after the beginning of the steady state. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first and to be followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. In eutrophic conditions, the first solid products are patches that appear on the surface of the bacterial bodies

  18. NbC precipitates EELS spectra in a very low carbon microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancilla, J. E.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a characterization study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS of NbC precipitates in microalloyed steel is presented. The steel was hot rolled in a laboratory scale two-high reversing mill. The shape, size, location, and number of particles per unit area in the steel microstructure are reported. The particles were semi quantitatively analyzed for the heavier alloying elements using EDS, while EELS was used for the lighter elements, e. g. carbon and nitrogen. The EELS study of the precipitates reveals that the carbon is present as a compound (NbC without nitrogen.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de caracterización por espectroscopia de pérdida de energía de electrones (EPEE realizado en un microscopio electrónico de transmisión de los precipitados de NbC en un acero microaleado. El acero se laminó en caliente en un laminador dúo reversible escala laboratorio. Las partículas de precipitados se caracterizaron en tamaños, formas y distribución y se analizaron semicuantitativamente para los elementos de aleación del acero más pesados, empleando un detector por dispersión de energías de rayos X, mientras que la EPEE se empleó para los elementos más ligeros, es decir, el carbono y el nitrógeno. El estudio por EPEE de los precipitados muestra que el carbono está presente como un compuesto (NbC sin que se haya encontrado nitrógeno en los mismos.

  19. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that

  20. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  1. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosbi, Norlin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Akil, Hazizan Md, E-mail: hazizan@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Cluster for Polymer Composite (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  2. Modeling effects of temperature and precipitation on carbon characteristics and GHGs emissions in Abies fabric forest of subalpine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuyang; CHENG Genwei; XIAO Feipeng; FAN Jihui

    2008-01-01

    Abies fabric forest in the eastern slope of Gongga mountain is one type of subalpine dark coniferous forests of southwestern China.It is located on the southeastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and is sensitive to climatic changes,A process-oriented biogeochemical model,Forest-DNDC,was applied to simulate the effects of climatic factors,temperature and precipitation changes on carbon characteristics,and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions inA.fabric forest.Validation indicated that the Forest-DNDC could be used to predict carbon characteristics and GHGs emissions with reasonable accuracy.The model simulated carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,soil CO2,N2O,and NO emissions with the changes of temperature and precipitation conditions.The results showed that with variation in the baseline temperature from-2℃ to+2℃,the gross primary production (GPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC)increased,and the net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) decreased because of higher respiration rate.With increasing baseline precipitation the GPP and NPP increased slightly,and the NEP and SOC showed decreasing trend.Soil CO2 emissions increased with the increase of temperature,and CO2 emissions changed little with increased baseline precipitation.With increased temperature and decreased baseline temperature,the total annual soil N2O emissions increased.With the variation of baseline temperature from -2℃ to +2℃,the total annual soil NO emissions increased.The total annual N2O and NO emissions showed increasing trends with the increase of precipitation.The biogeochemical simulation of the typical forest indicated that temperature changes strongly affected carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,and soil GHGs emissions.The precipitation was not a principal factor affecting carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,and soil CO2 emissions,but changes in precipitation could exert strong effect on soil N2O and NO emissions.

  3. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  4. Boron isotopic fractionation in laboratory inorganic carbonate precipitation: Evidence for the incorpora-tion of B(OH)3 into carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory inorganic carbonate precipitation experiment at high pH of 8.96 to 9.34 was conducted, and the boron isotopic fractionations of the precipitated carbonate were measured. The data show that boron isotopic fractionation factors (αcarb-3) between carbonate and B(OH)3 in seawater range 0.937 and 0.965, with an average value of 0.953. Our results together with those reported by Sanyal and collabo-rators show that the αcarb-3 values between carbonate and B(OH)3 in solution are not constant but are negatively correlated with the pH of seawater. The measured boron isotopic compositions of carbonate precipitation (δ11Bcarb) do not exactly lie on the best-fit theoretical δ 11B4-pH curves and neither do they exactly parallel any theoretical δ 11B4-pH curves. Therefore, it is reasonable to argue that a changeable proportion of B(OH)3 with pH of seawater should also be incorporated into carbonate except for the dominant incorporation of B(OH)4- in carbonate . Hence, in the reconstruction of the paleo-pH of sea-water from boron isotopes in marine biogenic carbonates, the use of theoretical boron isotopic frac-tionation factor (α4-3) between B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 is not suitable. Instead, an empirical equation should be established.

  5. Regulation of Microstructure of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Egg White Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-kun; LUO Xue-gang; ZHANG Chi; DUAN Tao; ZHOU Jian

    2012-01-01

    Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in biological simulation was investigated via egg white protein with different volume fractions,during which calcium carbonate was synthesized by calcium chloride and sodium carbonate.The morphology,thermal properties and microstructure of the calcium carbonate micro-to-nanoscale crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),thermogravimetric analysis(TG)and X-ray diffraction(XRD)analysis.The results show that the volume fraction of egg white protein has great influence on the shape,size and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals.The calcium carbonate crystals were the mixtures of calcite-vaterite-like crystals including spherical and rough surface,which are different from that formed in pure water.With the increase of egg white protein concentration,the diameter of calcium carbonate crystals changed,the amount of formed spherical calcium carbonate particles decreased and that of vaterite increased.These results indicate that the coordination and electrostatic interaction between egg white protein and Ca2+ significantly affect the calcium carbonate crystalization.

  6. Nanocrystalline particle coatings on alpha-alumina powders by a carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Young Mi

    2007-11-01

    We have suggested ultrafine particle coating processes for preparing nanocrystalline particle coated alpha-alumina powders by a carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion route, which is environmentally friendly. The nanometric ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) as a precursor for coating of alumina was produced from precipitation reaction of ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The synthetic crystalline size and morphology were greatly dependent on pH and temperature. By adding ammonium aluminum sulfate solution dispersed the alpha-alumina core particle in the ammonium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, nanometric AACH with a size of 5 nm was tightly bonded and uniformly coated on the core powder due to formation of surface complexes by the adsorption of carbonates, hydroxyl and ammonia groups on the surface of aluminum oxide. The synthetic precursor rapidly converted to amorphous- and y-alumina phase without significant change in the morphological features through decomposition of surface complexes and thermal-assisted phase transformation. As a result, the nanocrystalline polymorphic particle coated alpha-alumina core powders with highly uniform distribution were prepared from the route of carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion.

  7. Effect of pH and phosphate on calcium carbonate polymorphs precipitated at near-freezing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yu-Bin; Wolthers, Mariëtte; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Nehrke, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pH and phosphate on the precipitation of calcium carbonate polymorphs from aqueous solution were investigated. Experiments were carried out at near-freezing temperature and two different pH conditions (pH 13.4 and 9.0). At each pH condition, solutions having different concentrations o

  8. Precipitation polymerization of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolyte poly(AA-co-ODA) in supercritical carbon dioxide and solution rheology properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiping; Li, Wei; Cao, Qing; Chen, Mingcai

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophobically modified (HM) polyelectrolytes were prepared by using precipitation polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and octadecyl acrylate (ODA) in various molar ratios in supercritical carbon dioxide. The product was obtained in the form of a white powder and the micrographs show aggregates of primary particles properties.

  9. Capillarity creates single-crystal calcite nanowires from amorphous calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Hetherington, Nicola B J; Noel, Elizabeth H; Kröger, Roland; Charnock, John M; Christenson, Hugo K; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2011-12-23

    Single-crystal calcite nanowires are formed by crystallization of morphologically equivalent amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles within the pores of track etch membranes. The polyaspartic acid stabilized ACC is drawn into the membrane pores by capillary action, and the single-crystal nature of the nanowires is attributed to the limited contact of the intramembrane ACC particle with the bulk solution. The reaction environment then supports transformation to a single-crystal product.

  10. Calcium Carbonate Crystal Growth in Porous Media, in the presence of Water Miscible and Non-Miscible Organic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaho, Sofia; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of sparingly soluble salts (scaling) within porous media is a major problem encountered in many industrial and environmental applications. In the oil industry scaling causes severe operational malfunctions and, therefore, increasing the total operating and maintenance cost [1]. The most common types of sparingly soluble salts located in oil fields include carbonate and sulfate salts of calcium, strondium and barium[1,2]. Multiple phase flow and tubing surface properties are some of the factors affecting scale formation [3]. The main purpose of the present work was the investigation of the precipitation mechanisms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) through in situ mixing of two soluble salt solutions in a flow granular medium, in the presence of water miscible organic fluid (ethylene glycol) or non-miscible organic fluid (n-dodecane). All series of experiments were carried out in a two dimensional porous medium made of Plexiglas. For all solutions used in the experiments, the contact angles with the surface of the porous medium and the interfacial tensions were measured. During the experiments, the calcium carbonate crystal growth was continuously monitored and recorded through an optical microscope equipped with a digital programmed video camera. The snap-shots were taken within specific time intervals and their detailed procession gave information concerning the crystal growth rate and kinetics. The pH of the effluent was measured and fluids samples were collected for calcium analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). In all experiments effluent calcium concentration decreased as a function of time, suggesting that CaCO3 precipitation took place inside the porous medium. Crystals of the precipitated salt were identified using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and the morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The induction time for precipitation of CaCO3 crystals in the presence of n-dodecane was significantly

  11. Ultrasensitive quartz crystal microbalance integrated with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhijat

    In this thesis, an ultrasensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) which can be configured as a versatile (bio)chemical sensor is presented. The high sensitivity of the QCM was achieved via miniaturization using micromachining techniques. The absolute mass sensitivity of sensor was increased by decreasing the thickness and the area of the electrodes of the resonators. Through optimal design, microfabrication, and miniaturization the mass sensitivity of the sensors was increased by more than four orders of magnitude to less than 1 pg/Hz; as compared to 17 ng/Hz for commercially available 5 MHz bulk resonators. Miniaturization of the resonators enables their fabrication in an array format with each pixel of the array being individually addressed. This enables true spatial and temporal mass sensing capabilities. The fabricated resonators were tested for operation in air and water and high quality factors of 7500 and ˜2000 were obtained respectively. A dielectric etch process was developed to achieve the miniaturization of the sensors. The optimization of the dielectric etch process was achieved using statistical techniques such as Design of Experiment (DOE). An etch rate of 0.5 microm/min at rms surface roughness of less than 2 nm was achieved after the optimization process. The process parameters, namely the ICP power, the substrate power, the flow rate of gases, the operating pressure of the etch tool, distance of substrate holder from the source, and the temperature of substrate holder, were quantitatively related to the etch rate and rms surface roughness using least square fit to the etch data. The QCMs were integrated with carbon nanotubes using a simple spray-on technique. It was found that the addition of carbon nanotubes onto the electroded surface of the resonator increased its Q-factor by as much as 100%. It was proposed that the carbon nanotubes due to their high stiffness suppress the out-of-plane flexural vibrations in the QCMs thereby suppressing an

  12. Enzyme precipitate coating of pyranose oxidase on carbon nanotubes and their electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hong, Sung-Gil; Wee, Youngho; Hu, Shuozhen; Kwon, Yongchai; Ha, Su; Kim, Jungbae

    2017-01-15

    Pyranose oxidase (POx), which doesn't have electrically non-conductive glycosylation moiety, was immobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via three different preparation methods: covalent attachment (CA), enzyme coating (EC) and enzyme precipitate coating (EPC). CA, EC and EPC of POx on CNTs were used to fabricate enzymatic electrodes for enzyme-based biosensors and biofuel cells. Improved enzyme loading of EPC resulted in 6.5 and 4.5 times higher activity per weight of CNTs than those of CA and EC, respectively. After 34 days at room temperature, EPC retained 65% of initial activity, while CA and EC maintained 9.2% and 26% of their initial activities, respectively. These results indicate that precipitation and crosslinking steps of EPC have an important role in maintaining enzyme activity. To demonstrate the feasibility of POx-based biosensors and biofuel cells, the enzyme electrodes were prepared using CA, EC, and EPC samples. In the case of biosensor, the sensitivities of the CA, EC, and EPC electrodes without BQ were measured to be 0.27, 0.76 and 3.7mA/M/cm(2), while CA, EC and EPC electrode with BQ showed 25, 25, and 60mA/M/cm(2) of sensitivities, respectively. The maximum power densities of biofuel cells using CA, EC and EPC electrodes without BQ were 41, 47 and 53µW/cm(2), while CA, EC and EPC electrodes with BQ showed 260, 330 and 500µW/cm(2), respectively. The POx immobilization and stabilization via the EPC approach can lead us to develop continuous glucose monitoring biosensors and high performing biofuel cells.

  13. Synthesis and Characterisation of Struvite Family Crystals by An Aqueous Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiyono S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Struvite (NH4MgPO4•6H2O is a mineral often found as a scale deposit in an industrial process and piping. The common occurrence of struvite formation is a wide variety of environments. pH solution and environmental temperature are important parameters that control precipitation and subsequent decomposition of struvite. The study aims to characterise the struvite precipitated out the solution through chemical and mineralogical analysis. In this work, struvite solution was prepared by mixing NH4OH , MgCl2 and H3PO4 with the different purity grade (A and B in the mol ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 in the stirred glass vessel tank with volume of 500 ml, and then stirred at 200 rpm for 70 minutes. Temperature of 3°C and an initial pH of 10 were selected. The precipitated deposit was dried at room temperature for 48 hours of being analyzed. Material characterization of the deposits was conducted using XRPD Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative mineralogical phase analysis. XRF was employed for bulk chemical elemental analysis of the scale obtained. The sample A using analytical grade powder provided the major phases of struvite-(K and struvite. In constrast, the major phase of newberyite and minor phases of lepidocrocite (FeOOH and niter (KNO3 was observed by following changes in the lowest purity of powder (Sample B. Analysis of the experimental data suggests a solution mediated transformation process as a possible mechanism of struvite transformation.

  14. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulin Yang

    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm, while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm and 2010 (141.3 mm was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP and R(eco, and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco. The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  15. Pore-scale network modeling of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation: Insight into scale dependence of biogeochemical reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao-Zhong; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Ebigbo, Anozie

    2016-11-01

    The engineering of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has attracted much attention in a number of applications, such as sealing of CO2 leakage pathways, soil stabilization, and subsurface remediation of radionuclides and toxic metals. The goal of this work is to gain insight into pore-scale processes of MICP and scale dependence of biogeochemical reaction rates. This will help us develop efficient field-scale MICP models. In this work, we have developed a comprehensive pore-network model for MICP, with geochemical speciation calculated by the open-source PHREEQC module. A numerical pseudo-3-D micromodel as the computational domain was generated by a novel pore-network generation method. We modeled a three-stage process in the engineering of MICP including the growth of biofilm, the injection of calcium-rich medium, and the precipitation of calcium carbonate. A number of test cases were conducted to illustrate how calcite precipitation was influenced by different operating conditions. In addition, we studied the possibility of reducing the computational effort by simplifying geochemical calculations. Finally, the effect of mass transfer limitation of possible carbonate ions in a pore element on calcite precipitation was explored.

  16. Thin graphite films formation by carbon precipitation in metals: diffusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Petr V.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-03-01

    Thin graphite films attract significant interest due to their unique physical properties and potential applications. Chemical vapor deposition in the presence of metal catalysts is one of the most promising and widely used techniques to produce these films. There are many experimental works devoted to the material synthesis; however, the results are usually obtained by the trial-and-error method without a proper understanding of the processes behind the experiment. We theoretically analyze the carbon diffusion processes inside a metal substrate during the deposition. The theory allows interconnection of the deposition parameters with the thickness of produced graphite films. Numerically solving the diffusion equations for the real systems, we obtained a good correlation between simulations and experimental data. Based on our simulations, we made some conclusions about the formation of graphite films by the precipitation process. The numerical simulations were mostly done for the popular nickel substrates, but we also made some calculations for iron, showing that it also could be used to form thin graphite films under certain conditions.

  17. Study on the Functionality of Nano-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate as Filler in Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilia, Blessie A.; Panganiban, Marian Elaine G.; Collado, Archilles Allen V. C.; Pesigan, Michael Oliver D.; de Yro, Persia Ada

    This research aims to investigate the functionality of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate (NPCC) as filler in thermoplastic resins based on property enhancement. Three types of thermoplastics were used: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The resins were evaluated by determining the effect of different NPCC loading on the chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties of thermoplastics. Results showed that there was an interfacial bonding with the NPCC surface and the thermoplastics. Change in absorption peak and area were predominant in the PVC filled composite. There was a decreased in crystallinity of the PE and PP with the addition of filler. Tremendous increase on the tensile and impact strength was exhibited by the NPCC filled PVC composites while PE and PP composites maintained a slight increase in their mechanical properties. Nano-sized filler was proven to improve the mechanical properties of thermoplastics compared with micron-sized filler because nano-sized filler has larger interfacial area between the filler and the polymer matrix.

  18. Carbon/Liquid Crystal Polymer Prepreg for Cryogenic and High-Temp Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KaZaK Composites proposes to develop a pultrusion process to produce carbon fiber / liquid crystal polymer (LCP) prepreg, a first for this category of materials and...

  19. Crystallization and melting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced nylon-6 composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Ma, Jianhua; Shen, Lu; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and melting behavior of neat nylon-6 (PA6) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/PA6 composites prepared by simple melt-compounding was comparatively studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show two crystallization exotherms (TCC, 1 and TCC, 2) for PA6/MWNTs

  20. Warming rather than increased precipitation increases soil recalcitrant organic carbon in a semiarid grassland after 6 years of treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Zhou

    Full Text Available Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0-10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P = 0.038 and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10-20 cm depth (P = 0.082. In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0-10 cm depth (both P<0.05, indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10-20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland.

  1. Precipitation and carbon-water coupling jointly control the interannual variability of global land gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julia; Dong, Jinwei; Kato, Etsushi; Jain, Atul K.; Wiltshire, Andy; Stocker, Benjamin D.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  2. Precipitation and Carbon-Water Coupling Jointly Control the Interannual Variability of Global Land Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julian; Dong, Jinwei; Kato, Etsushi; Jain, Atul K.; Wiltshire, Andy; Stocker, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  3. Effect of additives on size and shape of lithium carbonate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborga, P.; Brito, I.; Graber, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, properties such internal structure, shape, and size distribution influence the reactivity, fluidity and wettability of the crystals, and may be modified by the use of additives such as polyelectrolytes or surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different additives on the size and morphology of lithium carbonate crystals obtained by reactive crystallization from solutions of LiCl and Na2CO3. The additives used were: polyethylenimine (PEI), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid), (P4SA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS). Obtained crystals were observed using scanning electron microscopy, the crystal size distribution was determined by a size image analyzer, and the crystal structure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of PEI, PEG and P4SA, increased the length of the lithium carbonate particles. The presence of SDS decreases the crystals size. Using SDBS as additive, the crystals had a needle-like shape, Finally PAA allowed the production of Li2CO3 spherulites. Crystal structure of lithium carbonate did not change in the presence of the tested additives.

  4. Precipitation legacy effects on dryland ecosystem carbon fluxes: direction, magnitude and biogeochemical carryovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation legacy effect, defined as the impact of historical precipitation (PPT) on extant ecosystem dynamics, has been recognized as an important driver in shaping the temporal variability of dryland aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and soil respiration. How the PPT legacy influenc...

  5. Pentagonal monolayer crystals of carbon, boron nitride, and silver azide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagmurcukardes, M., E-mail: mehmetyagmurcukardes@iyte.edu.tr; Senger, R. T., E-mail: tugrulsenger@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Sahin, H.; Kang, J.; Torun, E.; Peeters, F. M. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Campus Groenenborgerlaan, 2020, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2015-09-14

    In this study, we present a theoretical investigation of structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of pentagonal monolayers of carbon (p-graphene), boron nitride (p-B{sub 2}N{sub 4} and p-B{sub 4}N{sub 2}), and silver azide (p-AgN{sub 3}) by performing state-of-the-art first principles calculations. Our total energy calculations suggest feasible formation of monolayer crystal structures composed entirely of pentagons. In addition, electronic band dispersion calculations indicate that while p-graphene and p-AgN{sub 3} are semiconductors with indirect bandgaps, p-BN structures display metallic behavior. We also investigate the mechanical properties (in-plane stiffness and the Poisson's ratio) of four different pentagonal structures under uniaxial strain. p-graphene is found to have the highest stiffness value and the corresponding Poisson's ratio is found to be negative. Similarly, p-B{sub 2}N{sub 4} and p-B{sub 4}N{sub 2} have negative Poisson's ratio values. On the other hand, the p-AgN{sub 3} has a large and positive Poisson's ratio. In dynamical stability tests based on calculated phonon spectra of these pentagonal monolayers, we find that only p-graphene and p-B{sub 2}N{sub 4} are stable, but p-AgN{sub 3} and p-B{sub 4}N{sub 2} are vulnerable against vibrational excitations.

  6. Catalytic Oxidation of Propylene, Toluene, Carbon Monoxide, and Carbon Black over Au/CeO2 Solids: Comparing the Impregnation and the Deposition-Precipitation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Aboukaïs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/CeO2 solids were prepared by two methods: deposition-precipitation (DP and impregnation (Imp. The prepared solids were calcined under air at 400°C. Both types of catalysts have been tested in the total oxidation of propylene, toluene, carbon monoxide, and carbon black. Au/CeO2-DP solids were the most reactive owing to the high number of gold nanoparticles and Au+ species and the low concentration of Cl- ions present on its surface compared to those observed in Au/CeO2-Imp solids.

  7. Matrix effects in nilotinib formulations with pH-responsive polymer produced by carbon dioxide-mediated precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Brisander, Magnus; Haglöf, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    the drug dissolution, was characterized with a battery of physicochemical methodologies, including ToF-SIMS for surface composition, SAXS/WAXS and modulated DSC for crystallization characterization, and simultaneous UV-imaging and Raman spectroscopy for monitoring the dissolution process in detail....... The hybrid particle formulations investigated consisted of amorphous nilotinib embedded in a polymer matrix in single continuous phase, displaying extended retained amorphicity also under wet conditions. It was demonstrated by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy that the efficient drug dispersion and amorphization...... acid to neutral pH, thereby preventing re-precipitation and re-crystallization of incorporated nilotinib. These findings provide a mechanistic foundation of formulation development of nilotinib and other protein kinase inhibitors, which are now witnessing an intense therapeutic and industrial attention...

  8. Modern Freshwater Microbialites, Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. II. Detailed Spatial Analysis of Geochemical Signals Linked to Microbial Activity and Carbonate Precipitation/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, D.; Breitbart, M.; Nitti, A.; van Mooy, B.; Seifert, J.; Souza, V.

    2010-04-01

    This study applies a highly resolved spatial approach using genomic, stable isotopic, and molecular organic geochemical analyses to determine the microorganisms and chemical processes for carbonate precipitation in the freshwater microbialites in Cuatro Ciénegas, MX.

  9. Penggunaan precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC sebagai filler untuk sol karet sepatu olah raga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminiwati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the research was to investigate the utilization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC as filler in producing sport shoe rubber soles. PCC is a white filler needed for production of nonblack colour rubber products. There are four types of PCC that have been used including two local PCC from Wonosari and East Java, and two imported PCC from Japan and Taiwan. The amount of PCC added into the sport shoe sole rubber compound was varied in 30,45,60,75 and 90 per hundred rubber (phr. The compounding was carried-out by using two roll mills machine, and the compound was subsequently measured their optimum vulcanization time by using rheometer. The produced compound was then subjected to vulcanistion process by using hydrolic press at temperature 1500C and pressure 150 kg/ cm2. The quality of shoes sole vulcanisates were compare to standard quality of SNI. 12-7075-2005 about cemented system sport shoes. The results indicated that the best formula of rubber compound for sport shoes sole were made by using NR 80 phr, NBR 20 phr, paraffinic oil 10 phr, aluminium silicate 30 phr, ZnO 5 phr, TiO2 10 phr, stearic acid 1 phr, vulkanox SP 1 phr, paraffin wax 1 phr, TMTD 0,5 phr, CBS 2 phr, sulphur 1,2 phr with the amount of PCC Actifort 700 of 45 phr. The best formula meet the requirement SNI 12-7075-2005 and they were characterized by tensile sterength 16,79 N/mm2, elongation at break 529,92% tear resistance 9,06 N/mm2, specific gravity 1,28 g/cm3, hardness 55 shore A, Grasselli absrassion resistancing filler. The local PCC from Wonosari can be used for substitution of the imported PCC as the white filler for the production of rubber compound sport shoes sole. However, particle size reduction and coating or surface treatment of local PCC were needed for improving the quality and the role of reinforcing filler.

  10. Consolidation of degraded ornamental porous limestone stone by calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the microbiota inhabiting the stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, C; Rodriguez-Navarro, C; Piñar, G; Carrillo-Rosúa, F J; Rodriguez-Gallego, M; Gonzalez-Muñoz, M T

    2007-08-01

    Although it has already been shown that calcareous stone can be consolidated by using a bacterially inoculated culture medium, a more user-friendly method is the in situ application of a sterile culture medium that is able to activate, among the microbial community of the stone, those bacteria with a potential for calcium carbonate precipitation. In order to test this new method for stone consolidation, non-sterilized decayed porous limestone was immersed in sterile nutritional media. Results were compared to those of the runs in which stone sterilized prior to the treatment was used. The effects of the microbial community on stone consolidation were determined by recording the evolution of the culture media chemistry. The treated stone was tested for mechanical resistance and porosity. Results demonstrate that the tested media were able to activate bacteria from the microbial community of the stone. As a consequence of the growth of these bacteria, an alkalinization occurred that resulted in calcium carbonate precipitation. The new precipitate was compatible with the substrate and consolidated the stone without pore plugging. Therefore, a good candidate to in situ consolidate decayed porous limestone is the application of a sterile culture medium with the characteristics specified in the present study.

  11. Optical Study of Liquid Crystal Lens Doped with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new kind of electrically controlled liquid crystal lens, which respond in a relatively fast time, is presented. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes are doped into liquid crystal to fabricate the liquid crystal lens. As 0.02 % concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is uniformly distributed in the liquid crystal, the optical features of the liquid crystal lens are obviously improved. The liquid crystal lens with a diameter of 2.0 mm was fabricated with about 0.2 s response time and less than 5 Vrms applied voltage. The focal length can vary from 16 to 510 mm, and the operation voltage changes from 1.0 to 5.5 Vrms. This liquid crystal lens has the very attractive feature of submillisecond response time, which is a much faster response time in comparison with conventional liquid crystal lens. Thus, this kind of liquid crystal lens has high potential for implementation in many practical imaging applications and imaging commercialisation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12911

  12. The peculiar electrical response of liquid crystal-carbon nanotube systems as seen by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, A.; Vergaz, R.; Algorri, J. F.; Geday, M. A.; Otón, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Conductive nanoparticles, especially elongated ones such as carbon nanotubes, dramatically modify the electrical behavior of liquid crystal cells. These nanoparticles are known to reorient with liquid crystals in electric fields, causing significant variations of conductivity at minute concentrations of tens or hundreds ppm. The above notwithstanding, impedance spectroscopy of doped cells in the frequency range customarily employed by liquid crystal devices, 100 Hz-10 kHz, shows a relatively simple resistor/capacitor response where the components of the cell can be univocally assigned to single components of the electrical equivalent circuit. However, widening the frequency range up to 1 MHz or beyond reveals a complex behavior that cannot be explained with the same simple EEC. Moreover, the system impedance varies with the application of electric fields, their effect remaining after removing the field. Carbon nanotubes are reoriented together with liquid crystal reorientation when applying voltage, but barely reoriented back upon liquid crystal relaxation once the voltage is removed. Results demonstrate a remarkable variation in the impedance of the dielectric blend formed by liquid crystal and carbon nanotubes, the irreversible orientation of the carbon nanotubes and possible permanent contacts between electrodes.

  13. Coprecipitation of {sup 14}C and Sr with carbonate precipitates: The importance of reaction kinetics and recrystallization pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodkin, David J. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Stewart, Douglas I. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Graham, James T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Burke, Ian T., E-mail: I.T.Burke@leeds.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of Sr{sup 2+} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} from pH > 12 Ca(OH){sub 2} solution by the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Initial Ca{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ratios ranged from 10:1 to 10:100 (mM:mM). Maximum removal of {sup 14}C and Sr{sup 2+} both occurred in the system containing 10 mM Ca{sup 2+} and 1 mM CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} (99.7% and 98.6% removal respectively). A kinetic model is provided that describes {sup 14}C and Sr removal in terms of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The removal of {sup 14}C was achieved during the depletion of the initial TIC in solution, and was subsequently significantly affected by recrystallization of the calcite precipitate from an elongate to isotropic morphology. This liberated > 46% of the {sup 14}C back to solution. Sr{sup 2+} removal occurred as Ca{sup 2+} became depleted in solution and was not significantly affected by the recrystallization process. The proposed reaction could form the basis for low cost remediation scheme for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 14}C in radioactively contaminated waters (<$0.25 reagent cost per m{sup 3} treated). - Highlights: • 99.7% of {sup 14}C and 98.6% of Sr removed from aqueous solution by CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. • Remobilization of {sup 14}C observed during calcium carbonate recrystallization. • Sr displayed variable distribution coefficient (possibly affected by Ca:Sr ratio). • Reagent cost of $0.22/m{sup 3} of treated groundwater.

  14. The evolution and future of carbonate precipitation in marine invertebrates: Witnessing extinction or documenting resilience in the Anthropocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeana L. Drake

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the ability to precipitate carbonates evolved several times in marine invertebrates in the past 600 million years. Over the past decade, there has been a profusion of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses of calcifying representatives from three metazoan phyla: Cnidaria, Echinodermata, and Mollusca. Based on this information, we compared proteins intimately associated with precipitated calcium carbonate in these three phyla. Specifically, we used a cluster analysis and gene ontology approach to compare ∼1500 proteins, from over 100 studies, extracted from calcium carbonates in stony corals, in bivalve and gastropod mollusks, and in adult and larval sea urchins to identify common motifs and differences. Our analysis suggests that there are few sequence similarities across all three phyla, supporting the independent evolution of biomineralization. However, there are core sets of conserved motifs in all three phyla we examined. These motifs include acidic proteins that appear to be responsible for the nucleation reaction as well as inhibition; structural and adhesion proteins that determine spatial patterning; and signaling proteins that modify enzymatic activities. Based on this analysis and the fossil record, we propose that biomineralization is an extremely robust and highly controlled process in metazoans that can withstand extremes in pH predicted for the coming century, similar to their persistence through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (∼55 Mya.

  15. Influence of grazing and precipitation change on ecosystem carbon exchange along an elevation gradient in central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have resulted in well-documented increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and mean annual temperature, with forecast future increases of between 1.1 and 6.4 oC. These increased temperatures will alter patterns of atmospheric circulation and influence hydrologic processes. For ecologists the challenge lies in the ability to understand how critical processes will be affected by two fundamental changes in precipitation—(1) decreases in the amount of summertime rain and (2) the size and frequency of individual rain events. In 2009 we began a rainfall manipulation study at elevations ranging from the valley floor to the crest of the Wasatch Plateau. In addition to manipulating summer rainfall, this experiment evaluates the influence of historical livestock grazing. We hypothesized that historical grazing would decrease the responsiveness to this system to changes in precipitation because grazing promotes drought-adapted species. This work has two specific aims that were addressed at the Great Basin Experimental Range in Ephraim, UT. The first aim was to determine how decreasing monsoon precipitation by 30-70% alters plant physiology, community interactions, and the biophysical environment in historically grazed and ungrazed plots. The second aim was to examine how changing the size and timing of precipitation influences plant physiology, community interactions, and the biophysical environment. After two years we observed substantial changes in soil moisture associated with our treatments. We also observed moisture-related changes in soil respiration and plant production with drought being much more influential than the timing of precipitation. Grazing decreases respiration rates and plant production independently from precipitation effects. These results indicate that there is a potential interaction between climate change and land use decisions.

  16. Multicentury Reconstruction of Precipitations (1300-2014) in Eastern Canada from Tree-Ring Width and Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, Claudie; Boucher, Étienne; Bergeron, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Tree ring series enabling long hydroclimatic reconstructions are scarce in Northeastern America, mostly because most boreal species are rather thermo-dependant. Here we propose a new multi-proxy analysis (tree-ring, δ13C and δ18O) from one of the oldest Thuja occidentalis population in NE America (lake Duparquet, Quebec). These rare precipitation-sensitive, long-living trees (> 800 years) grow on xeric rocky shores and their potential for paleo-hydroclimatic reconstructions (based on ring widths solely) was previously assessed. The objectives of this study are twofold i) to strengthen the hydroclimatic signal of this long tree-ring chronology by adding analysis of stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O) and ii) to reconstruct summer precipitation back to 1300 AD, which will represent, by far, the longest high-resolution hydroclimatic reconstruction in this region. A tree-ring chronology was constructed from 61 trees sampled in standing position. Eleven trees were also sampled to produce pooled carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies (annually resolved) with a replication of five to six trees per year. Signal analysis (correlation between climatic data and proxy values) confirms that growth is positively influenced by spring precipitations (May-June), while δ13C is negatively correlated to summer precipitation (June to August) and positively to June temperature. Adding δ18O analysis will strengthen the signal even more, since wood cellulose should be enriched in δ18O when high evapotranspiration conditions prevail. Based on a multi-proxy approach, a summer precipitation reconstruction was developed and compared to other temperature reconstructions from this region as well as to southernmost hydroclimatic reconstructions (e.g. Cook et al). A preliminary analysis of external and internal forcing is proposed in conclusion.

  17. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of carbide precipitates in a niobium-zirconium-carbon alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D.M.; Groza, J.R.; Mukherjee, A.K. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened niobium alloys have shown promise as high-temperature structural materials for aerospace applications. The achievement of suitable properties and superior creep resistance at service conditions requires that the second phase particles remain relatively small, stable, and evenly dispersed in the matrix. The key to this development lies in the thermodynamic evolution of the precipitate phase. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic driving force for formation of carbides in a precipitation-strengthened refractory metal alloy of niobium; Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C commercially known as PWC-11. An examination of the free energies of formation of the different carbide phases, their evolution and stability at the high temperatures, and a comparison with experimental analysis was made.

  19. Carbon Isotopes in Pinus elliotti from Big Pine Key, Florida: Indicators of Seasonal Precipitation, ENSO and Disturbance Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebenack, C.; Willoughby, H. E.; Anderson, W. T.; Cherubini, P.

    2013-12-01

    The South Florida coastal ecosystem is among the world's subtropical coastlines which are threatened by the potential effects of climate change. A well-developed localized paleohistory is essential in the understanding of the role climate variability/change has on both hydrological dynamics and disturbance event frequency and intensity; this understanding can then aid in the development of better predictive models. High resolution paleoclimate proxies, such as those developed from tree-ring archives, may be useful tools for extrapolating actual climate trends over time from the overlapping long-term and short-term climate cycles, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In South Florida, both the AMO and ENSO strongly influence seasonal precipitation, and a more complete grasp of how these cycles have affected the region in the past could be applied to future freshwater management practices. Dendrochronology records for the terrestrial subtropics, including South Florida, are sparse because seasonality for this region is precipitation driven; this is in contrast to the drastic temperature changes experienced in the temperate latitudes. Subtropical seasonality may lead to the complete lack of visible rings or to the formation of ring structures that may or may not represent annual growth. Fortunately, it has recently been demonstrated that Pinus elliottii trees in South Florida produce distinct annual growth rings; however ring width was not found to significantly correlate with either the AMO or ENSO. Dendrochronology studies may be taken a step beyond the physical tree-ring proxies by using the carbon isotope ratios to infer information about physiological controls and environmental factors that affect the distribution of isotopes within the plant. It has been well established that the stable isotope composition of cellulose can be related to precipitation, drought, large-scale ocean/atmospheric oscillations

  20. Dehydration and crystallization of amorphous calcium carbonate in solution and in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihli, Johannes; Wong, Wai Ching; Noel, Elizabeth H; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Kulak, Alexander N; Christenson, Hugo K; Duer, Melinda J; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which amorphous intermediates transform into crystalline materials are poorly understood. Currently, attracting enormous interest is the crystallization of amorphous calcium carbonate, a key intermediary in synthetic, biological and environmental systems. Here we attempt to unify many contrasting and apparently contradictory studies by investigating this process in detail. We show that amorphous calcium carbonate can dehydrate before crystallizing, both in solution and in air, while thermal analyses and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that its water is present in distinct environments. Loss of the final water fraction--comprising less than 15% of the total--then triggers crystallization. The high activation energy of this step suggests that it occurs by partial dissolution/recrystallization, mediated by surface water, and the majority of the particle then crystallizes by a solid-state transformation. Such mechanisms are likely to be widespread in solid-state reactions and their characterization will facilitate greater control over these processes.

  1. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-01-04

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  2. Crystallization kinetics of calcium carbonate at a stoichiometric ratio of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochitalkina, I. A.; Kekin, P. A.; Morozov, A. N.; Petropavlovskii, I. A.; Kondakov, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    The formal kinetics of calcium carbonate crystallization in aqueous solutions is studied at a stoichiometric ratio of Ca2+ and CO3 2- ions. The kinetics of the process was monitored by convenient and reliable methods (complexometric analysis for calcium in an aqueous solution and energy dispersive and microscopic measurement of solid particle sizes). The effect the temperature and degree of supersaturation have on the periods of induction and mass crystallization and the equilibrium concentration of calcium ions in solution is estimated at continuously controlled pH and solution ionic strength. The kinetic parameters ( n, k, τ1/2, E a) of calcium carbonate crystallization are calculated. It is shown that calcium carbonate with a calcite structure formed at a stoichiometric ratio of reagents, and changes in the temperature (25-45°C) and the solution's degree of supersaturation (2-6) within the considered range had no effect on the characteristics of the solid phase.

  3. ARTICLES: Orientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Orange Dyes and Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicilar, Ahmet; Akkurt, Fatih; Kaya, Nihan

    2010-06-01

    Some properties of nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with two disperse orange dyes used together and effect of addition of carbon nanoparticles (single walled carbon nanotube or fullerene C60) on them were studied. Two dyes (disperse orange 11 and 13) having high solubility and order parameter were used as co-dopants. A notable increase in order parameter was obtained comparing to that of liquid crystal doped with single dye. When carbon nanoparticles were used as dopant, a decrease in order parameter was observed at low temperatures while it increased at high temperatures. When applied voltage changed, the order parameter abruptly increased in its threshold value and saturated in higher voltages as expected. An appreciable change in textures was not observed with addition of dopants. This addition gave rise to an increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures compared with that of pure liquid crystal.

  4. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Mechanical properties and characteristics of nanometer-sized precipitates in hot-rolled low-carbon ferritic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-pei Wang; Ai-min Zhao; Zheng-zhi Zhao; Yao Huang; Liang Li; Qing He

    2014-01-01

    The microstructures and properties of hot-rolled low-carbon ferritic steel have been investigated by optical microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and tensile tests after isothermal transformation from 600°C to 700°C for 60 min. It is found that the strength of the steel decreases with the increment of isothermal temperature, whereas the hole expan-sion ratio and the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries increase. A large amount of nanometer-sized carbides were homogeneously distrib-uted throughout the material, and fine (Ti, Mo)C precipitates have a significant precipitation strengthening effect on the ferrite phase because of their high density. The nanometer-sized carbides have a lattice parameter of 0.411-0.431 nm. After isothermal transformation at 650°C for 60 min, the ferrite phase can be strengthened above 300 MPa by precipitation strengthening according to the Ashby-Orowan mechanism.

  6. Coprecipitation of (14)C and Sr with carbonate precipitates: The importance of reaction kinetics and recrystallization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkin, David J; Stewart, Douglas I; Graham, James T; Burke, Ian T

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of Sr(2+) and (14)CO3(2-) from pH>12 Ca(OH)2 solution by the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Initial Ca(2+):CO3(2-) ratios ranged from 10:1 to 10:100 (mM:mM). Maximum removal of (14)C and Sr(2+) both occurred in the system containing 10mM Ca(2+) and 1mM CO3(2-) (99.7% and 98.6% removal respectively). A kinetic model is provided that describes (14)C and Sr removal in terms of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The removal of (14)C was achieved during the depletion of the initial TIC in solution, and was subsequently significantly affected by recrystallization of the calcite precipitate from an elongate to isotropic morphology. This liberated >46% of the (14)C back to solution. Sr(2+) removal occurred as Ca(2+) became depleted in solution and was not significantly affected by the recrystallization process. The proposed reaction could form the basis for low cost remediation scheme for (90)Sr and (14)C in radioactively contaminated waters (<$0.25 reagent cost per m(3) treated).

  7. Preparation and Crystallization of Carbon Nanotube/maleic Anhydride-grafted Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua CHEN; Jing HU; Lingping ZHOU; Wenhua LI; Zi YANG; Yanguo WANG

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/maleic acid anhydride (MAH)-grafted polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared by in situ grafting method. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the CNTs were linked to PP by MAH grafting. The microstructures and calorimetry analysis indicated that the crystallization behaviors of the filled and unfilled PP were quite different. The addition of CNTs dramatically reduced the spherulite size, increased crystallization rate and improved the thermal stability of PP. These results confirmed the expected nucleant effect of CNT on the crystallization of PP. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the CNTs were dispersed homogeneously, indicating that the original CNT bundles were separated into individual tubes by the grafting.

  8. Calcium carbonate crystallization in the presence of modified polysaccharides and linear polymeric additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matahwa, H.; Ramiah, V.; Sanderson, R. D.

    2008-10-01

    Crystallization of calcium carbonate was performed in the presence of grafted polysaccharides, polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyacrylic acid (PAA). The grafted polysaccharides gave crystal morphologies that were different from the unmodified polysaccharides but similar to the ones given by homopolymers of the grafted chains. PAM-grafted α-cellulose gave rectangular platelets that aggregated to form 'spherical' crystals on the surface of the fiber, whereas PAA grafted α-cellulose gave spherical crystals on the surface of the fiber. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy showed that PAM-grafted α-cellulose, PAM as well as the control (no polymeric additive) gave calcite crystals at both 25 and 80 °C. However, the PAA-grafted α-cellulose and PAA homopolymer gave calcite and vaterite crystals at 25 °C with calcite and aragonite crystals along with traces of vaterite being formed at 80 °C. The fiber surface coverage by these crystals was more on the acrylic- and acrylamide-grafted cellulose than on the ungrafted α-cellulose. The evolution of CaCO 3 polymorphs as well as crystal morphology in PAA-grafted starch was similar to that of PAA-grafted α-cellulose at the two temperatures employed.

  9. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  10. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  11. Fabrication of calcite blocks from gypsum blocks by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions in sodium carbonate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Kawachi, Giichiro; Tsuru, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Ayami

    2017-03-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been used as a bone substitute, and is a precursor for carbonate apatite, which is also a promising bone substitute. However, limited studies have been reported on the fabrication of artificial calcite blocks. In the present study, cylindrical calcite blocks (ϕ6×3mm) were fabricated by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions using different calcium sulfate blocks as a precursor. In the dissolution-precipitation reactions, both CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 transformed into calcite, a polymorph of CaCO3, while maintaining their macroscopic structure when immersed in 1mol/L Na2CO3 solution at 80°C for 1week. The diametral tensile strengths of the calcite blocks formed using CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 were 1.0±0.3 and 2.3±0.7MPa, respectively. The fabrication of calcite blocks using CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 proposed in this investigation may be a useful method to produce calcite blocks because of the self-setting ability and high temperature stability of gypsum precursors.

  12. The sensitivity of tropical convective precipitation to the direct radiative forcings of black carbon aerosols emitted from major regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have suggested that the direct radiative forcing (DRF of black carbon (BC aerosols are able to force a significant change in tropical convective precipitation ranging from the Pacific and Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. In this in-depth analysis, the sensitivity of this modeled effect of BC on tropical convective precipitation to the emissions of BC from 5 major regions of the world has been examined. In a zonal mean base, the effect of BC on tropical convective precipitation is a result of a displacement of ITCZ toward the forcing (warming hemisphere. However, a substantial difference exists in this effect associated with BC over different continents. The BC effect on convective precipitation over the tropical Pacific Ocean is found to be most sensitive to the emissions from Central and North America due to a persistent presence of BC aerosols from these two regions in the lowermost troposphere over the Eastern Pacific. The BC effect over the tropical Indian and Atlantic Ocean is most sensitive to the emissions from South as well as East Asia and Africa, respectively. Interestingly, the summation of these individual effects associated with emissions from various regions mostly exceeds their actual combined effect as shown in the model run driven by the global BC emissions, so that they must offset each other in certain locations and a nonlinearity of this type of effect is thus defined. It is known that anthropogenic aerosols contain many scattering-dominant constituents that might exert an effect opposite to that of absorbing BC. The combined aerosol forcing is thus likely differing from the BC-only one. Nevertheless, this study along with others of its kind that isolates the DRF of BC from other forcings provides an insight of the potentially important climate response to anthropogenic forcings particularly related to the unique particulate solar absorption.

  13. Crystallization kinetics of ZnS precipitation; an experimental study using the mixed-suspension-mixed-product-removal (MSMPR) method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Tarazi, Mousa; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Azzam, Mohammed O.J.; Yahya, Salah Abu; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2004-01-01

    The precipitation kinetics of zinc sulfide were studied using a lab scale mixed-suspension-mixed-product-removal (MSMPR) precipitation reactor. The vessel was operated at different feed concentrations, molar ratios, stirrer speeds, pH-values, feed injection positions and residence times. Primary nuc

  14. The influence of unburned carbon particles on electrostatic precipitator collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrusik, M.; Świerczok, A.

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory tests have shown that the chemical composition of fly ash (in that unburned coal) as well as its size distribution has significant influence on the dust cleaning process. Likewise the design of discharge electrodes has shown a strong influence on the dust cleaning. Tests of precipitation efficiency were carried out on a laboratory electrostatic precipitator (ESP) model using fly ash samples of diverse size distribution and unburned coal content collected from several grate boilers. Test results show explicit dependency of the ESP precipitation efficiency on physical and chemical characteristics of the fly ash, design of discharge electrodes and amount of electrical energy delivered to the ESP. Mercury concentration measurements show higher levels in the fly ash than in the fired coal indicating high sorption capacity of the fly ash. Prior observation suggests good mercury adsorption on fine fly ash particles in the presence of elemental coal. Hence the improvement of ESP collection efficiency of fine particles containing unburned coal may help decrease the emission of mercury.

  15. Testing the limits of the diffusion-production-equilibrium model of soil CO2: The effect of rapid carbonate precipitation on the pedogenic carbonate proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J. G.; Chelladurai, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    A large body of terrestrial paleoenvironmental proxy research hinges on the well-established diffusion-production-equilibrium model of soil CO2. Although soil CO2 is the linchpin between the isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate and the terrestrial biomass, it is not preserved directly in paleosols, and the model makes important boundary condition assumptions on processes that control its isotopic composition. The standard model assumes two-end member diffusional mixing between soil-respired CO2 and atmospheric CO2, and equilibrium precipitation of soil CaCO3 in an open system. We modified the boundary conditions of the standard model to specifically account for the flux and stable isotope fractionation of CO2 into the CaCO3 reservoir under partially closed-system conditions. Model calculations show that diversion of a relatively small fraction of the CO2 flux into CaCO3 results in a large change in the isotopic composition of soil CO2 and hence of CaCO3 at the sites of pedogenic carbonate accumulation. We also incubated two types of biomass (derived from C3 and C4 photosynthesis) in synthetic profiles with controlled conditions designed to test this modified model hypothesis. While soil CO2 from the surface horizons validated two-end member mixing, the δ13C values of CO2 from developing carbonate horizons was consistently 13C-depleted by several per mil compared to model predictions. This negative offset from the standard model mixing diagram (a Keeling Plot) is only consistent with the positive fractionation factor for carbonate precipitation in partially-closed system conditions. We also consider the conditions under which terrestrial paleoenvironmental proxy studies may be compromised by inappropriate boundary condition assumptions, in an effort to provide more robust model validation and application to terrestrial proxy data.

  16. Calcium carbonate crystallization controlled by functional groups: A mini-review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua DENG; Xing-Can SHEN; Xiu-Mei WANG; Chang DU

    2013-01-01

    Various functional groups have been suggested to play essential roles on biomineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in natural system. 2D and 3D models of regularly arranged functional groups have been established to investigate their effect on CaCO3 crystallization, This mini-review summarizes the recent progress and the future development is prospected.

  17. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte...

  18. Carbon-specific analysis of humic-like substances in atmospheric aerosol and precipitation samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Handler, Markus; Neuberger, Bernhard; Klatzer, Barbara; Puxbaum, Hans

    2005-11-15

    A new approach for the carbon-specific determination of humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric aerosols is presented. The method is based on a two-step isolation procedure of HULIS and the determination of HULIS carbon with a dissolved organic carbon analyzer. In the first step, a C18 solid-phase extraction is performed to separate HULIS from inorganic and hydrophilic organic sample constituents in aqueous sample solutions. The second isolation step is conducted on a strong anion exchanger to separate HULIS from remaining carbonaceous compounds. This ion chromatographic separation step including the subsequent on-line detection of HULIS carbon was performed fully automated to avoid the risk of sample contamination and to enhance the reproducibility of the method. With a 5-mL sample volume, a limit of detection of 1.0 mg C/L was obtained; this corresponds to an absolute amount of 5 microg of HULIS carbon. The reproducibility of the method given as the relative standard deviation was 4.3% (n = 10). The method was applied for the determination of water-soluble HULIS in airborne particulate matter. PM10 concentrations at an urban site in Vienna, Austria, ranged from around 0.1 to 1.8 microg of C/m(3) (n = 49); the fraction of water-soluble HULIS in OC was 12.1 +/- 7.2% (n = 49).

  19. Computational Chemistry Approach to Interpret the Crystal Violet Adsorption on Golbasi Lignite Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Prisbrey, Keith A.; Yucel, Aysegul

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, adsorption mechanism of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from the aqueous solution on the activated carbon prepared from Golbasi lignite was explained and interpreted by a computational chemistry approach and experimental studies. Molecular dynamic simulations and Ab initio frontier orbital analysis indicated relatively high energy and electron transfer processes during adsorption, and molecular dynamics simulations showed CV dye molecules moving around on the activated carbon surface after adsorption, facilitating penetration into cracks and pores. The experimental results supported to molecular dynamic simulation and showed that the monolayer coverage occurred on the activated carbon surface and each CV dye ion had equal sorption activation energy.

  20. Influence of surface treatment of carbon fibers on electrochemical crystallization of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ke; HUANG Su-ping; ZHOU Ke-chao

    2005-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique was used to coat calcium phosphate on carbon fiber which can be used to reinforce hydroxyapatite. The differences between fibers treated with and without nitric acid in electrodeposition were evaluated. The X-ray diffractometry results show that CaHPO4·2H2O is obtained as the kind of calcium phosphate coating on carbon fiber. The scanning electron microscopy photographs and deposit kinetic curve indicate that the influences of the functional group attained by nitric acid treatment, the crystal morphology and crystallization of the coating layers on the fiber with and without treatment rate are obviously different. The functional group, especially the acidic group, can act as nucleation centers of electrochemical crystallization.

  1. Transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate to rod-like single crystal calcite via "copying" collagen template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhonghui; Hu, Binbin; Dai, Shuxi; Du, Zuliang

    2015-10-01

    Collagen Langmuir films were prepared by spreading the solution of collagen over deionized water, CaCl2 solution and Ca(HCO3)2 solution. Resultant collagen Langmuir monolayers were then compressed to a lateral pressure of 10 mN/m and held there for different duration, allowing the crystallization of CaCO3. The effect of crystallization time on the phase composition and microstructure of CaCO3 was investigated. It was found that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was obtained at a crystallization time of 6 h. The amorphous CaCO3 was transformed to rod-like single crystal calcite crystals at an extended crystallization time of 12 h and 24 h, via "copying" the symmetry and dimensionalities of collagen fibers. Resultant calcite crystallites were well oriented along the longitudinal axis of collagen fibers. The ordered surface structure of collagen fibers and electrostatic interactions played key roles in tuning the oriented nucleation and growth of the calcite crystallites. The mineralized collagen possessing both desired mechanical properties of collagen fiber and good biocompatibility of calcium carbonate may be assembled into an ideal biomaterial for bone implants.

  2. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow from Schima superba and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-fen; YANG Yu-sheng; CHEN Guang-shui; LIN Peng

    2005-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in forest nutrient cycling, their monthly concentration dynamics in forest ecosystems, especially in subtropical forests only were little known. The goal of this study is to measure the concentrations and monthly dynamics of DOC and DON in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow for two plantations of Schima superba (SS) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) in Jianou, Fujian, China. Samples of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected on a rain event base from January 2002 to December 2002. Upon collection, all water samples were analyzed for DOC, NO3--N, NH4+-N and total dissolved N (TDN). DON was calculated by subtracting NO3--N and NH4+-N from TDN. The results showed that the precipitation had a mean DOC concentration of 1.7 mg·L-1 and DON concentration of 0.13 mg·L-1. The mean DOC and DON concentrations in throughfall were 11.2 and 0.24 mg·L-1 in the SS and 10.3 and 0.19 mg·L-1 in the CF respectively. Stemflow DOC and DON concentrations in the CF (19.1 and 0.66 mg·L-1 respectively) were significantly higher than those in the SS (17.6 and 0.48 mg·L-1 respectively). No clear monthly variation in precipitation DOC concentration was found in our study, while DON concentration in precipitation tended to be higher in summer or autumn. The monthly variations of DON concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at both forests, showing an increase at the beginning of the rainy season in March. In contrast, monthly changes of the DOC concentrations in throughfall of the SS and CF were different to those in stemflow. Throughfall DOC concentrations were higher from February to April, while relatively higher DOC concentrations in stemflow were found during September-November period.

  3. The effect of cobalt and carbon the microstructure and mechanical properties of martensitic precipitation strengthened stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolwit, Piyamanee

    increasing with increasing cobalt content for the same condition. Limited observation on the effects of carbon additions to a 12Cr/12Co/5Mo/4.5Ni martensitic precipitation strengthening stainless steel has been made for carbon levels of 0.005 wt. %, 0.025 wt. % and 0.05 wt. %. A small addition of chromium, one weight percent, to a 0.005C/12Co/5Mo/5Ni martensitic precipitation strengthening stainless steel was found to increase hardness, strength, Charpy impact energy, and ductility. Results on the effects of cobalt, carbon and chromium additions helped in the selection of modified alloys which were used to investigate the effects of composition and heat treatment on strength and toughness. The first set of modified alloys are referred to as the low carbon modified alloys. These alloys have a better Charpy impact energy than the alloys used to investigate the effect of cobalt on strength and the hardness and strength of these alloys are similar to those of alloys used to investigate the effects of cobalt on strength. Fractographs of these alloys show quasi-cleavage fracture, the presence of ductile fracture increases with increasing cobalt content. The martensite start temperature is lowered by the chromium additions and results in the existence of retained austenite even after refrigeration after austenitizing. Refrigeration prior to tempering is not necessary for these alloys to achieve a high yield strength and good Charpy impact energy. The second set of modified alloys are referred to as the carbon-titanium modified alloys. These alloys differ from the first set of modified alloys in that these alloys contain small additions of carbon and titanium and have lower cobalt levels. Lower cobalt levels were required because carbon lowers the martensite start temperature. These alloys have improved Charpy impact energy and ductility. The carbon addition lowers the martensite start temperature and the martensite start temperature of these alloys is sufficiently low that they

  4. Cementation of sand grains based on carbonate precipitation induced by microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microbes can produce 2 3 CO32-in an environment conductive to precipitation,so the incompact sands will be consolidated.This technology is environmentally friendly not only because it gives strength to the sand body,but also it allows water to penetrate into the sand body,which is unlike silicate cement that will destroy the ecosystem of the earth.After comparing the activity of three kinds of bacteria,the most suitable one was chosen for the study.However,the activity of this bacterium was still not high enough for the purpose,so it was purified.A suitable program for the consolidation and cementation of sands was also found in the experiment.The compressive strength and the porosity of the cemented sand body were tested to characterize the cementation effectiveness.XRD analysis showed that a new phase of calcite was produced between sand grains.The content of calcite was detected by TG.The study showed that the precipitation program was quite important to obtain a sound cemented sand body in addition to the activity of the bacteria.

  5. Nanoamorphous carbon-based photonic crystal infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Robert A. (Tucson, AZ); Skotheim, Terje (Tucson, AZ)

    2011-12-13

    Provided is a tunable radiation emitting structure comprising: a nanoamorphous carbon structure having a plurality of relief features provided in a periodic spatial configuration, wherein the relief features are separated from each other by adjacent recessed features, and wherein the nanoamorphous carbon comprises a total of from 0 to 60 atomic percent of one or more dopants of the dopant group consisting of: transition metals, lanthanoids, electro-conductive carbides, silicides and nitrides. In one embodiment, a dopant is selected from the group consisting of: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, La and other lanthanides, Hf, Ta, W, Rh, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and Hg. In one embodiment, a dopant is selected from the group consisting of: electro-conductive carbides (like Mo.sub.2C), silicides (like MoSi.sub.2) and nitrides (like TiN).

  6. Carbon nanotubes periodically decorated by highdensity polyethylene crystalline using solution crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) periodically decorated by high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with nanohybrid shish kebabs (NHSK) structures were prepared by CNTs-initiated solution crystalli-zation. The disc-shaped HDPE crystalline lamellae were periodically located on the surface of CNTs in the direction perpendicular to the nanotube axis. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that with the increasing of crystallization temperature, the lateral dimension of the lamellae was decreased and the distance between two neighboring lamellae was increased. However, the thickness of the lamellae did not vary with the crystallization temperature. The formation mechanism of the NHSK structures was also explained. The one-dimensional structure and the ultra-high curved surface of CNTs lead to strong geometry confinement, which plays a main role in the formation of the NHSKs.

  7. Influence of Carbon Nanofiber Addition on Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin TONG; Yong CHEN; Huiming CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)-reinforced polypropylene (CNF/PP) composites with different CNF contents were prepared by melt mixing, and the mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of the CNF/PP composites obtained were investigated. It was found that the tensile modulus of the composites was increased with the addition of CNFs, but their elongation at break and fracture strain energy were decreased, while the tensile strength of the composites was firstly increased and then decreased due to the agglomeration of CNFs at higher loading. Nonisothermal crystallization analysis showed that the CNFs played a role as nucleating agent in PP matrix, which led to increment in the crystallization rate and the degree of crystallinity of PP. Moreover, X-ray diffraction studies showed that the CNFs incorporated in the PP matrix favored the growth of (040)-oriented PP crystals. With the increase in the CNF content, the nucleating and orientation roles of the CNFs were obviously enhanced.

  8. A Layout for the Carbon Capture with Aqueous Ammonia without Salt Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonalumi, Davide; Valenti, Gianluca; Lillia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Post-combustion carbon capture technologies seem to be necessary to realize the CO2 mitigation policies internationally shared for the next future, despite none of them appears to be ready for full-scale applications. This work considers the aqueous ammonia based process for a coal-fired Ultra...

  9. The Micro-mechanism Involved and Wollastonite Signature in the Calcareous Precipitates of Marine Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Iyer, Nagesh R; Annaselvi, M; Ramachandra Murthy, A

    2016-03-01

    Micro-mechanical studies connecting the influence of extrinsic factors over intrinsic factors on 30 calcareous isolates obtained from marine sediment biofilms of the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) revealed that the fate of calcareous crystal precipitation is highly dependent on factors like extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), organic carbon and nutrition. Further studies exemplified that EPS and the organic carbon secreted by the isolates controlled the dissemination of the calcareous crystals precipitated. From the study, it is evident that an EPS concentration of 7-15 mg l(-1) was found to enhance the dissemination of the calcareous crystals. Atomic force micrographs explain the nucleation behaviour and morphology of the calcareous crystals precipitated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) showed that the crystals were mainly composed of calcite and partially wollastonite.

  10. Calcium carbonate crystallizations on hypogean mural paintings: a pilot study of monitoring and diagnostics in Roman catacombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Fratini, F.; Mazzei, B.; Camaiti, M.; Cantisani, E.; Riminesi, C.; Manganelli Del Fà, R.; Cuzman, O.; Tiano, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the deterioration processes affecting mural paintings and rock surfaces within manmade hypogea consists in the formation of calcium carbonate crystallizations, which can create thick coverage and incrustations, even in some cases speleothems. These chemical reactions necessarily require the availability of calcium sources, which can be also of anthropogenic origin (e.g., lime-based mortars). Microclimate parameters also represent environmental forcing factors, on which the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of the precipitated carbonates depend. Understanding past/recent dynamics of carbonate precipitation implies a deep knowledge of the relationships between the exposed surfaces and the microclimate conditions, the impacts of external factors (e.g., groundwater infiltration and percolation from the overlying soil) and how they change over time. This is particularly fundamental for the preservation of hypogean sites which have not comparison with other typologies of environment due to their uniqueness, such as the ancient catacombs carved underneath the suburbs of Rome (Italy), since the 2nd century AD. In this paper we present the multidisciplinary methodological approach designed for the instrumental monitoring of the microphysical environment of the Catacombs of Saints Mark, Marcellian and Damasus, in the framework of the co-operation between the Institute for the Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage and Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, Vatican, on the project HYPOGEA. Temperature inside the catacomb and on the surfaces, air relative humidity and CO2 concentration are the main of the parameters continuously measured by means of data loggers installed within the cubicles. Contemporarily, standardized methods of photographic documentation and digital micro-photogrammetry are used for change detection analysis of the painted surfaces and ancient plasters, as well as of the test areas purposely realized by applying fresh

  11. Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) by denitrification as ground improvement method - Process control in sand column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vinh; van Paassen, Leon; Nakano, Akiko; Kanayama, Motohei; Heimovaara, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Calcite precipitation induced by microbes has been proven to be efficient in stabilizing granular soils, especially with urea hydrolysis, as it has been successfully demonstrated in a pilot application 2010. However, as a byproduct highly concentrated ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) solution is produced, which has to be removed and disposed and forms a significant disadvantage of the technique that makes an alternative process like denitrification preferred. The proof of principle of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) by denitrification has been demonstrated by Van Paassen et al (2010) who suggested that instead of producing waste as a byproduct, different pre-treated waste streams could be used as substrates for in situ growth of denitrifying bacteria and simultaneous cementation without producing waste to be removed. In this study sand column experiments are performed in which calcium carbonate was successfully precipitated by indigenous denitrifying micro-organisms, which were supplied weekly with a pulse of a substrate solution containing calcium acetate and calcium nitrate. Besides the production of calcite and the growth of bacteria in biofilms, the reduction of nitrate resulted in the production of (nitrogen) gas. It was observed that this gas partly fills up the pore space and consequently contributed to a reduction of the permeability of the treated sand. The presence of gas in the pore space affected the flow of the injected substrates and influenced to the distribution of calcium carbonate. The effect of the mean particle size (D50) on the flow and transport of solutes and gas in the porous media has been evaluated by treating several columns with varying grain size distribution and comparing the change in permeability after each incubation period and analyzing the distribution of the gas throughout the columns using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. The present results show that there is a considerable decrease of permeability - a

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel cells catalysts. Part I: Carbon monoxide oxidation onto low index platinum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide and the interfacial structure of the CO adlayer (COads on platinum low index single crystals, Pt(111, Pt(100 and two reconstruction of Pt(110, were examined using the rotation disk electrode method in combination with the in situ surface X-ray diffraction scattering technique. The mechanism of CO oxidation is discussed on the basis of the findings that, depending on the potential, two energetic states of COads exist on the platinum surfaces. Thus, at lower potentials, weakly bonded states (COads,w and at higher potentials strongly bonded states (COads,s are formed. The mechanism of the oxidation of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures is also proposed.

  13. Radiation does response of calcium carbonate crystal in marine shells samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changkian, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the evolution of element, crystal structure and thermoluminescence signal versus gamma irradiation dose were carried out for calcite shells samples. The composition of element was studied by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. As identified by X-ray diffraction and SEM/EDS analysis, two polymorphs of calcium-carbonate were extracted: calcite and aragonite. The evolution of TL signal versus gamma irradiation dose using the TL reader (Harshaw 2000 was initially dependent on crystal structure and fading effect of the thermoluminescence signal .

  14. Kinetic study of a Layout for the Carbon Capture with Aqueous Ammonia without Salt Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonalumi, Davide; Lillia, Stefano; Valenti, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on carbon capture in an Ultra Super Critical power plant. The technology selected for CO2 capture is based on cooled ammonia scrubbing in post-combustion mode, as recently investigated by the authors in another work. Here, a rate-based approach is adopted. In detail, a specific...... primary energy consumption for CO2 avoided (SPECCA) of 2.77 MJ/kgCO2 is calculated in case of 85% of CO2 capture, with an ultimate power plant efficiency of 37.27%....

  15. Structural, elastic and electronic Properties of isotropic cubic crystals of carbon and silicon nanotubes : Density functional based tight binding calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Ivanovskii

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic models of cubic crystals (CC of carbon and graphene-like Si nanotubes are offered and their structural, cohesive, elastic and electronic properties are predicted by means of the DFTB method. Our main findings are that the isotropic crystals of carbon nanotubes adopt a very high elastic modulus B and low compressibility β, namely B = 650 GPa, β = 0.0015 1/GPa. In addition, these crystals preserve the initial conductivity type of their “building blocks”, i.e. isolated carbon and Si nanotubes. This feature may be important for design of materials with the selected conductivity type.

  16. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  17. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  18. Metagenome-based diversity analyses suggest a significant contribution of non-cyanobacterial lineages to carbonate precipitation in modern microbialites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificacion eLopez-Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are thought to play a key role in carbonate formation due to their metabolic activity, but other organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthetic eukaryotes or other metabolisms (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, sulfate reduction, may also contribute to carbonate formation. To obtain more quantitative information than that provided by more classical PCR-dependent methods, we studied the microbial diversity of microbialites from the Alchichica crater lake (Mexico by mining for 16S/18S rRNA genes in metagenomes obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA. We studied samples collected at the Western (AL-W and Northern (AL-N shores of the lake and, at the latter site, along a depth gradient (1, 5, 10 and 15 m depth. The associated microbial communities were mainly composed of bacteria, most of which seemed heterotrophic, whereas archaea were negligible. Eukaryotes composed a relatively minor fraction dominated by photosynthetic lineages, diatoms in AL-W, influenced by Si-rich seepage waters, and green algae in AL-N samples. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial taxa, followed by Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. Community composition varied among sites and with depth. Although cyanobacteria were the most important bacterial group contributing to the carbonate precipitation potential, photosynthetic eukaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthesizers and sulfate reducers were also very abundant. Cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales largely increased with depth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations showed considerable areas of aragonite-encrusted Pleurocapsa-like cyanobacteria at microscale. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a strong positive correlation of Pleurocapsales and Chroococcales with aragonite formation at

  19. Liquid phase adsorption of Crystal violet onto activated carbons derived from male flowers of coconut tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaar, S; Kalaamani, P; Subburaam, C V

    2006-08-25

    Adsorption of Crystal violet, a basic dye onto phosphoric and sulphuric acid activated carbons (PAAC and SAAC), prepared from male flowers coconut tree has been investigated. Equilibrium data were successfully applied to study the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of dye onto both the carbons. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with regard to intraparticle diffusion. The pseudo second order is further supported by the Elovich model, which in turn intensifies the fact of chemisorption of dye onto both the carbons. Quantitative removal of dye at higher initial pH of dye solution reveals the basic nature of the Crystal violet and acidic nature of the activated carbons. Influence of temperature on the removal of dye from aqueous solution shows the feasibility of adsorption and its endothermic nature. Mass transfer studies were also carried out. The adsorption capacities of both the carbons were found to be 60.42 and 85.84 mg/g for PAAC and SAAC, respectively. Langmuir's isotherm data were used to design single-stage batch adsorption model.

  20. Crystallization of Polymers at liquid/liquid interface templated by single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenda; Li, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Nanosized single-walled carbon nanotube rings were fabricated by using a Pickering emulsion-based method. By tuning a water/oil/SWNT miniemulsion system, SWNT rings with a diameter of ˜200 nm can be readily achieved. The formation mechanism is attributed to the bending force induced by the curved liquid/liquid interface. Crystallization of polyethylene homo- and copolymers using this unique SWNT rings as the nucleation agent was conducted at the curved liquid/liquid interface. Crystal structure, hybrid morphology and crystallization kinetics were systematically studied. The structure of controlled alternating patterns on SWNT rings has great potential in various applications in large-scale integrated circuits and single-electron devices.

  1. Carbon-nanotube electron-beam (C-beam) crystallization technique for silicon TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Woong; Kang, Jung Su; Park, Kyu Chang

    2016-02-01

    We introduced a carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron beam (C-beam) for thin film crystallization and thin film transistor (TFT) applications. As a source of electron emission, a CNT emitter which had been grown on a silicon wafer with a resist-assisted patterning (RAP) process was used. By using the C-beam exposure, we successfully crystallized a silicon thin film that had nano-sized crystalline grains. The distribution of crystalline grain size was about 10 ˜ 30 nm. This nanocrystalline silicon thin film definitely had three crystalline directions which are (111), (220) and (311), respectively. The silicon TFTs crystallized by using a C-beam exposure showed a field effect mobility of 20 cm2/Vs and an on/off ratio of more than 107. The C-beam exposure can modify the bonding network of amorphous silicon with its proper energy.

  2. DISLOCATION PINNING IN HIGH TEMPERATURE DEFORMED Ni3(Al,Ti) SINGLE CRYSTALS CONTAINING DISORDERED γ PRECIPITATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; M. Nemoto

    2006-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation has been performed on the dislocation pinning in LI2-ordered Ni3(Al, Ti) containing disordered γ precipitates. The morphology of deformation induced dislocations in the γ' base alloys containing fine dispersion of disordered γ was investigated by means of weak-beam electron microscopy. The superdislocations are strongly attracted to the disordered particles and dissociate on the (111) plane in the γ particles, while they dissociate on the (010) plane in the γ' matrix. The disordered γ precipitates play an important role as a pinning point during the cross-slip of superdislocations from (111) to (010) planes in the γ'matrix and restrain the cross-slip of superdislocations. The interaction of superdislocations with disordered particles causes the formation of superkinks, jogs and closed loops.

  3. The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Juan Diego; Shaw, Samuel; Benning, Liane G

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of nanoparticulate amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite, were studied at a range of environmentally relevant temperatures (7.5-25 °C) using synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ED-XRD) in conjunction with high-resolution electron microscopy, ex situ X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the particles of ACC rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. Activation energies of calcite nucleation and crystallization are 73±10 and 66±2 kJ mol(-1), respectively. A model to calculate the degree of calcite crystallization from ACC at environmentally relevant temperatures (7.5-40 °C) is also presented.

  4. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  5. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) study of ion dynamics in nanoporous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Yu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice

    2014-06-18

    Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were used to characterize ion adsorption in carbide-derived carbon (CDC) with two different average pore sizes (1 and 0.65 nm), from neat and solvated 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) electrolytes. From the electrode mass change in neat EMI-TFSI, it was shown that one net charge stored corresponds almost to one single ion at high polarization; in that case, no ion-pairing or charge screening by co-ions were observed. In 2 M EMI-TFSI in acetonitrile electrolyte, experimental solvation numbers were estimated for EMI(+) cation, showing a partial desolvation when cations were adsorbed in confined carbon pores. The extent of desolvation increased when decreasing the carbon pore size (from 1 down to 0.65 nm). The results also suggest that EMI(+) cation owns higher mobility than TFSI(-) anion in these electrolytes.

  6. Arsenic species interactions with a porous carbon electrode as determined with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morallón, Emilia; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquín; Calo, J.M.; Cazorla-Amorós, D.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of arsenic species with platinum and porous carbon electrodes were investigated with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry in alkaline solutions. It is shown that the redox reactions in arsenic-containing solutions, due to arsenic reduction/deposition, oxidation/desorption, and electrocatalyzed oxidation by Pt can be readily distinguished with the EQCM. This approach was used to show that the arsenic redox reactions on the carbon electrode are mechanistically similar to that on the bare Pt electrode. This could not be concluded with just classical cyclic voltammetry alone due to the obfuscation of the faradaic features by the large capacitative effects of the carbon double layer. For the porous carbon electrode, a continual mass loss was always observed during potential cycling, with or without arsenic in the solution. This was attributed to electrogasification of the carbon. The apparent mass loss per cycle was observed to decrease with increasing arsenic concentration due to a net mass increase in adsorbed arsenic per cycle that increased with arsenic concentration, offsetting the carbon mass loss. Additional carbon adsorption sites involved in arsenic species interactions are created during electrogasification, thereby augmenting the net uptake of arsenic per cycle. It is demonstrated that EQCM, and in particular the information given by the behavior of the time derivative of the mass vs. potential, or massogram, is very useful for distinguishing arsenic species interactions with carbon electrodes. It may also prove to be effective for investigating redox/adsorption/desorption behavior of other species in solution with carbon materials as well. PMID:20161369

  7. Arsenic species interactions with a porous carbon electrode as determined with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morallón, Emilia; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquín; Calo, J M; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2009-06-30

    The interactions of arsenic species with platinum and porous carbon electrodes were investigated with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry in alkaline solutions. It is shown that the redox reactions in arsenic-containing solutions, due to arsenic reduction/deposition, oxidation/desorption, and electrocatalyzed oxidation by Pt can be readily distinguished with the EQCM. This approach was used to show that the arsenic redox reactions on the carbon electrode are mechanistically similar to that on the bare Pt electrode. This could not be concluded with just classical cyclic voltammetry alone due to the obfuscation of the faradaic features by the large capacitative effects of the carbon double layer.For the porous carbon electrode, a continual mass loss was always observed during potential cycling, with or without arsenic in the solution. This was attributed to electrogasification of the carbon. The apparent mass loss per cycle was observed to decrease with increasing arsenic concentration due to a net mass increase in adsorbed arsenic per cycle that increased with arsenic concentration, offsetting the carbon mass loss. Additional carbon adsorption sites involved in arsenic species interactions are created during electrogasification, thereby augmenting the net uptake of arsenic per cycle.It is demonstrated that EQCM, and in particular the information given by the behavior of the time derivative of the mass vs. potential, or massogram, is very useful for distinguishing arsenic species interactions with carbon electrodes. It may also prove to be effective for investigating redox/adsorption/desorption behavior of other species in solution with carbon materials as well.

  8. The influence of polyaspartate additive on the growth and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Laurie Anne

    The addition of low levels of polyaspartate to a supersaturated calcium carbonate (CaCOsb3) solution leads to unusual morphologies in the inorganic phase. Spherulitic vaterite aggregates with helical protrusions, and distorted calcite crystals that contain spiral pits, have been produced. The helical particles are coated with an inorganic membrane that appears to be responsible for the helical twist. The polymer also causes deposition of thin CaCOsb3 tablets and films on the glass substrate. Two distinct types of films are deposited; the first is a mosaic of calcite crystals, and the second is spherulitic vaterite. In situ observations of the crystallization reaction have determined that the thin-film morphology is a result of the phase separation of a hydrated CaCOsb3/polymer liquid-precursor, whereby accumulation of isotropic droplets creates a coating on the substrate, and subsequent dehydration and crystallization yields birefringent CaCOsb3 films. During the amorphous to crystalline transition, incremental growth steps lead to "transition bars" and sectored calcite tablets. This in vitro system was originally modeled after certain aspects of CaCOsb3 biomineralization, in which the soluble proteins extracted from biominerals tend to have high levels of aspartic acid residues. Based on the similarities between features exhibited by the products of this system and those in biominerals, an argument has been presented to suggest that this polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process is involved in the morphogenesis of CaCOsb3 biominerals. These features include the following: thin CaCOsb3 tablets that grow laterally; tablets that express unstable crystallographic faces; non-faceted single crystals with curved surfaces; spatially-delineated single crystals; sectored calcite tablets; hollow-shell spheres; calcium carbonate cements; and magnesium-bearing calcites. This work has demonstrated that a means of morphological control can be accomplished through non

  9. Crystal structures of calcium hemicarboaluminate and carbonated calcium hemicarboaluminate from synchrotron powder diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runčevski, Tomče; Dinnebier, Robert E; Magdysyuk, Oxana V; Pöllmann, Herbert

    2012-10-01

    One of the main phases formed at the beginning of the carbonation reaction of cementitious building materials is the calcium hemicarboaluminate (abbreviated as Hc). This AFm (shorthand for hydrated calcium aluminate phases structurally related to hydrocalumite) phase was synthesized, crystallized and then studied by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature and standard experimental conditions two major cementitious phases were detected, the Hc phase (as a major phase) and carbonated calcium hemicarboaluminate (abbreviated as cHc). By increasing the temperature the Hc form transforms into cHc. The crystal structures of these important AFm phases were successfully solved and refined in the R3c space group of the trigonal crystal system. Hc has the unit-cell parameters a = 5.7757 (1) and c = 48.812 (2) Å, and cHc the unit-cell parameters a = 5.7534 (1) and c = 46.389 (1) Å. The two crystal structures are composed of positively charged main layers, [Ca(4)Al(2)(OH)(12)](2+), and negatively charged interlayers, [OH(2n)(CO(3))(1 - n)·4H(2)O](2-). The structure of the main layers is typical of the AFm family. Conversely, the interlayer region has a characteristic structure built up from water molecules and statistically distributed anions. In the interlayer, the Hc carbonate and hydroxyl anions are distributed in a 0.25:0.5 ratio, whereas the ratio of the anions in the cHc interlayers is 0.4:0.2.

  10. Influence of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on shiitake (Lentinula edodes) yield and mushroom size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, Daniel J; Sanchez-Vazquez, Jose E

    2003-11-01

    Synthetic substrate consisting of oak sawdust (50%), white millet (28%), winter rye (11%) and soft red wheat bran (11%) was non-supplemented or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% (dry weight basis) precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)). Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) was grown in two crops to determine the effect of three CaCO(3) levels on mushroom yield and size. Yields and biological efficiencies (averages for two crops) from substrates non-supplemented with CaCO(3) were lower by 14.1%, 18.4% and 24.9% compared to treatments supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% CaCO(3), respectively. Mushroom size (weight) was larger with non-supplemented substrate (16.8 g) compared to substrate supplemented with 0.6% CaCO(3) (15.1 g). However, mushroom production was more consistent from crop to crop when 0.6% CaCO(3) was added to substrate.

  11. Effects of combination modes of favorable growth unit of Al(OH)3 crystals precipitating on Van der Waals and chemical bond force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zheng-ping; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; LI Jie

    2005-01-01

    The dipole moment, total energy, atomic charge, orbital population and orbital energy of four representative combination models of the favorable growth unit Al6 (OH)18 (H2O)6 of Al(OH)3 crystals precipitating are calculated by ab initio at RHF/STO-3G, RHF/3-21G, RHF/6-31G levels and DFT at RB3LYP/STO-3G, RB3LYP/3-21G, RB3LYP/6-31G levels with Dipole & Sphere solvent model. The effect of various combination models on Van der Waals force is analyzed using dipole moment and molecular radius, and that on chemical bond force is analyzed using total energy, orbital population and orbital energy.

  12. The microstructural record of porphyroclasts and matrix of serpentinite mylonites – from brittle and crystal-plastic deformation to dissolution-precipitation creep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bial

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the microfabric development in high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic serpentinite mylonites exposed in the Erro-Tobbio Unit (Voltri Massif, Italy using polarization microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM/EBSD, EMP. The mylonites are derived from mantle peridotites, were serpentinized at the ocean floor and underwent high pressure metamorphism during Alpine subduction. They contain diopside and olivine porphyroclasts embedded in a fine-grained matrix essentially consisting of antigorite. The porphyroclasts record brittle and crystal-plastic deformation of the original peridotites in the upper mantle at stresses of a few hundred MPa. After the peridotites became serpentinized, deformation occurred mainly by dissolution-precipitation creep resulting in a foliation with flattened olivine grains at phase boundaries with antigorite, crenulation cleavages and olivine and antigorite aggregates in strain shadows next to porphyroclasts. It is suggested that the fluid was provided by dehydration reactions of antigorite forming olivine and enstatite during subduction and prograde metamorphism. At sites of stress concentration around porphyroclasts antigorite reveals an associated SPO and CPO, characteristically varying grain sizes and sutured grain boundaries, indicating deformation by dislocation creep. Stresses were probably below a few tens of MPa in the serpentinites, which was not sufficiently high to allow for crystal-plastic deformation of olivine at conditions at which antigorite is stable. Accordingly, any intragranular deformation features of the newly precipitated olivine in strain shadows are absent. The porphyroclast microstructures are not associated with the microstructures of the mylonitic matrix, but are inherited from an independent earlier deformation. The porphyroclasts record a high-stress deformation in the upper mantle of the oceanic lithosphere probably related to rifting processes, whereas the antigorite matrix

  13. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM AS SUBSTITUTE MATERIAL IN ENZYME MEDIATED CALCITE PRECIPITATION (EMCP FOR SOIL IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriansyah ePutra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation (EMCP was evaluated as a soil improvement technique. In our previous works, purified urease was utilized to bio-catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, which causes the supplied Ca2+ to precipitate with CO32- as calcium carbonate. In the present work, magnesium chloride was newly added to the injecting solutions to delay the reaction rate and to enhance the amount of carbonate precipitation. Soil specimens were prepared in PVC cylinders and treated with concentration-controlled solutions composed of urea, urease, calcium, and magnesium chloride. The mechanical properties of the treated soil specimens were examined through unconfined compressive strength (UCS tests. A precipitation ratio of the carbonate up to 90% of the maximum theoretical precipitation was achieved by adding a small amount of magnesium chloride. Adding magnesium chloride as a delaying agent was indeed found to reduce the reaction rate of the precipitation, which may increase the volume of the treated soil if used in real fields because of the slower precipitation rate and the resulting higher injectivity. A mineralogical analysis revealed that magnesium chloride decreases the crystal size of the precipitated materials and that another carbonate of aragonite is newly formed. Mechanical test results indicated that carbonate precipitates within the soils and brings about a significant improvement in strength. A maximum UCS of 0.6 MPa was obtained from the treated samples.

  14. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  15. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Duchesne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km2 of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha−1, which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec’s managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041–2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec’s forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  16. Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Regularly Aligned in Channels of Zeolite Single Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Kang Tang; Handong Sun; Jiannong Wang

    2000-01-01

    @@ We report the synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) formed in 1-nm-sized channels of zeolite crystal by pyrolysis of tripropylamine molecules. The SWCNs are mono-sized and parallelly aligned along the crystal direction. In the present paper, we report the polarized Raman spectra measured for the wellaligned SWCNs, which gives us information about structural symmetry. Electrical transport properties of the SWNTs are measured in the temperature range of 0.3 K ~ 300 K. The conductivity of the SWCNs is monotonically decreased with decreasing temperature. The observed temperature dependence of zero-field conductance, In(σ) ~ 1/√T, could be explained well in terms of electron localization caused by imperfections and impurities in the nanotubes.

  17. Adsorption of crystal violet onto functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabna, V; Thampi, Santosh G; Chandrakaran, S

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic dyes present in effluent from textile, paper and paint industries contain crystal violet (CV), a known carcinogenic agent. This study investigates the modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by acid reflux method and equilibrium and kinetic behaviour of adsorption of CV onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWNTs) in batch system. High stability of the fMWNTs suspension in water indicates the hydrophilicity of fMWNTs induced due to the formation of functional groups that make hydrogen bonds with water molecules. fMWNTs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the functional groups present on the fMWNTs were confirmed. Characteristic variation was observed in the FTIR spectra of fMWNTs after adsorption of crystal violet onto it. Adsorption characteristics were evaluated as a function of system variables such as contact time, dosage of fMWNTs and initial concentration and pH of the crystal violet solution. Adsorption capacity of fMWNTs and percentage removal of the dye increased with increase in contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH but declined with increase in initial concentration of the dye. fMWNTs showed higher adsorption capacity compared to that of pristine MWNTs. Data showed good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the pseudo-second order kinetic model; the maximum adsorption capacity was 90.52mg/g. Kinetic parameters such as rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and regression coefficients were estimated. Results indicate that fMWNTs are an effective adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution.

  18. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ACID-TOLERANT PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLERS IN PAPERMAKING OF DEINKED PULP DERIVED FROM RECYCLED NEWSPAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of acid-tolerant precipitated calcium carbonate fillers, including phosphoric acid/sodium hexametaphosphate modified precipitated CaCO3 filler, and sodium silicate/phosphoric acid/sodium hexametaphos-phate modified precipitated CaCO3 filler in papermaking of deinked pulp derived from recycled newspaper was explored. These two acid-tolerant fillers provided considerably more brightness improvement in papers in comparison the unmodified filler, presumably indicating alleviated pulp darkening achieved as a result of better acid-resistant properties. The addition of acid-tolerant fillers into the furnish slurries gave lower system pH as compared with unmodified filler. Among the three fillers used in this work, the effect on retention of modification of the filler with sodium silicate/phosphoric acid/sodium hexametaphosphate was probably the best, as evaluated from ash content measurements. For air permeability of the paper, the use of acid-tolerant fillers provided slightly more improvement in comparison to the unmodified filler. For tensile and burst strength of the paper, the use of sodium silicate/phosphoric acid/sodium hexameta-phosphate modified precipitated calcium carbonate filler gave better results as compared with the other two fillers. Additionally, the improving effect of acid-tolerant fillers on furnish static drainage was found to be slightly weaker than that of unmodified filler.

  19. Uniform Li2S precipitation on N,O-codoped porous hollow carbon fibers for high-energy-density lithium-sulfur batteries with superior stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Long; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-09-21

    A lithium-polysulfide cell with superior stability is reported with N,O-codoped carbon hollow fiber (NCHF) sheets as a current collector. Due to the highly effective chemisorption and physical adsorption of lithium polysulfides on doped NCHF and a uniform Li2S precipitation during cycling, the Li2S6-impregnated NCHF electrodes exhibit high sulfur utilization and superior cycling stability even with a high areal sulfur loading of 6.2 mg cm(-2).

  20. Response of aboveground carbon balance to long-term, experimental enhancements in precipitation seasonality is contingent on plant community type in cold-desert rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, Kathryn; Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew; Bosworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands are important carbon (C) pools at global scales. However, the degree of net C storage or release in water-limited systems is a function of precipitation amount and timing, as well as plant community composition. In northern latitudes of western North America, C storage in cold-desert ecosystems could increase with boosts in wintertime precipitation, in which climate models predict, due to increases in wintertime soil water storage that enhance summertime productivity. However, there are few long-term, manipulative field-based studies investigating how rangelands will respond to altered precipitation amount or timing. We measured aboveground C pools and fluxes at leaf, soil, and ecosystem scales over a single growing season in plots that had 200 mm of supplemental precipitation added in either winter or summer for the past 21 years, in shrub- and exotic-bunchgrass-dominated garden plots. At our cold-desert site (298 mm precipitation during the study year), we hypothesized that increased winter precipitation would stimulate the aboveground C uptake and storage relative to ambient conditions, especially in plots containing shrubs. Our hypotheses were generally supported: ecosystem C uptake and long-term biomass accumulation were greater in winter- and summer-irrigated plots compared to control plots in both vegetation communities. However, substantial increases in the aboveground biomass occurred only in winter-irrigated plots that contained shrubs. Our findings suggest that increases in winter precipitation will enhance C storage of this widespread ecosystem, and moreso in shrub- compared to grass-dominated communities.

  1. Growth and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers on Fe/C-Fiber Textiles Coated by Deposition-Precipitation and Dip-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to synthesize carbon nanofibers on C-fiber textiles, by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe catalyst. The substrate, which was a carbon textile consisting of non-woven carbon fibers and attached graphite particles, was oxidized by nitric acid, before the deposition process. Hydroxyl groups were created on the C-fiber textile, due to the oxidization step. Fe(III) hydroxide was subsequently deposited on the oxidized surface of the C-fiber textile. To deposit ferric particles, two different methods were tested: (i) deposition-precipitation, and (ii) dip-coating. For the experiments using both types of catalyst deposition, the weight ratio of Fe to C-fiber textile was also varied. Ferric particles were reduced to iron after deposition, by using H2/N2 gas, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown by flowing ethylene gas. Properties of carbon nanofibers created like this were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), N2-sorption (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectoscopy (XPS), Thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and Raman spectroscopy. In the case of the deposition-precipitation method, the results show that the diameter of carbon nanofibers grew up to 40-60 nm and 30-55 nm, at which the weight ratios of Fe catalyst to C-fiber textiles were 1:30 and 1:70, respectively. When Fe particles were deposited by the dip-coating method, the diameter of carbon nanofibers grew up to 40-60 nm and 25-30 nm, for the ratios of Fe catalyst to C-fiber textiles of 1:10 and 1:30, respectively.

  2. A comparative investigation on strain induced crystallization for graphene and carbon nanotubes filled natural rubber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Fu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber containing graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs composites were prepared by ultrasonicallyassisted latex mixing. Natural rubber filled by both graphene and CNTs show significant enhanced tensile strength, while graphene exhibits a better reinforcing effect than CNTs. Strain-induced crystallization in natural rubber composites during stretching was determined by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction. With the addition of CNTs or graphene, the crystallization for natural rubber occurs at a lower strain compared to unfilled natural rubber, and the strain amplification effects were observed. The incorporation of graphene results in a faster strain-induced crystallization rate and a higher crystallinity compared to CNTs. The entanglement-bound rubber tube model was used to analyze the chain network structure and determine the network parameters of composites. The results show that the addition of graphene or CNTs has an influence on the molecular network structure and improves the contribution of entanglement to the conformational constraint, while graphene has a more marked effect than CNTs.

  3. Mesoporous MEL, BEA, and FAU zeolite crystals obtained by in situ formation of carbon template over metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Ali, Zahra Nasrudin; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of hierarchical zeolite materials with MEL, BEA and FAU structures. The synthesis is based on the carbon templating method with an in situ-generated carbon template. Through the decomposition of methane and deposition of coke over nickel...... nanoparticles supported on silica, a carbon–silica composite is obtained and exploited as a combined carbon template/silica source for the zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous zeolite materials were all prepared by hydrothermal crystallization in alkaline media followed by removal of the carbon template...

  4. 脲解型微生物诱导碳酸钙沉积研究%Investigation on ureolytic microbiologically-induced calcium carbonate precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晶; 杜雅莉; 白慧莉

    2016-01-01

    研究了钙源种类对脲解型微生物诱导碳酸钙沉积的生物-化学过程的影响。利用电位分析法实时测试了沉积过程中钙离子、铵离子及p H 值的变化,并利用显微计数对细菌浓度进行了监测。采用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)和分析红外光谱(IR)对沉积产物进行了研究。结果表明,不同钙源环境下脲解型微生物诱导矿化沉积都存在化学沉淀、微生物诱导矿化沉积和沉淀完全3个阶段;有机钙源环境下细菌的产矿动力比在无机钙源中高,且两种钙源所获得的方解石晶体沉积物在形貌上差异显著。%The effects of calcium source type on the bio-chemical processes of ureolytic microbiologically-induced calcium carbonate precipitation was investigated in this paper.By using potentiometric analysis,calcium ions concentration,ammonium ions concentration,and pH value were measured.Cell density was also monitored by microscopic counting method.Sediments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy,X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy.The results showed that the processes of microbiologically-induced calcium carbonate precipitation consists the abiotic precipitation stage,the microbiologically-induced calcium carbonate precipitati-on stage,and the calcium ions depletion stage,regardless of the calcium source type.The efficiency of bacterial-ly-induce mineralized precipitation in organic calcium source environment is higher than that in inorganic calcium source environment.Significant morphological difference of precipitated calcites from two types of calcium sources was detected.

  5. The effect of the carbon dissolution on the crystal structure of a-quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, S.; Kyono, A.

    2015-12-01

    Silicon is one of the major and important element that constitutes the Earth's crust and mantle. An enormous amount of carbon is also contained in the Earth's interior, which suggests that silicate could be closely interacted with carbon under high-pressure and high-temperature (Sen et al. 2013, PNAS). It is suggested that carbon dioxide is dissolved in cristobalite and the average composition of CO2-SiO2 solid solution is C0.6(1)Si0.4(1)O2 High-pressure experiment (Santoro et al. 2014, Nat. Commun.). Furthermore, the first-principles calculations suggested the possibility of successive CO2 dissolution in cristobalite at ambient pressure (Aravindh et al. 2007, Solid State Commun.). However, CO2-SiO2 solid solution at ambient pressure has not confirmed in laboratory experiment. In this study, we mixed amorphous silica and amorphous carbon and synthesized CO2-SiO2 solid solution at high-temperature under ambient pressure. Powder amorphous silica and graphite was mixed together in the agate mill in order to be homogenized mixture. They were heated for 1300 ˚C, 3 days under ambient pressure. Then, the samples were quenched at room temperature. The samples of CO2-SiO2 solid solution were carefully examined by powder XRD, EPMA measurement, and so on. From the result of the powder XRD, the products were a-quartz. In this lecture, we report the quantity of carbon dissolved in a-quartz and its effect for the crystal structure of a-quartz in detail.

  6. Pore-scale simulation of calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution under highly supersaturated conditions in a microfludic pore network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Valocchi, A. J.; Werth, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved CO2 during geological CO2 storage may react with minerals in fractured rocks or confined aquifers and cause mineral precipitation. The overall rate of reaction can be affected by coupled processes among hydrodynamics, transport, and reactions at pore-scale. Pore-scale models of coupled fluid flow, reactive transport, and CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution are applied to account for transient experimental results of CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution under highly supersaturated conditions in a microfluidic pore network (i.e., micromodel). Pore-scale experiments in the micromodel are used as a basis for understanding coupled physics of systems perturbed by geological CO2 injection. In the micromodel, precipitation is induced by transverse mixing along the centerline in pore bodies. Overall, the pore-scale model qualitatively captured the governing physics of reactions such as precipitate morphology, precipitation rate, and maximum precipitation area in first few pore spaces. In particular, we found that proper estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient and the reactive surface area is necessary to adequately simulate precipitation and dissolution rates. As the model domain increases, the effect of flow patterns affected by precipitation on the overall reaction rate also increases. The model is also applied to account for the effect of different reaction rate laws on mineral precipitation and dissolution at pore-scale. Reaction rate laws tested include the linear rate law, nonlinear power law, and newly-developed rate law based on in-situ measurements at nano scale in the literature. Progress on novel methods for upscaling pore-scale models for reactive transport are discussed, and are being applied to mineral precipitation patterns observed in natural analogues. H.Y. and T. D. were supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of

  7. Effects of pore-scale precipitation on permeability and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiriel, Catherine; Steefel, Carl I.; Yang, Li; Bernard, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    The effects of calcite precipitation on porous media permeability and flow were evaluated with a combined experimental and modeling approach. X-ray microtomography images of two columns packed with glass beads and calcite (spar crystals) or aragonite (Bahamas ooids) injected with a supersaturated solution (log Ω = 1.42) were processed in order to calculate rates of calcite precipitation with a spatial resolution of 4.46 μm. Identification and localization of the newly precipitated crystals on the 3D images was performed and results used to calculate the crystal growth rates and velocities. The effects of carbonate precipitation were also evaluated in terms of the integrated precipitation rate over the length of the column, crystal shape, surface area and pore roughness changes. While growth was epitaxial on calcite spar, calcite rhombohedra formed on glass beads and clusters of polyhedrons formed on aragonite ooids. Near the column inlet, calcite precipitation occurred preferentially on carbonate grains compared to glass beads, with almost 100% of calcite spar surface area covered by new crystals versus 92% in the case of aragonite and 11% in the case of glass beads. Although the experimental chemistry and flow boundary conditions in the two columns were similar, their porosity-permeability evolution was different because the nucleation and subsequent crystal growth on the two substrates (i.e., calcite spar and aragonite ooids) was very different. The impact of mineral precipitation on pore-scale flow and permeability was evaluated using a pore-scale Stokes solver that accounted for the changes in pore geometry. For similar magnitude reductions in porosity, the decrease in permeability was highest within the sample that experienced the greatest increase in pore roughness. Various porous media models were generated to show the impact of different crystal growth patterns and pore roughness changes on flow and permeability-porosity relationship. Under constant flow

  8. Rapid synthesis of CNTs@MIL-101(Cr) using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as crystal growth accelerator☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Shengqiang Wang; Hongbing Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, hybrid material CNTs@MIL-101(Cr) was synthesized in 2 h using multi-wal ed carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the crystal growth accelerator with hydrothermal method. The characteristic differences between the crystals of CNTs@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101 were investigated by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed that MWCNTs embedding in the hybrid material provide more mesoporous volumes than that of MIL-101. Moreover, the fast synthesized crystals of CNTs@MIL-101(Cr) still preserve the octahedral shape like MIL-101 and have a larger size ranging from 1.5 to 2.0μm which were approximately three times larger than that of MIL-101. In the proposed mechanism, the roles of MWCNTs played in the crystal ization were discussed where MWCNTs can be seen as coaxial cylindrical tubes composed of multi-layer graphenes and the place where nucleation and crystal growth processes occur at the tubes' out surface. Then, a crystal seeding layer bonding with the MWCNTs may be easily formed which accelerates the growth rate of MIL-101 crystals. Thus, larger crystals of CNTs@MIL-101(Cr) were formed due to the faster crystal growth rate of MIL-101.

  9. On the crystal structure of Cr2N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. III. Neutron diffraction study on the ordered Cr2N superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sung-Joon; Shin, Eunjoo; Takaki, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    The ordered structure of Cr(2)N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic steel was investigated utilizing high-resolution neutron powder diffractometry (HRPD). On the basis of the Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction patterns, the ordered Cr2N superstructure was confirmed to be trigonal (space group P31m), with lattice parameters a=4.800 (4) and c=4.472 (5) A, as suggested in previous transmission electron microscopy studies [Lee, Oh, Han, Lee, Kim & Takaki (2005). Acta Cryst. B61, 137-144; Lee, Kim & Takaki (2006). Acta Cryst. B62, 190-196]. The occupancies of the N atoms in four crystallographic sites [1(a), 1(b), 2(d) and 2(c) Wyckoff sites] were determined to be 1.00 (5), 0.0, 0.74 (9) and 0.12 (3), respectively, reflecting a partial disordering of N atoms along the c axis. The position of the metal atom was specified to be x=0.346 (8) and z=0.244 (6), corresponding to a deviation from the ideal position (x=0.333 and z=0.250). This deviation caused the ((1/3 1/3)(0))-type superlattice reflection to appear. A comparison between the ideal and measured crystal structures of Cr2N was performed using a computer simulation of selected-area diffraction patterns.

  10. Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC - cellulose composite fillers: Effects of PCC particle structure on the production and properties of uncoated fine paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulapuro, H.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the precipitation of PCC – pulp composite fillers with varying crystal habits and their effects on the papermaking properties of printing and writing paper. Colloidal (c-PCC, rhombohedral (r-PCC, and scalenohedral types (s-PCC of composite PCCs were produced and compared with commercial reference PCCs. Scanning electron micros-copy showed the c-PCC to be a high-surface-area nano-structured PCC. The rhombohedral composite was formed in clusters like a spider-web structure. Under similar experimental conditions, composite PCC was formed as individual ellipsoidal crystals and some of the particles had malformed structure, in contrast to the structured reference s-PCC. The co-precipitation and the structure of PCC significantly influence the forming, consolidation, and properties of paper, as well as its perform-ance in printing.Composite c-PCC showed the highest retention during forming. At higher filler contents, dewatering was reduced significantly with handsheets containing s- and r-PCC composite fillers. Colloidal composite hand-sheets showed the lowest tensile index and internal bond strength, while the rhombohedral composite gave the highest z-directional bond strength. Compared with the traditional reference samples containing commercial PCCs, paper with s- and r-composites had significantly higher density but similar light scattering ability. Addition of fibrillar fines to fine paper increased print rub fastness significantly in both laser and inkjet printed samples.

  11. Light-melt adhesive based on dynamic carbon frameworks in a columnar liquid-crystal phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shohei; Nobusue, Shunpei; Tsuzaka, Eri; Yuan, Chunxue; Mori, Chigusa; Hara, Mitsuo; Seki, Takahiro; Camacho, Cristopher; Irle, Stephan; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2016-07-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) provides a suitable platform to exploit structural motions of molecules in a condensed phase. Amplification of the structural changes enables a variety of technologies not only in LC displays but also in other applications. Until very recently, however, a practical use of LCs for removable adhesives has not been explored, although a spontaneous disorganization of LC materials can be easily triggered by light-induced isomerization of photoactive components. The difficulty of such application derives from the requirements for simultaneous implementation of sufficient bonding strength and its rapid disappearance by photoirradiation. Here we report a dynamic molecular LC material that meets these requirements. Columnar-stacked V-shaped carbon frameworks display sufficient bonding strength even during heating conditions, while its bonding ability is immediately lost by a light-induced self-melting function. The light-melt adhesive is reusable and its fluorescence colour reversibly changes during the cycle, visualizing the bonding/nonbonding phases of the adhesive.

  12. Crystal structure of pseudo-six-fold carbon dioxide phase II at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. S.; Kohlmann, H.; Cynn, H.; Nicol, M. F.; Iota, V.; Lebihan, T.

    2002-03-01

    The crystal structure of CO2-II is determined to be tetragonal P42/mnm with z=2, with evidence of some tetragonal-to-orthorhombic (Pnnm) disorder in the ab plane. In this structure, carbon atoms are pseudo-sixfold-coordinated by oxygens; two oxygens are at an elongated intramolecular C=O bond distance, 1.331(3) Å, and four are at a collapsed intermolecular distance, 2.377(2) Å, at the apices of highly distorted octahedral. Strong intermolecular association results in a large splitting of the symmetric stretching ν1 mode and in a high bulk modulus 131.5 GPa. At 11 GPa, CO2-II is about 6.8% denser than CO2-III (Cmca).

  13. Modelling a nonlinear optical switching in a standard photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with carbon disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Natalia; Acuna Herrera, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, a numerical analysis is developed for the propagation of ultrafast optical pulses through a standard photonic crystal fiber (PCF) consisting of two infiltrated holes using carbon disulfide (CS2). This material is a good choice since it has highly nonlinear properties, what makes it a good candidate for optical switching and broadband source at low power compared to traditional nonlinear fiber coupler. Based on supermodes theory, a set of generalized nonlinear equations is presented in order to study the propagation characteristics. It is shown in this letter that it is possible to get optical switching behavior at low power and how the dispersion, as well as, the two infiltrated holes separation influence this effect. Finally, we see that supercontinuum generation can be induced equally in both infiltrated holes despite no initial excitation at one hole.

  14. Two-step electrical percolation in nematic liquid crystals filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomylko, Serhiy; Yaroshchuk, Oleg; Lebovka, Nikolai

    2015-07-01

    Percolation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in liquid crystals (LCs) opens the way for a unique class of anisotropic hybrid materials with a complex dielectric constant widely controlled by CNT concentration. Percolation in such systems is commonly described as a one-step process starting at a very low loading of CNTs. In the present study the two-step percolation was observed in the samples of thickness 250 μ m obtained by pressing the suspension between two substrates. The first threshold concentration, Cnp1˜10-4 wt.%, was sensitive to temperature and phase state of LC, while the second one, Cnp2˜10-1 wt.%, remained practically unchanged in the temperature tests. The two-stage nature of percolation was explained on a base of mean-field theory assuming core-shell structure of CNTs.

  15. Variations in soil carbon sequestration and their determinants along a precipitation gradient in seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julio; Merino, Agustín

    2016-05-01

    The effect of precipitation regime on the C cycle of tropical forests is poorly understood, despite the existence of models that suggest a drier climate may substantially alter the source-sink function of these ecosystems. Along a precipitation regime gradient containing 12 mature seasonally dry tropical forests growing under otherwise similar conditions (similar annual temperature, rainfall seasonality, and geological substrate), we analyzed the influence of variation in annual precipitation (1240 to 642 mm) and duration of seasonal drought on soil C. We investigated litterfall, decomposition in the forest floor, and C storage in the mineral soil, and analyzed the dependence of these processes and pools on precipitation. Litterfall decreased slightly - about 10% - from stands with 1240 mm yr(-1) to those with 642 mm yr(-1), while the decomposition decreased by 56%. Reduced precipitation strongly affected C storage and basal respiration in the mineral soil. Higher soil C storage at the drier sites was also related to the higher chemical recalcitrance of litter (fine roots and forest floor) and the presence of charcoal across sites, suggesting an important indirect influence of climate on C sequestration. Basal respiration was controlled by the amount of recalcitrant organic matter in the mineral soil. We conclude that in these forest ecosystems, the long-term consequences of decreased precipitation would be an increase in organic layer and mineral soil C storage, mainly due to lower decomposition and higher chemical recalcitrance of organic matter, resulting from changes in litter composition and, likely also, wildfire patterns. This could turn these seasonally dry tropical forests into significant soil C sinks under the predicted longer drought periods if primary productivity is maintained.

  16. Influence of Sticky Rice and Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate in Chinese Organic Sanhetu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.

  17. Isothermal Crystallization of Poly(L-lactide) Induced by Graphene Nanosheets and Carbon Nanotubes: A Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Chen, T; Yang, C; Li, Z; Mao, Y; Zeng, B; Hsiao, B

    2010-01-01

    Low-dimensional nanoparticles have a strong ability to induce the crystallization of polymer matrices. One-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene nanosheets (GNSs), both of which are both carbon-based nanoparticles, provide a good opportunity to investigate the effects of differently dimensional nanoparticles on the crystallization behavior of a polymer. For this purpose, respective nanocomposites of CNTs and GNSs with poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as matrix were prepared by solution coagulation. Time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were performed to probe chain conformational changes and to determine the crystallization kinetics during the isothermal crystallization of the PLLA nanocomposites and neat PLLA, especially in the early stages. Both CNTs and GNSs could serve as nucleating agents in accelerating the crystallization kinetics of PLLA; however, the ability of CNTs to induce crystallization was stronger than that of GNSs. On increasing the content of CNTs from 0.05 to 0.1 wt %, the induction period was shortened and the crystallization rate was enhanced, but the reverse situation was found for GNSs nanocomposites. In the case of neat PLLA, -CH{sub 3} interchain interactions preceded -(COC + CH{sub 3}) interchain interactions during the crystallization. Conversely, in the CNTs and GNSs nanocomposites, the conformational ordering began with -(COC + CH{sub 3}) interchain interactions, which resulted directly in a reduced induction period. Interchain interactions of this type could be explained in terms of surface-induced conformational order (SICO). Finally, the effect of the dimensionality of the nanoparticles on the crystallization behavior of PLLA is discussed.

  18. The effect of tantalum and carbon on the structure/properties of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructure, phase chemistry, and creep and hot tensile properties were studied as a function of tantalum and carbon levels in Mar-M247 type single crystal alloys. Microstructural studies showed that several types of carbides (MC, M23C6 and M5C) are present in the normal carbon (0.10 wt % C) alloys after heat treatment. In general, the composition of the MC carbides changes from titanium rich to tantalum rich as the tantalum level in the alloy increases. Small M23C6 carbides are present in all alloys. Tungsten rich M6C carbides are also observed in the alloy containing no tantalum. No carbides are present in the low carbon (0.01 wt % C) alloy series. The morphology of gamma prime is observed to be sensitive to heat treatment and tantalum level in the alloy. Cuboidal gamma prime is present in all the as cast structures. After heat treatment, the gamma prime precipitates tend to have a more spheroidal like morphology, and this tendency increases as the tantalum level decreases. On prolonged aging, the gamma prime reverts back to a cuboidal morphology or under stress at high temperatures, forms a rafted structure. The weight fraction and lattice parameter of the spheroidal gamma prime increases with increasing tantalum content. Changes in the phase chemistry of the gamma prime matrix and gamma prime have also been analyzed using phase extraction techniques. The partitioning ratio decreases for tungsten and aluminum and increases for tantalum as the tantalum content increases for both alloy series; no significant changes occur in the partitioning ratios of the other alloying elements. A reduction in secondary creep rate and an increase in rupture time result from increasing the tantalum content and decreasing the carbon level.

  19. Crystal orbital study on the double walls made of nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Weiye; Li, Yuliang; Huang, Yuanhe

    2015-01-01

    The structure stabilities and electronic properties are investigated by using ab initio self-consistent-field crystal orbital method based on density functional theory for the one-dimensional (1D) double-wall nanotubes made of n-gon SiO2 nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the distance between the two constituents is around the Van der Waals scope. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. The frontier energy bands (the highest occupied band and the lowest unoccupied band) of double-wall nanotubes are mainly derived from the corresponding carbon nanotubes. The mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be within the range of 102-104 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the hybrid double-wall nanotubes. Young's moduli are also calculated for the combined systems. For the comparison, geometrical and electronic properties of n-gon SiO2 nanotubes are also calculated and discussed.

  20. Polypropylene/Graphene and Polypropylene/Carbon Fiber Conductive Composites: Mechanical, Crystallization and Electromagnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the properties of composites that different carbon materials with different measurements can reinforce. Using a melt compounding method, this study combines polypropylene (PP and graphene nano-sheets (GNs or carbon fiber (CF to make PP/GNs and PP/CF conductive composites, respectively. The DSC results and optical microscopic observation show that both GNs and CF enable PP to crystalize at a high temperature. The tensile modulus of PP/GNs and PP/CF conductive composites remarkably increases as a result of the increasing content of conductive fillers. The tensile strength of the PP/GNs conductive composites is inversely proportional to the loading level of GNs. Containing 20 wt% of GNs, the PP/GNs conductive composites have an optimal conductivity of 0.36 S/m and an optimal EMI SE of 13 dB. PP/CF conductive composites have an optimal conductivity of 10−6 S/m when composed of no less than 3 wt% of CF, and an optimal EMI SE of 25 dB when composed of 20 wt% of CF.

  1. Kinetics of Glass Transition and Crystallization in Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Mg-Cu-Gd Bulk Metallic Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mg65Cu25Gd10 bulk metallic glass and its carbon nanotube reinforced composite were prepared. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to investigate the kinetics of glass transition and crystallization processes. The influence of CNTs addition to the glass matrix on the glass transition and crystallization kinetics was studied. It is shown that the kinetic effect on glass transition and crystallization are preserved for both the monothetic glass and its glass composite.Adding CNTs in to the glass matrix reduces the influence of the heating rate on the crystallization process. In addition, the CNTs increase the energetic barrier for the glass transition. This results in the decrease of GFA. The mechanism of the GFA decrease was also discussed.

  2. Crystal orbital study on the double walls made of nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qiao, Weiye [College of Chemical Engineering and Biological Technology, Xingtai University, Xingtai 054001 (China); Li, Yuliang [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Yuanhe, E-mail: yuanhe@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The structure stabilities and electronic properties are investigated by using ab initio self-consistent-field crystal orbital method based on density functional theory for the one-dimensional (1D) double-wall nanotubes made of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the distance between the two constituents is around the Van der Waals scope. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. The frontier energy bands (the highest occupied band and the lowest unoccupied band) of double-wall nanotubes are mainly derived from the corresponding carbon nanotubes. The mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be within the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the hybrid double-wall nanotubes. Young’s moduli are also calculated for the combined systems. For the comparison, geometrical and electronic properties of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes are also calculated and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Structures and band structures of the optimum 1D Double walls nanotubes. The optimized structures are 3-gon SiO2@(15,0), 5-gon SiO2@(17,0), 6-gon SiO2@(18,0) and 7-gon SiO2@(19,0). - Highlights: • The structure and electronic properties of the 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are studied using SCF-CO method. • The encapsulation of 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2} tubes inside zigzag carbon nanotubes can be energetically favorable. • The 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are all semiconductors. • The mobility of charge carriers and Young’s moduli are calculated.

  3. The crystal chemistry and the compressibility of silicate-carbonate minerals:Spurrite, galuskinite and tilleyite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Gao; Xiang Wu; Shan Qin

    2015-01-01

    Spurrite Ca5(SiO4)2(CO3), galuskinite Ca7(SiO4)3(CO3) and tilleyite Ca5(Si2O7)(CO3)2 are three representa-tive minerals formed in high-temperature skarns in the silicate-carbonate system. Their crystal chemistry and compressibility have been investigated using first-principles theoretical simulation. These minerals are structurally described as the combination of interwoven layers constituted by Ca polyhedra and Si polyhedra, with the [CO3] triangles being“separators”to depolymerize the SieCa aggregations. With the effect of pressure, the Si polyhedra and the [CO3] groups present rigid behaviors whereas the CaeO bonds undergo considerable compression. Several pressure-induced abnormities in the lattice parameter vari-ations have been identified, revealing the existence of subtle changes in the compression process. Isothermal equations of state parameters are obtained:K0 ¼ 71.1(1) GPa, V0 ¼ 1003.31(4) Å3 and K00 ¼ 5.4(1) for spurrite; K0 ¼ 75.0(1) GPa, V0 ¼ 1360.30(7) Å3, K00 ¼ 5.4(1) for galuskinite, and K0 ¼ 69.7(3) GPa, V0 ¼ 1168.90(2) Å3 and K00 ¼ 4.0(1) for tilleyite. These compounds have similar K0 values to calcite CaCO3 but are much more compressible than larnite b-Ca2SiO4. Generally for these minerals, the bulk modulus exhibits a negative correlation with the [CO3] proportion. The structural and compressional properties of silicate-carbonate minerals compared with silicates and carbonates are expected to be a guide for further investigations on Si polyhedra and [CO3] coexistent phases.

  4. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Chang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  5. A facile and low-cost length sorting of single-wall carbon nanotubes by precipitation and applications for thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Hui; Chen, Haitian; Khripin, Constantine Y; Liu, Bilu; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Zhou, Chongwu; Zheng, Ming

    2016-02-14

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with long lengths are highly desirable for many applications such as thin-film transistors and circuits. Previously reported length sorting techniques usually require sophisticated instrumentation and are hard to scale up. In this paper, we report for the first time a general phenomenon of a length-dependent precipitation of surfactant-dispersed carbon nanotubes by polymers, salts, and their combinations. Polyelectrolytes such as polymethacrylate (PMAA) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) are found to be especially effective on cholate and deoxycholate dispersed SWCNTs. By adding PMAA to these nanotube dispersions in a stepwise fashion, we have achieved nanotube precipitation in a length-dependent order: first nanotubes with an average length of 650 nm, and then successively of 450 nm, 350 nm, and 250 nm. A similar effect of nanotube length sorting has also been observed for PSS. To demonstrate the utility of the length fractionation, the 650 nm-long nanotube fraction was subjected to an aqueous two-phase separation to obtain semiconducting enriched nanotubes. Thin-film transistors fabricated with the resulting semiconducting SWCNTs showed a carrier mobility up to 18 cm(2) (V s)(-1) and an on/off ratio up to 10(7). Our result sheds new light on the phase behavior of aqueous nanotube dispersions under high concentrations of polymers and salts, and offers a facile, low-cost, and scalable method to produce length sorted semiconducting nanotubes for macroelectronics applications.

  6. Crystallization behaviors of carbon fiber reinforced BN-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Chang-Rui; Wang, Si-Qing; Cao, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2007-07-15

    The crystallization behaviors of a new carbon fiber reinforced composite with a hybrid matrix comprising BN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} prepared by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the as-received composite is almost amorphous, and its main composition is BN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. When heat treated at 1600 C, the composite is crystallized and shows a much better crystal form. When heat treated at 2100 C, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the matrix is decomposed, and BN exhibits a relatively complete crystallization. The existence of B{sub 4}C and SiC is detected, which indicates the interfacial chemical reactions between nitride matrices and carbon fibers. The surface morphology of carbon fibers in the composite changed significantly when heated from 1600 to 2100 C, which also proved the occurrence of interfacial chemical reactions. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. On the effect of silicon and phosphorus during the precipitation of kappa-carbide in Iron-Manganese-Aluminium-Carbon alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Laura Nicole

    Implementation of lightweight high manganese and aluminum steels for use in high energy absorbing applications requires a detailed knowledge of how alloying additions and impurities affect age hardening and high strain rate fracture properties. Dynamic fracture toughness is an important design criterion but has not been reported previously in these alloys. In addition, previous studies have shown that silicon and phosphorus increased the strength and aged hardness; however, the mechanism was unknown. This research mainly focuses on the effect of silicon and phosphorus on the precipitation of kappa-carbide and alloy partitioning during aging. Short range ordering, SRO, of Fe-Al-C into relative atomic positions described by the E21 superlattice structure preceded and occurred concurrent to spinodal decomposition. Short range diffusion of phosphorus increased the kinetics of ordering resulting in a decrease in the time required for subsequent spinodal decomposition and an increase the amplitude of carbon concentration with time. Silicon increased the strength and hardness as a result of increased carbon partitioning into the kappa-carbide during aging. Dynamic fracture toughness was found to depend upon aluminum and carbon. Increasing the amount of solid solution carbon increased the dynamic fracture toughness in solution treated specimens. However, increasing carbon in aged specimens increased the amount of kappa-carbide and produced brittle fracture. Additions of aluminum from three to nine weight percent decreased toughness regardless of the heat treatment. Dynamic fracture toughness was a strong function of AlN content. A good combination of high strength and dynamic toughness with a corresponding density reduction of 10 to 12% is obtained with aluminum additions between 6 and 7% and carbon below 1.2%.

  8. Study on the crystal morphology and melting behavior of isothermally crystallized composites of short carbon fiber and poly(trimethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtao RUN; Hongzan SONG; Yanping HAO

    2009-01-01

    The spherulites of the short carbon fibcr(SCF)/ poly (trimethylcne terephthalate) (PTT) composites forrned in limited space at designed temperatures, and their melting behaviors were studied by the polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results suggest that SCF content, isothermal crystallization temperatures, and the film thicknesses influence the crystal morphology of the composites. The dimension of the spherulites is decreased with increasing SCF content, but whether banded or nonbandcd spherulites will form in the composites is not depondcnt on SCF content However, the crystal morphology of the composites depends strongly on the temperature. When the isothermal crystallization temperatures increase from 180℃ to 230℃, the crystal morphology of SCF/PTT composites continuously changes in the following order: nonbanded → banded → nonbanded spherulites. Disconti-nuous circle lines form in the film when the film thickness increases from 30 to 60 μm. Basing on the SEM observation, it is found that these circle lines are cracks formed due to the constriction difference of the different parts of the sphemlites. These cracks are formed when the film is cooled from the isothermal crystallization temperature to the room tempera-ture at a slow cooling rate; while they will disappear gradually at different temperatures in the heating process. The crack will appear/disappear first around the center of the spherulite when the film was cooled/heated. The nontwisted or slightly twisted lamellas will reorganize to form highly twisted lamellas inducing apparent banded texture of the sphemlites.

  9. THE STUDY OF THE KINETIC PROCESSES OF SPONTANEOUS PRECIPITATION FOR CALCIUM CARBONATE SUPERSATURATED AQUEOUS SOLUTION%碳酸钙自发沉淀析出的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广兵; 方健; 李杰

    2001-01-01

    通过记录析晶过程中溶液各组份随时间的变化关系,研究了不同过饱和度的碳酸钙水溶液的沉淀动力学过程.实验结果显示,异相成核是主导的成核机制.通过实验数据计算出了表面二维晶核的棱自由能为2.53×10-8mJ*m-1.实验数据表明,碳酸钙晶体生长的过程是扩散控制过程.%By recording the time variation of the concentration of the species in the solution during preci-pitation,we studied the kinetic precipitation processes of calcium carbonate supersaturation solution.Our experimental results implied that the hetero-nucleation is the main nucleation mechanism.The free edge energy of the surface two-dimentional nucleus could also be determined from the experimental data,and yielded a value of 2.53×10-8mJ*m-1.The experimental data also indicated that the growth of crystal is controlled by diffusion mechanism.

  10. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex, India: Evidence for fractional crystallization and silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotiranjan S Ray; P N Shukla

    2004-12-01

    Carbonatites are believed to have crystallized either from mantle-derived primary carbonate magmas or from secondary melts derived from carbonated silicate magmas through liquid immiscibility or from residual melts of fractional crystallization of silicate magmas. Although the observed coexistence of carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks in most complexes, their coeval emplacement in many, and overlapping initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios are supportive of their cogenesis; there have been few efforts to devise a quantitative method to identify the magmatic processes. In the present study we have made an attempt to accomplish this by modeling the trace element contents of carbonatites and coeval alkaline silicate rocks of Amba Dongar complex, India. Trace element data suggest that the carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks of this complex are products of fractional crystallization of two separate parental melts. Using the available silicate melt-carbonate melt partition coefficients for various trace elements, and the observed data from carbonatites, we have tried to simulate trace element distribution pattern for the parental silicate melt. The results of the modeling not only support the hypothesis of silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility for the evolution of Amba Dongar but also establish a procedure to test the above hypothesis in such complexes.

  11. THE DYNAMIC EXPERIMENT OF THRESHOLD SCALING INHIBITORS AGAINST THE PRECIPITATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION%非化学配比阻垢剂对水垢析晶过程影响的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广兵; 方健; 李杰

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two threshold indibitors, sodium polyphosphate(SPP) and polypropylene acid (PAA) on the precipitation of calcium carbonate were investigated. The formation of species from solution was computed from the recorded conductivity values and mass-balance and charge-balance equations by successive approximations for the ionic strenght. The nano-scale crystals of calcium carbonate was seeded. This made the experiments reproducible. The inhibitors' threshold in our experiments was independent on the solution's supersaturation and inhibitor effectiveness defined by static method was sensitive to supersaturation.%我们基于溶液电离平衡、质子平衡、离子活度原理以及法拉第分布电解定律,建立了精确测量碳酸钙过饱和溶液在析晶过程中所有离子变化的试验系统,并使用该系统研究了阻垢剂聚丙烯酸和多聚磷酸钠对碳酸钙析晶过程的影响。试验中使用了植晶的方法,保证了试验具有高重复性。试验研究表明,静态法所定义的阻垢率数值易受溶液过饱和度的影响,但是动力学方法测量的阻垢剂的阻垢阈值不受影响。动力学的研究和静态法的结合加深了我们对阻垢剂的阻垢过程的了解。

  12. Carbon Isotope Effect in Single-Crystal Rb{sub 3}C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrer, M.S.; Cherrey, K.; Zettl, A.; Cohen, M.L. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Crespi, V.H. [The Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-6300 (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The sharp resistive transitions in superconducting single crystals of natural abundance and 99{percent} {sup 13}C -enriched Rb{sub 3}C {sub 60} reveal the carbon isotope effect with unprecedented accuracy. The measured isotope exponent {alpha}{sub C} =0.21{plus_minus}0.012 is outside the error bars of all previous reported values. Our precise value for {alpha}{sub C} , combined with T{sub c} , {alpha}{sub Rb} , and an {ital ab initio} calculation of the frequency distribution of the electron-phonon coupling, allows a fully constrained determination of the coupling strength {lambda}=0.9{sup +0.15}{sub {minus}0.1} and the Coulomb repulsion {mu}{sup *}=0.22{sup +0.03}{sub {minus}0.02} . These new measurements reveal a phonon-mediated superconductor with moderate coupling to a wide range of phonons centered near {approximately}1400 K . {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Synthesis and crystallization of titanium dioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleva, A.; Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Levänen, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a simple and low-temperature method to synthesize titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles with supercritical carbon dioxide is presented. The particles were synthesized by measuring 5 ml of tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate precursor to the supercritical chamber. The pressure was maintained at 15.0 MPafor all experiments. Reaction temperatures used were 50 °C or 70 °C. After reaching treatment parameters 10 ml of deionized water was introduced to the chamber with a co-solvent pump. A mixer was used inside the chamber to ensure proper mixing of water and precursor. Reaction times of 10, 60 and 300 min were used. Characterization of the particle crystal phase was determined by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface areas were measured with nitrogen adsorption tests (BET). The results showed that the particles synthesized with reaction times of 10 and 60 min contained brookite as the crystalline phase. With longer reaction time of 300 min the phase shifted to anatase. In most experiments there was also significant amount of amorphous phase present. The specific surface areas varied between 274.3–566.6 m2/g.

  14. Dielectric and electro-optic measurements of nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew; Georgiev, Georgi; Atherton, Timothy; Cebe, Peggy

    We studied the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the dielectric and electro-optic properties of nematic 5CB liquid crystals (LCs). Samples containing 0.01%, 0.10% and 1.00% CNTs by weight were prepared. Anti- parallel rubbed cells with a nominal thickness of 10 μm were prepared using indium tin oxide coated glass cells and a polyimide alignment layer. The capacitance and dissipation factor were measured using an Agilent 4284A precision LCR meter. From these measurements, the complex dielectric permittivity was determined as a function of frequency. Analysis of the low frequency regime (f <1000 Hz) indicates that 5CB samples containing CNTs have a higher conductance than neat samples. The Fréedericksz transition critical voltage was noted by a sharp increase in capacitance after an initial plateau. Numerical simulations of CNT-facilitated switching show that polarization induced on the nanotubes from capacitive effects can significantly reduce the critical voltage in DC electric fields, in agreement with experimental results. Measurements of the critical voltage over a range of frequencies will also be presented. Research was supported by the National Science Foundation, DMR1206010.

  15. Fast-Response Liquid Crystal Lens Doped with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a relatively fast-response liquid crystal (LC lens was proposed, which was fabricated by a simple method. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were utilized in fabricating the LC lens. As MWCNTs were doped into the LCs, the dielectric anisotropy of the mixture changed, which was the key factor in solving the technical barrier of slow response time. In experiments, the effects of doping with MWCNTs were demonstrated. The concentration of doped MWCNTs was discussed in detail, and the best concentration and doping method were analyzed. The relationship between the concentration and response time was also obtained. This LC lens had a sub-millisecond response time, which was a relatively fast response time in comparison to conventional LC lenses of pristine LCs. Thus, this proposed method could be considered as a new method to realize fast-response LC lens.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12913

  16. Van der Waals interaction between microparticle and uniaxial crystal with application to hydrogen atoms and multiwall carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Blagov, E V; Mostepanenko, V M

    2005-01-01

    The Lifshitz theory of the van der Waals force is extended for the case of an atom (molecule) interacting with a plane surface of an uniaxial crystal or with a long solid cylinder or cylindrical shell made of isotropic material or uniaxial crystal. For a microparticle near a semispace or flat plate made of an uniaxial crystal the exact expressions for the free energy of the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction are presented. An approximate expression for the free energy of microparticle- cylinder interaction is obtained which becomes precise for microparticle-cylinder separations much smaller than cylinder radius. The obtained expressions are used to investigate the van der Waals interaction between hydrogen atoms (molecules) and graphite plates or multiwall carbon nanotubes. To accomplish this the behavior of graphite dielectric permittivities along the imaginary frequency axis is found using the optical data for the complex refractive index of graphite for the ordinary and extraordinary rays. It is ...

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal-Polyphenol Coordination Crystals and Their Derived Metal/N-doped Carbon Composites for Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yaoxin; Kong, Biao; Zhang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Tong, Yuping; Wang, Xianbiao; Jiang, San Ping; Wang, Huanting

    2016-09-26

    Cobalt (or iron)-polyphenol coordination polymers with crystalline frameworks are synthesized for the first time. The crystalline framework is formed by the assembly of metal ions and polyphenol followed by oxidative self-polymerization of the organic ligands (polyphenol) during hydrothermal treatment in alkaline condition. As a result, such coordination crystals are even partly stable in strong acid (such as 2 m HCl). The metal (Co or Fe)-natural abundant polyphenol (tannin) coordination crystals are a renewable source for the fabrication of metal/carbon composites as a nonprecious-metal catalyst, which show high catalytic performance for both oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction. Such excellent performance makes metal-polyphenol coordination crystals an efficient precursor to fabricate low-cost catalysts for the large-scale application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  18. Hydrophilic Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Building Photonic Crystals with Enhanced Color Visibility and Mechanical Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low color visibility and poor mechanical strength of polystyrene (PS photonic crystal films have been the main shortcomings for the potential applications in paints or displays. This paper presents a simple method to fabricate PS/MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite photonic crystal films with enhanced color visibility and mechanical strength. First, MWCNTs was modified through radical addition reaction by aniline 2,5-double sulfonic acid diazonium salt to generate hydrophilic surface and good water dispersity. Then the MWCNTs dispersion was blended with PS emulsion to form homogeneous PS/MWCNTs emulsion mixtures and fabricate composite films through thermal-assisted method. The obtained films exhibit high color visibility under natural light and improved mechanical strength owing to the light-adsorption property and crosslinking effect of MWCNTs. The utilization of MWCNTs in improving the properties of photonic crystals is significant for various applications, such as in paints and displays.

  19. Vapor diffusion method: Dependence of polymorphs and morphologies of calcium carbonate crystals on the depth of an aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Hai-Shui; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    The polymorph control of calcium carbonate by the vapor diffusion method is still a challenging issue because the resultant crystal polymorphs and morphologies highly depend on the experimental setup. In this communication, we demonstrated that the concentration gradients accompanied by the vapor diffusion method (ammonia concentration, pH and the ratio of CO32- to Ca2+ are changed with the solution depth and with time) are probably the main reasons to significantly affect the formation of crystal polymorphs. Raman, SEM and XRD data showed that calcite and vaterite crystals were preferred to nucleate and grow in the upper or the lower areas of aqueous solution respectively. The above results can be explained by the gradient effect.

  20. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna, Chilakala [Hanil Cement, Danyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A wide variety of fillers are currently used in more than twenty types of polymer resins, although four of them alone (polypropylene, polyamides, thermoplastic polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride) account for 90% of the market of mineral fillers in plastics. Polypropylene (PP) and PVC dominate the market for calcium carbonate. PP is a versatile reinforcement material that can meet engineering and structural specifications and is widely used for automotive components, home appliances, and industrial applications. Talc, mica, clay, kaolin, wollastonite, calcium carbonates, feldspar, aluminum hydroxide, glass fibers, and natural fibers are commonly used in fillers. Among these, calcium carbonate (both natural and synthetic) is the mos abundant and affords the possibility of improved surface finishing, control over the manufacture of products, and increased electric resistance and impact resistance. Meeting the global challenge to reduce the weight of vehicles by using plastics is a significant issue. The current the global plastic and automobile industry cannot survive without fillers, additives, and reinforcements. Polypropylene is a major component of the modern plastic industry, and currently is used in dashboards, wheel covers, and some engine parts in automobiles. This article reports that the use of calcium carbonate fillers with polypropylene is the best choice to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts used in automobiles.

  1. CSP 流程低碳铝镇静钢铸坯碳覆夹杂物析出行为%Precipitation behavior of carbon bearing inclusion in a slab for low carbon Al-killed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 程树森; 李积鹏; 颜坤; 梅亚光

    2016-01-01

    在使用 CSP 工艺生产低碳或超低碳钢时,在铸坯中,特别是铸坯宽面的中心经常观察到相当数量的微米级碳覆夹杂物.通过对 CSP 流程不同的钢种铸坯取样,研究了这类夹杂物的结构特点和析出机制.指出碳覆夹杂物呈双层结构,外面包裹一层富碳层、中心为钙铝酸盐或含 CaO 的复合夹杂物.热力学计算结果显示这层富碳物质并非 CaC2.通过对比球墨铸铁中球状石墨的形成条件,指出 CSP 铸坯中存在冷却速度快、S 元素含量低、加钙处理后促球化元素 Ca、Mg 含量相对较高,有大量夹杂物作为形核核心等促进碳覆夹杂物析出的有利条件.C 为易偏析元素,在低碳或超低碳钢铸坯凝固过程中液芯中 C 含量的升高,能够析出球状的碳覆夹杂物.并指出由于碳覆夹杂物的析出,中心钢基体 C 含量降低,碳覆夹杂物析出能够减轻铸坯凝固过程中 C元素的偏析程度.%A kind of carbon bearing inclusion was frequently detected in the slab,in particular in the central part of a slab,of low carbon or ultra-low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP)process.The struc-ture and the formation mechanism of carbon bearing inclusion was studied in different kinds of steel grades pro-duced by CSP process.It finds that the carbon bearing inclusion presents a duplex structure,in which the outer layer composes of graphite rich material and the inner core composes of calcium aluminates or CaO rich multi-com-ponent oxide.Thermodynamic analysis shows that the precipitation of carbon bearing inclusions are not CaC2. In addition,by comparing with spherical graphite formation conditions in spheroidal graphite cast iron,it finds that during the CSP slab solidification,the cooling rate is relative high,the sulfur content is very low,the Ca and Mg content which are beneficial to spherical inclusion formation are relative rich after Ca-treatment and there are a lar

  2. Investigation of scale inhibition mechanisms based on the effect of scale inhibitor on calcium carbonate crystal forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG GuiCai; GE JiJiang; SUN MingQin; PAN BinLin; MAO Tao; SONG ZhaoZheng

    2007-01-01

    To probe the scale inhibition mechanisms, calcium carbonate scale occurring before and after the addition of scale inhibitors was collected. The results from scale SEM confirm that, without scale inhibitor, calcium carbonate scale shows rhombohedron and hexagon, which are the characteristic feathers of calcite. After addition of inhibitors, morphology of scale is changed, and the more efficient the scale inhibitor is, the more greatly the morphology is modified. To elucidate the scale constitute, they were further analyzed by FT-IR, XRD. Besides calcite, vaterite and aragonite occur in calcium carbonate scale after addition of inhibitors, and the higher scale inhibition efficiency is, the more vaterite presents in scale. It can be concluded that the alteration of morphology is ascribed to the change of crystal form. There are three stages in the crystallizing process including occurrence and disappearing of unstable phase, occurrence and disappearing of metastable phase, development of stable phase. Without scale inhibitors, metastable phases usually transform into stable phase, thus the main constitute of formed scale is calcite. When scale inhibitors are added, both formation and transformation of metastable phases are inhibited, which results in the occurrence of aragonite and vaterite. From the fact that more vaterite presents in scale with a more efficient scale inhibitor added, we can see that the function of scale inhibitor is realized mainly by controlling the crystallizing process at the second stage.

  3. Investigation of scale inhibition mechanisms based on the effect of scale inhibitor on calcium carbonate crystal forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To probe the scale inhibition mechanisms,calcium carbonate scale occurring before and after the ad- dition of scale inhibitors was collected.The results from scale SEM confirm that,without scale inhibitor, calcium carbonate scale shows rhombohedron and hexagon,which are the characteristic feathers of calcite.After addition of inhibitors,morphology of scale is changed,and the more efficient the scale inhibitor is,the more greatly the morphology is modified.To elucidate the scale constitute,they were further analyzed by FT-IR,XRD.Besides calcite,vaterite and aragonite occur in calcium carbonate scale after addition of inhibitors,and the higher scale inhibition efficiency is,the more vaterite presents in scale.It can be concluded that the alteration of morphology is ascribed to the change of crystal form. There are three stages in the crystallizing process including occurrence and disappearing of unstable phase,occurrence and disappearing of metastable phase,development of stable phase.Without scale inhibitors,metastable phases usually transform into stable phase,thus the main constitute of formed scale is calcite.When scale inhibitors are added,both formation and transformation of metastable phases are inhibited,which results in the occurrence of aragonite and vaterite.From the fact that more vaterite presents in scale with a more efficient scale inhibitor added,we can see that the function of scale inhibitor is realized mainly by controlling the crystallizing process at the second stage.

  4. Theoretical calculation model of calcium carbonate precipitation potential and its application%碳酸钙沉淀势理论计算模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许仕荣; 赵伟; 王长平; 徐洪福

    2012-01-01

    Among many water chemical stability indexes, the calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) is the one that can quantitatively analyze the accurate dissolved or precipitated CaCO3. This paper deduced a calculation model of CCPP from theory, and offered a calculating solving by Matlab. Compared with other existing related softwares, the results of CCPP were closer to the experimental results than the results of other softwares, therefor it could be used to replace the experimental data for water quality chemical stability analysis.%水质化学稳定性评价指数较多,其中碳酸钙沉淀势(CCPP)是一个能定量分析CaCO3溶解或沉淀的精确指数.从理论上推导了CCPP计算模型,并基于Matlab计算求解.模型计算结果与已有相关软件的计算结果相比,该理论模型的计算值更接近试验结果,可以用其代替试验值进行水质化学稳定性分析.

  5. Strontium hydroxyapatite and strontium carbonate as templates for the precipitation of calcium-phosphates in the absence and presence of fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Vanessa; Janousch, Markus; Heeb, Michèle B.; Hering, Janet G.; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation of calcium-phosphates on calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HAP) in the presence and absence of fluoride is important in the formation of bone and teeth, protection against tooth decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis and defluoridation of drinking water. Strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr10(PO4)6(OH)2 or SrHAP) and strontium carbonate (SrCO3) were used as calcium-free seed templates in precipitation experiments conducted with varying initial calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) or calcium-to-phosphate-to-fluoride (Ca/P/F) ratios. Suspensions of SrHAP or SrCO3 seed templates (which were calcium-limited for both templates and phosphate-limited in the case of SrCO3) were reacted at pH 7.3 (25 °C) over 3 days. The resulting solids were examined with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Calcium apatite was the predominant phase identified by all techniques independent of the added Ca/P ratios and of the presence of fluoride. It was not possible to make an unambiguous distinction between HAP and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2, FAP). The apatite was calcium-deficient and probably contained some strontium.

  6. Crystalline polymer decoration on multiwalled carbon nanotubes: MWCNT-induced P4VP periodic crystallization in CO2-expanded liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with crystalline poly(4- vinylpyridine (P4VP in CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs. The structure and morphology of MWCNT-induced polymer crystallization are examined, with the focus on molecular weight of P4VP (MW-P4VP, the pressure of CXLs and the concentration of P4VP. First, it is observed that the crystallization morphologies for the P4VP/MWCNTs composite with a low molecular weight P4VP (LMW-P4VP matrix could be finely controlled in CXLs, and it is surprising to find that the P4VP8700 wrapping patterns undergo a morphological evolution from dot crystals to dotted helical wrappings, and then to dense helical patterns by facile pressure tuning under lower polymer concentration. In other words, the CXLs method enables superior control of the P4VP crystallization patternings on MWCNTs, particularly efficient for LMW-P4VP at lower polymer concentration. Meanwhile, the CXL-assisted P4VP crystal growth mechanism on MWCNT is investigated, and the dominating growth mechanism is attributed to 'normal epitaxy' at lower P4VP concentration rather than 'soft epitaxy' at higher concentration. We believe that this work reports a new crystalline polymer wrapping approach in CXLs to noncovalent engineering of MWCNTs surfaces.

  7. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. I. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Elongated and rodlike objects such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied when immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. Their interaction energy in a uniform nematic field depends on their orientation relative to the director n , and its minimum determines if they stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n . Using free energy calculations, we deduce the orientation at equilibrium that they choose in a uniform director field n or when they are in contact with a splay-bend disclination line. Naturally, the CNT orientations also depend on the anchoring conditions at their surface. Essentially, three types of anchorings are considered, planar, homeotropic, and Janus anchorings in the cases of weak and strong anchoring strengths. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are attracted toward it and ultimately, they get out of the colloidal dispersion to stick on it. Their orientation relative to the line is found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, we finally obtain a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, according to the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line, respectively. The system exhibits a rich versatility even if up to now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. As discussed in the associated experimental paper, these necklaces could be a step toward interesting applications for realizing nanowires self-connected in three dimensions to predesignated electrodes. This method could provide a way to increase the number of transistors that may be connected together on a small volume.

  8. Crystallization and mechanical properties of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jing; Iftekharul Haque, Rubaiyet; Larsen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were purified and functionalized by nitric acid and octadecylamine. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the functionalization of the single-walled carbon nanotubes. Polyvinylidene flouride nanocomposites containing 1 wt......% purified or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared by solution blending and injection molding. The dispersion of different carbon nanotubes in dimethylformamide and in polyvinylidene flouride has been investigated. Mechanical properties show that adding single-walled carbon nanotubes...

  9. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  10. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin [Calera Corporation, Moss Landing, CA (United States); Gilliam, Ryan [Calera Corporation, Moss Landing, CA (United States); Seeker, Randy [Calera Corporation, Moss Landing, CA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This final report details all development, analysis, design and testing of the project. Also included in the final report are an updated Techno-Economic Analysis and CO2 Lifecycle Analysis. The subsystems included in the pilot demonstration plant are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant was proven to be capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing it into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The final report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. The report also discusses the results of the fully integrated operation of the facility. Fiber cement boards have been produced in this facility exclusively using reactive calcium carbonate from captured CO2 from flue gas. These boards meet all US and China appropriate acceptance standards. Use demonstrations for these boards are now underway.

  11. Para-amino benzoic acid–mediated synthesis of vaterite phase of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ramesh; S A Inchara; K Pallavi

    2015-05-01

    Calcium carbonate polymorphs were precipitated at room temperature and 80°C by varying the precipitation pH, carbonate source, effect of solvent in presence and absence of structure directing agent such as para-aminobenzoic acid. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate was obtained when sodium hydrogen carbonate and/or sodium carbonate (used as precipitating agents) were added to calcium chloride solution at different pHs in water and/or methanol as solvent in separate experiments. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been synthesized by mixing calcium chloride and sodium carbonate in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid when water–methanol binary mixture was used as solvent. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate crystallizes in P63/mmc, while that of calcite phase in R-3mc, respectively. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate exhibits rhombohedral morphology, while vaterite phase has spherical morphology.

  12. Precipitação de carbonato de cálcio para aplicação industrial Calcium carbonate precipitation for industrial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ventura Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados experimentais da síntese de partículas de carbonato de cálcio precipitado (PCC depositadas sobre carbonato de cálcio natural (GCC, onde se variaram a relação [Ca]/[CO3]T inicial, a temperatura e o pH da solução aquosa de síntese e a concentração de coagulante (EDTA. As amostras foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, carbono total (TOC, área superficial específica (método BET, distribuição granulométrica e refletância de luz visível para se determinar o brilho. Os resultados foram comparados a amostras de referência utilizadas por indústrias de papel. O aumento do teor de EDTA favoreceu a coagulação das partículas de PCC entre si, aumentando o tamanho dos agregados. Em valores de pH entre 10 e 11, o PCC tendeu a coagular entre si e, em valores de pH entre 8 e 9, na superfície das partículas de GCC. Observou-se uma redução da densidade do material obtido. Os valores de área superficial específica do material estão dentro do aceitável pelas indústrias de papel e de plásticos.This work presents the experimental results for precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC synthesis over a ground calcium carbonate (GCC substrate. The parameters [Ca]/[CO3]T initial ratio, aqueous synthesis solution temperature, pH and coagulant concentration (EDTA were investigated. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, total carbon (TOC, specific surface area (BET method, particle size distribution and visible light reflectance (to measure the brightness of the samples. The results were compared with values from standard samples used in the paper industry. According to the experimental results, it was noted that an increase in the EDTA amount added to the pulp favored PCC homo-coagulation and also increased the size of the coagulum. PCC tends to homo-coagulate between pH 10 and 11, while it tends to precipitate over GCC particles between pH 8 and 9. A

  13. Coating of Microbially Produced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation on Marble%大理石表面微生物诱导碳酸钙覆膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟涛; 竹文坤; 段涛; 张友魁; 陈晓明

    2014-01-01

    选育碳酸盐矿化菌,利用其诱导CaCO3沉积,采用涂覆法和浸泡法进行细菌矿化试验,最终在大理石样品表面形成一层致密的矿化膜。采用扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)对大理石空白试样和处理后试样进行分析,并对矿化膜进行抗酸性测试。结果表明,涂覆法和浸泡法均能在大理石表面粘结一层细小颗粒,形成一层致密、厚度为50~100μm的CaCO3矿化膜。经过覆膜处理的大理石耐酸性能得到了明显提升。%CaCO3 precipitation was induced by carbonate-mineralization microbe using the immersion method and the coating method, and ifnally formed a dense mineralization membrane layer on marble sample surface. The immersed and smeared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), as well as tested the acid-resistance of the calcium carbonate layer. Experimental results showed that both immersion method and coating method can produce calcium carbonate particle forming a layer of dense mineralization membrane of 50~100μm, acid-resistance of the coated marble samples was improved signiifcantly.

  14. INTERFACE BEHAVIOR'S OF MODIFIED PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE AND THE INFLUENCE ON PAPER'S PROPERTIES%轻质碳酸钙的改性及其对纸张性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈均志; 单世群; 赵艳娜

    2006-01-01

    以自制的水溶性阳离子铝锆偶联剂对轻质碳酸钙进行了表面改性,比较了改性前后轻质碳酸钙的Zeta电位、润湿性、粘度、比表面积、沉降高度、扫描电镜图像以及在水中分散情况的变化,结果表明改性后轻质碳酸钙的表面性能得到改善,将此改性轻质碳酸钙作为填料抄纸发现,改性后轻质碳酸钙在纸页中的留着率大大提高,同时纸张抗张强度、耐破度、撕裂度等也得到提高.%Precipitated calcium carbonate was modified by homemade water-soluble cationic zircoaluminate coupling agents. The zata potential, the wettability, the viscidity, the surface area, the sedimentation height, the SEM image and the dispersion in water of precipitated calcium carbonate before and after modification were compared. The result indicates that the surface performance of precipitated calcium carbonate improve after modification. The modified precipitated calcium carbonate was used as filler in papermaking. The result indicates that the filler retention rate improves and the tensile strength, the burst strength and the tear strength of paper also improve too.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of melting and crystallization processes of polyethylene clusters confined in armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Jinjian; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guan, Wenwen; Yang, Yuchen

    2015-01-01

    The confined interaction is important to understand the melting and crystallization of polymers within single-wall carbon tube (SWNT). However, it is difficult for us to observe this interaction. In the current work, the structures and behaviors of melting and crystallization for polyethylene (PE) clusters confined in armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes ((n,n)-SWNTs) are investigated and examined based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The nonbonded energies, structures, Lindemman indices, radial density distributions, and diffusion coefficients are used to demonstrate the features of melting phase transition for PE clusters confined in (n,n)-SWNTs. The chain end-to-end distance (R(n)) and chain end-to-end distribution are used to examine the flexibility of the PE chain confined in SWNT. The global orientational order parameter (P2) is employed to reveal the order degree of whole PE polymer. The effect of polymerization degree on melting temperature and the influence of SWNT chirality on structure of PE cluster are examined and discussed. Results demonstrate that within the confined environment of SWNT, PE clusters adopt novel co-axial crystalline layer structure, in which parallel chains of each layer are approximately vertical to tube axis. The disordered-ordered transformation of PE chains in each layer is an important structural feature for crystallization of confined PE clusters. SWNTs have a considerable effect on the structures and stabilities of the confined PE clusters.

  16. Preparation of Needle-like Hydroxyapatite Single Crystal by Homogeneous Precipitation Method under Hydrothermal Condition%水热条件下针状羟基磷灰石单晶体的均相合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友法; 闫玉华; 梁飞; 张宏泉

    2001-01-01

    用水热法制备出结晶度高、纯净均一的针状羟基磷灰石单晶体。从X-射线衍射谱、红外吸收光谱、透射电镜分析等方面确认了所得晶体为羟基磷灰石单晶体。根据透射电子衍射谱测量计算出的晶面间距d值与羟基磷灰石卡片的d值非常接近,由标定的晶面指数计算出的晶面夹角与实际测量值有很好的吻合,从而确定所得晶体为单晶。%The needle-like hydroxyapatite single crystals with high crystallinity were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method under hydrothermal condition.The obtained specimens were identified by XRD,SEM,IR and TEM.The inter planar distance i.e.,d value calculated from the pattem of TEM,is greatly approached to that of HA’s JCPDS card,and the angle included between the faces of crystals calculated from the marked crystal plane index is coincided with the actual measuring value,thereby it is confirmed that the specimen is single crystal.

  17. Effect of epicuticular wax crystals on the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron carbon-based aerosols on needles of Cryptomeria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Fukahori, Mie; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Wuled Lenggoro, I; Izuta, Takeshi; Funada, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism of adsorption of particles suspended in the gas-phase (aerosol) to the outer surfaces of leaves provides useful information for understanding the mechanisms of the effect of aerosol particles on the growth and physiological functions of trees. In the present study, we examined the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica, a typical Japanese coniferous tree species, by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The clusters (aggregates) of carbon-based particles were deposited on the needle surface regions where epicuticular wax crystals were sparsely distributed. By contrast, no clusters of the particles were found on the needle surface regions with dense distribution of epicuticular wax crystals. Number of clusters of carbon-based particles per unit area showed statistically significant differences between regions with sparse epicuticular wax crystals and those with dense epicuticular wax crystals. These results suggest that epicuticular wax crystals affect distribution of carbon-based particles on needles. Therefore, densely distributed epicuticular wax crystals might prevent the deposition of sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica to retain the function of stomata.

  18. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE/CALCIUM CARBONATE COMPOSITES PREPARED BY MELT MIXING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ha-da Bao; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/calcium carbonate (CaCO3) composites are prepared by melt mixing using two types of CaCO3 of different sizes. The electrical resistivities of the composites with the two types of CaCO3 are all lower than those of the corresponding PP/MWCNT composites at various MWCNT loadings (1 wt%-5 wt%). The morphology of the composites is investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The crystallization behavior of PP in the composites is characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The storage modulus, as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), increases significantly by the presence of CaCO3.

  19. 阳离子苯乙烯-丙烯酸酯对沉淀碳酸钙表面改性的研究%Surface Structure and Application of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Modified with Cationic styrene/acrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚桐; 裴继诚

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of precipitated calcium carbonate with cationic styrene/acrylate was carried out. The surface structure and performance of modified precipitated calcium carbonate were characterized by DSC, FT-IR, Zeta potential, laser particle analyzer, sedimentation volume and contact angle and compared with unmodified precipitated calcium carbonate. According to the results of DSC and the spectra of FT-IR, the physical adsorption between surface modifiers and precipitated calcium carbonate took place. It was found that particle size of modified sample was smaller than unmodified one, sedimentation volume was larger and Zeta potential was higher. The results showed that the modified precipitated calcium carbonate is beneficial to improve physical properties, retention rate and hydrophobic ability of the paper when it is used as filler.%采用阳离子苯乙烯-丙烯酸酯乳液对沉淀碳酸钙进行改性,使用DSC、FT-IR、Zeta电位、激光粒度仪、沉降体积、接触角等对改性沉淀碳酸钙的表面结构及其性能进行表征,并与未改性沉淀碳酸钙进行对比分析.DSC和FT-IR分析表明,阳离子苯乙烯-丙烯酸酯乳液包覆在沉淀碳酸钙表面,影响其表面性质.研究结果说明,改性后沉淀碳酸钙的粒径变小、沉降体积增大、Zeta电位提高.以改性沉淀碳酸钙作为造纸填料,与添加未改性沉淀碳酸钙的相比,纸张的物理性能和憎水性能得到改善,纸张灰分含量提高.

  20. Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate from a homogeneous precursor solution in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was demonstrated by the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions (pH 10). In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol %) was used as the precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. Thermogravimetric analysis of the obtained xerogels showed that increasing the UV irradiation time increased the amount of CaCO3 formed and the complete conversion of calcium ions to calcite was achieved after 50 min of UV irradiation. Furthermore, solid phase analyses suggested that nanometer-to-micron-sized calcite crystals were formed and dispersed in the obtained PVAPS matrix.

  1. Horizontally-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays and their interactions with liquid crystal molecules: Physical characteristics and display applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Roussel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the physical characteristics of horizonthally-grown Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (h-al-SWNT arrays and their potential use as transparent and conducting alignment layer for liquid crystals display devices. Microscopy (SEM and AFM, spectroscopic (Raman and electrical investigations demonstrate the strong anisotropy of h-al-SWNT arrays. Optical measurements show that h-al-SWNTs are efficient alignment layers for Liquid Crystal (LC molecules allowing the fabrication of optical wave plates. Interactions between h-al-SWNT arrays and LC molecules are also investigated evidencing the weak azimuthal anchoring energy at the interface, which, in turn, leads to LC devices with a high pretilt angle. The electro-optical reponses of h-al-SWNT/LC cells demonstrate that h-al-SWNT arrays are efficient nanostructured electrodes with potential use for the combined replacement of Indium Tin Oxyde and polymeric alignment layers in conventional displays.

  2. Incorporation of Np(V) and U(VI) in Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals Crystallized from Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balboni, Enrica; Morrison, Jessica M.; Wang, Zheming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Burns, Peter C.

    2015-02-15

    The neptunyl Np(V)O2 + and uranyl U(VI)O2 2+ ions are soluble in groundwater, although their interaction with minerals in the subsurface may impact their mobility. One mechanism for the immobilization of actinyl ions in the subsurface is coprecipitation in low-temperature minerals that form naturally, or that are induced to form as part of a remediation strategy. Important differences in the crystal-chemical behavior of the Np(V) neptunyl and U(VI) uranyl ions suggest their behavior towards incorporation into growing crystals may differ significantly. Using a selection of low temperature minerals synthesized in aqueous systems under ambient conditions, this study examines the factors that impact the structural incorporation of the Np(V) neptunyl and U(VI) uranyl ions in carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  3. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  4. Study on Fixation of CO2 and Production of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Using Steel Slag%利用钢渣固结CO2制备沉淀碳酸钙的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蓓蓉; 杨全兵

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of fixation of CO2 and production of precipitated calcium carbonate by carbonating acetate solution of calcium extracted from steel slag was investigated. The composition of precipitate produced after carbonation was then analyzed with XRD and TG-DTA. The results show that calcium acetate must be converted into calcium hydroxide by adding sodium hydroxide into calcium acetate solution and then precipitated calcium carbonate can be produced by carbonating the solution. Acetate solution of calcium extracted from steel slag can be carbonated by adding enough sodium hydroxide but the purity of precipitated calcium carbonate produced is only about 60% and the conversion of calcium is only about 35. 00%. To improve the effect of carbonation and to produce precipitated calcium carbonate with a high purity, other ions dissolved in steel slag should be removed from acetate solution of calcium extracted from steel slag.%研究了基于醋酸提取钢渣中钙离子所获得的醋酸钙溶液碳化固结CO2并制备沉淀碳酸钙的可行性,借助于XRD,TG-DTA对碳化后生成的沉淀物进行了成分分析和综合热分析.结果表明:醋酸钙溶液需掺入氢氧化钠,将其中的醋酸钙转化成氢氧化钙,方可碳化生成沉淀碳酸钙;在由醋酸提取钢渣中钙离子所获得的醋酸钙溶液中掺入足量氢氧化钠,可使其中的钙离子碳化生成沉淀碳酸钙,但该碳酸钙的纯度(质量分数)仅为60%左右,钙离子转化率(质量分数)仅为35.00%左右,如果将该溶液进行分离处理,除去其中其他离子的干扰,则可高效碳化成高纯度沉淀碳酸钙.

  5. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MORPHOLOGY OF STAR-SHAPED POLYETHYLENOXYDE-b-POLYCAPROLACTONE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE CARBON DIOXIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Li; Jian Zhou; Jun Li; Qu-ting Gou; Qun Gu; Zong-bao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM),wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry are used to analyze the crystallization morphology and melting behavior of 4-arm PEO-b-PCL under high-pressure CO2.It is demonstrated that CO2 has certain effect on the melting and crystallization behavior of the samples.After crystallization under CO2 at 4 MPa,spherulites with concentric ring-banded structure are formed which are composed of crystals with periodic thickness variation,and the band distance decreases with increasing treatment pressure.Due to the plasticization effect of CO2,depression of the melting temperature is observed with sorption of CO2 in polymers.

  6. Electrical conductivity modeling of multiple carbon fillers in liquid crystal polymer composites for fuel cell bipolar plate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.L.; Keith, J.M.; King, J.A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    This study modelled the electrical conductivity of a single filler composite system using a general effective media (GEM) equation. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of synthetic graphite and carbon fiber in liquid crystal polymers for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The polymer consisted of 73 mole per cent hydroxybenzoic acid and 27 mole per cent hydroxynaphthoic acid. Composites of various concentrations of single and multiple filler combinations were tested. A volumetric in-plane electrical conductivity test was conducted on all samples in order to measure voltage drop. A through-plane conductivity test was conducted to measure resistivity. The GEM equation was then used to model the conductivity data obtained during the tests. Results of the study showed that at 45 vol per cent, the electrical conductivity of the multiple filler composite was comparable to data obtained from single filler electrical conductivities. The electrical conductivity of the multiple filler composite at 60 per cent graphite and 10 per cent carbon fiber was comparable to the single filler carbon fiber composite, but lower than the single filler synthetic graphite composite. Results also showed that the GEM equation provided excellent agreement with results obtained during the experiments. It was concluded that the percolation threshold of the multiple filler composite was almost identical to the single carbon fiber filler, but lower than the single synthetic graphite composite. 35 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Continuous and discontinuous precipitation in Fe-1 at.%Cr-1 at.%Mo alloy upon nitriding; crystal structure and composition of ternary nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Tobias; Ramudu Meka, Sai; Rheingans, Bastian; Bischoff, Ewald; Waldenmaier, Thomas; Yeli, Guma; Martin, Tomas L.; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Moody, Michael P.; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-05-01

    The internal nitriding response of a ternary Fe-1 at.%Cr-1 at.%Mo alloy, which serves as a model alloy for many CrMo-based steels, was investigated. The nitrides developing upon nitriding were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The developed nitrides were shown to be (metastable) ternary mixed nitrides, which exhibit complex morphological, compositional and structural transformations as a function of nitriding time. Analogous to nitrided binary Fe-Cr and Fe-Mo alloys, in ternary Fe-Cr-Mo alloys initially continuous precipitation of fine, coherent, cubic, NaCl-type nitride platelets, here with the composition (Cr½,Mo½)N¾, occurs, with the broad faces of the platelets parallel to the {1 0 0}α-Fe lattice planes. These nitrides undergo a discontinuous precipitation reaction upon prolonged nitriding leading to the development of lamellae of a novel, hexagonal CrMoN2 nitride along {1 1 0}α-Fe lattice planes, and of spherical cubic, NaCl-type (Cr,Mo)Nx nitride particles within the ferrite lamellae. The observed structural and compositional changes of the ternary nitrides have been attributed to the thermodynamic and kinetic constraints for the internal precipitation of (misfitting) nitrides in the ferrite matrix.

  8. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments

  9. Crystal Structure of PhnH: an Essential Component of Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams,M.; Luo, Y.; Hove-Jensen, B.; He, S.; van Staalduinen, L.; Zechel, D.; Jia, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphonates are reduced forms of phosphorous that are characterized by the presence of a stable carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bond, which resists chemical hydrolysis, thermal decomposition, and photolysis. The chemically inert nature of the C-P bond has raised environmental concerns as toxic phosphonates accumulate in a number of ecosystems. Carbon-phosphorous lyase (CP lyase) is a multienzyme pathway encoded by the phn operon in gram-negative bacteria. In Escherichia coli 14 cistrons comprise the operon (phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP) and collectively allow the internalization and degradation of phosphonates. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the PhnH component at 1.77 Angstroms resolution. The protein exhibits a novel fold, although local similarities with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent transferase family of proteins are apparent. PhnH forms a dimer in solution and in the crystal structure, the interface of which is implicated in creating a potential ligand binding pocket. Our studies further suggest that PhnH may be capable of binding negatively charged cyclic compounds through interaction with strictly conserved residues. Finally, we show that PhnH is essential for C-P bond cleavage in the CP lyase pathway.

  10. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO sub 3 : An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  11. Crystallization behavior and thermal stability of poly(butylene succinate)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends prepared by novel vane extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongyuan; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Haichen; Zhang, Guizhen; Qu, Jinping

    2016-03-01

    This work focused on the study of crystallization behavior and thermal stability of degradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends prepared by vane extruder based on elongation force field, which is novel equipment for polymer processing. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was applied in this work as compatibilizer for PBS/PPC blend. Crystallization behavior and melting behavior of the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) testing. Thermal stability of the blends was studied by thermogravimetric (TG) testing. Furthermore, the melt flow indices (MFI) of the blends were examined by a MFI instrument. The results showed that the crystallization temperature of PBS decreased with the addition of PPC and DCP. The glass transition temperature of PPC increased and the melting temperature of the blend increased with the addition of PPC and DCP, which indicated that the entanglement between the molecular chains of PBS and PPC was enhanced. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a two-step decomposition process of the blend occurred due to the different thermal resistance of PBS and PPC, and the addition of PBS reduced the decomposition rate of PPC. Moreover, the addition of PBS improved the melt flow property of PPC.

  12. Effects of Tx-100-SDS on crystal growth of calcium carbonate in reverse microemulsion solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yu; DU BiYing; LI LinGang; YANG Jun; ZHANG YuanMing

    2007-01-01

    Syntheses of CaCO3 crystals in reverse microemulsion solutions containing 1-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-4-hydroxypolyethoxybenzene (Tx-100), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their equimolar mixture were carried out at room temperature respectively. The crystal phase of CaCO3 is changed from calcite at low concentrations to vaterite at high concentrations of SDS and Tx-100. From rods at low concentration to olivary spheres at high concentration, SDS can influence the morphology of CaCO3 significantly, while almost no such effect for Tx-100. Hollow spheres, olivary spheres and even two fused olivary spheres of CaCO3 were produced at different concentrations of Tx-100-SDS, and the variation of crystal phase is opposite to that in the presence of SDS or Tx-100 alone. The effects of interaction of SDS with Tx-100 on morphology and crystal phase of CaCO3 were discussed. It was estimated to put forward that the formation of hollow CaCO3 crystals was caused by the collaborating actions of SDS template and TX-100 inhibition.

  13. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Xiaoyuan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kopacz, Adrian M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  14. Crystal structure of N-[(methyl­sulfan­yl)carbon­yl]urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mouhamadou Birame; Diop, Libasse; Oliver, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    The almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.055 Å) title compound, (MeS)C(O)NHC(O)NH2, was formed during an attempted crystallization of dimethyl cyano­carbonimidodi­thio­ate with CrO2Cl2; an unexpected redox reaction converted the cyano­carbonimido moiety to a urea group and removed one methyl­thiol group. In the crystal, hydrogen-bonding inter­actions from the amide and amido N—H groups to carbonyl O atoms of neighbouring mol­ecules result in [010] ribbon-like chains. PMID:27006798

  15. Lanthanide-activated Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} nanocrystals precipitated from a borosilicate glass: Phase-separation-controlled crystallization and optical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daqin, E-mail: dqchen@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Chen, Yan, E-mail: chenyan@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yu, Hua; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang, Ping, E-mail: phuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics were fabricated for the first time. • Such glass ceramics were achieved by phase-separation-controlled crystallization. • Elemental mapping evidenced the segregation of activators into the Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} lattice. • Luminescent color could be tuned by controlling glass crystallization temperature. - Abstract: Lanthanide-activated cubic Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} nanocrystals were precipitated from a borosilicate glass with a specifically designed composition. The precursor glass is already phase-separated after melt-quenching, which is beneficial to the realization of the controllable glass crystallization for affording desirable size, morphology and activator partition. Elemental mapping in the scanning transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the segregation of lanthanide ions into the Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} lattice was in situ formed without the requirement of long-range ionic diffusion. Impressively, such fabricated glass ceramic co-doped with Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions exhibited intense upconversion luminescence, which was about 500 times higher than that of the precursor glass, and its luminescent color could be easily tuned from red to green by controlling glass crystallization temperature. It is anticipated that such phase-separation synthesis strategy with precise control over nanostructure of glass ceramics offer a great opportunity to design other highly transparent nanocomposites with a wide range of tunable optical properties.

  16. Crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a flowing system: Influence of Cu2+ additives on induction time and crystalline phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmany, Y.; Putranto, W. A.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Muryanto, S.

    2016-04-01

    Scaling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is commonly found in piping systems in oil, gas, desalination and other chemical processes. The scale may create technical problems, leading to the reduction of heat transfer, increase of energy consumption and unscheduled equipment shutdown. This paper presents crystallization scaling experiments and evaluation of the effect of Cu2+ additives on the induction time and calcium carbonate transformation. The crystals precursors were prepared using equimolar of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 resulted in concentrations of 3000 ppm Ca2+ in the solution. The Cu2+ in amounts of 0, 1 and 10 ppm was separately added in the solution. The flow rates (20, 35, and 60 mL/min) and elevated temperatures (27, 35 and 45°C) were selected in the study. The induction time for crystallization of CaCO3 was observed by measuring the solution conductivity over time, while the phase transformation of calcium carbonate was examined by XRD method and SEM/EDX. It was found that the conductivity remained steady for a certain period reflecting to the induction time of crystal formation, and then decreased sharply afterwards,. The induction time was increased from 34 and 48 minutes in the presence of Cu additives (1 and 10 ppm), depending on the flow rates and temperature observed. In all the experiments, the Cu2+ addition leads to the reduction of mass of crystals. Apparently, the presence of Cu2+ could inhibit the CaCO3 crystallization. In the absence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals obtained were a mixture of vaterite and calcite. In the presence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals formed were aragonite and calcite. Here, the presence of Cu2+ additives might have controlled the crystal transformation of CaCO3.

  17. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua, E-mail: zhaojinhuazjh@gmail.com [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Wang, Xue-Lin [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-07-15

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  18. Experimental study of brushite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifuzzaman, S. M.; Rohani, S.

    2004-07-01

    A systematic approach was developed for the synthesis of orthophosphates in the laboratory. A set of experiments was designed to investigate the influence of initial calcium and phosphorus concentration on the precipitated phase, nucleation pH and product size distribution at 25°C. Another goal was to characterize the precipitated phase. The investigation was conducted in a batch reactor. The initial molar concentration of calcium chloride and hydrated sodium phosphate solutions was varied from 0.005 to 0.08-mole dm -3 and the solution pH was kept under 7.1. Analysis by powder XRD, FTIR and elemental P/Ca revealed that the crystals precipitated were pure brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate), as expected, except in one experiment in which amorphous calcium phosphate precipitated. The brushite crystals produced had plate-like morphology as investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nucleation pH showed a decreasing trend as the concentration of the calcium and phosphorus increased in the reactor, but the volume mean diameter of the crystals and the span of the crystal size distribution did not show any sensitivity to the changes in the initial calcium and phosphorus concentration.

  19. Surface characterization and orientation interaction between diamond- like carbon layer structure and dimeric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naradikian, H.; Petrov, M.; Katranchev, B.; Milenov, T.; Tinchev, S.

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous carbon films are very promising type of semiconductor materials. Depending on the hybridization sp2/sp3 ratio, the material’s band gap varies between 0.8 and 3 eV. Moreover carbon films possess different interesting for practice properties: comparable to the Silicon, Diamond like structure has 22-time better thermal conductivity etc. Here we present one type of implementation of such type nanostructure. That is one attempt for orientation of dimeric LC by using of pre-deposited DLC layer with different ratio of sp2/sp3 hybridized carbon content. It could be expected a pronounced π1-π2interaction between s and p orbital levels on the surface and the dimeric ring of LC. We present comparison of surface anchoring strengths of both orientation inter-surfaces DLC/dimeric LC and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)/dimeric LC. The mechanism of interaction of dimeric LC and activated surfaces with DLC or SWCNT will be discussed. In both cases we have π-π interaction, which in combination with hydrogen bonding, typical for the dimeric LCs, influence the LC alignment. The Raman spectroscopy data evidenced the presence of charge transfer between contacting hexagonal rings of DLC and the C = O groups of the LC molecules.

  20. The application of time-dependent ice crystal trajectory and growth model for the evaluation of cloud seeding experiment using liquid carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K.; Wakimizu, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.; Tomine, K.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the results of cloud seeding experiment conducted on 17th January, 2008, in western Kyushu, Japan, using simplified time-dependent ice crystal growth and trajectory cloud model, which is characterized by 1) depositional diffusion growth process only of an ice crystal, and 2) the pursuit of the growing ice crystal based on wind field and ice crystal terminal velocity. For the estimation of the ice crystal growth and trajectory, the model specifies ice supersaturation ratio that expresses the degree of competition growth among ice crystals formed by LC seeding for existing water vapor, assuming no effect of natural ice crystals. The model is based on ice crystal growth along a- and c-axes depending on air temperature and ice supersatuation, according to Chen and Lamb (1994). The cloud seeding experiment was conducted by applying homogeneous nucleation (rapid cooling of air mass and subsequent formation of many ice crystals~1013/g LC) of Liquid Carbon (LC) dioxide seeding under typical winter-type snowfall-inducing weather situation characterized by the outbreak of cold air masses from the Siberia. The result of aircraft horizontally-penetrating seeding of LC into lower layer (-2 degree C) of supercooled convective cloud with 1km thickness above the freezing level led to the formation of an artificially-induced 'isolated' radar echo (the left figures of Fig. 1) in dominant 'no-natural radar echo region'. In other words, natural biases were eliminated by the formation of the isolated radar echo. This fact provides the shortcut for evaluating the result of cloud seeding experiment. In the next, the observed cloud seeding results were evaluated by estimating the trajectory of artificially-induced growing ice crystal. The results show that the trajectory of artificial ice crystals depends on the degree of completion growth mode. Free growth brings rapid growth of an ice crystal and, therefore, the ice crystal falls into lower layers for a short time

  1. Crystallization of -type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically activated mixtures of barium carbonate and goethite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; M Aoyama; M Senna; T Masuko; C Ando; H Kishi; A Minjigmaa

    2006-10-01

    -type hexagonal ferrite precursor was prepared by a soft mechanochemical treatment of BaCO3 and -FeOOH mixtures. The effect of milling on its structure and thermal behaviour was examined by XRD, SEM and FTIR. Well crystallized -type hexagonal ferrite was formed from just 1 h milled precursors at 800°C. The beneficial effect of milling was explained in terms of increased homogeneity with simultaneous hetero bridging bond formation between powder constituents.

  2. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate with various morphologies in different amino acid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Yuan, Zong-Wei; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Yong-Mei

    2005-12-01

    In our experiments, four kinds of amino acids, such as L-Cystine ( L-Cys), L-Tyrosine ( L-Tyr), DL-Aspartic Acid ( DL-Asp), L-Lysine ( L-Lys) and the mixed systems of L-Tyr (or L-Lys)/Mg 2+, were used as effective modifiers to mediate the crystallization of CaCO 3. The obtained crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). As the results have shown, calcite was formed in L-Cys system while both calcite and spherical vaterite with various morphologies were produced in the presence of L-Tyr, DL-Asp, and L-Lys whose ability to induce the formation of vaterite was enhanced in turn. It indicated that amino acids played an important role in the process of crystal growth of CaCO 3, the addition of Mg 2+ was helpful for the formation of aragonite. The possible formation mechanism of CaCO 3 produced in different amino acid aqueous solutions was discussed in the end.

  3. On the crystal structure of Cr2N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. II. Order-disorder transition of Cr2N during electron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Joon; Takaki, Setsuo

    2006-04-01

    The crystal structure and order-disorder transition of Cr2N were investigated utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the analyses of selected-area diffraction (SAD) patterns, the crystal structure of the ordered Cr2N superstructure was confirmed to be trigonal (P31m), characterized by three sets of superlattice reflections (001), ((11/33)0) and ((11/33)1). During electron irradiation, the superlattice reflections gradually disappeared in the regular sequence (001), ((11/33)0) and ((11/33)1), indicating that the order-disorder phase transition of Cr2N occurred. The convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) observation revealed that the space group of disordered Cr2N is P6(3)/mmc, which corresponds to an h.c.p. (hexagonal close packed) sublattice of metal atoms with a random distribution of N atoms in six octahedral interstices. The redistribution model of N atoms through the order-disorder transition is discussed based on the characteristics and disappearing sequence of superlattice reflections.

  4. Remarkable crystallization morphologies of poly(4-vinylpyridine on single-walled carbon nanotubes in CO2-expanded liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Wei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(4-vinylpyridine (P4VP is a widely studied polymer for applications in catalysis, humidity sensitive and antimicrobial materials due to its pyridine group exhibiting coordinative reactivity with transition metals. In this work, the non-covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with P4VP in CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs is reported. It is found that P4VP stabilized SWCNTs show good dispersion in both organic solvent and aqueous solution (pH = 2. The ability to manipulate the dispersion state of CNTs in water with P4VP will likely benefit many biological applications, such as drug delivery and optical sensors. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of P4VP/SWCNTs composite are examined, with the focus on molecular weight of P4VP (MW-P4VP, the pressure of CXLs and the concentration of P4VP. It is amazing that the P4VP15470 wrapping patterns undergo a notable morphological evolution from dotlike crystals to bottle brush-like, then to compact kebab-like, and then to widely-spaced dotted kebab patterns by facile pressure tuning in the higher polymer concentration series. In other words, the CXLs method enables superior control of the P4VP crystallization patterns on SWCNTs. Meanwhile, the CXL-assisted P4VP crystal growth mechanism on SWCNT is investigated, and the dominating growth mechanism is attributed to ‘size dependent soft epitaxy’ in P4VP15470/SWCNTs composites. We believe these studies would r

  5. Aragonite precipitation by "proto-polyps" in coral cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Mass

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of coral calcification at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels are poorly understood. In this study, we examine calcium carbonate precipitation using novel coral tissue cultures that aggregate to form "proto-polyps". Our goal is to establish an experimental system in which calcification is facilitated at the cellular level, while simultaneously allowing in vitro manipulations of the calcifying fluid. This novel coral culturing technique enables us to study the mechanisms of biomineralization and their implications for geochemical proxies. Viable cell cultures of the hermatypic, zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata, have been maintained for 6 to 8 weeks. Using an enriched seawater medium with aragonite saturation state similar to open ocean surface waters (Ω(arag~4, the primary cell cultures assemble into "proto-polyps" which form an extracellular organic matrix (ECM and precipitate aragonite crystals. These extracellular aragonite crystals, about 10 µm in length, are formed on the external face of the proto-polyps and are identified by their distinctive elongated crystallography and X-ray diffraction pattern. The precipitation of aragonite is independent of photosynthesis by the zooxanthellae, and does not occur in control experiments lacking coral cells or when the coral cells are poisoned with sodium azide. Our results demonstrate that proto-polyps, aggregated from primary coral tissue culture, function (from a biomineralization perspective similarly to whole corals. This approach provides a novel tool for investigating the biophysical mechanism of calcification in these organisms.

  6. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate on the cellulose acetate/pyrrolidon blend films in the presence of L-aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuzhen; Xie, Anjian; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2014-03-01

    The morphogenesis and growth process of calcium carbonate on the cellulose acetate/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (CA/PVP) blend films in the presence of L-aspartic acid was carefully investigated. The results showed that the concentration of L-aspartic acid, the initial pH value of reaction solution and temperature turned out to be important factors for the control of morphologies and polymorphs of calcium carbonate. Complex morphologies of CaCO3 particles, such as cubes, rose-like spheres, twinborn-spheres, cone-like, bouquet-like, etc. could be obtained under the different experimental conditions. The dynamic process of formation of rose-like sphere crystals was analyzed by monitoring the continuous morphological and structural evolution and components of crystals in different crystal stages. This research may provide a promising method to prepare other inorganic materials with complex morphologies.

  7. Encodable multiple-fluorescence CdTe@carbon nanoparticles from nanocrystal/colloidal crystal guest-host ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Wang, Cai-Feng; Mao, Li-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Zi-Yi; Chen, Su

    2013-04-05

    We report herein the controllable generation of encodable multi-fluorescence CdTe@carbon nanoparticles (CdTe@C NPs) via the pyrolysis of quantum dot/photonic crystal (QD/PC) guest-host ensembles. The precursors of CdTe/poly(styrene-co-glycidylmethacrylate) (PS-co-PGMA) QD/PC guest-host ensembles were initially formed via the assembly of epoxy groups of PCs and carboxyl groups on the surface of CdTe QDs, followed by a pyrolysis process to generate CdTe@C NPs. The as-prepared CdTe@C NPs not only integrate the optical properties for both the carbon and CdTe QD constituents, but also enable an impressive enhancement of the fluorescence lifetime for CdTe QDs. The multifarious fluorescent spectra coding for CdTe@C NPs was further generated through regulating the embedded sizes or concentrations of CdTe QDs and the excitation wavelength, and their applications in DNA detection and luminescent patterns were achieved.

  8. Observations on the Apparent Solubility of Carbonate-Apatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellis; Lee; Wilson

    1999-10-15

    Previousreports indicating that the apparent solubilities of carbonate-apatites are low appear to conflict with findings that carbonate incorporation into the apatite structure tends to reduce stability. Carbonate-apatites were prepared by a precipitation method and by hydrolysis of monetite and brushite. Apparent solubility profiles were determined by measuring dissolution after exposure for 24 h to acetate buffers with known saturations with respect to hydroxyapatite. All preparations showed a range of apparent solubilities, in agreement with previous work. Precipitated samples had higher apparent solubilities than samples prepared by hydrolysis and this was correlated with differences in crystallinity. Further experiments showed that pyrophosphate ion reduced the apparent solubility, but it was concluded that pyrophosphate occurring naturally in synthetic apatites would be insufficient to cause low apparent solubilities. Microscopical observations showed that precipitated carbonate-apatites were composed of small crystals of uniform size, whereas carbonate-apatites prepared by hydrolysis consisted of both small crystals and very large crystals. The low apparent solubilities observed in the latter preparations are attributed to the large crystals. The surface phenomena possibly involved in apparent solubility behavior are discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Crystal structure and kinetic studies of a tetrameric type II β-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraroni, Marta; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) and a proton. CAs have been extensively investigated owing to their involvement in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Currently, CA inhibitors are widely used as antiglaucoma, anticancer and anti-obesity drugs and for the treatment of neurological disorders. Recently, the potential use of CA inhibitors to fight infections caused by protozoa, fungi and bacteria has emerged as a new research direction. In this article, the cloning and kinetic characterization of the β-CA from Vibrio cholerae (VchCAβ) are reported. The X-ray crystal structure of this new enzyme was solved at 1.9 Å resolution from a crystal that was perfectly merohedrally twinned, revealing a tetrameric type II β-CA with a closed active site in which the zinc is tetrahedrally coordinated to Cys42, Asp44, His98 and Cys101. The substrate bicarbonate was found bound in a noncatalytic binding pocket close to the zinc ion, as reported for a few other β-CAs, such as those from Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. At pH 8.3, the enzyme showed a significant catalytic activity for the physiological reaction of the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, with the following kinetic parameters: a kcat of 3.34 × 10(5) s(-1) and a kcat/Km of 4.1 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The new enzyme, on the other hand, was poorly inhibited by acetazolamide (Ki of 4.5 µM). As this bacterial pathogen encodes at least three CAs, an α-CA, a β-CA and a γ-CA, these enzymes probably play an important role in the life cycle and pathogenicity of Vibrio, and it cannot be excluded that interference with their activity may be exploited therapeutically to obtain antibiotics with a different mechanism of action.

  10. Precipitation of fluticasone propionate microparticles using supercritical antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vatanara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The ability of supercritical fluids (SCFs, such as carbon dioxide, to dissolve and expand or extract organic solvents and as result lower their solvation power, makes it possible the use of SCFs for the precipitation of solids from organic solutions. The process could be the injection of a solution of the substrate in an organic solvent into a vessel which is swept by a supercritical fluid. The aim of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of supercritical processing to prepare different particulate forms of fluticasone propionate (FP, and to evaluate the influence of different liquid solvents and precipitation temperatures on the morphology, size and crystal habit of particles. Method: The solution of FP in organic solvents, was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 at two pressure and temperature levels. Effects of process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of harvested microparticles were evaluated. Results: Particle formation was observed only at the lower selected pressure, whilst at the higher pressure, no precipitation of particles was occurred due to dissolution of FP in supercritical antisolvent. The micrographs of the produced particles showed different morphologies for FP obtained from different conditions. The results of thermal analysis of the resulted particles showed that changes in the processing conditions didn't influence thermal behavior of the precipitated particles. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the size distribution of particles showed that increase in the temperature from 40 oC to 50 oC, resulted in reduction of the mean particle size from about 30 µm to about 12 μm. ‍Conclusion: From the results of this study it may be concluded that, processing of FP by supercritical antisolvent could be an approach for production of diverse forms of the drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the

  11. Laser-assisted one-pot fabrication of calcium phosphate-based submicrospheres with internally crystallized magnetite nanoparticles through chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Maki; Oyane, Ayako; Sakamaki, Ikuko; Ishikawa, Yoshie; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Kawaguchi, Kenji

    2015-04-14

    In this paper, we have further developed our simple (one-pot) and rapid (short irradiation time) laser fabrication process of submicrometer spheres composed of amorphous calcium iron phosphate. In our previous process, laser irradiation was applied to a calcium phosphate (CaP) reaction mixture supplemented with ferric ions (Fe(3+)) as a light-absorbing agent. Because the intention of the present study was to fabricate magnetite-encapsulated CaP-based submicrometer spheres, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) were used as a light-absorbing agent rather than ferric ions. The ferrous ions served as a light-absorbing agent and facilitated the fabrication of submicrometer and micrometer spheres of amorphous calcium iron phosphate. The sphere formation and growth were better promoted by the use of ferrous ions as compared with the use of ferric ions. The chemical composition of the spheres was controllable through adjustment of the experimental conditions. By the addition of sodium hydroxide to the CaP reaction mixture supplemented with ferrous ions, fabrication of CaP-based magnetic submicrometer spheres was successfully achieved. Numerous magnetite and wüstite nanoparticles were coprecipitated or segregated into the CaP-based spherical amorphous matrix via light-material interaction during the CaP precipitation process. The magnetic properties of the magnetite and wüstite formed in the CaP-based spheres were investigated by magnetization measurements. The present process and the resulting CaP-based spheres are expected to have great potential for biomedical applications.

  12. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  13. Preparation of Nano-hexagonal Plate Mg-Al Water Talc Crystal Through Co-precipitation%纳米六角片状镁铝水滑石晶体的共沉淀法制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利花; 梁小平

    2012-01-01

    以共沉淀法制备镁铝水滑石,主要研究了原料物质的量浓度和反应温度等参数对纳米晶的影响.采用透射电镜(TEM)、X线衍射(XRD)仪等对纳米晶进行表征.结果表明采用共沉淀法可制备出纯相六角片状结构的纳米镁铝水滑石晶体.制备工艺条件为NaOH物质的量浓度大于0.625mol/L、反应温度90℃、Na2CO3物质的量浓度为0.09mol/L时镁铝水滑石产率可达到最大值95%.%The study is set on the preparation of magnesium aluminates water talc with co-precipitation method, focusing on the influence of raw material concentration and reaction temperature parameters on nanocrystalline. The methods of scanning electron microscope (TEM), X-ray Diffract(XRD) meter and other methods were used to characterize Nanocrystalline. The results show that pure phase structure of the nana magnesium hex flake aluminum water talc crystals can be prepared with the use of co-precipitation. The best preparation conditions are: NaOH concentration over 0. 625 mol/L, reaction temperature 90 ℃ , Na2CO3 concentration of 0.09 mol/L. The yield of magnesium aluminates water talc will reach a maximumof 95%.

  14. Crystal structure of polymeric carbon nitride and the determination of its process-temperature-induced modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyborski, T.; Merschjann, C.; Orthmann, S.; Yang, F.; Lux-Steiner, M.-Ch; Schedel-Niedrig, Th

    2013-10-01

    Based on the arrangement of two-dimensional ‘melon’, we construct a unit cell for polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) synthesized via thermal polycondensation, whose theoretical diffraction powder pattern includes all major features measured in x-ray diffraction. With the help of this unit cell, we describe the process-temperature-induced crystallographic changes in PCN that occur within a temperature interval between 510 and 610 °C. We also discuss further potential modifications of the unit cell for PCN. It is found that both triazine- and heptazine-based g-C3N4 can only account for minor phases within the investigated synthesis products.

  15. Interactive effects of belowground organic matter input, increased precipitation and clipping on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a temperate steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Ma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM inputs, increased precipitation and clipping (reducing belowground photosynthates allocation are predicted to affect soil C and N cycling in temperate grassland ecosystems. However, the interactive effects between SOM inputs (or increased precipitation and clipping on soil C and N mineralization in temperate steppes are still poorly understood. A field manipulation experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of SOM inputs, increased precipitation, clipping and their interactions on soil C and N mineralization in a temperate steppe of northeastern China from 2010 to 2011. The results showed that SOM inputs significantly increased soil C mineralization rate (CMR and net N mineralization rate (NMR. Increased precipitation-induced enhancement of soil CMR essentially ceased after the first year, stimulation of soil NMR and NNR continued into the second year. However, clipping only marginally decreased soil CMR and NMR during the two years. There were significant synergistic interactions between SOM inputs (or increased precipitation and clipping on soil CMR and NMR, as SOM inputs (or increased precipitation showed greater effects on soil CMR and NMR under clipped plots than under unclipped plots, which could be explained by the relative shifts in soil microbial community structure because of bacterial biomass increases, and by the relative decreases in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass due to the reduction of belowground photosynthates allocation. These results highlight the importance of plants in mediating the responses of soil C and N mineralization to potentially increased SOM and precipitation by controlling belowground photosynthates allocation in the temperate steppe. Thus, the findings have important implications for improving prediction of C and N sequestration potential and its feedbacks to climate change in temperate steppe ecosystems.

  16. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO{sub 3}: An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  17. Calcium carbonate precipitation by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from biofilms formed on deteriorated ignimbrite stones: influence of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation by these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Angélica; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José David; Mercedes Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic CaCO3-precipitating bacteria were isolated from biofilms on deteriorated ignimbrites, siliceous acidic rocks, from Morelia Cathedral (Mexico) and identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus (22e), Bacillus sp. (32a) and Bacillus subtilis (52g). In solid medium, 22e and 32a precipitated calcite and vaterite while 52g produced calcite. Urease activity was detected in these isolates and CaCO3 precipitation increased in the presence of urea in the liquid medium. In the presence of calcium, EPS production decreased in 22e and 32a and increased in 52g. Under laboratory conditions, ignimbrite colonization by these isolates only occurred in the presence of calcium and no CaCO3 was precipitated. Calcium may therefore be important for biofilm formation on stones. The importance of the type of stone, here a siliceous stone, on biological colonization is emphasized. This calcium effect has not been reported on calcareous materials. The importance of the effect of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation is discussed in relation to other applications of CaCO3 precipitation by bacteria.

  18. Ca(Ti,Si)O3 Diamond Inclusions Crystallized From Carbonate Melts in the Transition Zone: Experimental Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, L. S.; Walter, M. J.; Keshav, S.; Bulanova, G.; Pickles, J.; Lord, O. T.; Lennie, A.

    2007-12-01

    Composite diamond inclusions consisting of coexisting endmember CaSiO3 and CaTiO3 are rare but occur in diamond populations from Juina, Brazil1-2. Phase relations show that above ~9 GPa (at 1500 K) a perovskite-structured solid solution exists between these endmembers, while at lower pressures intermediate compositions produce coexisting CaTiO3-perovskite and CaSiO3 in the walstromite structure3. Inclusions with `perovskite' stoichiometry are commonly interpreted as fragments of solid mantle from the transition zone or lower mantle4-6. Here we report on two composite diamond inclusions from Juina kimberlite, and can effectively eliminate a subsolidus origin on the basis of experimental mineral phase relations. Instead, based on new melting experiments we find that the inclusions most likely crystallized directly from Ca-rich carbonate melts. Like other workers1-2 we interpret the composite inclusions as exsolution products of a high-pressure Ca(Ti,Si)O3 perovskite stable in the transition zone. Our bulk inclusion compositions are estimated to contain 50- 65 mol% CaTiO3, and are remarkably low in MgSiO3 component at less than 0.2 mol%. Experiments have shown that in peridotite or eclogite lithologies, Ca-rich perovskite in equilibrium with an MgSiO3-phase (majorite or Mg-perovskite) have about 3 to 7 mol% MgSiO37-8. Here we report on new subsolidus laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at 20-50 GPa in the ternary system CaSiO3-CaTiO3-MgSiO3 that bracket the CaTi-rich limb of the solvus between Ca- and Mg-rich perovskites. All experiments were made at 2000 (±200) K for 45-75 min, and were analysed using synchrotron micro-focus X-ray diffraction. We find that the solubility of MgSiO3 in CaTi-perovskite solid solutions increases significantly with increasing CaTiO3 component. Thus, Ti-rich calcium perovskite in peridotite or eclogite lithologies should have very high, not exceptionally low, MgSiO3 component. Accordingly, a subsolidus paragenesis is unlikely for

  19. Preparation of spherical cobalt carbonate powder with high tap density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; WANG Jian-feng; LIU Yong-dong; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Spherical cobalt carbonate with high tap density, good crystallization and uniform particle size was prepared by controlled chemical crystal method using cobalt chloride and ammonium bicarbonate as cobalt source and precipitator. The effects of pH value and reaction time on crystallization and physical properties of cobalt carbonate were studied. The results show that the key factors influencing the preparation process of spherical cobalt carbonate with high tap density and good crystallization are how to control pH value (7.25 ± 0.05) and keep some reaction time (about 10 h). Co4O3 was prepared by sintering spherical morphology CoCO3 samples at varied temperatures. The results show that as the decomposition temperature increases, the as-obtained Co4O3 products with porous structure transform into polyhedral structure with glazed surface, and simultaneously the cobalt content and tap density increase. However, the specific surface area shows a trend of decrease.

  20. Two-dimensional polyaniline (C3N) from carbonized organic single crystals in solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Dongwook; Li, Feng; Lah, Myoung Soo; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Oh, Joon Hak; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-07-05

    The formation of 2D polyaniline (PANI) has attracted considerable interest due to its expected electronic and optoelectronic properties. Although PANI was discovered over 150 y ago, obtaining an atomically well-defined 2D PANI framework has been a longstanding challenge. Here, we describe the synthesis of 2D PANI via the direct pyrolysis of hexaaminobenzene trihydrochloride single crystals in solid state. The 2D PANI consists of three phenyl rings sharing six nitrogen atoms, and its structural unit has the empirical formula of C3N. The topological and electronic structures of the 2D PANI were revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with a first-principle density functional theory calculation. The electronic properties of pristine 2D PANI films (undoped) showed ambipolar behaviors with a Dirac point of -37 V and an average conductivity of 0.72 S/cm. After doping with hydrochloric acid, the conductivity jumped to 1.41 × 10(3) S/cm, which is the highest value for doped PANI reported to date. Although the structure of 2D PANI is analogous to graphene, it contains uniformly distributed nitrogen atoms for multifunctionality; hence, we anticipate that 2D PANI has strong potential, from wet chemistry to device applications, beyond linear PANI and other 2D materials.

  1. Crystal structure of 4-(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)phenyl-boronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keith J; Senge, Mathias O

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C8H9BO4, the meth-oxy-carbonyl group is rotated out of the plane of the benzene ring by 7.70 (6)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving the boronic acid OH groups, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving a boronic acid OH group and the carbonyl O atom, forming undulating sheets parallel to (10-2). Within the sheets there are also C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present, also involving the carbonyl O atom. The sheets are linked via C-H⋯π and offset face-to-face π-inter-actions between inversion-related mol-ecules [inter-centroid distance = 3.7843 (16) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3427 (4) Å and offset = 1.744 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  2. 碳酸盐沉淀法分离硫酸盐溶液中的锰与钙和镁%Separation of manganese from calcium and magnesium in sulfate solutions via carbonate precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清泉; 顾帼华; 王晖; 王重庆; 刘有才; 朱仁锋; 符剑刚

    2016-01-01

    The separation of manganese from sulfate solutions containing 14.59 g/L Mn2+, 1.89 g/L Mg2+ and 1.54 g/L Ca2+ was preformed successfully by carbonate precipitation. The results of thermodynamic analysis and tests indicate that carbonate precipitation holds better selectivity for manganese over magnesium than hydroxide precipitation and the feeding method is the most critical factor for minimizing the co-precipitation of calcium and magnesium. Furthermore, with adding MnSO4 solution to NH4HCO3 solution, the effects of the initial NH4HCO3 concentration, NH4HCO3 amount, solution pH value, reaction temperature and time on carbonate precipitation were evaluated and the optimum precipitation conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, the precipitation rates of Mn2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are 99.75%, 5.62% and 1.43%, respectively. Moreover, the prepared manganese carbonate was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results demonstrate that the product can be indexed to the rhombohedral structure of MnCO3.%以含14.59 g/L Mn2+、1.89 g/L Mg2+和1.54 g/L Ca2+的硫酸盐溶液为原料,利用碳酸盐沉淀法实现了锰与钙和镁的有效分离。热力学分析与实验结果表明,碳酸盐沉淀体系中锰对镁的选择性明显优于水解沉淀体系,而且加料方式是减少钙、镁共沉淀的主要因素。因而以硫酸锰加入碳酸氢铵的方式,研究碳酸氢铵初始浓度和用量、溶液 pH 值、反应温度及时间对沉淀过程的影响,并得到最优沉淀条件。结果表明:最优条件下锰、钙和镁离子的沉淀率分别为99.75%、5.62%和1.43%。另外,制得的产品经 X 射线衍射和能谱扫描电镜分析,结果表明该产品为菱形碳酸锰。

  3. Detailed crystallization study of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.47} Gd{sub 1.53} Fe{sub 5} O{sub 12} and relevant magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Rogerio Arving [Instituto de Criminalistica Carlos Eboli (ICCE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Ogasawara, Angelica Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ogasawat@metalmat.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization process of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} powder heated up to 1000 deg C at rate of 5 deg C min{sup -1} was investigated. Above 810 deg C crystalline Y{sub 1.47}Gd{sub 1.53}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was obtained with a lattice parameter of 12.41 A and a theoretical density of 5.84 g cm{sup -3}. Dry pressed rings were sintered at 1270 and 1320 deg C, increasing the grain-size from 3.1 to 6.5 {mu}m, the theoretical density by 87.6 to 95.3% and decreasing H{sub c} from 2.9725 to 1.4005 Oe. Additionally, Hc increased when the frequency of the hysteresis graph varied from 60 Hz to 10 kHz, the curie temperature was 282.4 deg C and Ms equalled 9.25 emu g{sup -1} (0.17 kG) agreeing well with the B{sub s}-value of the hysteresis graph and literature values. (author)

  4. Effect of inorganic additives on the growth of silica-carbonate biomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakouzi, Elias; Rendina, Ryan; Palui, Goutam; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Silica-barium carbonate biomorphs are complex precipitate microstructures that form by purely inorganic processes. They display life-like morphologies with smoothly curved surfaces that are not restricted to crystallographic symmetries. We investigate the morphogenetic influence of inorganic dopants that compete with the barium carbonate precipitation. Trace deposition of alkaline earth or transition metal additives causes significant changes to the crystal morphologies. In the case of Pb2+ and Ag+ ions, biomorph growth is disrupted by the formation of competing precipitates. Similarly, the addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ induces the rapid crystallization of witherite or amorphous silica-carbonate aggregates at enhanced growth rates. By comparison, the addition of strontium ions results in the assembly of classic biomorphs such as cardioid sheets and helices. The procedures reported here exemplify the use of co-depositing agents to influence the compositional and crystallographic properties in a manner similar to magnesium-doped biogenic calcites.

  5. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  6. Hybrid nanoparticle architecture for cellular uptake and bioimaging: direct crystallization of a polymer immobilized with magnetic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depan, D; Misra, R D K

    2012-10-21

    We describe here the success of an innovative approach of direct immobilization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The approach involved functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles and consequent covalent linkage to a copolymer (PE-b-PEG). Next, the immobilized magnetic nanoparticles on the copolymer were directly crystallized on the long axis of CNTs, where the interfacial adhesion comes from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction. The intracellular trafficking of a hybrid nanoparticle system [(PE-b-PEG)-MNP-CNT-FITC] in HeLa cells was monitored using a fluorescent marker, FITC, conjugated to the nanoparticle system. The distribution of the nanoparticle system inside cells was studied by fluorescence microscopy in a time and dose dependent manner, and it was observed that the nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and no apparent cell death was observed at the concentration studied. Also, the effect of an externally applied magnetic field on actin cytoskeleton, cell morphology and intracellular uptake of iron was studied. The approach described here is promising for simultaneous imaging and monitoring intracellular uptake.

  7. Effects of carbon nanotubes on liquid crystal order parameter and Freedericksz transition in electro-optic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Gombos, Erin; McIntyre, Michael; Mattera, Michael; Gati, Peter; Cabrera, Yaniel; Cebe, Peggy

    2010-03-01

    We studied the effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) at low concentrations (0.01 wt %) on the Freedericksz transition of a 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbipenyl (5CB) liquid crystal using transmission ellipsometry. In addition, we calibrated the altitudinal angle of CNTs as a function of the electric field and directed the azimuthal angle which gave us complete control of the 3D orientation of the CNTs. Our results show that in the presence of CNTs the voltage and width for the Freedericksz transition are reduced by a factor of 1.8 as compared to the control electro-optic cell without CNTs. The shift in transition voltage correlates with increase in order parameter of the electro-optic cell as measured by our polarized UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy results. Research supported by: Assumption College Faculty Development Grant, funding for students' stipends, instrumentation and supplies, the NSF Polymers Program of the DME, grant (DMR-0602473) and NASA grant (NAG8-1167).

  8. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt single crystal electrodes: understanding the catalysis for low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gonzalo; Koper, Marc T M

    2011-08-01

    Herein the general concepts of fuel cells are discussed, with special attention to low temperature fuel cells working in alkaline media. Alkaline low temperature fuel cells could well be one of the energy sources in the next future. This technology has the potential to provide power to portable devices, transportation and stationary sectors. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic problems at the anode of low temperature fuel cells, a fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of carbon monoxide as well as water dissociation on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline medium is discussed and compared with those in acidic media. Furthermore, cations involved as promoters for catalytic surface reactions are also considered. Therefore, the aim of the present work is not only to provide the new fundamental advances in the electrocatalysis field, but also to understand the reactions occurring at fuel cell catalysts, which may help to improve the fabrication of novel electrodes in order to enhance the performance and to decrease the cost of low temperature fuel cells.

  9. 不锈钢304和316表面CaCO3析晶污垢生长特性%Precipitation Characteristics of Crystallization Fouling on Stainless Steel 304 and 316 Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛健; 张华; 赵萍; 史雪菲

    2013-01-01

      不锈钢304和316是冷却塔、板式热交换器等换热设备的常用材料,为研究CaCO3析晶污垢在不锈钢304和316表面的生长特性,在35℃下1.0mmol/L的CaCO3溶液中,通过静态反应,采用称重法获得不同浸入时间的结垢重量,并采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)获得不同浸入时间污垢的微观形貌.结果表明:相同条件下不锈钢304比316更易结垢;pH升高不仅促进新晶核形成而且促进四方形文石和方解石的形成,并且四方形文石逐步重结晶形成热力学最稳定晶型(方解石);pH升高使本体溶液中均相成核率和金属表面异相成核率均增加,且均相成核率增加更多,因此在高过饱和度下,pH较高时表面结垢量反比pH较低时少;污垢在材料表面能较高区域先生长再向四周扩散,通过数量增多和单个晶体不断长大并互相连接最终形成覆盖表面的污垢层.%Stainless steel 304 and 316 are widely used in heat exchangers, and get the precipitation characteristic of CaCO3 is the first step to research anti-fouling technology. CaCO3 precipitated on stainless steel 304 and 316 coupons from 1.0mmol/l CaCO3 solution at 35℃. By weighing the coupon before and after experiment and using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the amount of fouling and the morphology can be obtained. The results show that at the same conditions there are more fouling on stainless steel 304 than 316; high pH not only makes more new crystal nucleation but also promotes square aragonite and calcite, and recrystallization of square aragonite into calcite, the most thermodynamically steady crystal type; high pH makes both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation rate increasing, but the former increases more, which results in more fouling at low pH under high supersaturation degree;fouling first grows at the place with high surface energy and then extend to more place, and when the number increases and crystal grows to connect each other

  10. Optimization of struvite precipitation in synthetic biologically treated swine wastewater--determination of the optimal process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, Aurélie; Sýkorová, Eva; Biscans, Béatrice; Béline, Fabrice; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2013-01-15

    A sustainable way to recover phosphorus (P) in swine wastewater involves a preliminary step of P dissolution followed by the separation of particulate organic matter. The next two steps are firstly the precipitation of struvite crystals done by adding a crystallization reagent (magnesia) and secondly the filtration of the crystals. A design of experiments with five process parameters was set up to optimize the size of the struvite crystals in a synthetic swine wastewater. More than 90% of P was recovered as large crystals of struvite in optimal conditions which were: low Mg:Ca ratio (2.25:1), the leading parameter, high N:P ratio (3:1), moderate stirring rate (between 45 and 90 rpm) and low temperature (below 20 °C).These results were obtained despite the presence of a large amount of calcium and using a cheap reactant (MgO). The composition of the precipitates was identified by Raman analysis and solid dissolution. Results showed that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) co-precipitated with struvite and that carbonates were incorporated with solid fractions.

  11. 单晶高温合金DD6再结晶晶界析出相特征及其形成机制%CHARACTERISTIC AND FORMATION MECHANISM OF PRECIPITATES AT RECRYSTALLIZATION GRAIN BOUNDARIES OF SINGLE CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY DD6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊继春; 李嘉荣; 赵金乾; 刘世忠; 董建新

    2009-01-01

    Single crystal superalloys have extremely good elevated temperature capability in advanced gas turbine aero engines due to no highly stressed grain boundaries in them. With the removal of grain boundary strengthening elements such as C, B and Zr, the occurrence of recrystallization may be detrimental to their performance. Therefore, recrystallization becomes critical in industrial manufacture of single crystal superalloy blades. In the present study, specimens of single crystal superalloy DD6 were grit blasted, solution treated and aged at vacuum atmosphere, and then the precipitates at recrystallization grain boundaries were investigated by SEM, TEM, EPMA and Thermo-Calc. The results show that a few of M_6C carbides precipitate at recrystallization grain boundaries, and their size is about 0.5 μm. These M_6C carbides are rich in W, Re and Mo, but poor in Al, Ta, Ni, the contents of Cr, Nb, Co in them are almost the same as the nominal composition of DD6 alloy. The carbon accumulation at recrystallization boundaries and combination with μ phase forming elements such as W and Mo restrain the μ phase forming. M_(23)C_6 phase hardly forms in DD6 alloy due to its high W and low Cr content.%对单晶高温合金DD6进行表面吹砂处理,然后进行固溶与时效真空热处理,采用SEM,TEM,EPMA和Thermo-Calc的方法研究了单晶合金DD6再结晶晶界析出相的特征及其形成机制.结果表明,经过吹砂处理的DD6合金在固溶与时效热处理过程中发生再结晶.再结晶晶界出现析出相,分析表明析出相为M6C碳化物,该碳化物呈粒状析出,尺寸约为0.5 μm,数量极少,富含W,Re和Mo,且Cr,Nb和Co的含量与合金名义成分差别不大,而Al,Ta和Ni含量较低.由于再结晶晶界上C元素的聚集效应,C原子在晶界上达到一定浓度后即与一定数量的W,Mo等μ相形成元素发生相变反应,抑制了合金析出μ相的倾向.又因为DD6合金W含量较高,而Cr含量较低,抑制了M_(23)C_6

  12. 二氧化碳驱油藏沥青质沉淀量测量装置的实验研究%Experimental Study on Measuring Asphaltene Precipitation Volume in Carbon Dioxide Flooding Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杰; 何岩峰; 李栋; 王红梅; 李华明; 李森林

    2011-01-01

    设计了一套二氧化碳驱油藏沥青质沉淀量测量装置,该装置采用全密闭流程,借助计算机实现控制并做数据采集,对产出的气体进行同步气相色谱分析.使用该装置对某油田的二氧化碳驱进行实验分析,最终得出了地层温度、驱替压力对二氧化碳驱沥青质沉淀的影响关系.%A device boasting of a fully-enclosed process, and computer control and data acquisition was designed to measure asphaltene precipitation volume in carbon dioxide flooding reservoir and analyze the gas with gas chromatography. The designed device can withstand high pressures and temperatures and acid. The experimental analysis shows that this device helps obtain effects of both ground temperature and displacement pressure on the asphaltene precipitation in carbon dioxide flooding reservoir.

  13. 一种单晶高温合金中γ'相的析出行为%The Precipitation of γ'-phase in a Single Crystal Superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭

    2011-01-01

    研究了固溶冷却速度和时效时间对一种镍基单晶高温合金中γ'相的析出的影响.合金经1250℃固溶处理4 h.从炉中快速取出,分别进行空冷、油冷和水冷,以考察冷却速度对γ'相析出的影响.随后对固溶处理后试样进行时效处理,以考察时效时问和固溶冷却速度对γ'相长大的影响.结果表明,合金在固溶处理后,γ'相尺寸随固溶冷却速率的升高而下降.在时效处理时,γ'相尺寸的增大率随固溶冷却速度的增大而减小;随着时效时间的增加,γ'相的尺寸增加.%The effects of cooling rate and aging time on the precipitation of ,γ'-phase in a single crystal superalloy were studied. The superalloy was cooled in air, oil and water after solution heat treatment at 1 250 ℃ for 4hours ,respectively, to study the effect of cooling rate on the precipitation of γ'-phase. The solution treated samples were aging treated at 850 ℃ for 24 hours to study the effects of cooling rate and aging time on the growth of γ'-phase. The experiment results show that the size of γ'-phase decreases with the increase of cooling rate during the process of cooling. During the aging process, the size enhancement coefficient of γ'-phase increases as cooling rate decreases, and the size of γ'-phase increases with the increase of aging time.

  14. Morphology of calcite crystals in clast coatings from four soils in the Mojave desert region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Oliver A.; Sowers, Janet M.; Amundson, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Pedogenic calcite-crystal coatings on clasts were examined in four soils along an altitudinal gradient on Kyle Canyon alluvium in southern Nevada. Clast coatings were studied rather than matrix carbonate to avoid the effects of soil matrix on crystallization. Six crystal sizes and shapes were recognized and distinguished. Equant micrite was the dominant crystal form with similar abundance at all elevations. The distributions of five categories of spar and microspar appear to be influenced by altitudinally induced changes in effective moisture. In the drier, lower elevation soils, crystals were equant or parallel prismatic with irregular, interlocking boundaries while in the more moist, higher elevation soils they were randomly oriented, euhedral, prismatic, and fibrous. There was little support for the supposition that Mg(+2) substitution or increased (Mg + Ca)/HCO3 ratios in the precipitating solution produced crystal elongation.

  15. NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER CONTAINING A HIGH WEIGHT FRACTION OF GRAPHENE NANOSHEETS AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Pang; Gan-ji Zhong; Jia-zhuang Xu; Ding-xiang Yan; Xu Ji; Zhong-ming Li; Chen Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the different geometrical dimensionality of two dimensional graphene nanosheets (2D GNSs) and one dimensional carbon nanotubes (1D CNTs) on the non-isothermal crystallization of an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer at high loading (5 wt%) was studied.Transmission electron microscopy indicated a homogeneous dispersion of GNSs and CNTs in EVA obtained by a solution dispersion process.Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that 1D CNTs and 2D GNSs acted as effective nucleating agents,with a noticeably increased onset crystallization temperature of EVA.A high weight fraction of nano-fillers slowed the overall crystallization rate of composites.At the same crystallization temperature,the crystallization behavior of GNS/EVA composites was slowed compared to that of the CNT/EVA ones owing to larger nucleus barrier and activation energy of diffusion.Dynamic mechanical relaxation and rheology behavior of CNT/EVA and GNS/EVA composites demonstrated that the planar structure of the GNSs had an intensively negative effect on EVA chain mobility due to interactions between nanofillers and polymer chains,as well as spatial restriction.

  16. Complete mapping of crystallization pathways during cholesterol precipitation from model bile: influence of physical-chemical variables of pathophysiologic relevance and identification of a stable liquid crystalline state in cold, dilute and hydrophilic bile salt-containing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Q; Carey, M C

    1996-03-01

    Using complementary physical-chemical techniques we defined five different crystallization pathways as functions of time (30 days) and increasing lecithin (egg yolk) content in pathophysiologically relevant model biles super-saturated (cholesterol saturation indices, 1.2 - 2.7) by dilution of approximately equal to 29 g/dl bile salt-lecithin-cholesterol micellar solutions. As evidenced by quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, supersaturation was heralded by the appearance of unilamellar vesicles. With the lowest lecithin contents, arc-like crystals with habit and density (d 1.030 g/mL) consistent with anhydrous cholesterol appeared first and evolved via helical and tubular crystals to form plate-like cholesterol monohydrate crystals (d 1.045 g/mL). With higher lecithin fractions, cholesterol monohydrate crystals appeared earlier than arc and other transitional crystals. With typical physiological lecithin contents, early liquid crystals (d 1.020 g/mL) were followed by cholesterol monohydrate crystals and subsequent appearances of arc and other intermediate crystals. With higher lecithin contents, liquid crystals were followed by cholesterol monohydrate crystals only, and at the highest lecithin mole fractions, liquid crystals appeared that did not generate solid crystals. Added calcium increased solid crystal number in proportion to its concentration (5 - 20 mM) but did not influence appearance times, crystallization pathways, or micellar cholesterol solubilities. Decreases in temperature (37 degrees --> 4 degrees C), total lipid concentration (7.3 --> 2.4 g/dL), and bile salt hydrophobicity (3 alpha, 12 alpha --> 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha --> 3 alpha, 7 beta hydroxylated taurine conjugates) progressively shifted all crystallization pathways to lower lecithin contents, retarded crystallization, and decreased micellar cholesterol solubilities. The lecithin content of mother biles decreased markedly during crystallization especially where liquid crystals were

  17. Interactions of salicylic acid derivatives with calcite crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainczyk, Marko; Gredičak, Matija; Jerić, Ivanka; Kralj, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of basic interactions between the active pharmaceutical compounds and calcium carbonates is of great importance because of the possibility to use the carbonates as a mineral carrier in drug delivery systems. In this study the mode and extent of interactions of salicylic acid and its amino acid derivates, chosen as pharmaceutically relevant model compounds, with calcite crystals are described. Therefore, the crystal growth kinetics of well defined rhombohedral calcite seed crystals in the systems containing salicylic acid (SA), 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA), N-salicyloil-l-aspartic acid (N-Sal-Asp) or N-salicyloil-l-glutamic acid (N-Sal-Glu), were investigated. The precipitation systems were of relatively low initial supersaturation and of apparently neutral pH. The data on the crystal growth rate reductions in the presence of the applied salicylate molecules were analyzed by means of Cabrera & Vermileya's, and Kubota & Mullin's models of interactions of the dissolved additives and crystal surfaces. The crystal growth kinetic experiments were additionally supported with the appropriate electrokinetic, spectroscopic and adsorption measurements. The Langmuir adsorption constants were determined and they were found to be in a good correlation with values obtained from crystal growth kinetic analyses. The results indicated that salicylate molecules preferentially adsorb along the steps on the growing calcite surfaces. The values of average spacing between the adjacent salicylate adsorption active sites and the average distance between the neighboring adsorbed salicylate molecules were also estimated.

  18. 低碳钛、钒微合金钢中的相间析出%Interphase precipitation in low carbon Ti-V microalloyed steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾涛; 魏娇; 冯洁; 张维娜; 刘振宇; 王国栋

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the Ti-V microalloying system which draws less attention. By using the Formaster-FII dilatometer,the sample was held at austenite/ferrite dual-phase temperature region and the Ti-V complex interphase precipitates were obtained during the austenite to ferrite transformation. Optical Microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the microstructure , especially the morphology of the interphase precipitate and its crystallographic orientation relationship with ferrite matrix. Studies show that 650℃is the nose temperature for static isothermal transforma-tion. The interphase precipitates exhibit sheet-like distribution,including flat and curved sheets and adopt Baker-Nutting orientation relationships with the ferrite matrix.%针对目前较少关注的Ti-V微合金体系,在Formaster-FII膨胀仪上进行奥氏体/铁素体两相区等温,在铁素体相变同时获得Ti、V复合相间析出。采用金相、透射电子显微镜对显微组织、尤其是相间析出形貌、及其与铁素体基体的位向关系进行了观察与分析。研究表明,650℃为静态等温相变的鼻温点,相间析出呈层状分布,具有平面和曲面两种形貌,相间析出碳化物与铁素体基体之间存在Baker-Nutting取向关系。

  19. Multi-Phase Reactions and Crystal Types of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate%多相反应与沉淀CaCO3的晶型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方卫民

    2001-01-01

    讨论了在多相反应系统中反应温度、CO2浓度和搅拌速度等对沉淀CaCO3晶型和粒径的影响.测定了反应过程中碳化率和电导率的相关变化.实验表明,在30℃以下可获得立方体CaCO3沉淀,在30℃以上可获得纺锤型CaCO3沉淀.

  20. Preparing WC-Co Composite Powder by Co-precipitation and Direct Carbonized In-situ Synthesized Method%共沉淀-直接碳化原位合成WC-Co复合粉的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉香; 文小强; 周健; 袁德林; 郭春平

    2016-01-01

    Using ammonium metatungstate, cobalt nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, and carbon black as the raw materials, the WC-Co composite powder was produced by co-precipitation and direct carbonized in-situ synthesized method. The synthesis process of precursor and effects of reduction carbonization process parameters on phase of product were studied. The powder morphology, phase compositions of WC-Co composite powder were characterized by SEM, XRD, and the reduction carbonization process was studied. The results show that each precursor powder has some larger particles, which make up by lots of minute particles, and the diameter is about 500 nm. Precursor powders are carbonized completely at 1000℃, then prepared composite powder has WC and Co phases, which have good dispersion and uniform distribution.%以偏钨酸铵、硝酸钴、氨水、炭黑为原材料,采用共沉淀-直接碳化原位合成法制备了WC-Co复合粉.研究了前驱体的制备过程,考察了还原碳化工艺参数对所得产物物相的影响.利用SEM、XRD分析方法对粉末样品的微观形貌和物相组成进行了表征,并对还原碳化过程进行了探讨.结果表明:采用共沉淀法制备的前驱体粉末为许多小颗粒团聚而成的大颗粒,小颗粒均匀细小,粒径在500 nm左右,前驱体粉末经1000℃还原碳化可以得到物相纯净的WC-Co复合粉,WC-Co复合粉分散性好,粒度分布均匀.

  1. PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONOUS PEROXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.

    1961-08-15

    A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

  2. A High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Psychrohalophilic α–Carbonic Anhydrase from Photobacterium profundum Reveals a Unique Dimer Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somalinga, Vijayakumar; Buhrman, Greg; Arun, Ashikha; Rose, Robert B.; Grunden, Amy M. (NCSU)

    2016-12-09

    Bacterial α–carbonic anhydrases (α-CA) are zinc containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. We report the first crystal structure of a pyschrohalophilic α–CA from a deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified P. profundum α–CA (PprCA) reveals that the protein is a heterogeneous mix of monomers and dimers. Furthermore, an “in-gel” carbonic anhydrase activity assay, also known as protonography, revealed two distinct bands corresponding to monomeric and dimeric forms of PprCA that are catalytically active. The crystal structure of PprCA was determined in its native form and reveals a highly conserved “knot-topology” that is characteristic of α–CA’s. Similar to other bacterial α–CA’s, PprCA also crystallized as a dimer. Furthermore, dimer interface analysis revealed the presence of a chloride ion (Cl-) in the interface which is unique to PprCA and has not been observed in any other α–CA’s characterized so far. Molecular dynamics simulation and chloride ion occupancy analysis shows 100% occupancy for the Cl- ion in the dimer interface. Zinc coordinating triple histidine residues, substrate binding hydrophobic patch residues, and the hydrophilic proton wire residues are highly conserved in PprCA and are identical to other well-studied α–CA’s.

  3. Precipitation behavior and effect of new precipitated β phase in AZ80 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; HAN En-hou; XU Yong-bo; LIU Lu

    2006-01-01

    Granular precipitate that was a new kind of β-Mg17Al12 phase found in aged AZ80 wrought Mg alloy at all aging temperature was studied. The structure and precipitation behavior of this granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitate were studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the granular precipitate on mechanical properties of AZ80 alloy was also studied. The new precipitate that was granular and nucleated both on grain boundaries (GBs) and twin boundaries, has the same crystal structure and lattice parameter as those of the continuous or discontinuous precipitated β-Mg17Al12. And the nucleation and growth of the granular precipitate are faster than those of the other two precipitates at higher temperatures (above 583 K), but are suppressed at lower temperatures (below 423 K). At lower temperatures, the discontinuous β-Mg17Al12 precipitates firstly and the granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitates after aged more than 40 h. The crack is easily nucleated on the phase boundaries of granular phase and matrix because of the weak binding force. As a result, the strength and ductility of AZ80 Mg alloy are decreased by the granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitate.

  4. Preparation on ultrafine basic zinc carbonate by hydrolysis-precipitation process%水解沉淀法制备超细碱式碳酸锌的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林进; 陈利梅; 陈川辉; 叶旭初

    2013-01-01

    以碳酸氢铵和氨水浸出锌灰,然后经除杂净化得到高纯锌氨溶液,以高纯锌氨溶液为原料,采用加热水解沉淀法合成超细碱式碳酸锌,碱式碳酸锌经煅烧得到超细氧化锌.研究了加热水解沉淀工艺条件对碱式碳酸锌的粒径分布的影响.结果表明,最佳工艺条件为:搅拌速度为300 r/min、蒸氨温度为90℃、锌氨溶液中锌质量浓度为75 g/L、负压为-2 kPa.最佳工艺条件下得到的碱式碳酸锌的D50为0.77 μm,颗粒近似球形;煅烧后的氧化锌为六方晶系纤锌矿结构,D50为0.69 μm.%Using ammonium bicarbonate and ammonia for leaching zinc ash, and after purification the high-purity zinc-ammonia solution was prepared.Ultrafine basic zinc carbonate was synthesized hy hydrolysis-precipitation process with high-purity zinc-ammonia solution as raw material.Finally, ultrafine ZnO could be obtained through calcination of basic zinc carbon-ate.Influences of heated hydrolysis-precipitation process conditions on the particle size distribution of basic zinc carbonate were investigated.Results showed that under the optimal conditions of mixing speed 300 r/min, reaction temperature 90℃ , mass concentration of Zn 75 g/L, and underpressure -2 kPa, the basic zinc carbonate was in the shape of sphere-like with an average size (D50) of 0.77 μm.The particle size(D50) of ZnO after calcination was 0.69 μm with hexagonal wurtzite structure.

  5. Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Analysis of the Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Potential of Huangpu River Water%黄浦江水碳酸钙沉淀势的计算与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高乃云; 黄鑫; 蔡云龙; 梅红; 丁国际

    2011-01-01

    使用phreeqc软件计算黄浦江水的碳酸钙沉淀势(Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Potential,CCPP),首次分析了地表水CCPP的理论计算值与实验值的差异原因,并作黄浦江水pH与CCPP的统计关联分析.结果表明:免费开源的 phreeqc程序计算CCPP的精度同商业软件不相上下.CCPP计算值与实验值存在较大差距,主要原因在于计算时水质参数偏少.统计分析表明,黄浦江水的pH与CCPP值有一定关联,控制计算CCPP值为6~10mg/L时,实际水体CCPP值约为0~4 mg/L,基本满足水质稳定要求.%Phreeqc was used to calculate the calcium carbonate precipitation potential(CCPP) of Huang-pu river water. The possible reasons for the differential between calculated and experimental CCPP were firstly analyzed. Furthermore a statistical analysis was made to study the correlation between pH and CCPP of the raw waters. The results show phreeqc, a free open-source program, has similar high level of calculation accuracy with other commercial software. The difference of CCPP values between experimental and theoretical calculation are considerable, which is mainly due to the lack of water indexes. With a statistical analysis, the correlation between pH and CCPP of Huangpu river water was found. The chemical stability of raw water could be achieved by adjusting the calculated CCPP to be 0~4 mg/L CaCO3 and the experimental CCPP to be 0~4 mg/L CaCO3.

  6. Electron spin relaxation governed by Raman processes both for Cu²⁺ ions and carbonate radicals in KHCO₃ crystals: EPR and electron spin echo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K; Goslar, Janina; Lijewski, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    EPR studies of Cu²⁺ and two free radicals formed by γ-radiation were performed for KHCO₃ single crystal at room temperature. From the rotational EPR results we concluded that Cu²⁺ is chelated by two carbonate molecules in a square planar configuration with spin-Hamiltonian parameters g(||)=2.2349 and A(||)=18.2 mT. Free radicals were identified as neutral HOCO· with unpaired electron localized on the carbon atom and a radical anion CO₃·⁻ with unpaired electron localized on two oxygen atoms. The hyperfine splitting of the EPR lines by an interaction with a single hydrogen atom of HOCO· was observed with isotropic coupling constants a₀=0.31 mT. Two differently oriented radical sites were identified in the crystal unit cell. Electron spin-lattice relaxation measured by electron spin echo methods shows that both Cu²⁺ and free radicals relax via two-phonon Raman processes with almost the same relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate 1/T₁ is well described with the effective Debye temperature Θ(D)=175 K obtained from a fit to the Debye-type phonon spectrum. We calculated a more realistic Debye temperature value from available elastic constant values of the crystal as Θ(D)=246 K. This Θ(D)-value and the Debye phonon spectrum approximation give a much worse fit to the experimental results. Possible contributions from a local mode or an optical mode are considered and it is suggested that the real phonon spectrum should be used for the relaxation data interpretation. It is unusual that free radicals in KHCO₃ relax similarly to the well localized Cu²⁺ ions, which suggests a small destruction of the host crystal lattice by the ionizing irradiation allowing well coupling between radical and lattice dynamics.

  7. Electron spin relaxation governed by Raman processes both for Cu2+ ions and carbonate radicals in KHCO3 crystals: EPR and electron spin echo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K.; Goslar, Janina; Lijewski, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    EPR studies of Cu2+ and two free radicals formed by γ-radiation were performed for KHCO3 single crystal at room temperature. From the rotational EPR results we concluded that Cu2+ is chelated by two carbonate molecules in a square planar configuration with spin-Hamiltonian parameters g|| = 2.2349 and A|| = 18.2 mT. Free radicals were identified as neutral HOCOrad with unpaired electron localized on the carbon atom and a radical anion CO3·- with unpaired electron localized on two oxygen atoms. The hyperfine splitting of the EPR lines by an interaction with a single hydrogen atom of HOCOrad was observed with isotropic coupling constants ao = 0.31 mT. Two differently oriented radical sites were identified in the crystal unit cell. Electron spin-lattice relaxation measured by electron spin echo methods shows that both Cu2+ and free radicals relax via two-phonon Raman processes with almost the same relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate 1/T1 is well described with the effective Debye temperature ΘD = 175 K obtained from a fit to the Debye-type phonon spectrum. We calculated a more realistic Debye temperature value from available elastic constant values of the crystal as ΘD = 246 K. This ΘD-value and the Debye phonon spectrum approximation give a much worse fit to the experimental results. Possible contributions from a local mode or an optical mode are considered and it is suggested that the real phonon spectrum should be used for the relaxation data interpretation. It is unusual that free radicals in KHCO3 relax similarly to the well localized Cu2+ ions, which suggests a small destruction of the host crystal lattice by the ionizing irradiation allowing well coupling between radical and lattice dynamics.

  8. 铁碳微电解+混凝法预处理高盐染料废水的研究%Treatment of High-salt Dye Wastewater by Iron-carbon Microelectrolysis+Coagulative Precipitation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马正慧; 何义亮; 冯丽梅; 杨军

    2011-01-01

    对高盐染料废水先采用铁碳微电解法进行处理,出水再经过加石灰混凝进行处理.确定了最佳处理条件:微电解反应时间为5h,pH为3,铁碳质量比为1:2,微电解出水加石灰调节pH值至9左右后混凝沉淀3h.试验结果表明:系统对COD、色度的去除率分别为40.09%和60.1%,废水的可生化性提高到0.32,达到了预处理的效果.%The iron-carbon micro-electrolysis-lime coagulation combined process is used to treat the high-salt dye wastewater. The influence of reaction time, pH, and the volume ratio of iron to carbon is studied. The best treastment conditions are determined. The results show that when the electrolysis reaction time is 5 h, the pH is 3, the volume ratio of iron to carbon in the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis unit is 1: 2, the effluent pH of the micro-electrolysis unit is alkalized to about 9 by lime, and coagulative precipitation is 3 h,then the wastewater COD and color removal rate can reach 40. 09% and 60. 1 %, respectively. The biodegrad-ability of wastewater increases to 0. 32,reaching the pretreatment effect.

  9. Water softening by induced crystallization in fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuefang; Fan, Rong; An, Danfeng; Cheng, Yujie; Tan, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Fluidized bed and induced crystallization technology were combined to design a new type of induced crystallization fluidized bed reactor. The added particulate matter served as crystal nucleus to induce crystallization so that the insoluble material, which was in a saturated state, could precipitate on its surface. In this study, by filling the fluidized bed with quartz sand and by adjusting water pH, precipitation of calcium carbonate was induced on the surface of quartz sand, and the removal of water hardness was achieved. With a reactor influent flow of 60L/hr, a fixed-bed height of 0.5m, pH value of 9.5, quartz sand nuclear diameter of 0.2-0.4mm, and a reflux ratio of 60%, the effluent concentration of calcium hardness was reduced to 60mg/L and 86.6% removal efficiency was achieved. The resulting effluent reached the quality standard set for circulating cooling water. Majority of the material on the surface of quartz sand was calculated to be calcium carbonate based on energy spectrum analysis and moisture content was around 15.994%. With the low moisture content, dewatering treatment is no longer required and this results to cost savings on total water treatment process.

  10. Dependence on injection temperature and on aquifer's petrophysical properties of the local stress applying on the pore wall of a crystallized pore in the context of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselin, Florian; Fen-Chong, Teddy; Fabbri, Antonin; Lassin, Arnault; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Dangla, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    The development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) currently faces numerous problems and particularly the precipitation of salts induced by the drying of the porous medium during injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers. This precipitation has several consequences, and particularly the creation of a crystallization pressure which can have an important mechanical impact on the host rock. Literature on crystallization pressure is one century rich of experimental and theoretical works. However, applications have been performed in the field of civil engineering and building science only, and, despite they are of paramount importance in the context of CCS, studies about this phenomenon in deep reservoir conditions are currently lacking. In this paper, we retrieve the classic crystallization pressure equation within the framework of geochemistry and present its explicit form of dependence with temperature, pressure, and composition. Evaluation of the crystallization pressure has then been proceeded considering the injection conditions and a sketch of in-pore crystallization process. The evolution of the local stress transmitted to a crystallized pore wall is found to be strongly related to the petrophysical properties of the medium and to the injection temperature of the carbon dioxide under the assumption of constant salt concentration during the precipitation process. Values differ strongly with the considered mineral, depending particularly on the solubility, and can reach in some conditions 165 MPa, making crystallization pressure a major factor in the mechanical behavior of the aquifer.

  11. Struvite Precipitation and Biological Dissolutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezquerro, Ander

    2010-01-01

    Struvite is a salt that is formed out of  Mg2+,NH4+ and PO43- and it crystallizes in form of MgNH4PO4.6H2O. Struvite‟s (magnesium ammonium phosphate or MAP) precipitation has recently been regarded as an interesting technique to remove phosphate and ammonium from waste water. The high elimination rates and the possibility of recycling the struvite as a direct slow release fertilizer make this process feasible and appealing. However, the costs due to the raw chemicals needed are drawbacks that...

  12. Fundamental features of copper ion precipitation using sulfide as a precipitant in a wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Dong-Su; Lim, Joong-Yeon

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the precipitation features of copper ion using sulfide as a precipitant by varying the mole ratio of sulfide to copper ion, pH, temperature and the kind and concentration of complexing agent. In the precipitation of copper ion by sulfide, sludge is produced as cupric sulfide; thus, there is a possibility for its recycled use in photochemical and ceramic processes. When the ratio of the concentration of copper ion to sulfide was increased to more than 1.0, the extent of precipitation was very high. As the ratio was increased, nucleation time was decreased and crystal growth rate was raised. The higher the pH, the greater the amount of precipitated copper ion due to lowered solubility of cupric sulfide. When temperature changed from 25 degrees C to 55 degrees C, the precipitation of copper ion was increased a little. On the basis of estimated thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy and enthalpy, the precipitation reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. The precipitation of copper ion was lowered in the presence of complexing agent and it was affected by the stability of the copper complex. The feasibility test for the application of precipitation treatment to actual wastewater containing copper ion showed, although there was a little decrease in the removal of copper, the precipitation extent of copper was higher than 90% compared with that for artificial wastewater.

  13. Influence of non-covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the crystallization behaviour of binary blends of polypropylene and polyamide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Nabaneeta; Panwar, Ajay S; Kumar, Gulshan; Samajdar, I; Bhattacharyya, Arup R

    2015-02-14

    Blends of polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA6) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared using different processing strategies in a twin-screw micro-compounder. The effect of MWNTs on the crystallization behaviour of the PP phase and the PA6 phase of the blend has been investigated through non-isothermal crystallization studies by differential scanning calorimetric analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of the compatibilizer (PP-g-MA) and the modification of MWNTs (m-MWNTs) with a non-covalent organic modifier (Li-salt of 6 amino hexanoic acid, Li-AHA) has also been studied in context to the crystallization behaviour of the PP and PA6 phase in the blend. The crystallization studies have indicated a significant increase in bulk crystallization temperature of the PP phase in the blend in the presence of MWNTs. Moreover, the formation of 'trans-lamellar crystalline' structure consisting of PA6 'trans-crystalline lamellae' on MWNTs surface was facilitated in the case of blends prepared via 'protocol 2' as compared to the corresponding blends prepared via 'protocol 1'. Wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis has showed the existence of a β-polymorph of the PP phase due to incorporation of the PA6 phase in the blend. Addition of MWNTs in the blends has facilitated further β-crystalline structure formation of the PP phase. In the presence of m-MWNTs, a higher β-fraction was observed in the PP phase as compared to the blend with pristine MWNTs. Addition of PP-g-MA has suppressed the β-phase formation in the PP phase in the blend. X-ray bulk texture analysis revealed that incorporation of PA6 as well as pristine/modified MWNTs has influenced the extent of orientation of the PP chains towards specific crystalline planes in various blend compositions of PP and PA6.

  14. Modelled Precipitation Over Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the annual total precipitation from 1985 to 1999 and monthly total precipitation from January 1985 to December 1999. The data is derived from...

  15. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.

  16. Specific Surface versus Electrochemically Active Area of the Carbon/Polypyrrole Capacitor: Correlation of Ion Dynamics Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with BET Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Heike L K S; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Höppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Ignaszak, Anna

    2016-05-10

    Carbon/polypyrrole (PPy) composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage applications such as lightweight capacitors. Although these materials are composed of relatively inexpensive components, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the correlation between surface, porosity, ion exchange dynamics, and the interplay of the double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. In this work we evaluate the specific surface area analyzed by the BET method and the area accessible for ions using electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) for SWCNT/PPy and carbon black Vulcan XC72-R/PPy composites. The study revealed that the polymer has significant influence on the pore size of the composites. Although the BET surface is low for the polypyrrole, the electrode mass change and thus the electrochemical area are large for the polymer-containing electrodes. This indicates that multiple redox active centers in the charged polymer chain are good ion scavengers. Also, for the composite electrodes, the effective charge storage occurs at the polypyrrole-carbon junctions, which are easy to design/multiply by a proper carbon-to-polymer weight ratio. The specific BET surface and electrochemically accessible surface area are both important parameters in calculation of the electrode capacitance. SWCNTs/PPy showed the highest capacitances normalized to the BET and electrochemical surface as compared to the polymer-carbon black. TEM imaging revealed very homogeneous distribution of the nanosized polymer particles onto the CNTs, which facilitates the synergistic effect of the double layer capacitance (CNTs) and pseudocapacitance (polymer). The trend in the electrode mass change in correlation with the capacitance suggest additional effects such as a solvent co-insertion into the polymer and the contribution of the charge associated with the redox activity of oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface.

  17. On the electric double-layer structure at carbon electrode/organic electrolyte solution interface analyzed by ac impedance and electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Tae; Egashira, Minato; Yoshimoto, Nobuko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1, Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan); Morita, Masayuki, E-mail: morita@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1, Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {center_dot} We monitored resonance frequency change of smooth surface carbon electrode to determine mass changes during electrochemical polarization.{center_dot} This was done from viewpoints of ensuring the electric double-layer structure in organic electrolytes.{center_dot} Clear difference was observed in the mass changes among the electrolyte composition.{center_dot} It were related with differences in the double-layer capacitance at carbon. - Abstract: ac impedance and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques have been applied to analyze the structure of electric double-layer formed at carbon/organic electrolyte solution interface using a sputtered carbon electrode. The mass changes caused by electrochemical adsorption (accumulation) of ions have been estimated in the solutions of propylene carbonate (PC) dissolving tetrafluoroborate (BF{sub 4}{sup -}) salts of lithium (Li{sup +}), tetraethylammonium (TEA{sup +}) and tetra-n-butylammonium (TBA{sup +}) cations. The observed mass changes during the cathodic polarization in the solutions containing TEA{sup +} and TBA{sup +} were well consistent with those expected by the calculation based on mono-layer adsorption of the cations with giving the consideration to the surface roughness. On the other hand, the mass change observed in the solution containing Li{sup +} salt showed that the solvation of Li{sup +} with three or four molecules of PC would be the charge compensation species at the interface. Comparison of the quantity of the electricity passed during the EQCM measurements with that from theoretical calculation with simple Helmholtz-layer model revealed that the major part of the double-layer capacitance would be based on the electrostatic polarization of the solvent molecule directly adsorbed at the carbon surface.

  18. Melting, growth, and faceting of lead precipitates in aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gråbæk, L.; Bohr, J.; Andersen, H.H.;

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum single crystals cut in the <111> direction were implanted with 2 x 10(20) m-2 Pb+ ions at 75 or 150 keV. The implanted insoluble lead precipitated as epitaxially oriented crystallites in the aluminum matrix. The precipitates were studied by x-ray diffraction at Riso, DESY, and Brookhaven......} planes and truncated at the corners by {100} facets....

  19. LaI2@(18,3)SWNT: the unprecedented structure of a LaI2 "Crystal," encapsulated within a single-walled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Steffi; Kirkland, Angus I; Meyer, Rüdiger R; Sloan, Jeremy; Green, Malcolm L H

    2005-10-01

    The novel crystallization properties of nano-materials represent a great challenge to researchers across all disciplines of materials science. Simple binary solids can be found to adopt unprecedented structures, when confined into nanometer-sized cavities, such as the inner cylindrical bore of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Lanthanum iodide was encapsulated within SWNTs and the resulting encapsulation composite was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging techniques, to reveal a one-dimensional crystal fragment, with the stoichiometry of LaI2, crystallizing in the structure of LaI3 with one third of the iodine positions unoccupied. A complete characterization of the encapsulation composite was achieved using an enhanced image restoration technique, which restores the object wave from a focal series of HRTEM images, providing information about the precise structural data of both filling material and host SWNT, and thereby enabling the identification of the SWNT chirality.

  20. Investigating the early stages of mineral precipitation by potentiometric titration and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Cölfen, Helmut; Gebauer, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of crystallization for various areas of research, our understanding of the early stages of the mineral precipitation from solution and of the actual mechanism of nucleation is still rather limited. Indeed, detailed insights into the processes underlying nucleation may enable a systematic development of novel strategies for controlling mineralization, which is highly relevant for fields ranging from materials chemistry to medicine. In this work, we describe experimental aspects of a quantitative assay, which relies on pH titrations combined with in situ metal ion potentiometry and conductivity measurements. The assay has originally been designed to study the crystallization of calcium carbonate, one of the most abundant biominerals. However, the developed procedures can also be readily applied to any compound containing cations for which ion-selective electrodes are available. Besides the possibility to quantitatively assess ion association prior to nucleation and to directly determine thermodynamic solubility products of precipitated phases, the main advantage of the crystallization assay is the unambiguous identification of the different stages of precipitation (i.e., prenucleation, nucleation, and early postnucleation) and the characterization of the multiple effects of additives. Furthermore, the experiments permit targeted access to distinct precursor species and intermediate stages, which thus can be analyzed by additional methods such as cryo-electron microscopy or analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Regarding ion association in solution, AUC detects entities significantly larger than simple ion pairs, so-called prenucleation clusters. Sedimentation coefficient values and distributions obtained for the calcium carbonate system are discussed in light of recent insights into the structural nature of prenucleation clusters.

  1. Gas-Liquid Precipitation of Water Dissolved Heavy Metal Ions Using Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Tarazi, Mousa

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation of solids promoted by gas-liquid reactions is applied in many industrial processes such as the production of ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, barium carbonate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, ypsum (calcium sulphate), goethite, sodium bicarbonate, strontium carbonate and te

  2. 两种蔬菜汁液中碳酸钙介晶的生长%Crystal Growth of Calcium Carbonate Mesocrystals in the Juice of Two Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 吴瑕玉; 万景建

    2012-01-01

    As is narrated in this paper, the and bok choy were used to induce the growth characterized by SEM images crystals were produced in the biomolecules in the juice of two vegetables such as turnip of calcium carbonate mesocrystals, and the products were and XRD patterns. The results showed that rhombus and spherical calcite juice of turnip while spherical calcite and vaterite crystals were generated in the juice of bok choy. Also, the formation mechanism of the products was discussed, calcium carbonate mesocrystals are formed through nonclassical crystallization pathways with the finding that under the control of vegetable biomolecules.%利用白萝卜和小白菜两种蔬菜汁液中的生物分子诱导碳酸钙介观晶体(介晶)的生长,采用扫描电子显微镜和X-衍射对所得产物进行表征。结果表明,白萝卜汁液中生成了菱面体形和球形的方解石型碳酸钙晶体;而小白菜汁液中则产生了球形的方解石和球霰石型碳酸钙晶体。对所得产物的形成机理进行了探讨,表明它们是在蔬菜生物分子的调控下通过非经典的结晶途径形成的碳酸钙介晶。

  3. 碳酸钙沉淀法检测混浊原水中“两虫”的研究%Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Turbid Source Water by Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美芝; 于建伟; 安伟; 张冬青; 魏魏; 杨敏; 吴成强

    2013-01-01

    对于混浊水源水中“两虫”的检测,选定有效的浓缩富集及分离纯化方法尤为重要.滤囊/滤芯富集—免疫磁分离(IMS)组合方法对混浊水源水的预处理效果较好,但成本过高.为此,研究了碳酸钙沉淀法对某混浊河水中“两虫”的浓缩富集效果,并对浓缩后样品比较了密度梯度离心法和免疫磁分离法的分离纯化效果.结果发现,利用碳酸钙沉淀法可有效实现水中“两虫”的富集;从分离纯化效果来看,Percoll-蔗糖密度梯度离心方法对贾第鞭毛虫和隐孢子虫的平均回收率分别可达72.3%和39.5%,相对标准偏差分别为10.8%和11.9%;与国标方法中免疫磁分离方法的效果相当,但可显著降低分析成本.因此,碳酸钙沉淀—密度梯度离心组合技术用于混浊水源水中“两虫”的检测具有较好的应用前景.%For detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in turbid source water, it is important to select an efficient process for sample concentration and purification. A combined method of capsule/cartridge filters and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is effective in pretreatment of turbid source water, but its cost is high. The concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a river water sample by calcium carbonate precipitation method was investigated. Two separation and purification methods, Percoll-su-crose density gradient centrifugation (PSDGC) and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) , were compared for their separation efficiency. The results showed that the calcium carbonate precipitation method could effectively concentrate Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The average recovery rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PSDGC were 72. 3% and 39. 5% , and the RSDs were 10. 8% and 11. 9% , respectively, showing that PSDGC had similar separation efficiency to IMS method, but with a lower cost. So the combination of calcium carbonate precipitation and PSDGC could be used for detection of Cryptosporidium and

  4. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  5. Deposition of calcium carbonate in karst caves: role of bacteria in Stiffe's cave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercole Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria make a significant contribution to the accumulation of carbonate in several natural habitats where large amounts of carbonates are deposited. However, the role played by microbial communities in speleothem formation (stalactites, stalagmites etc. in caves is still unclear. In bacteria carbonate is formed by autotrophic pathways, which deplete CO2 from the environment, and by heterotrophic pathways, leading to active or passive precipitation. We isolated cultivable heterotrophic microbial strains, able to induce CaCO3 precipitation in vitro, from samples taken from speleothems in the galleries of Stiffe’s cave, L’Aquila, Italy. We found a large number of bacteria in the calcite formations (1 x 104 to 5 x 109 cells g-1. Microscopic examination, in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, showed that most of the isolates were able to form calcium carbonate microcrystals. The most crystalline precipitates were observed at 32°C. No precipitation was detected in un-inoculated controls media or in media that had been inoculated with autoclaved bacterial cells. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that most of the carbonate crystals produced were calcite. Bacillus strains were the most common calcifying isolates collected from Stiffe’s Cave. Analysis of carbonate-solubilization capability revealed that the non-calcifying bacteria were carbonate solubilizers.

  6. Microbially Induced Precipitation of Strontianite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Serku; Yumi Kim; Lee, Young Jae; Roh, Yul

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the microbially mediated precipitation of strontium by microorganisms, and to examine the mineralogical characteristics of the precipitates. Wu Do-1 (Proteus mirabilis) enriched from rhodoliths was used to precipitate strontium at room temperature under aerobic environment. The growth of Wu Do-1 gradually increased over 16 days (OD600 = 2.6) and then decreased until 22 days (OD600 = 2.0) during microbial incubation for strontium precipitation. Also, the pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.3 over 4 days of incubation due to microbial oxidation of organic acids, and then the pH increased up to 8.6 at 25 days of incubation due to NH3+ generation. The Sr2+ concentration in the biotic group sharply decreased from 2,953 mg/L to 5.7 mg/L over 29 days of incubation. XRD, SEM-/TEM-EDS analyses revealed that the precipitates formed by Wu Do-1 (Proteus mirabilis) were identified as 20-70 nm sized strontianite (SrCO3). Therefore, these results suggested that formation of sparingly soluble Sr precipitates mediated by Wu Do-1 (Proteus mirabilis) sequesters strontium and carbon dioxide into a more stable and less toxic form such as strontianite (SrCO3). These results also suggest that bioremediation of metal-contaminated water and biominealization of carbonate minerals may be feasible in the marine environment.

  7. Effect of precipitation procedure and detection technique on particle size distribution of CaCO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, C.; Coto, B.; Peña, J. L.; Rodríguez, R.; Merino-Garcia, D.; Pastor, G.

    2010-09-01

    The deposition of inorganic salts ("scales") such as calcium carbonate is an important flow assurance problem during crude oil production. The knowledge of the features of the precipitated solids, mainly the particle size and morphology, is crucial to understand the nature of the solids and to avoid or reduce the effect of their deposition. For instance, the use of additives is one of the most usual procedures to mitigate this problem. Additives interact with scale-forming substances either by increasing the induction time, or by inhibiting crystal growth, changing the morphology of solids. In this work, CaCO 3 was precipitated by two different experimental methods: by mixing sodium carbonate and calcium chloride at 25 °C (method 1), and by changing the pH (method 2). Precipitated solids were analyzed by means of the following techniques: laser diffraction (LD), focused-beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), in order to select a method for the determination of particle size of solids similar to scales, in order to study these deposits at the beginning of their formation and to evaluate the effect of additives in the scales particle size. Results were compared to those of scale deposits extracted from crude oil pipelines. SEM and XRD characterization showed that both the precipitation methods lead to calcium carbonate as a mixture of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, with rhombohedral morphology for method 1 and spherical for method 2. The effects of temperature, kinetics and Mg 2+ presence in the morphology of CaCO 3 were evaluated. Thus, the solids obtained by static bottle test and real scales are mainly formed by long needle-shaped aragonite. The comparison of the several particle size characterization methods determinates that an LD is a fast and sensitive technique for spherical and non-spherical solids, and it is a convenient technique for the analysis of scales extracted from oil pipelines.

  8. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  9. Precipitates in electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Keith [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Limited, Corporation Road, Newport, South Wales NP19 OXT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: keith.jenkins@cogent-power.com; Lindenmo, Magnus [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Limited, Corporation Road, Newport, South Wales NP19 OXT (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    Precipitates heavily influence the magnetic properties of electrical steels, either as a key controlled requirement as part of the manufacturing process or as an unwanted harmful residual in the final product. In this current work copper-manganese sulphides precipitates are the primary inhibitor species in the conventional grain-oriented (CGO) steels examined and grain boundary pinning is effective at a mean precipitate size of 30-70 nm. The growth of CuMnS has been studied and the results show that a precipitate size above {approx}100 nm allows the onset of secondary recrystallisation in the heating conditions applied. The effect of precipitates on the magnetic properties of both grain-oriented and non-oriented steels in their final product form is then examined. Examples of grain-oriented material still containing large numbers of precipitates clearly show the detrimental effects with increases in total power loss of 40% or more. Loss deterioration by about 20% is also seen in samples of high silicon non-oriented material in which titanium carbo-nitride precipitates have been observed. In this case the precipitates are believed to have formed during cooling after final annealing. Finally a grain-oriented steel with a large number of very small precipitates, which do not seem to have any harmful effect on the magnetic properties, is demonstrated.

  10. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Di Gioacchino, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Marini, P.; Di Stefano, V.; Nakamura, M. [EURESYS, Rome (Italy); Pace, S. [Salerno Univ., Salerno (Italy). Dept. of Physics, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia; Mancini, A. [ORIM S.r.l., Piediripa, MC (Italy); Tripodi, P. [Stanford Research Institut International, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA).

  11. 采用晶型沉淀法高效分离和回收电镀污泥重金属%Recovery of Heavy Metals from Electroplating Sludge Ⅰ: The separation of different metals by a new crystal precipitation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡婷婷; 谢逢春

    2009-01-01

    采用一种全新的晶型沉淀法高效分离和回收电镀污泥中的重金属.该法的重要影响因素包括晶种量,沉淀剂和污泥滤液的加入速度.通过一系列实验,确定最佳的工艺条件,在此条件下铜、铁、铬的回收率分别达到96.2%,92.1%,98.2%.%A new crystal precipitation process was developed for the separation and recovery of heavy metals from electroplating sludge. The processing parameters including volume of crystal seeds, adding speed of a precipitator and adding speed of the leachate were eval-uated according to sequential experimental designs. The optimum separation conditions led to a recovery efficiency of Cu 96.2%, Fe 92.1%, Cr 98.3%.

  12. Carborane-Based Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Insight into CAII/CAIX Specificity from a High-Resolution Crystal Structure, Modeling, and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carborane-based compounds are promising lead structures for development of inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs. Here, we report structural and computational analysis applicable to structure-based design of carborane compounds with selectivity toward the cancer-specific CAIX isoenzyme. We determined the crystal structure of CAII in complex with 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane at 1.0 Å resolution and used this structure to model the 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane interactions with CAIX. A virtual glycine scan revealed the contributions of individual residues to the energy of binding of 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane to CAII and CAIX, respectively.

  13. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  14. Supercritical-assistant liquid crystal template approach to synthesize mesoporous titania/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites with high visible-light driven photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen; Li, Youji, E-mail: bcclyj@163.com; Xu, Peng; Li, Ming; Huo, Pingxiang

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: We investigate the influence of mesoporous titania content upon the visible-light driven photocatalytic performance of MPT/MWCNTs in phenol degradation. - Highlights: • MPT/MWCNTs were fabricated by liquid-crystal template in supercritical CO{sub 2}. • MPT/MWCNTs show high visible-light driven photoactivity for phenol degradation. • MPT/MWCNTs also show high reusable photoactivity under visible irradiation. • MPT content can control visible-light driven photoactivity of MPT/MWCNTs. • MPT is not easily broken away from from MPT/MWCNT composites. - Abstract: Mesoporous titania (MPT) was deposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by deposition of titanium sol containing liquid-crystal template with assistant of supercritical CO{sub 2}. The products were characterized with various analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results indicate that in photocatalytic degradation of phenol under visible light, the mixtures or composites of MPT and MWCNT show the high efficiency because of synergies between absorbing visible light, releasing electrons and facilitating transfer of charge carriers of MWCNTs and providing activated centers of MPT. Because of the mutual constraint between MPT and MWCNTs on the photocatalytic efficiency, the optimal loading of MPT in MPT/MWCNT-3 for phenol degradation is 48%. Because the intimate contact between MWCNTs and MPT is more beneficial to electron transformation, photoactivity of mixture is lower than that of composites with high reusable performance. The optimum conditions of phenol degradation were obtained.

  15. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  16. Bonding Analysis on the Crystallization of Magnesium Carbonate Hydrates%基于水合碳酸镁结晶过程的化学键分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小星; 李云飞; 薛冬峰; 晏成林; 王雷

    2007-01-01

    基于晶体学结构,将化学键理论定量地应用到水合碳酸镁Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O和MgOgO3·3H2O的结晶行为研究中,以此指导和控制实际晶体的生长行为.根据所选晶面的化学键数目和强度,可以计算出该晶面的垂直生长速率,从而方便地预测出Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O和MMgO3·3H2O晶体的理想形貌.Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O晶体表现出六方片状的结晶习性,MgCO3·3H2O则具有六方柱的理想形貌.在实验中,六方片状的Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2-114心O和MgO3·3H2O六方柱可以通过简单的液相反应获得,证明我们的理论计算与实验结果完全相符.目前研究结果表明,单晶生长可以通过热力学意义上调整组成原子或离子的成键方式获得本质上的改进,这一过程为我们从动力学角度优化实验策略提供了更广阔的空间.%The chemical bonding theory is used to investigate the fundamental crystallization behaviours of magnesium carbonate hydrate crystals Mg5(CO3)4OH)2·4H2O and MgCO3·3H2O in terms of crystallographic structure, with the aim to guide and control the practical crystal growth. The ideal morphology of Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O and MgCO3·3H2O crystals has readily been predicted, by calculating the vertical growth rate of selected planes in terms of the bond number and bond strength. Theoretically,Mg5 (CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O crystal exhibits hexagonal plate-shaped characteristics, while MgCO3·3H2O crystal possesses a hexagonal prism morphology. Experimentally, the hexagonal Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O micro-platelets and MgCO3 ·3H2O micro-prisms with reproducible shape can be obtained by a simple liquid phase reaction. Theoretical results are in a good agreement with our experimental observations. Single crystal growth can be improved by tuning the bonding modification of constituent atoms or ions, such a process can leave us a great space to kinetically maximize our experimental strategies.

  17. Preparation of Calcined Zirconia-Carbon Composite from Metal Organic Frameworks and Its Application to Adsorption of Crystal Violet and Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia-carbon (ZC composites were prepared via calcination of Zr-based metal organic frameworks, UiO-66 and amino-functionalized UiO-66, under N2 atmosphere. The prepared composites were characterized using a series of instrumental analyses. The surface area of the ZC composites increased with the increase of calcination temperature, with the formation of a graphite oxide phase observed at 900 °C. The composites were used for adsorptive removal of a dye (crystal violet, CV and a pharmaceutical and personal care product (salicylic acid, SA. The increase of the calcination temperature resulted in enhanced adsorption capability of the composites toward CV. The composite calcined at 900 °C exhibited a maximum uptake of 243 mg·g−1, which was much greater than that by a commercial activated carbon. The composite was also effective in SA adsorption (102 mg·g−1, and N-functionalization of the composite further enhanced its adsorption capability (109 mg·g−1. CV adsorption was weakly influenced by solution pH, but was more dependent on the surface area and pore volume of the ZC composite. Meanwhile, SA adsorption showed strong pH dependence, which implies an active role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. Base-base repulsion and hydrogen bonding are also suggested to influence the adsorption of CV and SA, especially for the N-functionalized composite.

  18. 花生壳活性炭吸附染料废水中结晶紫的研究%Study on Adsorbing Crystal Violet from Dyeing Wastewater by Peanut Shell Active Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋峰; 张莹琪

    2015-01-01

    利用磷酸处理微波照射制备花生壳活性炭,以一定浓度的结晶紫溶液为模拟染料废水,研究了吸附剂粒径、溶液pH值、结晶紫的初始浓度、吸附剂用量、吸附时间、吸附温度对结晶紫吸附性能的影响。结果表明花生壳活性炭是具有高去除率的廉价吸附剂,最大去除率达96%。结晶紫染料在花生壳活性炭上的吸附过程符合二级动力学模型和Freundlich等温吸附方程。%The peanut shell active carbon is prepared with phosphoric acid treatment and microwave irradiation and then is used as an adsorbent to adsorb crystal violet from aqueous solution ,which served as simulated dye waste water ,to study the influences of some factors ,including the particle size of the peanut shell active carbon ,pH ,initial concentration of crystal violet ,dosage of the peanut shell active carbon ,adsorption time and adsorption temperature ,on adsorptive property to crystal violet .The results show that the peanut shell active carbon is a kind effective and low cost adsorbent .The best removal rate of crystal violet is about 96% .The ad‐sorption process of the peanut shell active carbon with crystal violet follows the pseudo-second order kinetics model and Freundlich adsorption isotherm .

  19. Crystal shape controlled H2 storage rate in nanoporous carbon composite with ultra-fine Pt nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsan-Yao; Zhang, Yanhui; Hsu, Liang-Ching; Hu, Alice; Zhuang, Yu; Fan, Chia-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Chuang, Haw-Yeu

    2017-02-01

    This study demonstrates that the hydrogen storage rate (HSR) of nanoporous carbon supported platinum nanocatalysts (NC) is determined by their heterojunction and geometric configurations. The present NC is synthesized in an average particle size of ~1.5 nm by incipient wetness impregnation of Pt4+ at carbon support followed by annealing in H2 ambient at 102–105 °C. Among the steps in hydrogen storage, decomposition of H2 molecule into 2 H atoms on Pt NC surface is the deciding factor in HSR that is controlled by the thickness of Pt NC. For the best condition, HSR of Pt NC in 1~2 atomic layers thick (4.7 μg/g min) is 2.6 times faster than that (1.3 μg/g min) of Pt NC with higher than 3 atomic layers thick.

  20. Decomposition of silver carbonate; the crystal structure of two high-temperature modifications of Ag(2)CO(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, P; Dinnebier, R; Fitch, A N

    2002-07-15

    High-resolution powder diffraction was used to study the thermal transformation of silver carbonate. A sample of Ag(2)CO(3) was heated in a capillary under 4.5 atm CO(2) pressure. The decomposition temperature of silver carbonate to silver oxide is thereby increased, allowing high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the two high-temperature phases of Ag(2)CO(3) to be collected. The structure of the low-temperature (lt) phase was confirmed, and the structures of the two high-temperature phases were determined by direct methods and refined using the Rietveld method: lt-Ag(2)CO(3) (295 K) P2(1)/m, z = 2, a = 4.8521(2) A, b = 9.5489(4) A, c = 3.2536(1) A, beta = 91.9713(3) degrees; beta-Ag(2)CO(3) (453 K) P31c, z = 6, a = 9.1716(4) A, c = 6.5176(3) A; alpha-Ag(2)CO(3) (476 K) P6 macro 2m, z = 3, a = 9.0924(4) A, c = 3.3249(1) A. In addition, thermal expansion properties, anisotropic microstrain distributions, and thermal transformations of the three silver carbonate phases and silver oxide are described.

  1. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  2. Influence of exopolymeric materials on bacterially induced mineralization of carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Amrita; Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2015-04-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an immensely growing technology for restoration and remediation of building materials. The investigation on role of exopolymeric substances and biofilms in microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation suggested that these exopolymeric materials play major role in carbonate precipitation in Bacillus megaterium SS3 along with enzymes urease and carbonic anhydrase. The concentration of EPS directly affects the precipitation of carbonate precipitates which might be due to capturing of Ca(2+) ions by acting as nucleation site. Components of the media and presence of calcium also play crucial role in production of exopolymeric substances along with affecting the morphology of carbonate precipitates.

  3. Co-precipitation Synthesis and Thermal Stability of Zircon Encapsulated Carbon Black%共沉淀法制备硅酸锆包裹炭黑及其高温稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭诚; 张楚鑫; 吕明; 李智鸿; 吴建青

    2013-01-01

    以正硅酸乙酯和氧氯化锆为原料,采用溶胶共沉淀法制备了硅酸锆包裹炭黑复合粉体.利用XRD、SEM、色度计和粒度分析仪等手段对样品进行了表征.采用正交试验考察了前驱体pH值、煅烧温度、矿化剂种类和用量等工艺条件对复合粉体高温稳定性的影响.结果表明,矿化剂和煅烧温度是最重要的影响因素.最佳的工艺条件是前驱溶液pH为5、矿化剂为5wt%LiF、煅烧温度为1 150℃.该工艺条件下形成的球形镶嵌结构能够有效防止炭黑被氧化.获得的硅酸锆包裹炭黑粉体具有较好的高温稳定性,粒度分布符合陶瓷色料的要求.该粉体用于熔块釉中,1000℃烧成仍然具有较好的发色效果.%Zircon encapsulated carbon black powders were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using TEOS and zirconium oxychloride as starting materials.X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electronic microscope (SEM),colorimeter and laser grain size analyzer were used to investigate the phase structure,morphology,thermal stability and size distribution of the prepared composite powders,respectively.The effect of experimental conditions including the pH of the precursor solution,the calcination temperature,the type and amount of mineralizers on their thermal stability was studied by orthogonal test.The optimal conditions were accordingly determined as follows:precursor solution pH=5,calcination temperature 1150℃ and 5% LiF mineralizer.Under these conditions,zircon encapsulated carbon black with embedded structures can be obtained.The composite powder has high thermal stability and adequate size distribution,and thus it is a good candidate material for black ceramic pigment.When calcined at 1000℃ in the frit glaze,the powder shows considerable tilting strength.

  4. Effects of nitrogen addition and precipitation change on soil methane and carbon dioxide fluxes%施氮和降水格局改变对土壤CH4和CO2通量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 白娥; 李善龙; 孙建飞; 彭勃; 姜萍

    2013-01-01

    ,and even,converted the CH4 consumption into CH4 release.However,this inhibition effect only lasted for approximately 5 days.Nitrogen addition also affected the relationships between the CH4 flux and environmental factors (soil temperature,pH,and clay content) to some extent.The changed precipitation regime had no significant effects on the CH4 flux.Nitrogen addition decreased the CO2 flux,with an average decrement of 27.4% after 4 years continuous nitrogen addition.It was predicted that the effects of long-term continuous nitrogen addition on the CO2 flux would be increased with time,and reached the maximum after certain years of nitrogen addition.Oppositely,the effects of single time nitrogen addition would be decreased with time,and disappeared by the end of the 1-month cycle.The inhibition effect of nitrogen addition on the CO2 flux was negatively correlated with soil water filled pore space (WFPS) (P =0.022),and enhanced and extended at higher temperature.Nitrogen addition and precipitation change could possibly alter the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration.Our results indicated that the soil nitrogen in temperate forest in Changbai Mountains had not reached a threshold,and the future nitrogen deposition increase would inhibit the CO2 release and CH4 uptake.Overall,nitrogen addition would inhibit the soil carbon release.

  5. Chemisorption And Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport and bioavailability of chemical components within soils is, in part, controlled by partitioning between solids and solution. General terms used to describe these partitioning reactions include chemisorption and precipitation. Chemisorption is inclusive of the suit...

  6. WPA Precipitation Tabulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly precipitation data tabulated under the Work Projects Administration (WPA), a New Deal program created to reduce unemployment during the Great Depression....

  7. Storage Gage Precipitation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A storage gage is a precipitation gage that requires reading and maintenance only monthly or seasonal intervals. This library includes reports from such gages,...

  8. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  9. Solvothermal synthesis of spherical YAG powders via different precipitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zuogui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China); Zhang Xudong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China)], E-mail: wuzuogui11550@163.com; He Wen; Du Yuanwei; Jia Naitao; Liu Pengcheng; Bu Fanqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China)

    2009-03-20

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) powders were synthesized by a solvothermal method under mild conditions with inexpensive aluminum and yttrium nitrates as the starting materials, and the ethylenediamine (EDA) solution as the solvent. Hydroxide precursors were synthesized by two different precipitating processes, in which urea or ammonium hydrogen carbonate was used as precipitant. The formation of YAG particle was investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM results showed that spherical YAG powders were successfully synthesized when ammonium hydrogen carbonate was used as precipitant.

  10. Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Fibers by the Homogeneous Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the preparing process of hydroxyapatite fibers which were widely used as reinforcement for biomedical materials by homogeneous precipitation method.The needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals were synthesized in an aqueous system.They were transferred from precursors-dicalcium phosphate anhydrate and octacalcium phosphate crystals.The reaction conditions were well controlled in order to obtain crystals in given morphology.The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry(XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy(IR).They were verified to be hydroxyapatite crystals with needle-like in shape.

  11. The potential for phosphorus pollution remediation by calcite precipitation in UK freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the potential for calcium carbonate to reduce phosphate pollution in freshwaters by co-precipitation, a process known as a "self cleansing mechanism". Calcium carbonate saturation levels and phosphate concentrations (SRP - soluble reactive phosphate across the major eastern UK river basins are examined to test for solubility controls. The study shows that calcite saturation varies for each catchment as a function of flow and biological activity rather than by direct regulation by SRP. Indeed, there is no evidence, for any of the rivers studied, that calcite solubility controls hold. However, for groundwater and groundwater-fed springs in the Chalk of the Thames basin, calcite saturation is observed with associated low SRP levels. A self-cleansing mechanism may well be operative within the Chalk due to two factors. Firstly, there is a high potential for nucleation on the calcite micro-crystals in the aquifer. Secondly, there are within aquifer reactions that remove the calcite nucleating inhibitors (SRP and dissolved organic carbon, DOC to levels lower than those occurring within the rivers do. These inhibitors enter the catchment at very high concentrations in association with agricultural pollution (fertilizer application and animal slurry and household contamination (e.g. sewage sources from septic tanks. Under low flow conditions, when the saturation index for calcite is at its highest, so too is the concentration of the nucleation inhibitor SRP. Companion work shows that calcite precipitation can occur at the water-sediment interface of the river and this may involve SRP removal. The data, as a whole, define an apparent bound for calcite solubility control where in the presence of nucleating centres, SRP must be less than 4 mM-P l-1 and DOC must be less than 150 mM-C l-1: a condition that does not seem to pertain within most UK rivers. Keywords: calcite, calcium carbonate, phosphate, soluble reactive phosphate, dissolved

  12. The Frontier Between Adsorption and Precipitation of Polyacrylic Acid on Calcium Carbonate Frontière entre adsorption et précipitation de l'acide polyacrylique sur le carbonate de calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabane B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of polymers on mineral surfaces allowing colloidal stability have widespread applications in industrial processes. The binding mechanism has been quite well described on oxide surfaces. Mainly in terms of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between charged sites and polymer segments. This phenomenon has been modelized and the influence of pH. Ionic strentgh, and molecular weight can be calculated or predicted. In the case of sparingly soluble substrates such as BaSO4, CaCO3 or CaSO4, several problems arise : the difficulty for the identification of surface sites and the interference of ions coming from the material's solubility. In the case of calcite, the solubility imposes dissolved calcium ions in solution which could complex the polyelectrolyte and reduce its solubility. For that purpose, we have measured the binding energy using microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements have shown that the adsorption enthalpy is weakly enclothermic: about + 2 kj/mol. Interestingly, this value is very closed to that of calcium complexation with PANa. It is suggested that the driving force for adsorption is the net gain in entropy of the system. The microcalorimetric adsorption isotherm does not show any evidence for a strongly exothermic interaction between positive edges and negative segment of the polyion. Practically, in most cases, adsorption of polymers is calculated from the decrease of its concentration in the solution after separation of the solid by centrifugation. This procedure does not discriminate therefore between real adsorption and phase separation. To answer the question, we have performed adsorption experiments using a dialysis membrane to separate the solid particles from the solution. It has been established that in some circumstances, depending on the relative amount of calcite, calcium ions and polyelectrolyte, precipitation takes place rather than adsorption. This is especially the case at low polymer

  13. Calcite Supersaturation and Precipitation Kinetics in the Lower Colorado River, Ail-American Canal and East Highline Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, D. L.

    1983-06-01

    In situ pH determinations and analysis of major ions in solution indicated that the lower Colorado River is supersaturated with respect to calcite throughout the entire daily cycle, in both winter and summer. Although the ion activity product was 4 to 6 times greater than the calcite solubility product, there was no detectable precipitation. Chemical analyses of water samples taken along 350 km of the river and canals from Parker Dam to the Salton Sea also revealed no evidence of calcium carbonate precipitation despite the inflow of saline and highly supersaturated irrigation return flows. Laboratory kinetic studies indicated that calcite crystal growth rates with Colorado River water are about 30% of the rate for pure Ca-HCO3 waters and about 70% of that for synthetic Colorado River water. Calcite precipitation by crystal growth in the river is limited by the combination of short residence times and unavailability of reactive calcite. Critical supersaturation levels necessary for heterogeneous nucleation do not occur; a high suspended load limits algal photosynthesis and thus prevents large decreases in daytime H2CO3 levels.

  14. Tuning structural and mechanical properties of two-dimensional molecular crystals: the roles of carbon side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Huanyao; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lizhi; Yang, Bing; He, Xiaobo; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Quanzi; Zhao, Ya-Pu; Ouyang, Min; Hofer, Werner A; Pennycook, Stephen J; Gao, Hong-jun

    2012-03-14

    A key requirement for the future applicability of molecular electronics devices is a resilience of their properties to mechanical deformation. At present, however, there is no fundamental understanding of the origins of mechanical properties of molecular films. Here we use quinacridone, which possesses flexible carbon side chains, as a model molecular system to address this issue. Eight molecular configurations with different molecular coverage are identified by scanning tunneling microscopy. Theoretical calculations reveal quantitatively the roles of different molecule-molecule and molecule-substrate interactions and predict the observed sequence of configurations. Remarkably, we find that a single Young's modulus applies for all configurations, the magnitude of which is controlled by side chain length, suggesting a versatile avenue for tuning not only the physical and chemical properties of molecular films but also their elastic properties.

  15. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB, uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf. We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs (benign substances or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots

  16. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  17. Diurnal Variation of Precipitation During MC3E Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Di; Matsui, Toshi; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur; Rienecker, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The diurnal variation of precipitation processes in the United States (US) is well recognized but incompletely understood (Cabone et al. 2002). The diurnal cycle of precipitation has been studied using surface rainfall data, radar reflectivity data, and satellite-derived cloudiness and precipitation (Wallace 1975; Dai et al. 1999; Carbone et al. 2002; Carbone and Tuttle, 2008; Parker and Ahijevych, 2007; Matsui et al. 2010 and others). These observations indicate that the summer-time precipitation most of the North America and typically feature late-afternoon precipitation maxima. These diurnal variation of precipitation can also be generally categorized into three different types: 1) afternoon rainfall maxima due to mesoscale and local circulations over the south and east of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, 2) nocturnal rainfall maxima from eastward-propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the Lee side of Rocky Mountain regions and 3) afternoon rainfall maxima in the Appalachian Mountains, and then propagate eastward toward the coast. The main objective of this paper is to use a regional cloud-scale model with very high-resolution (i.e., WRF) to examine the WRF ability to simulate diurnal variation of precipitation. Specifically, the study will (1) identify the physical processes responsible to diurnal variation of precipitation, (2) examine the sensitivity of resolution (2, 6, 18, and 30 km) to model simulated diurnal variation of precipitation and (3) identify the relationships between microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes.

  18. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    exothermic than that of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). This suggests that enthalpy of crystallization in carbonate systems is ionic-size controlled, which may have significant implications in a wide variety of conditions, including geological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.......Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  19. Heterogeneous growth of cadmium and cobalt carbonate phases at the (101¯4) calcite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Man; Ilton, Eugene S.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2015-03-01

    The ability of surface precipitates to form heteroepitaxially is an important factor that controls the extent of heterogeneous growth. In this work, the growth of cadmium and cobalt carbonate phases on (10-14) calcite surfaces is compared for a range of initial saturation states with respect to otavite (CdCO3) and sphaerocobaltite (CoCO3), two isostructural metal carbonates that exhibit different lattice misfits with respect to calcite. Calcite single crystals were reacted in static conditions for 16 hours with CdCl2 and CoCl2 aqueous solutions with initial concentrations 0.3 ≤ [Cd2+]0 ≤ 100 μM and 25 ≤ [Co2+]0 ≤ 200 μM. The reacted crystals were imaged in situ with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and analyzed ex situ with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM images of Cd-reacted crystals showed the formation of large islands elongated along the direction, clear evidence of heteroepitaxial growth, whereas surface precipitates on Co-reacted crystals were small round islands. Deformation of calcite etch pits in both cases indicated the incorporation of Cd and Co at step edges. XPS analysis pointed to the formation of a Cd-rich (Ca,Cd)CO3 solid solution coating atop the calcite substrate. In contrast, XPS measurements of the Co-reacted crystals provided evidence for the formation of a mixed hydroxy-carbonate cobalt phase. The combined AFM and XPS results suggest that the lattice misfit between CoCO3 and CaCO3 ( 15% based on surface areas) is too large to allow for heteroepitaxial growth of a pure cobalt carbonate phase on calcite surfaces in aqueous solutions and at ambient conditions. The use of the satellite structure of the Co 2p3/2 photoelectron line as a tool for determining the nature of cobalt surface precipitates is also discussed.

  20. Modern trends in technical crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, G.

    1980-04-01

    Interesting and significant developments have occurred in the last decade in both crystallization equipment and in the theory of crystallization process. In the field of technical crystallization new crystallizers have been developed and computer modelling has become important in scaling up and in the achievement of increased performance. The DP-Kristaller developed by Escher-Wyss-Tsukishima, the Brodie purifier, the sieve tray column having dancing balls, the automated multiple crystallization process due to Mützenberg and Saxer and the double belt cooler, all of which represent technical developments, are described in the first section. The second part of the paper reviews computer modelling of the fluidized bed crystallizer, chemical precipitation, flaking and prilling. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the impact of technical crystallization processes on environmental protection.

  1. Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union

    CERN Document Server

    Hermon, H; James, R B; Antolak, A J; Morse, D H; Brunett, B A; Hackett, C; Tarver, E; Komar, V; Goorsky, M S; Yoon, H; Kolesnikov, N N; Toney, J; Schlesinger, T E

    1999-01-01

    Vertical high-pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te (0.04crystals grown in the Ukraine and Russia have been evaluated and compared to US-grown materials. Various analytical techniques were used to study the materials for trace impurities, precipitates, crystallinity, and electrical transport properties. Relatively, high concentrations of carbon and trace impurities such as Se, Nd and Si have been detected in the crystals. In most cases, the crystals showed lower resistivity than US-grown CZT. However, recent crystals grown in Russia exhibited better detector performance than those grown previously, and a good response to an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am radioactive source was found. Electron lifetimes below 1 mu s were measured in crystals having significant numbers of micro-defects, compared to lifetimes of 5-15 mu s found in spectrometer grade materials produced in the US. Furthermore, the zinc composition along the growth axis showed better homogeneity in comparison with ...

  2. TEM investigations of fine niobium precipitates in HSLA steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beres, M.; Weirich, T.E.; Mayer, J. [Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie (GFE), RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Hulka, K. [Niobium Products Co. GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Commercially produced 0.03% C, 0.08% Nb, 0.01% Ti high strength low alloyed (HSLA) steel in the form of 20 mm thick plates was investigated. The steel was thermomechanically processed and the mechanical properties of the steel were evaluated by tensile testing. Using analytical and high resolution transmission electron microscopy the distribution, morphology, composition, crystal structure and particle size of niobium and titanium carbonitrides were observed and identified in these steels. The distribution of the precipitates was found to be nearly random, with occasional occurrence of precipitation free zones. Complex agglomerates with a cubic TiN seed crystal overgrown by a cubic NbC particle were the most commonly observed precipitates. Further TEM analysis in the accelerated cooled and tempered specimens in 1/4 plate thickness did not reveal any evidence that additional precipitation in the ferrite occurred. Precipitation in ferrite was only detected after subsequent cold deformation and tempering of the same samples. By a combination of EFTEM, STEM, HRTEM in addition to EDX spectroscopy, a large population of strain induced NbC precipitates with fcc crystal structure ranging in size down to 2 nm were identified in the ferrite matrix. (orig.)

  3. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  4. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M.; Deraman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Omar, R.; Hashim, M. A.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Jasni, M. R. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ~ 1700 m2g-1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (~3.6×10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (~270 F g-1), specific energy (~ 36 Wh kg-1), and power density (~ 33 kW kg-1).

  5. Crystal Structures of Two Bacterial 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Lyases Suggest a Common Catalytic Mechanism among a Family of TIM Barrel Metalloenzymes Cleaving Carbon-Carbon Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forouhar,F.; Hussain, M.; Farid, R.; Benach, J.; Abashidze, M.; Edstrom, W.; Vorobiev, S.; Montelione, G.; Hunt, J.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase catalyzes the terminal steps in ketone body generation and leucine degradation. Mutations in this enzyme cause a human autosomal recessive disorder called primary metabolic aciduria, which typically kills victims because of an inability to tolerate hypoglycemia. Here we present crystal structures of the HMG-CoA lyases from Bacillus subtilis and Brucella melitensis at 2.7 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. These enzymes share greater than 45% sequence identity with the human orthologue. Although the enzyme has the anticipated triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold, the catalytic center contains a divalent cation-binding site formed by a cluster of invariant residues that cap the core of the barrel, contrary to the predictions of homology models. Surprisingly, the residues forming this cation-binding site and most of their interaction partners are shared with three other TIM barrel enzymes that catalyze diverse carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions believed to proceed through enolate intermediates (4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase, 2-isopropylmalate synthase, and transcarboxylase 5S). We propose the name 'DRE-TIM metallolyases' for this newly identified enzyme family likely to employ a common catalytic reaction mechanism involving an invariant Asp-Arg-Glu (DRE) triplet. The Asp ligates the divalent cation, while the Arg probably stabilizes charge accumulation in the enolate intermediate, and the Glu maintains the precise structural alignment of the Asp and Arg. We propose a detailed model for the catalytic reaction mechanism of HMG-CoA lyase based on the examination of previously reported product complexes of other DRE-TIM metallolyases and induced fit substrate docking studies conducted using the crystal structure of human HMG-CoA lyase (reported in the accompanying paper by Fu, et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 7526-7532). Our model is consistent with extensive mutagenesis

  6. Precipitation-Regulated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Star formation in the central galaxies of galaxy clusters appears to be fueled by precipitation of cold clouds out of hot circumgalactic gas via thermal instability. I will present both observational and theoretical support for the precipitation mode in large galaxies and discuss how it can be implemented in cosmological simulations of galaxy evolution. Galaxy cluster cores are unique laboratories for studying the astrophysics of thermal instability and may be teaching us valuable lessons about how feedback works in galaxies spanning the entire mass spectrum.

  7. 降水变化、氮添加对鼎湖山主要森林土壤有机碳矿化和土壤微生物碳的影响%Effects of Precipitation Change and Nitrogen Addition on Organic Carbon Mineralization and Soil Microbial Carbon of the Forest Soils in Dinghushan,Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方熊; 刘菊秀; 张德强; 刘世忠; 褚国伟; 赵亮

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization and soil microbiai carbon (SMBC) play an important role in global C cycle. With method of incubation and chloroform fumigation extraction, the effects of precipitation change and nitrogen (N) addition on the SOC mineralization and SMBC were studied along a forest succession series including pine forest (PF), mixed pine and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF) at Dinghushan, Southestern China. The results showed that: (1) Increased precipitation could improve the mineralization of SOC in the late-successional forest plots, but the effect in the early- successional forest plots were not significant (F>0.05). (2) Less precipitation (drought) resulted in lower content of SMBC in the monsoon forest soil (0-10 cm), while the doubled precipitation treatment had no significant effect on the SMBC content. (3) N deposition did not affect SMBC mineralization and SMBC in all of the three forests. It is important to take the quality of organic matter, C/N ratio, exogenous nitrogen and many other combined effects into consideration in the future studies on the responses of SOC mineralization and SMBC to climate change.%全球变化对土壤有机碳(SOC)存贮与分解的影响在全球碳(C)循环中具有重要地位.分别通过室内土壤培养法和氯仿熏蒸法,研究了降水变化和氮(N)添加处理对鼎湖山3种不同演替阶段的季风常绿阔叶林、针阔混交林和马尾松针叶林SOC矿化和土壤微生物量碳(SMBC)的影响.结果表明:1)降水量增加能够提高森林演替晚期SOC累积矿化量和矿化速率,而对森林演替早期SOC累积矿化量和矿化速率没有显著影响(P>0.05).2)干旱条件(降水量减少)降低森林SMBC含量,且在鼎湖山季风林表层土壤(0~10 cm)中SMBC的减少达到显著水平(P<0.05).3)N添加处理对鼎湖山3种森林类型SOC累积矿化量、矿化速率以及SMBC都没有显著影响(P>0.05)未来关

  8. Predicting cement distribution in geothermal sandstone reservoirs based on estimates of precipitation temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke; Whitehouse, Martin; Kristensen, Lars; Hjuler, Morten L.; Mathiesen, Anders; Boyce, Adrian J.; Nielsen, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    Exploitation of geothermal sandstone reservoirs is challenged by pore-cementing minerals since they reduce the fluid flow through the sandstones. Geothermal exploration aims at finding sandstone bodies located at depths that are adequate for sufficiently warm water to be extracted, but without being too cemented for warm water production. The amount of cement is highly variable in the Danish geothermal reservoirs which mainly comprise the Bunter Sandstone, Skagerrak and Gassum formations. The present study involves bulk and in situ stable isotope analyses of calcite, dolomite, ankerite, siderite and quartz in order to estimate at what depth they were formed and enable prediction of where they can be found. The δ18O values measured in the carbonate minerals and quartz overgrowths are related to depth since they are a result of the temperatures of the pore fluid. Thus the values indicate the precipitation temperatures and they fit the relative diagenetic timing identified by petrographical observations. The sandstones deposited during arid climatic conditions contain calcite and dolomite cement that formed during early diagenesis. These carbonate minerals precipitated as a response to different processes, and precipitation of macro-quartz took over at deeper burial. Siderite was the first carbonate mineral that formed in the sandstones that were deposited in a humid climate. Calcite began precipitating at increased burial depth and ankerite formed during deep burial and replaced some of the other phases. Ankerite and quartz formed in the same temperature interval so constrains on the isotopic composition of the pore fluid can be achieved. Differences in δ13C values exist between the sandstones that were deposited in arid versus humid environments, which suggest that different kinds of processes were active. The estimated precipitation temperatures of the different cement types are used to predict which of them are present in geothermal sandstone reservoirs in

  9. Preparation of Hydrotalcite by Precipitation-crystallization Process and the Adsorption Kinetics of Resin on the Hydrotalcite%水滑石的沉淀结晶制备及其对树脂的吸附动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国栋; 刘温霞; 王立军

    2012-01-01

    The hydrotalcite was synthesised by precipitation-crystallization process, the process of precipitation and crystallization was monitored on situ by using focused beam reflectance measurement ( FBRM). The high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) was used to characterize the micromorphology of the samples, and the adsorption mechanism of resin on hydrotalcite was suggested according to adsorption kinetics models, aiming to provide the scientific basis for developing the novel pitch control agent. The results showed that secondary nucleation is the main process of crystallization, and 6 h aging time could obtain hydrotalcite with a high degree of crystallinity. The prepared hydrotalcite had well-defined thin platelet morphology. After calcinations the platelet structure of the hydrotalcite disappeared, which was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The process of resin adsorbed on calcined hydrotalcite was mainly chemical adsorption, and the adsorption kinetics accorded with the pseudo second order kinetic equation.%采用沉淀结晶法合成了镁铝水滑石,使用聚焦光束反射测量仪(FBRM)在线实时监测了其沉淀结晶过程,利用高分辨率透射电镜( HRTEM)对合成的样品进行了表征,同时以松香酸为模型物,研究了水滑石对树脂的吸附动力学曲线,根据吸附动力学模型解释了水滑石对树脂的吸附机理.结果表明,二次成核是水滑石结晶的主要过程,6h的老化时间即可获得较高的结晶度.HRTEM证实了该方法合成的水滑石结晶状况良好且具有典型的层片状结构,焙烧后层状结构消失,形成无定形和多孔结构,增加了单位比表面积,吸附效果更好.焙烧水滑石对于松香酸的吸附过程主要为化学吸附,准二级动力学方程能较好地描述整个吸附过程.

  10. Mechanistic Insights into an Unexpected Carbon DioxideInsertion Reaction through the Crystal Structures of CarbamicDiphenylthiophosphinic Anhydride and 1-[( 4-Nitrophenyl )-sulfonyl ]-trans-2,5-pyrrolidinedicarboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI, Min; SHEN, Yu-Mei; JIANG, Jian-Kang

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structures of an unexpected carbon dioxide inserted carbamicdiphenylthiophosphinic anhydride and 1-[(4-nitrophenyl) sulfonyl]- trans-2, 5-pyrrolidinedicarboxylic acid methyl ester were determined by X-ray analysis. They crystallized in the space group P21(#4) with α=0.9550(2), b=0.9401(4), c= 1.2880(2) nm, β= 107.74°, V=1.1013(5) nm3, D calcd = 1.349 g/cm3, Z = 2 and P212121 ( # 19)with α= 1.4666(2), b = 0.7195(2), c = 1.6339(2) nm, V= 1.7240(7) nm3, Dcalcd= 1.434 g/cm3, Z=4, respectively.Through the investigation of these two crystal structures, the mechanistic insights into this unexpected carbon dioxide insertion in the reaction of trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine with diphenylthiophosphoryl chloride in the presence of potassium carbonate were disclosed.

  11. Reaction systems with precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rogalski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes expanding Reaction Systems of Ehrenfeucht and Rozenberg by incorporating precipitation reactions into it. This improves the computing power of Reaction Systems by allowing us to implement a stack. This addition enables us to implement a Deterministic Pushdown Automaton.

  12. Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PREC data set is an analysis of monthly precipitation constructed on a 2.5(o)lat/lon grid over the global for the period from 1948 to the present. The land...

  13. Magnetic properties of Fe-Ni nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarpanah, A M; Sargazi, M [Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzae, A A; Feizi, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: A.M.DAVARPANAH@hamoon.usb.ac.ir

    2008-08-15

    Many methods have been extended for the preparation of nanoparticles. One of the most important methods is the chemical wet process, e.g. the co-precipitation method that has been used for the preparation of Fe-Ni nanoparticles by the authors. XRD patterns show that the nanoparticles are amorphous before calcination and crystallized after calcination. SEM images show that the grain size of the Fe-Ni particles is in 50-300 nanometre range and that the texture of the nanoparticles after calcination was smoother than before calcination. Hysteresis loops show that the Fe-Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic before calcination, because the carbonate phase still exists in the sample, and that they are ferromagnetic materials after calcination. For 40Fe-60Ni nanoparticles after calcination, H{sub c} = 0.12 and B{sub s} = 4800 Oe, being very different in respect to the bulk 40Fe-60Ni alloy.

  14. Magnetic properties of Fe-Ni nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A. M.; Mirzae, A. A.; Sargazi, M.; Feizi, M.

    2008-08-01

    Many methods have been extended for the preparation of nanoparticles. One of the most important methods is the chemical wet process, e.g. the co-precipitation method that has been used for the preparation of Fe-Ni nanoparticles by the authors. XRD patterns show that the nanoparticles are amorphous before calcination and crystallized after calcination. SEM images show that the grain size of the Fe-Ni particles is in 50-300 nanometre range and that the texture of the nanoparticles after calcination was smoother than before calcination. Hysteresis loops show that the Fe-Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic before calcination, because the carbonate phase still exists in the sample, and that they are ferromagnetic materials after calcination. For 40Fe-60Ni nanoparticles after calcination, Hc = 0.12 and Bs = 4800 Oe, being very different in respect to the bulk 40Fe-60Ni alloy.

  15. Optimization of struvite precipitation in synthetic biologically treated swine wastewater - Determination of the optimal process parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevielle, Aurélie; Sýkorová, Eva; Biscans, Béatrice; Béline, Fabrice; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A sustainable way to recover phosphorus (P) in swine wastewater involves a preliminary step of P dissolution followed by the separation of particulate organic matter. The next two steps are firstly the precipitation of struvite crystals done by adding a crystallization reagent (magnesia) and secondly the filtration of the crystals. A design of experiments with five process parameters was set up to optimize the size of the struvite crystals in a synthetic swine wastewat...

  16. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  17. Dissolution-precipitation reactions and permeability evolution from reactions of CO2-rich aqueous solutions with fractured basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. K.; Xiong, W.; Bae, Y.; Sesti, E.; Skemer, P. A.; Giammar, D.; Conradi, M.; Ellis, B. R.; Hayes, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into fractured basalts is one of several possible solutions to mitigate global climate change; however, research on carbonation in natural basalts in relation to carbon sequestration is limited, which impedes our understanding of the processes that may influence the viability of this strategy. We are conducting bench-scale experiments to characterize the mineral dissolution and precipitation and the evolution of permeability in synthetic and natural basalts exposed to CO2-rich fluids. Analytical methods include optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and micro X-ray computed tomography (μCT) with variable flow rates. Reactive rock and mineral samples consist of 1) packed powders of olivine or natural basalt, and 2) sintered cores of olivine or a synthetic basalt mixture. Each sample was reacted in a batch reactor at 100 °C, and 100 bars CO2. Magnesite is detected within one day in olivine packed beds, and within 15 days in olivine sintered cores. Forsterite and synthetic basalt sinters were also reacted in an NMR apparatus at 102 °C and 65 bars CO2. Carbonate signatures are observed within 72 days of reaction. Longer reaction times are needed for carbonate precipitation in natural basalt samples. Cores from the Columbia River flood basalt flows that contain Mg-rich olivine and a serpentinized basalt from Colorado were cut lengthwise, the interface mechanically roughened or milled, and edges sealed with epoxy to simulate a fractured interface. The cores were reacted in a batch reactor at 50-150 °C and 100 bars CO2. At lower temperatures, calcite precipitation is rare within the fracture after 4 weeks. At higher temperatures, numerous calcite and aragonite crystals are observed within 1 mm of the fracture entrance along the roughened fracture surface. In flow-through experiments, permeability decreased along the fracture paths within a few hours to several days of flow.

  18. Nanobacteria-like calcite single crystals at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerara, Karim; Menguy, Nicolas; Guyot, Francois; Dominici, Christian; Gillet, Philippe

    2003-06-24

    Nanobacteria-like objects evidenced at the surface of the orthopyroxenes of the Tataouine meteorite in South Tunisia have been studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. A method of micromanipulation has been developed to ensure that exactly the same objects were studied by both methods. We have shown that the nanobacteria-like objects are spatially correlated with filaments of microorganisms that colonized the surface of the meteoritic pyroxene during its 70 years of residence in the aridic Tataouine soil. Depressions of a few micrometers in depth are observed in the pyroxene below the carbonates, indicating preferential dissolution of the pyroxene and calcite precipitation at these locations. The nanobacteria-like small rods that constitute calcium carbonate rosettes are well crystallized calcite single crystals surrounded by a thin amorphous layer of carbonate composition that smoothes the crystal edges and induces rounded shapes. Those morphologies are unusual for calcite single crystals observed in natural samples. A survey of recent literature suggests that the intervention of organic compounds derived from biological activity is likely in their formation.

  19. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  20. Effect of aluminium nitride precipitation on recrystallisation kinetic in low carbon batch; Efecto de la precipitacion de nitruros de aluminio en la recristalizacion de aceros de bajo carbono recocidos convencionalmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsalve, A.; Artigas, A.; Celentano, D.

    2005-07-01

    An important feature of aluminium killed steels is the strong influence that aluminium nitride precipitates produce in both the mechanical properties and the final micro-structural characteristics of the steel. This influence is related to the different stages of the fabrication process. This paper de las with a study of the effects of aluminium nitrides on the kinetics of recrystallisation. Different heat treatments were carried out, in one case to dissolve AIN, and in the other in order to precipitate AIN. These steels were subjected to cold rolling, followed by a batch annealing process. The recrystallised fraction was measured, thus obtaining the kinetic curves. The activation energy for recrystallisation was computed in each case. The results showed that AIN precipitation during recrystallisation produces a delay in recrystallisation kinetics through a change in the activation energy value. (Author) 29 refs.

  1. Is the contribution of bacteria to terrestrial carbon budget greatly underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braissant, Olivier; Verrecchia, Eric; Aragno, Michel

    2002-07-01

    Some commonly found species of soil bacteria use low molecular weight organic acids as their sole source of carbon and energy. This study shows that acids such as citrate and oxalate (produced in large amounts by fungi and plants) can rapidly be consumed by these bacteria. Two strains, Ralstonia eutropha and Xanthobacter autotrophicus, were cultured on acetate- and citrate-rich media. The resulting CO2 and/or HCO3- reacted with calcium ions to precipitate two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcite and vaterite, depending on the quantity of slime produced by the strains. This production of primary calcium carbonate crystals by oxalate- and citrate-degrading bacteria from soil organic carbon sources highlights the existence of an important and underestimated potential carbon sink.

  2. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER

    2006-01-01

    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  3. Uncertainties in Arctic Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, I.; Alexeev, V. A.; Cherry, J. E.; Cohen, J. L.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic precipitation is riddled with measurement biases; to address the problem is imperative. Our study focuses on comparison of various datasets and analyzing their biases for the region of Siberia and caution that is needed when using them. Five sources of data were used ranging from NOAA's product (RAW, Bogdanova's correction), Yang's correction technique and two reanalysis products (ERA-Interim and NCEP). The reanalysis dataset performed better for some months in comparison to Yang's product, which tends to overestimate precipitation, and the raw dataset, which tends to underestimate. The sources of bias vary from topography, to wind, to missing data .The final three products chosen show higher biases during the winter and spring season. Emphasis on equations which incorporate blizzards, blowing snow and higher wind speed is necessary for regions which are influenced by any or all of these factors; Bogdanova's correction technique is the most robust of all the datasets analyzed and gives the most reasonable results. One of our future goals is to analyze the impact of precipitation uncertainties on water budget analysis for the Siberian Rivers.

  4. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  5. Synthesis of hydrated lutetium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Liu [South China Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Guangdong (China); Rong-jun Ma [Changsha Research Institute of Minig and Metallurgy, Hunan (China)

    1997-09-01

    Crystalline lutetium carbonate was synthesized for the corresponding chloride using ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant. The chemical analyses suggest that the synthesized lutetium carbonate is a hydrated basic carbonate or oxycarbonate. The X-ray powder diffraction data are presented. The IR data for the compound show the presence of two different carbonate groups. There is no stable intermediate carbonate in the process of thermal decomposition of the lutetium carbonate. (au) 15 refs.

  6. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation model

  7. The Influence of NaCl Crystallization on the Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Feng, Xia-Ting; Jiang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Salt precipitation can occur in saline aquifers when the pore-fluid concentration exceeds saturation during carbon dioxide sequestration, especially in the dry-out region closest to the wellbore. Results from uniaxial and triaxial compression tests, creep tests, and poromechanical tests indicate that NaCl crystallization in pores enhances the compressive strength and bulk modulus under the given confining pressure, and reduces creep. In addition, it makes the pore liquid pressure in the sandstone less sensitive to changes in the hydrostatic stress under undrained conditions. A poro-viscoelastic model with crystals in the pores is proposed to quantitatively estimate the influence of in-pore NaCl crystallization on the long-term mechanical behavior of sandstone. By considering the thermodynamics of crystallization, a geometrical model of a crystal in a pore space is applied to the quasi-static equilibrium state of the crystallization. The solid-liquid interfacial energy is introduced to provide a convenient approach to couple the mechanical properties of sandstone (as a porous material) and the thermochemistry of the in-pore NaCl crystallization. By adding the solid-liquid interfacial energy, the Clausius-Duhem inequality for the skeleton is established for the viscoelasticity based on the proposed geometrical model of a crystal in the pore space. The constitutive equations are deduced from the free energy balance relationship to evaluate the influence of crystallization on the effective stress in terms of the solid-liquid interfacial energies and the pore-size distribution. By comparing the model's output with the test results, it is found that the poro-viscoelastic model describes the influence of in-pore NaCl crystallization on the long-term mechanical behavior of the sandstone reasonably well.

  8. Gas-Liquid Precipitation of Water Dissolved Heavy Metal Ions Using Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tarazi, Mousa

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation of solids promoted by gas-liquid reactions is applied in many industrial processes such as the production of ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, barium carbonate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, ypsum (calcium sulphate), goethite, sodium bicarbonate, strontium carbonate and terephthalic acid. In ddition gas-liquid precipitation can be applied in gas cleaning, heavy metal removal and in biotechnology. Despite the importance of this subject no extensive studies have yet be...

  9. Ubiquitylation functions in the calcium carbonate biomineralization in the extracellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Fang

    Full Text Available Mollusks shell formation is mediated by matrix proteins and many of these proteins have been identified and characterized. However, the mechanisms of protein control remain unknown. Here, we report the ubiquitylation of matrix proteins in the prismatic layer of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. The presence of ubiquitylated proteins in the prismatic layer of the shell was detected with a combination of western blot and immunogold assays. The coupled ubiquitins were separated and identified by Edman degradation and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. Antibody injection in vivo resulted in large amounts of calcium carbonate randomly accumulating on the surface of the nacreous layer. These ubiquitylated proteins could bind to specific faces of calcite and aragonite, which are the two main mineral components of the shell. In the in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization assay, they could reduce the rate of calcium carbonate precipitation and induce the calcite formation. Furthermore, when the attached ubiquitins were removed, the functions of the EDTA-soluble matrix of the prismatic layer were changed. Their potency to inhibit precipitation of calcium carbonate was decreased and their influence on the morphology of calcium carbonate crystals was changed. Taken together, ubiquitylation is involved in shell formation. Although the ubiquitylation is supposed to be involved in every aspect of biophysical processes, our work connected the biomineralization-related proteins and the ubiquitylation mechanism in the extracellular matrix for the first time. This would promote our understanding of the shell biomineralization and the ubiquitylation processes.

  10. Nanostructured Dense ZrO2 Thin Films from Nanoparticles Obtained by Emulsion Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, Fiona C.M.; Sager, Wiebke F.C.; Elshof, ten Johan E.; Verweij, Henk

    2004-01-01

    Nonagglomerated spherical ZrO2 particles of 5–8 nm size were made by emulsion precipitation. Their crystallization and film-forming characteristics were investigated and compared with nanosized ZrO2 powders obtained by sol–gel precipitation. High-temperature X-ray diffraction indicated that the emul

  11. Preparation of ultrafine a-Al2O3 using precipitation-azeotropic distillation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) was prepared by a precipitation-azeotropic distillation method,which uses aluminum sulfate as the Al source and ammonium carbonate as the precipitant.Then,AACH was calcined into ultrafine α-Al2O3 powder.The factors that influence the dispersion property of ultrafine α-Al2O3 powder are discussed in this paper,such as the methods of adding materials,surfactant,and drying methods.The changes of the structure and property of ultrafine alumina in the thermal treatment process are also studied.The morphological structure and properties of AACH are characterized by DTA/TGA,SEM,XRD,and ICP measurements.The results show that ultrafine α-Al2O3 powder with a uniform particle size and well-distributed property can be synthesized only after aluminum sulfate atomizes into ammonium carbonate,proper amount of PEG1000 is added as the dispersant,and the product is treated by azeotropic distillation.The phase transformation of alumina during the calcination process can be described as amorphous Al2O3→γ-Al2O3→θ-Al2O3→α-Al2O3.The crystal grain size and density of ultrafine alumina powder increase with the increase of the calcination temperature.After AACH has been calcined at 1200℃ for 2 h,the ultrafine α-Al2O3 with uniform particle size,spherical shape,and more than 99.97% purity is obtained and its powder is well dispersed.

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PULP BY IN-SITU FILLER PRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    Full Text Available In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate in bagasse fibers resulted in a very significant increase in specific scattering coefficient and consequently large improvements in opacity and brightness of the handsheets made from such pulp. At the same level of filler loading, the scattering coefficient of in-situ precipitated pulp was much greater than for directly loaded pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate caused a drop in strength properties of bagasse pulp, but such loss could be recovered to a large extent by blending with other pulps. The effect of in-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on pulp fibers was quite different for bagasse pulp from hardwood pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on hardwood fibers showed neither much improvement in optical properties nor much reduction in strength properties.

  13. A Computer Simulation Study of the Effects of Anions on Nickel Carbonate Crystallization Process%计算机模拟阴离子对碳酸镍结晶过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昉; Nora H.de Leeuw; 张昭

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization behaviors of nickel carbonate in different solutions are investigated via atomistic simulation technique. Simulation results show that the effect of hydration on the surface enables surface more stable and morphology more regular. The interaction between SO_4~(2-) and crystal surface is strong but SO_4~(2-) has little effect on the crystal morphology. Cl~- has relatively weaker interaction with the surface but makes the crystal morphology irregular. Only dominant (104) face is expressed in each mentioned cases. The simulation results are in good agreement with experiments.%本文采用原子模拟技术,研究了不同溶液中碳酸镍的结晶行为.结果表明,水化作用使碳酸镍晶体更稳定,形貌更规整.杂质阴离子SO_4~(2-)与碳酸镍品体表面的作用力较强,但对其形貌影响不大.Cl~-对表面的作用力较弱,但使晶体形貌更不规则.在模拟的几种情况中,碳酸镍的(104)晶面均是最主要的显露面.模拟结果能与实验现象很好吻合.

  14. Influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur la cristallisation des carbonates de calcium Influence of Foreign Ions and of Organic Matter on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailleau P.

    2006-11-01

    examines the influence of foreign ions and organic matter on the ger-mination and growth of calcium carbonates.The main results obtained can be summed up as follows:a Concerning Foreign Ions.Their action generally results in:- an increase in germination time and a reduction in the growth rate of CaC03 crystals:- the appearance of special facies for some of the minerals formed: - the inhibition of transformation from one variety ta another.A classification by order of increasing efficiency is obtained: - approximately zero action: K+, CI-;- moderate action: Bot+, Na+, A13+, Cul+, Sr 2+, S04-, P04- . - dominant action of Mg'+.b For Organic Matter.Citric acid and, ta a lesser extent, tartaric acid are the only ones ta have an appre ciable influence, moreover an influence which is similar to thot of foreign ions with regard ta kinetics of CaCO3 germination and growth.The adsorption of some of these products also results in special facies of the minerals formed and eventually in the inhibition of transformations from one variety ta another

  15. Effect of Impurities on Conversion of Gypsum and Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate%杂质对磷石膏与碳酸铵反应及产物碳酸钙结晶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁光月; 李岳; 樊彩梅; 荆宏健; 冯军强

    2011-01-01

    用碳酸铵与磷石膏反应制取硫酸铵是磷石膏利用的有效途径之一,但磷石膏中的杂质会对石膏的转化过程及碳酸钙的结晶产生不利影响,进而影响碳酸钙的分离过程.以二水硫酸钙与碳酸铵为原料,以磷酸、硝酸镁、氟化钠及酸不溶物(AI)为杂质添加剂,研究了磷石膏复分解反应制取硫酸铵过程中杂质P2O5、Mg2+、F-及AI对硫酸钙转化率的影响,并对反应产物碳酸钙的结晶形态和晶型进行了SEM和XRD分析.结果表明,杂质的存在不仅降低了石膏中硫的转化率,而且使碳酸钙的晶型和晶体形状发生了变化,从而将影响产物的物性和过滤性能.%An effective approach of phosphogypsum utilization is the production of ammonium sulfate from ammonium carbonate and phosphogypsum. However, impurities in phosphogypsum have a negative impact on gypsum transformation process and the crystallization of calcium carbonate , and thus on the separation process of calcium carbonate. In this paper, calcium sulfate dihydrate and ammonium carbonate were used as raw materials, with phosphoric acid, magnesium nitrate, sodium fluoride and acid-insoluble material(AI) as impurity additives, to investigate the effects of the impurities P, Mg2+ , F- and AI on the conversion of calcium sulfate. The crystal line state and morphology of the product calcium carbonate were characterized by SEM and XRD analysis. The results show that the impurities not only affected the conversion of sulfur in gypsum, but also changed the type and shape of calcium carbonate crystal, consequently, affected the physical properties and filtration performance of products.

  16. Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings onto Carbon/carbon Composites in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jin-Ling; Bo, Wu; Hai, Zhou; Cao, Ning; Li, Mu-Sen

    Two types of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings onto carbon/carbon composite (C/C composites) substrates, deposited by plasma spraying technique, were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to determine their behavior in conditions similar to the human blood plasma. Calcium ion concentration, pH value, microstructure, and phase compositions were analyzed. Results demonstrated that both the crystal Ca-P phases or the amorphous HA do dissolve slightly, and the dissolution of CaO phases in SBF was evident after 1 day of soaking. The calcium-ion concentration was decreased and the pH value of SBF was increased with the increasing of the immersing time. The precipitation was mainly composed of HA, which was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron-probe microanalyzer.

  17. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2009-08-01

    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at

  18. Research on the Influence of Pyrolysis Reaction Rate on Light Magnesium Carbonate Crystal Morphology%热解反应速率对轻质碳酸镁晶体形貌影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建军; 于博; 刘安双

    2013-01-01

    针对重镁水热解反应特点,采用抽真空降低系统中CO2气体分压的方式,加速重镁水热解反应正向反应速率.通过观察、对比一定热解温度,不同真空度下反应生成的轻质碳酸镁晶体型貌,得出结论:降低CO2气体分压,提高热解反应速率,会减缓轻质碳酸镁晶体型貌由棒状→片状→球状这一转变过程.当热解温度为50℃,提高反应速率,会促进轻质碳酸镁晶体团聚,反应速率越快,团聚现象越明显.%According to the characteristics of the heavy magnesium water pyrolysis and using vacuum to reduce the partial pressure of C02 gas in the system, the positive reaction rate of the pyrolysis reaction of heavy magnesium water is accelerated. By observation and comparison of light magnesium carbonate crystal morphology generated with certain pyrolysis temperature and different degree of vacuum, it can be concluded that the transition process of the light magnesium carbonate crystal morphology will slow down when reducing the partial pressure of C02 gas and increasing the rate of pyrolysis reaction. When the temperature of pyrolysis reaches 50 ℃ , the reunion of light magnesium carbonate crystal will be accelerated by improving the reaction rate. The faster the reaction rate is, the more obvious the reunion phenomenon is.

  19. CO2碳酸化石灰岩酸解产物回收乙酸及副产沉淀碳酸钙%CO2 carbonation of calcium acetate derived from acidolysis of natural CaCO3 for recycling of acetic acid and production of precipitated calcium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨政; 岳海荣; 周向葛; 梁斌; 谢和平

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid dissolution of limestone for formation of cavity is a kind of environmental approach to fabricating underground storage and preparing precipitated calcium carbonate. This process is an integrated technology consisting of acetic acid dissolution of limestone and CO2 carbonation of calcium acetate. The kinetics of limestone acidolysis with acetic acid was investigated. Orthogonal experiments were conducted with emphasis on operation conditions (i.e., concentration of calcium acetate, pressure of CO2, reaction temperature, and reaction time) of the carbonation reaction. The highest conversion of calcium acetate (23.13%) was achieved at the calcium acetate concentration of 0.631 mol·L-1, CO2 pressure of 5 MPa, reaction temperature of 80℃ and reaction for 50 min. The product of calcium carbonate was analyzed and could meet the requirements of Chinese national standard.%乙酸酸解石灰石造腔是一种建造地下储库同时环保地开采石灰岩制备沉淀碳酸钙的新方法。通过耦合乙酸酸解石灰石及酸解产物乙酸钙 CO2碳酸化的工艺过程,研究了乙酸酸解石灰岩的表面反应动力学和乙酸钙 CO2碳酸化的工艺技术条件。采用正交实验分析法,研究了CO2碳酸化反应中乙酸钙浓度、反应温度、CO2压力、反应时间对乙酸钙碳酸化反应制沉淀碳酸钙的影响,并通过正交实验确定了最优化操作条件。实验结果表明,乙酸酸解反应速率主要受乙酸浓度控制。CO2碳酸化反应在当乙酸钙溶液浓度为0.631 mol·L-1,CO2压力为5.0 MPa,温度为80℃,反应时间为50 min时CO2碳酸化效率达到最高(23.13%),生成的沉淀碳酸钙产品各项指标均符合中国国标优级要求。

  20. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the...

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic kinetics of nano-ZnO powders by precipitation stripping process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongxiang ZHANG; Hang XU; Min XUE; Wenguo XU; V TARASOV

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-fine zinc oxalate powders were prepared through a precipitation stripping method with bis(2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphate (HDEHP) diluted by tetrachloride carbon as the extractant,and oxalic acid ethanol aqueous solution as the re-extractant and precipitator.Zinc oxide powders were obtained by decomposing zinc oxalate powders at 450℃.The prepared zinc oxide powders were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM),Scanning elec-tron microscope (SEM),Thermogravimetric analysis (TG),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transmission infrared (FT-IR) spectrum.The photocatalytic performance of methylene blue by zinc oxide was studied based on the Langmuir model and Photo-Layer model.The results show that some zinc oxide powders were micro-multipore mate-rials with hexagonal crystal.The particle size was around 32 nm.The photocatalytic process was the control step in the chemical reaction.The photo catalytic process followed pseudo-first order kinetics and ,OH concentration inside the photo-layer in different reaction condition were calcu-lated according to the Photo-Layer model.

  2. Influences of temperature and saturation states on the precipitation rate of calcium carbonates%温度和过饱和度对海水中碳酸钙沉淀速率的影响Ⅰ.镁方解石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿成利; 刘刚; 路波

    2009-01-01

    Using the constant addition system, the precipitation of Mg-calcite in seawater was experimentally investigated at 5, 15, and 25 ℃. It was observed that, at each temperature, the relation between Mg-calcite precipitation rates and saturation states can be well expressed in the kinetic form of R=k(Ω-1) or Log(R)=nLog(Ω-1)+Log(k). The change of pCO2 would result in the remarkable variation of Mg-calcite precipitation rates, while it would not affect the kinetic expression of Mg-calcite precipitation. On the other hand, there are remarkable discrepancies among the kinetic expressions obtained at different temperatures, which indicate the thermodynamic relevance of the kinetic process of Mg-calcite precipitation.%采用稳定加液一反应系统对5、15和25 ° C下镁方解石沉淀在海水中的形成过程进行了研究.结果表明镁方解石的沉淀速率(R)对过饱和度(Ω)的响应均可通过R=k(Ω-1)°或Log(R)=nLog(Ω-1)+Log(k)形式的动力学方程加以表达.pCO2的变化会显著改变过饱和度进而影响到镁方解石沉淀速率,但这一变化并不会对镁方解石沉淀形成过程的动力学表达产生影响.相比之下,不同温度下镁方解石沉淀形成的动力学方程存在明显差异,表明这一动力学过程同时还具有强烈的热力学相关性.

  3. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  4. Introduction to protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies.

  5. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  6. Characterization of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides prepared by two different co-precipitation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Mei; CUI Meisheng; ZHANG Na; LONG Zhiqi; HUANG Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    A series of cerium zirconium mixed oxides were prepared by two co-precipitation methods using magnesium hydrogen carbonate (MHC) and mixed ammonia-ammonia hydrogen carbonate (AAHC) as precipitant respectively.The crystal structure,BET surface area and morphology of the produced cerium zirconium mixed oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Brumauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.The reduction-oxidation behavior and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) performance were also studied by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and oxygen pulse chemical adsorption methods.The XRD results demonstrated that the cerium zirconium mixed oxides obtained by both methods possessed structure of cubic solid solution phase.The fresh surface area calcinated at 600 ℃,aged surface area after 1000 ℃ and OSC at 500 ℃ of cerium zirconium mixed oxides were determined to be 89.337,34.784 m2/g,and 567 μmol O2/g for MHC method and 122.010,46.307 m2/g,and 665 μmol O2/g for AAHC method,respectively.

  7. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  8. Truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals in ALH84001: presumptive biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Vali, H.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; McKay, M. F.; Romanek, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    McKay et al. [(1996) Science 273, 924-930] suggested that carbonate globules in the meteorite ALH84001 contained the fossil remains of Martian microbes. We have characterized a subpopulation of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) crystals present in abundance within the Fe-rich rims of these c