WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon-quality steel plate

  1. 78 FR 4385 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic...- length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). The period of... Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Cut-to- Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products from...

  2. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy... antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  3. 75 FR 47777 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Final...-quality steel plate products from Italy. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter, Evraz Palini Bertoli... certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate) from Italy. See Certain Cut-to...

  4. 77 FR 21527 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic... certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea. The review covers...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  5. 78 FR 29113 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic... order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea. For these...-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea (Korea).\\1\\ The period of review is February 1...

  6. 77 FR 2032 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... decision to find DSM and DKI affiliates in a separate review. See Dongkuk Steel Mill Co. v. United States... Steel Mill Co., Ltd. (DSM). The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. The Department has preliminarily determined that DSM made U.S. sales at prices less than normal...

  7. 75 FR 16504 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... existence and availability of substitute products; and the level of competition among the Domestic Like... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel...

  8. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  9. 75 FR 43931 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... (``IF'')) steels, high strength low alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination... titanium and/or niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from...

  10. 75 FR 64254 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil; Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... degassed, fully stabilized (commonly referred to as interstitial-free (IF)) steels, high strength low alloy... and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro- alloying levels of elements... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From...

  11. 76 FR 22868 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... (``IF'')) steels, high strength low alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination... titanium and/or niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From...

  12. 75 FR 77828 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil...-rolled flat-rolled carbon- quality steel products from Brazil for the period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. See Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil...

  13. 75 FR 32160 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil... certain hot-rolled flat- rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil. See Agreement Suspending the... review of the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products...

  14. 75 FR 64246 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil... products from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel...\\ See also the Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From...

  15. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... party group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 16504, April 1, 2010) were adequate. A record... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... Brazil and Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia. SUMMARY:...

  16. 75 FR 47263 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ....'' \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 16437 (April 1, 2010) (Notice of..., 75 FR 16437 (2010). Section 351.218(d)(1)(i) of the Department's regulations provides domestic... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the...

  17. 75 FR 16071 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ....) invoice price on all shipments of subject merchandise from the Huludao Companies entered or withdrawn from... 36.53 percent of the f.o.b. invoice price on all shipments of subject merchandise from companies... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic...

  18. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 37711). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on October 17, 2012, and all persons who... countervailing duty determination with respect to circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Vietnam (77 FR 64471, October 22, 2012), the Commission terminated investigation No. 701-TA-485 (77 FR 65712,...

  19. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... detailed scope language, see 77 FR 19635, April 2, 2012. For further information concerning the conduct of... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded...

  20. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  1. 75 FR 75455 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... (``IF'')) steels, high strength low alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination... titanium and/or niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From...

  2. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue li

  3. Impact behaviour of stiffened steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Sølvernes, Sindre Hellem

    2015-01-01

    The impact behavior of stiffened steel plates subjected to impact loading from concentrated loads was studied experimentally and numerically. Both dynamic and quasi-static tests of stiffened steel plates with geometry adopted from a typical external deck area on an offshore platform were conducted. The quasi-static tests were performed to study the relationship between dynamic impact behavior and the corresponding static ones. All tests were carried out in scale 1:4. To allow the executio...

  4. 77 FR 32539 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    .... \\14\\ See SeAH Vina comments dated December 5, 2011; see also Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel..., 1340 (Fed. Cir. 2009). \\36\\ See Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic...

  5. Effect of weld on design of steel moment-resisting connection reinforced with steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Peng; LI Yong

    2005-01-01

    The foreign experimental and FEM research of steel moment-resisting connection reinforced with steel plates are introduced. The effect of weld on the connection design is studied in two ways including weld detail and geometrical detail of steel plates contrast to the reference drawing of connection design in China. The research shows that the weld plays an important role in the design of connections. The welds connecting reinforced plates and beam/ column flange and the plate geometry have direct influence on the performance of the connections reinforced with plates. The study is helpful to the application of design of steel moment-resisting connection with steel plates.

  6. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahbar Ranji Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion is one of the detrimental phenomena which reduces strength of structures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. Since the actual corroded plate has rough surfaces, to estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required. The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method by using computer code ANSYS was employed to determine plastic collapse load. By comparing the results with uniform thickness assumption, a reduction factor was proposed. It is found that by uniform thickness assumption, plastic collapse load of corroded plates are overestimated.

  7. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  8. Manufacturing Technology and Application Trends of Titanium Clad Steel Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang SU; Xiao-bing LUO; Feng CHAI; Jun-chang SHEN; Xin-jun SUN; Feng LU

    2015-01-01

    Some of the major manufacturing processes and corresponding mechanical properties of titanium clad steel plates were analyzed, and the consequences of research, manufacturing, and application of titanium clad steel plates in both markets of China and overseas were also summarized. As an economical and environmentally friendly technology, the roll bonding process is ex-pected to become the next-generation mainstream process for the manufacturing of titanium clad steel plate. Some of the crucial and most important technical problems of this particular process, including vacuum sealing technology, surface treatment process technology, application of a transition layer, and rolling process, were discussed along with the advantageous mechanical properties and life-cycle economy of these plates processed by this technology. Finally, the market needs, application trends, and requirements of titanium clad steel plate were also considered from industries of petrochemical, shipbuilding, marine, and electric power.

  9. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Zhongyou Tipo Steel (``Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo''), Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO''), Sichuan YNJ Industries Co., Ltd. (``Sichuan YNJ''), SteelFORCE Far East Ltd. (``Steel..., Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo, Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO, Sichuan YNJ, SteelFORCE, Tianjin Baolai, Tianjin...

  10. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels.

  11. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nishioka and Kazutoshi Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates.

  12. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Ichikawa, Kazutoshi

    2012-04-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates.

  13. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... American Bureau of Shipping published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels” 1981. (b) Along... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment...

  14. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  15. Optimization Design of Thermal Conduction Enhanced PCM Plates for Simulating the Infrared Signature of Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong; JIANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    Phase change material (PCM) can be used to prepare the infrared false targets for realizing all-weather passive infrared decoy, but its low thermal conductivity is a great blockage to the simulation of the infrared signature of thick metal plates. For that reason, a method of simulating the infrared signature of thick steel plates by thermal conduction enhanced PCM, including the aluminum fins, is proposed. A physical and mathematic model is set up, and the infrared signature simulation of thick steel plate is investigated numerically. The effects of the distribution density and thickness of fins and the thickness of PCM plate on the simulation results are discussed, and the reasonable construction parameters of PCM plates used to simulate the steel plates of different thickness are obtained.

  16. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  17. 76 FR 72173 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Steel Development Fund Support K. Special Economic Zones (``SEZ'') Programs 1. Duty-Free Importation of.... Preferential Lending 1. Preferential Export Lending 2. Dubai Commodity Receipts For further...

  18. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyoshi Nishioka and Kazutoshi Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortio...

  19. Dowel Type Connections with Slotted-in Steel Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    In the Eurocode the strength of dowel type connectors is determined according to the theory of plasticity. When the loading is in the grain direction the strength is well predicted by the plasticity theory. However, when the loading is in the transverse direction splitting may supervene plastic f...... failure, as is shown in test series on smaller specimens with slotted-in steel plates. The scope of the present investigation is to trace the effect of eccentric transverse loading of full scale connections with slotted-in steel plates primarily loaded in the grain direction....

  20. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2013-02-01

    Corrosion makes structures more vulnerable to buckling and yielding failures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. To estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required, since the actual corroded structures have irregular surfaces. Elastic buckling of simply supported rectangular corroded plates are studied with one- and both-sided irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis by using finite element method (FEM) is employed for computing Euler stress. The influence of various geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- and both-sided corroded plates are the same. In plates with low value of aspect ratio, reduction of buckling strength is negligible. Reduction of buckling strength is more prominent in plates with higher aspect ratio. Reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss; the higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of buckling strength. Reduction of buckling strength is less sensitive to the standard deviation of thickness diminution.

  1. New explosive welding technique to weld aluminum alloy and stainless steel plates using a stainless steel intermediate plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Izuma, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Siga (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Various aluminum alloys and stainless steel were explosively welded using a thin stainless steel intermediate plate inserted between the aluminum alloy driver and stainless steel base plates. At first. the velocity change of the driver plate with flying distance is calculated using finite-difference analysis. Since the kinetic energy lost by collision affects the amount of the fused layer generated at the interface between the aluminum alloy and stainless steel, the use of a thin stainless steel intermediate plate is effective for decreasing the energy dissipated by the collision. The interfacial zone at the welded interface is composed of a fine eutectic structure of aluminum and Fe[sub 4]Al[sub 13], and the explosive welding, process of this metal combination proceeds mainly by intensive deformation of the aluminum alloy. The weldable region for various aluminum alloys is decided by the change in collision velocity and kinetic energy lost by collision, and the weldable region is decreased with the increase in the strength of the aluminum alloy.

  2. Numerical Modelling of Double-Steel Plate Composite Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Elmatzoglou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-steel plate concrete composite shear walls are being used for nuclear plants and high-rise buildings. They consist of thick concrete walls, exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement and shear connectors, which guarantee the composite action between the two different materials. Several researchers have used the Finite Element Method to investigate the behaviour of double-steel plate concrete walls. The majority of them model every element explicitly leading to a rather time-consuming solution, which cannot be easily used for design purposes. In the present paper, the main objective is the introduction of a three-dimensional finite element model, which can efficiently predict the overall performance of a double-steel plate concrete wall in terms of accuracy and time saving. At first, empirical formulations and design relations established in current design codes for shear connectors are evaluated. Then, a simplified finite element model is used to investigate the nonlinear response of composite walls. The developed model is validated using results from tests reported in the literature in terms of axial compression and monotonic, cyclic in-plane shear loading. Several finite element modelling issues related to potential convergence problems, loading strategies and computer efficiency are also discussed. The accuracy and simplicity of the proposed model make it suitable for further numerical studies on the shear connection behaviour at the steel-concrete interface.

  3. Bending Resistance of Steel Plate-Reinforced Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    The formulas for calculating bending-resistant capacity of a steel plate-reinforced concrete composite beam are derived.To validate the formulas,experiments of the composite beam under three-point bending are carried out.Calculated results based on the formulas are in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. 78 FR 7451 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 5052) and determined on May 7, 2012 that it would conduct a full review (77 FR 37439, June..., 2012 (77 FR 38825). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all persons who... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  5. A Composite Steel Plate Shear Walls for Offshore Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Albarody Thar M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new-type of weldable composite steel plate shear wall, which consists of a steel plate sandwiched by either of two or one composite panels at each side or at one side, has been proposed. An analytical model for such shear wall – via shell model is derived and the vibrational modes are discussed. Truss reinforcement is used to increase the integration between the steel and composite layers and the cross sectional properties were graded by magnetic nanoparticles fillers. The thickness shear modes at the composite wall appear higher than those of thickness stretch modes, but they are varied in a very orderly manner with respect to the vibrational mode. Also, some of characteristics are examined.

  6. 78 FR 31577 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...)] Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan Determination On the basis of the... reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products, provided... diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. Accordingly, effective March...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  8. 77 FR 32513 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of not less than 4 mm, not in coils and without patterns in relief) of a thickness not less than 4.0... material injury to an industry in the United States. See Certain Hot-Rolled Steel Products From Brazil and... FR 53404 (August, 26, 2011). On September 22, 2011, and January 4, 2012, the Department issued...

  9. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  10. Wear behavior of austenite containing plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christina E.

    As a follow up to Wolfram's Master of Science thesis, samples from the prior work were further investigated. Samples from four steel alloys were selected for investigation, namely AR400F, 9260, Hadfield, and 301 Stainless steels. AR400F is martensitic while the Hadfield and 301 stainless steels are austenitic. The 9260 exhibited a variety of hardness levels and retained austenite contents, achieved by heat treatments, including quench and tempering (Q&T) and quench and partitioning (Q&P). Samples worn by three wear tests, namely Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel (DSRW), impeller tumbler impact abrasion, and Bond abrasion, were examined by optical profilometry. The wear behaviors observed in topography maps were compared to the same in scanning electron microscopy micrographs and both were used to characterize the wear surfaces. Optical profilometry showed that the scratching abrasion present on the wear surface transitioned to gouging abrasion as impact conditions increased (i.e. from DSRW to impeller to Bond abrasion). Optical profilometry roughness measurements were also compared to sample hardness as well as normalized volume loss (NVL) results for each of the three wear tests. The steels displayed a relationship between roughness measurements and observed wear rates for all three categories of wear testing. Nanoindentation was used to investigate local hardness changes adjacent to the wear surface. DSRW samples generally did not exhibit significant work hardening. The austenitic materials exhibited significant hardening under the high impact conditions of the Bond abrasion wear test. Hardening in the Q&P materials was less pronounced. The Q&T microstructures also demonstrated some hardening. Scratch testing was performed on samples at three different loads, as a more systematic approach to determining the scratching abrasion behavior. Wear rates and scratch hardness were calculated from scratch testing results. Certain similarities between wear behavior in scratch testing

  11. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Luigi; Morra, Marco

    2017-03-01

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  12. Multilayer Clad Plate of Stainless Steel/Aluminum/Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jiawei; PANG Yuhua; LI Ting

    2011-01-01

    The 3, 5, 20 layer clad plate from austenitic stainless steel, pure aluminum and aluminum alloy sheets were fabricated in different ways. The stretch and interface properties were measured. The result shows that 20 layer clad plate is better than the others. Well-bonded clad plate was successfully obtained in the following procedure: Basic clad sheet from 18 layer A11060/A13003sheets was firstly obtained with an initial rolling reduction of 44% at 450 ℃, followed by annealing at 300 ℃, and then with reduction of 50% at 550 ℃ from STS304 on each side. The best 20 layer clad plate was of 129 MPa bonding strength and 225 MPa stretch strength.

  13. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan...-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products (certain nickel-plated, flat-rolled steel) from Japan..., nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products included in this investigation are flat-rolled,...

  14. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a detailed numerical investigation of the post-buckling behaviour of rectangular simply supported steel plates subjected to biaxial in-plane loading are presented. The Steel plates are loaded through forced edge displacements. The effects of initial imperfections, aspect ratio, plate...

  15. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  16. 78 FR 9676 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... ferrous metal (usually carbon or low alloy steel) where the latter predominates by weight. \\1\\ Cladding is... alloy clad steel plate is manufactured to ASTM specification A265. These specifications are illustrative...

  17. Electroless Plated Nanodiamond Coating for Stainless Steel Passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Korinko, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Spencer, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stein, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-15

    Tritium gas sample bottles and manifold components require passivation surface treatments to minimize the interaction of the hydrogen isotopes with surface contamination on the stainless steel containment materials. This document summarizes the effort to evaluate electroless plated nanodiamond coatings as a passivation layer for stainless steel. In this work, we developed an electroless nanodiamond (ND)-copper (Cu) coating process to deposit ND on stainless steel parts with the diamond loadings of 0%, 25% and 50% v/v in a Cu matrix. The coated Conflat Flanged Vessel Assemblies (CFVAs) were evaluated on surface morphology, composition, ND distribution, residual hydrogen release, and surface reactivity with deuterium. For as-received Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs, hydrogen off-gassing is rapid, and the off-gas rates of H2 was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that for both untreated and electropolished stainless steel CFVAs, and hydrogen and deuterium reacted to form HD as well. These results indicated that residual H2 was entrapped in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs during the coating process, and moisture was adsorbed on the surface, and ND and/or Cu might facilitate catalytic isotope exchange reaction for HD formation. However, hydrocarbons (i.e., CH3) did not form, and did not appear to be an issue for the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs. After vacuum heating, residual H2 and adsorbed H2O in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs were dramatically reduced. The H2 off-gassing rate after the vacuum treatment of Cu and 50% ND-Cu coated CFVAs was on the level of 10-14 l mbar/s cm2, while H2O off-gas rate was on the level of 10-15 l mbar/s cm2, consistent with the untreated or electropolished stainless steel CFVA, but the HD formation remained. The Restek EP bottle was used as a reference for this work. The Restek Electro-Polished (EP) bottle and their Sil

  18. 78 FR 23905 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan...'') petition concerning imports of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan (``certain nickel-plated, flat-rolled steel''), filed in proper form by Thomas Steel Strip...

  19. Casting of Hearth Plates from High-chromium Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the development of manufacturing technologies to cast hearth plates operating in chamber furnaces for heat treatment. Castings made from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 steel were poured in hand-made green sand molds. The following operations were performed: computer simulation to predict the distribution of internal defects in castings produced by the above mentioned technology with risers bare and coated with exothermic and insulating sleeves, analysis of each variant of the technology, and manufacture of experimental castings. As a result of the conducted studies and analysis it was found that the use of risers with exothermic sleeves does not affect to a significant degree the quality of the produced castings of hearth plates, but it significantly improves the metal yield.

  20. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion is a long-term, inevitable process, lessens the thickness and load carrying capacity of structures. Old steel structures are more vulnerable to buckling, yielding and fracture due to corrosion. In lieu of a detailed analysis, average thickness assumption is employed for general type of corrosion. However, the estimation of load carrying capacity reduction of corroded structures typically need a much higher level of accuracy, since the actual corroded plates would have irregular surfaces. The objective of this article is to determine the effect of general corrosion on reduction of elastic buckling strength of both-sided partially corroded plates with irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis using finite element method is employed for Euler stress calculation of corroded plates. The effects of different influential parameters are investigated and it is found that, aspect ratio of plate, location of corroded area, standard deviation of thickness diminution and concentration of corrosion have influence on reduction of elastic buckling strength. Reduction of elastic buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss. The higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of elastic buckling strength.

  1. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajendran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  2. Stainless Steel Microstructural Evolution of Hot-Rolled Clad Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin LI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The stainless steel microstructure evolution of carbon–stainless-clad steel plate was investigated during vacuum hot-rolling bonding under different deformation conditions. The results show that carbide M2C precipitates in the interior of stainless steel (SS and carbon content increases with rising reduction ratio (ε. The dislocation density of the SS surface (ρI is lower than that of the midst (ρM, and ρI decreases with the rising ε. However, ρM increases first and then decreases with rising ε. The dislocation density of bonding interface decreases due to the increasing size of austenite grain. Furthermore, the dislocation density of the midst is high where the high energy of carbide M2C is concentrated for single-pass rolling, and the quantity of M2C increases with reduction ratio. Moreover, carbide almost disappeared while being transformed into austenite, and only minimal granular carbides were formed after two-pass rolling. Bonding strength increases evidently with rising ε and is inversely proportional to ρI.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12828

  3. Structural Changes of Surface Layers of Steel Plates in the Process of Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, I. A.; Bataev, A. A.; Mali, V. I.; Bataev, V. A.; Balaganskii, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Structural changes developing in surface layers of plates from steel 20 in the process of explosive welding are studied with the help of light metallography and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mathematical simulation is used to compute the depth of the action of severe plastic deformation due to explosive welding of steel plates on the structure of their surface layers.

  4. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  5. 76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... (``Commerce'') initiated and the U.S. International Trade Commission (``Commission'') instituted a five-year... its full five-year review of the countervailing duty order concerning stainless steel plate from...

  6. Ballistic Behaviour of Tempered Steel Armour Plates under Plane Strain Condition .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the ballistic behaviour of tempered steel armour plates under plane strain condition at normal angle of attack. A conical-shaped steel projectile of 6.1 mmdiameter was impacted on 20 mm thick steel annour plates of 350, 450 and 550 Hv hardness, in the velocity range 200 -700 m/s at zero obliquity. Ballistic performance measured in terms of the depthof penetration indicates that, under plane strain condition, behavio1Do" f 550 Hv steel plate is better than ...

  7. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact : Experimental Investigation II

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1999-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel armour plate at different obliquities has been investigated. Ballistic experiments were conducted in the velocity range 300-800 mls at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° obliquity .A steel, conical projectile or 6.1 mm diameter was impacted on a 10 mm thick steel armour plate. At 30° and 45° obliquity, the plate offers protection up to a striking velocity of 800 mls. At zero obliquity, the plate provides protection below 6~ m/s. The depth of penetration decreases with...

  8. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact : Experimental Investigation II

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1999-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel armour plate at different obliquities has been investigated. Ballistic experiments were conducted in the velocity range 300-800 mls at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° obliquity .A steel, conical projectile or 6.1 mm diameter was impacted on a 10 mm thick steel armour plate. At 30° and 45° obliquity, the plate offers protection up to a striking velocity of 800 mls. At zero obliquity, the plate provides protection below 6~ m/s. The depth of penetration decreases with...

  9. 77 FR 263 - Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From Italy and Japan: Revocation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... physical description, and in which the chemistry quantities do not equal or exceed any one of the levels...''), respectively. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082 (November 1, 2010). As a result of... closed box pass, of a width exceeding 150 mm but not exceeding 1250 mm, and of a nominal or...

  10. 76 FR 80963 - Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... reviews on November 1, 2010 (75 FR 67108) and determined on February 4, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 8772, February 15, 2011). Notice of the scheduling of the Commission's reviews and of a... in the Federal Register on April 18, 2011 (76 FR 22725, revised scheduling notice 76 FR...

  11. 75 FR 4779 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Prices We based normal value for Palini on packed, ex-works or delivered prices to unaffiliated customers... price. Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.412(c)(1), the normal-value level of trade is based on the starting price... that Palini made U.S. sales at prices less than normal value. If these preliminary results are...

  12. 76 FR 36081 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil and Japan: Revocation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... (``IF'')) steels, high strength low alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination... titanium and/or niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as...-quality steel products are covered by the orders, including: vacuum degassed, fully stabilized;...

  13. 78 FR 50378 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Postponement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan... Department) initiated the antidumping duty investigation of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. See Diffusion- Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From...

  14. Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Behavior of Polyurea Toughened Steel Plates under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work discussed herein is to develop a nonlinear 3D finite element model to simulate dynamic behavior of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading. Experimental and numerical work related to model development are presented. Material properties are incorporated into numerical models to account for strain-rate effects on the dynamic behavior of polyurea and steel. One bare steel plate and four polyurea toughened steel plates were tested under impact loading using a pendulum impact device. Displacement time-history data from experimental work was used to validate the numerical models. Details on material model construction, finite element model development, and model validation are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the developed numerical models can reasonably predict dynamic response of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading.

  15. Ballistic Behaviour of Tempered Steel Armour Plates under Plane Strain Condition .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the ballistic behaviour of tempered steel armour plates under plane strain condition at normal angle of attack. A conical-shaped steel projectile of 6.1 mmdiameter was impacted on 20 mm thick steel annour plates of 350, 450 and 550 Hv hardness, in the velocity range 200 -700 m/s at zero obliquity. Ballistic performance measured in terms of the depthof penetration indicates that, under plane strain condition, behavio1Do" f 550 Hv steel plate is better than those of the other two plates. However, front spalling causes damageto the entry side of the high hardness plate, thus affecting its multihit capability in a limited manner.

  16. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  17. Stålplader gav dobbelt bæreevne (Steel plates doubled the load bearing capacity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Broch

    1999-01-01

    Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams.......Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  18. Design and Simulation of a Feedback Control System for a Steel Plate Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torben; Feld; Holmgaard; Kristensen; Hans; Holm; Jesper; Hansen

    2002-01-01

    A discrete event heuristic feedback control system fo r a steel plate storage at Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd is developed and implemente d in a computer-based simulation model. The plant is subject to stochastic dist urbances. The control system is able to handle this stochastic behaviour bec ause of the feedback design. The present simulation results indicate that a bene fit in the range of 30%~40% is reachable by modifying the plant. Plant description The steel plate storage is located at Odense Steel ...

  19. Fatigue strength of hybrid VHSS-Cast steel welded plates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Very high strength steels (VHSS) have been made available by the steel industry for many years. In a fatigue loaded VHSS structure absolute and relative stress variation will be higher compared to stresses in structures made of lower grade steels. Cast steel, also available up to yield strength of 1

  20. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact: Experimental Investigation .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel amlOW- plate has been investigated at different obliquity when impacted by an ogive-shaped steel projectile. The ballistic experiments have been conducted in the velocity range 300-800 m/s. Both the thickness of the target plate and the diameter of the projectile were 20 Inm. At 30 and 45. obliquity 20 mm plate provides full protection at 800 m/s, whereas at 0 and 15. obliquity, the plate provides protection up to 600 m/s. At 15 and 30° obliquity, the pl...

  1. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact: Experimental Investigation .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel amlOW- plate has been investigated at different obliquity when impacted by an ogive-shaped steel projectile. The ballistic experiments have been conducted in the velocity range 300-800 m/s. Both the thickness of the target plate and the diameter of the projectile were 20 Inm. At 30 and 45. obliquity 20 mm plate provides full protection at 800 m/s, whereas at 0 and 15. obliquity, the plate provides protection up to 600 m/s. At 15 and 30° obliquity, the pl...

  2. Edge detection of steel plates at high temperature using image measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHOU; Qi AN

    2009-01-01

    An edge detection method for the measure-ment of steel plate's thermal expansion is proposed in this paper, where the shrinkage of a steel plate is measured when temperature drops. First, images are picked up by an imaging system; a method of regional edge detection based on grayscales' sudden change is then applied to detect the edges of the steel plate; finally, pixel coordinates of the edge position are transformed to physical coordinates through calibration parameters. The experiment shows that the real-time, high precision, and non-contact measure-ment of the steel plate's edge position under high temperature can be realized using the imaging measure-ment method established in this paper.

  3. A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W

    1956-01-01

    Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.

  4. Ultrasonic guided wave detection of scatterers on large clad steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Harley, Joel B.; Berges, Mario; Junker, Warren R.; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    "Clad steel" refers to a thick carbon steel structural plate bonded to a corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) plate, such as stainless steel or titanium, and is widely used in industry to construct pressure vessels. The CRA resists the chemically aggressive environment on the interior, but cannot prevent the development of corrosion losses and cracks that limit the continued safe operation of such vessels. At present there are no practical methods to detect such defects from the exposed outer surface of the thick carbon steel plate, often necessitating removing such vessels from service and inspecting them visually from the interior. In previous research, sponsored by industry to detect and localize damage in pressurized piping systems under operational and environmental changes, we investigated a number of data-driven signal processing methods to extract damage information from ultrasonic guided wave pitch-catch records. We now apply those methods to relatively large clad steel plate specimens. We study a sparse array of wafer-type ultrasonic transducers adhered to the carbon steel surface, attempting to localize mass scatterers grease-coupled to the stainless steel surface. We discuss conditions under which localization is achieved by relatively simple first-arrival methods, and other conditions for which data-driven methods are needed; we also discuss observations of plate-like mode properties implied by these results.

  5. Effect of Cadmium Plating Thickness on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Said, O. S.; Alcisto, J.; Guerra, J.; Jones, E.; Dominguez, A.; Hahn, M.; Ula, N.; Zeng, L.; Ramsey, B.; Mulazimoglu, H.; Li, Yong-Jun; Miller, M.; Alrashid, J.; Papakyriakou, M.; Kalnaus, S.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen was intentionally introduced into ultra-high strength steel by cadmium plating. The purpose was to examine the effect of cadmium plate thickness and hence hydrogen on the impact energy of the steel. The AISI 4340 steel was austenitized at 1000 °C for 1 h, water quenched, and tempered at temperatures between 257 and 593 °C in order to achieve a range of targeted strength levels. The specimens were cadmium plated with 0.00508 mm (0.2 mils), 0.00762 mm (0.3 mils), and 0.0127 mm (0.5 mils). Results demonstrated that the uncharged specimens exhibited higher impact energy values when compared to the plated specimens at all tempering temperatures. The cadmium-plated specimens had very low Charpy impact values irrespective of their ultimate tensile strength values. The model of hydrogen transport by mobile dislocations to the fracture site appears to provide the most suitable explanation of the results.

  6. Experimental investigation on performance of intumescent coating for steel plate at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长坤; 曾嘉伟; 申秉银

    2015-01-01

    Twenty tests were conducted to investigate the efficiency of the intumescent coating designed to protect steel plate at the elevated temperature, by means of electrical furnace. And the factors of the initial thickness of coating and temperature of electrical furnace were considered. The high temperature response behavior of the intumescent coating was observed. And the expansion form of ultrathin intumescent coating and the temperature of the steel plate (TS) were obtained. Besides, the heat flux from expansion layer to steel plate versus time was analyzed in order to evaluate the heat transfer effect of intumescent coating on steel plate. The experimental results show that the response behaviors of the coating subjected to fire could be divided into four phases: stabilization phase, foaming expansion phase, carbonization-consumption phase and inorganic layer phase. And the net heat flux to the steel plate decreased observably in the foaming expansion phase, while the surplus white inorganic substance, which is the residue of the intumesced char layer in the inorganic layer phase under the condition of the temperature of the electrical furnace (TEF) beyond 700 °C over 1 h, has little effect on fire protection for the steel plate.

  7. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... from Allegheny Ludlum Corporation, North American Stainless and the United Steel, Paper and...

  8. 75 FR 58351 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Extension of Time Limits for... countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium in accordance with section 751(c) of the... notices of intent to participate on behalf of Allegheny Ludlum Corporation and the United Steel, Paper...

  9. 78 FR 75371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final... of less-than-fair-value imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel...; whether or not in coils; either plated or coated with nickel or nickel-based alloys and...

  10. Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure of tower in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lisiecki; J. Szlek; A. Klimpel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible sources of the ...

  11. Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; A. Lisiecki; J. Szlek

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible s...

  12. Interfacial structure of steel-Al-28Pb bonding plate with semisolid rolling-casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 杜云慧; 刘汉武; 曾大本; 崔建忠; 巴立民

    2004-01-01

    Fe-Al compound at the interface of steel-mushy Al-28Pb bonding plate was studied quantitatively. The relationship between ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and bonding parameters such as preheating temperature of steel plate, solid volume fraction of Al-28Pb slurry and rolling speed, was established by artificial neural networks perfectly. The results show that when the bonding parameters are 546 ℃ for preheating temperature of steel plate,43.5% for solid volume fraction of Al-28Pb slurry and 8.6 mm/s for rolling speed, the reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound corresponding to the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is obtained as 71.5%. This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrittlement, that is, when the ratio of FeAl compound at interface is larger than 71.5%, interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  13. Principle of Mangling Correction of Plate-welding Section Steel and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the fantastic development of power, transportation, chemical engineering, architecture and other fields, there has been an increasing demand for new type of section steel with large sections used for construction frame, such as type-H, type-T, and type-C section steel. New types of section steel usually are long and with large cross section. Therefore, for the sake of the cost, steel plate welding structure is used home and abroad. During the welding process, welding distortion seems unavoidable. ...

  14. Effects of plating factors on morphology and appearance ofelectrogalvanized steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki NAKANO

    2009-01-01

    Because the lightness, the gloss and the press-formability of electrogalvanized steel sheets change depending on the morphology of deposited Zn, control of this factor is essential to improving these properties. The effects of plating factors on the morphology of deposited Zn were systematically discussed both from the crystallographic viewpoint of epitaxy between Zn and steel and from the electrochemical viewpoint of the overpotential for Zn deposition. Plating factors include crystal orientation of steel substrate, current density, flow rate, temperature, addition of inorganic compounds to the solution and pre-adsorption of organic compounds. These plating factors affect the overpotential for Zn deposition and epitaxy between Zn and steel. The crystal orientation index of the Zn basal plane and the platelet crystal size of Zn are decreased with increasing the overpotential for Zn deposition. They are also decreased with decreasing the epitaxy between Zn and steel, even when the overpotential is kept constant. When the overpotential for Zn deposition is increased, the surface roughness of deposited Zn increases because of an increase in the inclination of the Zn basal plane to the steel substrate. When the epitaxy between Zn and steel is decreased without changing the overpotential, the surface roughness is reduced due to the decrease in platelet crystal size of Zn, although the inclination of the Zn basal plane is somewhat increased. The lightness of deposited Zn is enhanced with decreasing the surface roughness of Zn.

  15. 75 FR 47541 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil and Japan: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 16437 (April 1, 2010). The... HTSUS. Tool steels, as defined in the HTSUS. Silico-manganese (as defined in the HTSUS) or silicon..., Method A, with excellent surface quality and chemistry restrictions as follows: 0.012 percent...

  16. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  17. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly.

  18. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly

  19. Chrome-Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High-Strength Steel (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Chrome -Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High- Strength Steel 11-19-14 Presentation at ASETSDefense 2014 George Zafiris Team: Mark Jaworowski, Mike...AND SUBTITLE Chrome -Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High-Strength Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United Technologies Research

  20. Detection for transverse corner cracks of steel plates' surface using wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHOU; Qi AN

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for detecting transverse comer cracks at a steel plate surface using wavelet transform. According to characteristics of trans-verse comer crack images, the wavelet transform is used for the multi-scale analysis of detecting the image edges and disintegrating the image into four directions at the same time. The proper threshold value is chosen to segment the image into vertical components to obtain the final detection result. The experiment shows that transverse comer cracks of steel plates can be more effectively extracted by the proposed method than the other two common methods.

  1. Magnetic hysteresis and magnetic flux patterns measured by acoustically stimulated electromagnetic response in a steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hisato; Watanabe, Kakeru; Ikushima, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops are measured by ultrasonic techniques and used in visualizing the magnetic-flux distribution in a steel plate. The piezomagnetic coefficient determines the amplitude of acoustically stimulated electromagnetic (ASEM) fields, yielding the hysteresis behavior of the intensity of the ASEM response. By utilizing the high correspondence of the ASEM response to the magnetic-flux density, we image the specific spatial patterns of the flux density formed by an artificial defect in a steel plate specimen. Magnetic-flux probing by ultrasonic waves is thus shown to be a viable method of nondestructive material inspection.

  2. Surface stability and conductivity of a high Cr and Ni austenitic stainless steel plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Rujin; SUN Juncai; WANG Jianli

    2006-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel as bipolar plate for PEMFC, electrochemical behavior of a high Cr and Ni austenitic stainless steel was studied in the solutions containing different concentration of H2SO4 and 2 mg·L-1 F-, and interfacial contact resistance was measured after corrosion tests. The experimental results show that the passive current density lowers with decreasing the concentration of H2SO4. The interfacial contact resistance between carbon paper and passive film formed in the simulated PEMFC environment is higher than the goal of bipolar plate for PEMFC. Surface conductivity should be further reduced by surface modification.

  3. Optimization and Operation Scheduling for a Steel Plate yard Based on Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The inbound and outbound operation of plate yards in shipyards lacks effective scheduling with high operation costs. Based on the analysis of steel-in and steel-out operation process, an optimization model aiming to minimize the operation cost was established. The model was formulated as a multi-level combinatorial optimization model, which is finding proper storage locations during the steel-in stage to minimize the cost during the steel-out stage. Furthermore, greedy algorithm was implemented to solve this problem. Finally, application data obtained from a shipyard was used to validate the model, and the result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective to solve the steel stockyards scheduling problem.

  4. Numerical simulation of circular jet impinging on hot steel plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Flow structure and heat transfer characteristics of an axisymmetric circular jet impinging on a hot 1Cr18Ni9Ti medium plate have been simulated numerically using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The relation between flow field of jet impingement and its heat transfer capability is analyzed, and the phenomenon that heat transfer at stagnation point is smaller than that of points directly around is discussed. The simulation result provides boundary conditions for thermalanalysis of medium plate quenching.

  5. 77 FR 38825 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... were such that a full review pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (77 FR 37439, June... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Clad Steel Plate From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  6. 78 FR 19734 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of... retarded, by reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated steel flat-rolled...

  7. Changes Found on Run-In and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J. N.; Godfrey, Douglas

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of run-in and scuffed steel, chrome-plate, and cast-iron surfaces. X-ray and electron diffraction techniques, micro-hardness determinations, and microscopy were used. Surface changes varied and were found to include three classes: chemical reaction, hardening, and crystallite-size alteration. The principal chemical reactions were oxidation and carburization.

  8. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  9. 77 FR 5052 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... (61 FR 34421). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective November 16... Japan (66 FR 57703). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective March...

  10. Influence of Rolling Treatment on Interfacial Shear Strength of Steel-mushy Al-7graphite Bonding Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Yunhui DU; Hanwu LIU; Daben ZENG; Jianzhong CUI; Limin BA

    2004-01-01

    At room temperature, the rolling treatment of steel-mushy Al-7graphite bonding plate was carried out under different relative reduction. The influence of rolling on interfacial mechanical property of this bonding plate was studied. The results show that, for steel-mushy Al-7graphite bonding plate which is made up of 1.2 mm in thickness 08Al steel plate and 2.0 mm in thickness Al-7graphite layer, there is a nonlinear relationship between interfacial shear strength of bonding plate and relative reduction of rolling. When relative reduction of rolling is smaller than 2.59%, with the increasing of relative reduction, interfacial shear strength of bonding plate increases gradually. When relative reduction of rolling is bigger than 2.59%, with the increasing of relative reduction, interfacial shear strength of bonding plate decreases continuously. When relative reduction of rolling is 2.59%, the largest interfacial shear strength 77.0 MPa can be obtained.

  11. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  12. 镀镍热轧不锈钢复合钢板的特性%Characteristics of Nickel Plating Hot Rolled Stainless Steel Clad Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓东; 陈进

    2015-01-01

    热轧法是当前世界上不锈钢复合钢板的主要生产方法.用热轧法生产不锈钢复合钢板时广泛采用结合界面镀镍.镀镍热轧不锈钢复合钢板有高的结合强度与好的安全性.%Hot rolling process is currently the main process for producing stainless steel clad plates in the world. Nickel plating for bonding interface of stainless steel clad plates is widely used in hot rolling process. The nickel plating for stainless steel clad plates has high bonding strength and good safety.

  13. Numerical and experimental demonstration of shear stress measurement at thick steel plates using acoustoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Zeynab; Ozevin, Didem

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to numerically quantify the stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using the fundamental theory of acoustoelasticity, which is the relationship with stress and ultrasonic velocity in the nonlinear regime. The normal and shear stresses of a thick plate can be measured using a phased array placement of ultrasonic sensors and Rayleigh ultrasonic waves. Three measurement angles (i.e., 0 45 and 90 degrees) are selected since three measurements are needed to solve the stress tensor in an isotropic plate. The ultrasonic data is influenced significantly by the frequency of the Rayleigh waves as well as the thickness of the plate being examined; consequently the overall experimental process is influenced by the measurement parameters. In this study, a numerical demonstration is implemented to extract the nonlinearity coefficients using a 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model capable of examining the effects of various plate thicknesses and ultrasonic frequencies on the shear stress measurement. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The correlation between the depth of penetration and shear stress is then obtained. The numerical results are compared with 1 MHz ultrasonic frequency and a 3/8 inch thick steel plate loaded uniaxially while the measurement direction is angled to have the presence of shear stress in the measurement direction.

  14. Bond slip detection of steel plate and concrete beams using smart aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Kong, Qingzhao; Li, Mo; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing; Fan, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The newly emerged steel plate concrete (SC), benefited from a composite effect of steel and concrete materials, has been applied to shield building and internal structures of AP1000 nuclear power plants. The detection of bond-slip between steel plate and concrete is of great importance to provide early warnings of steel plate and concrete debonding and to ensure the safety of SC structures. In this paper, an active sensing approach using smart aggregates (SAs) is developed to detect the initiation and to monitor the development of bond-slip. A SA, designed by sandwiching a fragile piezoceramic patch between protection materials, can be utilized as both actuator and sensor by taking advantage of the piezoelectricity of piezoceramic material. Two SC beams with distinct shear reinforcement ratios ≤ft({ρ }t\\right) were experimentally investigated. Based on the wavelet packet decomposition of the received signals from SAs, the initiation of bond-slip is detected, and the development of bond-slip is quantitatively monitored to better understand the structural performance of SC beams, including the stiffness and capacity. The bond-slip severities of the two SC beams are compared to study the improvement of bond-slip condition rendered by providing more shear reinforcement.

  15. Galvanic couples of 316L steel with Ti and ion plated Ti and TiN coatings in Ringer's solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluszek, J; Jedrkowiak, J; Markowski, J; Masalski, J

    1990-07-01

    Steel 316L was coated with titanium or titanium nitride by ion plating. The tightness of the coatings was examined electro-chemically. The galvanic effects for the galvanic couples steel-titanium, steel-titanium-coated steel and steel-titanium nitride-coated steel were studied. It was found that both titanium and titanium nitride coatings were non-porous in Ringer's solution; titanium served as an anode in the couple steel-titanium; it was oxidized according to the logarithmic law. For the other two couples, the coatings were the cathodes. The rate of dissolution of steel in these couples, was however, smaller than expected, owing to a strong polarization of the coatings. The potential of the couple was similar to that of steel.

  16. Strength of gusset plates in welded steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aage

    2004-01-01

    The design of gusset plates is normally carried out on the bases of the technical beam theory or other assumptions proved safe by experience. This design procedure has proved its usefulness by the length of life and use of existing structures, and is to some extend justified in simple loading cases....... A different approach is taken in the paper where upper and lower bounds are derived for the yield load assuming a perfect plastic material and Tresca's yield condition. Ther theoretical results are supported by a few numbers of tests. The paper deals mainly with the case of a single member welded into a cut...

  17. Effect of mechanical restraint on weldability of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel thick plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Hisashi, E-mail: serizawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suite, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Manabu; Kawahito, Yousuke [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakita, Shirane, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Katayama, Seiji [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    As one of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, the weldability of thick F82H plate was experimentally examined using new heat sources in order to minimize the total heat input energy in comparison with TIG welding. A full penetration of 32 mm thick plate could be produced as a combination of a 12 mm deep first layer generated by a 10 kW fiber laser beam and upper layers deposited by a plasma MIG hybrid welding with Ar + 2%O shielding gas. Also, the effect of mechanical restraint on the weldability under EB welding of thick F82H plate was studied by using FEM to select an appropriate specimen size for the basic test. The appropriate and minimum size for the basic test of weldability under EB welding of 90 mm thick plate might be 200 mm in length and 400 mm in width where the welding length should be about 180 mm.

  18. Cytotoxicity difference of 316L stainless steel and titanium reconstruction plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Mira Sumarta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pure titanium is the most biocompatible material today and used as a gold standard for metallic implants. However, stainless steel is still being used as implants because of its strength, ductility, lower price, corrosion resistant and biocompatibility. Purpose: This study was done to revealed the cytotoxicity difference between reconstruction plate made of 316L stainless steel and of commercially pure (CP titanium in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21 fibroblast culture through MTT assay. Methods: Eight samples were prepared from reconstruction plates made of stainless steel type 316L grade 2 (Coen’s reconstruction plate® that had been cut into cylindrical form of 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm long. The other one were made of CP titanium (STEMA Gmbh® of 2 mm in diameter and 2,2 mm long; and had been cleaned with silica paper and ultrasonic cleaner, and sterilized in autoclave at 121° C for 20 minutes.9 Both samples were bathed into microplate well containing 50 μl of fibroblast cells with 2 x 105 density in Rosewell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640 media, spinned at 30 rpm for 5 minutes. Microplate well was incubated for 24 and 48 hours in 37° C. After 24 hours, each well that will be read at 24 hour were added with 50 μl solution containing 5mg/ml MTT reagent in phosphate buffer saline (PBS solutions, then reincubated for 4 hours in CO2 10% and 37° C. Colorometric assay with MTT was used to evaluate viability of the cells population after 24 hours. Then, each well were added with 50 μl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and reincubated for 5 minutes in 37° C. the wells were read using Elisa reader in 620 nm wave length. Same steps were done for the wells that will be read in 48 hours. Each data were tabulated and analyzed using independent T-test with significance of 5%. Results: This study showed that the percentage of living fibroblast after exposure to 316L stainless steel reconstruction plate was 61.58% after 24 hours and 62

  19. A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Plate Martensite Formation in High-carbon Low Alloy Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albin Stormvinter; Peter Hedstr(o)m; Annika Borgenstam

    2013-01-01

    The martensitic microstructures in two high-carbon low alloy steels have been investigated by classical and automated crystallographic analysis under a transmission electron microscope.It is found that the martensitic substructure changes from consisting mostly of transformation twins for 1.20 mass% carbon (C) steel to both transformation twins and planar defects on {101}M for 1.67 mass% C steel.In the 1.67 mass% C steel it is further found that small martensite units have a rather homogeneous substructure,while large martensite units are more inhomogeneous.In addition,the martensite units in both steels are frequently found to be of zigzag patterns and have distinct crystallographic relationships with neighboring martensite units,e.g.kink or wedge couplings.Based on the present findings the development of martensite in high-carbon low alloy steels is discussed and a schematic of the martensite formation is presented.Moreover,whether the schematic view can be applied to plate martensite formation in general,is discussed.

  20. Study on Seismic Performance of a Stiffened Steel Plate Shear Wall with Slits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-yu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the force mechanism for the steel plate shear wall with slits, the pushover analysis method was used in this study. An estimated equation for the lateral bearing capacity which considered the effect of edge stiffener was proposed. A simplified elastic-plastic analytical model for the stiffened steel slit wall composed of beam elements was presented, where the effects of edge stiffeners were taken into account. The wall-frame analysis model was established, and the geometric parameters were defined. Pushover analysis of two specimens was carried out, and the analysis was validated by comparing the results from the experiment, the shell element model, and a simplified model. The simplified model provided a good prediction of the lateral stiffness and the strength of the steel slit wall, with less than 10% error compared with the experimental results. The mutual effects of the bearing wall and the frame were also predicted correctly. In the end, the seismic performance evaluation of a steel slit wall-frame structure was presented. The results showed that the steel slit wall could prevent the beams and columns from being damaged by an earthquake and that the steel slit wall was an efficient energy dissipation component.

  1. Effect of two steel plate's interface on heat transfer under laser beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Jian Heng; Zhang Shi Wen; Gui Yuan Zhen; Wang Chun Yan; Tang Xiao Song; Zhang Da Yong

    2002-01-01

    It is supposed that there is a gap in the interface of two contacting steel plates due to thermal deformation under laser beam irradiation, and this gap will affect heat transfer in this interface obviously. This supposition is testified by experiments and simulation. This work is helpful to the study of the destruction mechanism under high power laser loading, and provides an effective way for anti-laser research

  2. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  3. Numerical analysis on the shoot resistance of heat treated light weight B-grade bulletproof steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Zhang Jingwen; Zhang Junping

    2014-01-01

    Bulletproof steel plates are widely used for the safety of special vehicles. This paper mainly resear-ches on the shoot resistance of heat treated light weight B-grade bulletproof steel plates through numerical analy-sis. Based on the flow behavior of bulletproof steel plates and bullet at various high strain rates,finite element (FE) model has been set up using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The simulation results are compared with the shooting results,which show a good consistency and a high reliability. Therefore,the simulation results are ef-ficient approaches and strategies to decide and select the mechanical property and thickness of bulletproof steel plates,saving a lot of work and the cost of experiments.

  4. Effect of controlling parameters on heat transfer during spray impingement cooling of steel plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna C. Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of stationary steel plate was experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted on an electrically heated flat stationary steel plate of dimension 120 mm x 120 mm x 4 mm. The controlling parameters taken during the experiments were airwater pressures, water flow rate, nozzle tip to target distance and mass impingement density. The effects of the controlling parameters on the cooling rates were critically examined during spray impingement cooling. Air assisted DM water was used as the quenchant media in the work. The cooling rates were calculated from the time dependent temperature profiles were recorded by NI-cRIO DAS at the desired locations of the bottom surface of the plate embedded with K-type thermocouples. By using MS-EXCEL the effects of these cooling rate parameters were analysed The results obtained in the study confirmed the higher efficiency of the spray cooling system and the cooling strategy was found advantageous over the conventional cooling methods in the present steel industries

  5. Centralized Gap Clearance Control for Maglev Based Steel-Plate Conveyance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNEY, O. F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The conveyance of steel-plates is one of the potential uses of the magnetic levitation technology in industry. However, the electromagnetic levitation systems inherently show nonlinear feature and are unstable without an active control. Well-known U-shaped or E-shaped electromagnets cannot provide redundant levitation with multiple degrees of freedom. In this paper, to achieve the full redundant levitation of the steel plate, a quadruple configuration of U shaped electromagnets has been proposed. To resolve the issue of instability and attain more robust levitation, a centralized control algorithm based on a modified PID controller (I PD is designed for each degree of freedom by using the Manabe canonical polynomial technique. The model of the system is carried out using electromechanical energy conversion princi¬ples and verified by 3-D FEM analysis. An experimental bench is built up to test the system performance under trajectory tracking and external disturbance excitation. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system and the control approach to obtain a full redundant levitation even in case of disturbances. The paper demonstrates the feasibility of the con¬veyance of steel plates by using the quadruple configuration of U-shaped electromagnets and shows the merits of I-PD controller both in stabilization and increased robust levitation.

  6. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  7. SnO2:F Coated Duplex Stainless Steel for PEM Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Duplex 2205 stainless steel was deposited with 0.6 {micro}m thick SnO2:F coating; coated steel was characterized for PEMFC bipolar plate application. Compared with bare alloy, interfacial contact resistance (ICR) values of the coated 2205 steel are higher. SnO2:F coating adds its own resistance to the air-formed film on the steel. In a PEMFC anode environment, a current peak of ca. 25 {micro}A/cm2 registered at ca. 30 min for coated 2205 steel. It stabilized at ca. 2.0 {approx} -1.0 {micro}A/cm2. This peak is related to the complicated process of coating dissolution and oxide-layer formation. Anodic-cathodic current transfer occurred at ca. 200 min polarization. In a PEMFC cathode environment, current was stable immediately after polarization. The stable current was ca. 0.5 {approx} 2.0 {micro}A/cm2 during the entire polarization period. AES depth profiles with tested samples and ICP analysis with the tested solutions confirmed the excellent corrosion resistance of the SnO2:F coated 2205 alloy in simulated PEMFC environments.

  8. Effect of Rolling Temperature and Ultrafast Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qibin; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-07-01

    Microstructure can vary significantly through thickness after ultrafast cooling of rolled steel plates, impacting their mechanical properties. This study examined the microstructure, microstructural banding at centerline, and mechanical properties through thickness for different ultrafast cooling conditions and rolling temperatures. One set of steels (UC1 and UC2) were ultrafast-cooled (UFC) at 40 K/s after finish rolling at 1223 K and 1193 K (950 °C and 910 °C), respectively, while the second set (LC) was cooled by laminar cooling at 17 K/s after finish rolling at 1238 K (965 °C). UFC produced microstructural variation through thickness; highly dislocated lath-type bainitic ferrite was formed near the surface, whereas the primary microstructure was acicular ferrite and irregular polygonal ferrite in the interior of UC1 and UC2 steels, respectively. However, UFC has the advantage of suppression of microstructural banding in centerline segregation regions. The ferrite grain size in both UFC-cooled steels was refined to ~5 μm, increasing strength and toughness. The optimum combination of properties was obtained in UC2 steel with appropriate low finish rolling temperature, being attributed to the distinct microstructure resulting from work-hardened austenite before UFC.

  9. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  10. HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE OF AN OIL JET IMPINGING ON A DOWNWARD-FACING STAINLESS STEEL PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study is carried out for the quenching of a stainless steel plate using a single oil jet impinging on the bottom surface of the plate. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the oil jet flow operating conditions onto the heat transfer effectiveness when the plate is heated to temperatures ranging from around 115 to 630 oC, and the oil is heated to temperatures ranging from 60 to 75 oC. Tests are conducted on the oil at various temperatures to determine its viscosity. Experiments are conducted for nozzle exit flow rates ranging from 113 to 381 ml/min, oil jet pressures from 3.1 to 12 psi, and nozzle-to-plate surface distances of 0.6 and 1 cm. The variation of the oil heat flux and heat transfer coefficient with the surface temperature for the different quenching parameters is calculated from the acquired temperature data. Tests results show the oil heat transfer effectiveness keeps increasing for increasing plate temperature. Oil jet pressure is shown to have a considerable effect on the oil heat transfer, while the nozzle-to-plate surface distance is shown to have a lesser effect. The results of this study shall lead to a better understanding of the parameters that play an important role in oil quenching for applications that are of interest to the metal process industry.

  11. 75 FR 21241 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... asserts that the ASTM A830 steel plate is used for making metal molds for the automotive industry, and not..., the use of the merchandise, the channels of marketing and the cost of any modification relative to the... present in ASTM A830 plate without boron. See id. Channels of Marketing Domestic Producers state the...

  12. X-Ray diffraction technique applied to study of residual stresses after welding of duplex stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monin, Vladimir Ivanovitch; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de [Instituto Politecnico do Rio e Janeiro (IPRJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Turibus, Sergio Noleto; Payao Filho, Joao C., E-mail: sturibus@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Duplex stainless steel is an example of composite material with approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite phases. Difference of physical and mechanical properties of component is additional factor that contributes appearance of residual stresses after welding of duplex steel plates. Measurements of stress distributions in weld region were made by X-ray diffraction method both in ferrite and austenite phases. Duplex Steel plates were joined by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) technology. There were studied longitudinal and transverse stress components in welded butt joint, in heat affected zone (HAZ) and in points of base metal 10 mm from the weld. Residual stresses measured in duplex steel plates jointed by welding are caused by temperature gradients between weld zone and base metal and by difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferrite and austenite phases. Proposed analytical model allows evaluating of residual stress distribution over the cross section in the weld region. (author)

  13. Experiment and simulation analysis of roll-bonded Q235 steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G.; Huang, Q.; Zhou, C.; Zhang, Z.; Ma, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-10-01

    Heavy-gauge Q235 steel plate was roll bonded, and the process was simulated using MARC software. Ultrasonic testing results revealed the presence of cracks and lamination defects in an 80-mm clad steel sheet, especially at the head and tail of the steel plate. There were non-uniform ferrite + pearlite microstructures and unbound areas at a bond interface. Through scanning electron microscopy analysis, long cracks and additional inclusions in the cracks were observed at the interface. A fracture analysis revealed non-uniform inclusions that pervaded the interface. Moreover, MARC simulations demonstrated that there was little equivalent strain at the centre of the slab during the first rolling pass. The equivalent centre increased to 0.5 by the fourth rolling pass. Prior to the final pass, the equivalent strain was not consistent across the thickness direction, preventing bonding interfaces from forming consistent deformation and decreasing the residual stress. The initial rolling reduction rate should not be very small (e.g. 5%) as it is averse to the coordination of rolling deformation. Such rolling processes are averse to the rolling bond. (Author)

  14. Effect of annealing on two different niobium-clad stainless steel PEMFC bipolar plate materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Tae HONG; Dae-Wook KIM; Yong-Joo YOU; K.Scott WEIL

    2009-01-01

    Niobium (Nb)-clad stainless steels(SS) produced via roll bonding are being considered for use in the bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel celI(PEMFC) stacks. Because the roll bonding process induces substantial work hardening in the constituent materials, thermal annealing is used to restore ductility to the clad sheet so that it can be subsequently blanked, stamped and dimpled in forming the final plate component. Two roll bonded materials, niobium clad 340L stainless steel (Nb/340L SS) and niobium clad 434 stainless steel (Nb/434 SS) were annealed under optimized conditions prescribed by the cladding manufacturer. Comparative mechanical testing conducted on each material before and after annealing shows significant improvement in ductility in both cases. However, corresponding microstructural analyses indicate an obvious difference between the two heat treated materials. During annealing, an interlayer with thick less than 1 μm forms between the constituent layers in the Nb/340L SS, whereas no interlayer is found in the annealed Nb/434 SS material. Prior work suggests that internal defects potentially can be generated in such an interlayer during metal forming operations. Thus, Nb/434 SS may be the preferred candidate material for this application.

  15. 316L stainless steel silver plated plate vacuum heat treatment technology%316L不锈钢镀银板的真空热处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红涛

    2012-01-01

      本文分别通过探讨真空环境下热处理温度和热处理时间对316L不锈钢镀银板性能的影响,从而确定316L不锈钢镀银板的最佳真空热处理工艺。%  This paper through the study of the vacuum heat treatment temperature on properties of 316L stainless steel silver plate, so as to determine the optimal 316L stainless steel silver plated vacuum heat treatment technology.

  16. XRD and TEM study of bainitic ferrite plate thickness in nanostructured, carbide free bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoozbashi, M.N., E-mail: n_yoozbashi@sut.ac.ir [University of Applied Science and Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani, S., E-mail: yazdani@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It is well documented that much of the strength and hardness of nanostructured, carbide free bainitic steels come from the very small thickness of bainitic ferrite plates. In the current work, the Williamson–Hall method has been used to determine the bainitic ferrite plate thickness. The fitting of X-ray peaks to various functions showed good coefficient of determination values for Gaussian function compared to the Cauchy and Pseudo-Voigt functions. The thickness of bainitic ferrite plates was measured by distinguishing the contribution of very small plates on peak broadening from the lattice microstrain and instrumental effects. The results showed that by decreasing the transformation temperature the bainitic ferrite plate thickness decreases. The determined thicknesses were compared with that of measured from transmission electron microscope micrographs. There is a good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the thicknesses measured using both methods. - Highlights: • A Williamson–Hall technique is proposed for bainitic ferrite thickness measurement. • The technique relies on full width at half maximum of XRD peaks. • The measured sizes were compared with that of determined from TEM micrographs. • There is a good qualitative and quantitative agreement between both methods. • Austenite strength and nucleation driving force lead to microstructural refinement.

  17. Multilayer graphene for long-term corrosion protection of stainless steel bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Spiegelhauer, Susie Ann

    2015-01-01

    /SS, both samples exhibiting a similar trend, thus questioning the short-term positive effect of graphene coatings. However, partial immersion in boiling seawater for three weeks reveals a clear superiority of the graphene coating with respect to steel just protected by Ni. After the test, the graphene film......Abstract Motivated by similar investigations recently published (Pu et al., 2015), we report a comparative corrosion study of three sets of samples relevant as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: stainless steel, stainless steel with a nickel seed layer (Ni/SS) and stainless steel...

  18. Cost Comparative Study On Steel Frame Folded Plate Roofing System Vs Conventional Truss Roofing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ever-increasing of construction materials, it becomes the foremost duty of a civil engineer to design economical and durable structures. In this project an attempt has been made to compare the cost of two types of roofing systems viz. conventional truss roofing system and steel frame folded plate roofing system. The steel frame folded plate roofing system, though found to be economical, is not widely practiced in India due to lack of knowledge regarding its analysis and design. On contrary to it, the conventional truss roofing system still remains as the widely adopted method of roofing for different types of buildings due to the available literature on its analysis, design and construction. The analysis and design of conventional truss roofing system and folded plate roofing system have been carried out for various spans. The analysis is carried out in STAAD.Pro 2004, which is based on stiffness method. Load calculations and design done manually, based on IS:875-1987, IS:800- 1984 & SP:38(1987

  19. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD by Veronika J...FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...gas metal arc welding, submarine, hull cut, butt joint, weld, shielding gas, HY-80 steel , plate 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 53 16. PRICE CODE 17

  20. Dissimilar material welding of rapidly solidified foil and stainless steel plate using underwater explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, Kazuyuki [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: hokamoto@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Nakata, Kazuhiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Akihisa [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tsuda, Shota [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University (Japan); Tsumura, Takuya [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-03-20

    Rapidly solidified amorphous and metallic glass thin foils clad on a stainless steel base plate is attempted by employing underwater shock wave assembly. The conditions of the explosive welding are numerically analyzed and discussed based on the earlier welding limits. The thin foils successfully welded along the length of 50 mm show clear waves typically found in explosively welded interface. The interfacial microstructure characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopes shows evidence of excessive melting generated due to the trapping of metal jet in limited area.

  1. An Improved BP Algorithm and Its Application in Classification of Surface Defects of Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiang-yang; LAI Kang-sheng; DAI Dong-ming

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural network is a new approach to pattern recognition and classification. The model of multilayer perceptron (MLP) and back-propagation (BP) is used to train the algorithm in the artificial neural network. An improved fast algorithm of the BP network was presented, which adopts a singular value decomposition (SVD) and a generalized inverse matrix. It not only increases the speed of network learning but also achieves a satisfying precision. The simulation and experiment results show the effect of improvement of BP algorithm on the classification of the surface defects of steel plate.

  2. Numerical design optimization of an EMAT for A0 Lamb wave generation in steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seher, Matthias; Huthwaite, Peter; Lowe, Mike; Nagy, Peter; Cawley, Peter

    2014-02-01

    An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for A0 Lamb wave generation on steel plates is developed to operate at 0.50 MHz-mm. A key objective of the development is to maximize the excitation and reception of the A0 mode, while minimizing those of the S0 mode. The chosen EMAT design consists of an induction coil and a permanent magnet. A finite element (FE) model of the EMAT is developed, coupling the electromagnetic and elastodynamic phenomena. An optimization process using a genetic algorithm is implemented, employing the magnet diameter and liftoff distance from the plate as design parameters and using the FE model to calculate the fitness. The optimal design suggested by the optimization process is physically implemented and the experimental measurements are compared to the FE simulation results. In a further step, the variations of the design parameters are studied numerically and the proposed EMAT design exhibits a robust behavior to small changes of the design parameters.

  3. Processing of low carbon steel plate and hot strip—An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Panigrahi

    2001-08-01

    Soaking temperature, drafting schedule, finish rolling and coiling temperatures all play important roles in processing of low carbon plate and strip. They control the kinetics of various physical and metallurgical processes, viz. austenitization, recrystallization and precipitation behaviour. The final transformed microstructures depend upon these processes and their interaction with each other. In view of increasing cost of input materials, new processing techniques such as recrystallized controlled rolling and warm rolling have been developed for production of plates and thinner hot bands with very good deep drawability respectively. Besides hybrid computer modelling is used for production of strip products with tailor made properties. Although there have been few reviews on low carbon microalloyed steels in the past the present one deals with new developments.

  4. Effect of plastic deformation on diffusion-rolling bonding of steel sandwich plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Jingtao Han

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion bonding is one of the most important techniques for composite materials, while bonding temperature, holding time,and rolling reduction are the key parameters that affect the bonding strength of sandwich plates. To study the effect of plastic deformation on the bonding strength, laboratory experiments were carried on a Gleeble Thermal Simulator to imitate the diffusion-rolling bonding under different reductions for steel sandwich plates. The bonding strength and interlayer film thickness were measured, and the element diffusion was analyzed using line scanning. The relationship between the bonding strength and "diffused interlayer" thickness was investigated. It has been found that the bonding strength increases with reduction, whereas the interlayer film thickness decreases gradually as the reduction increases. The diffusion under plastic deformation is obviously enhanced in comparison with that of nil reduction. The mechanism of plastic deformation effect on the diffusion bonding and related models have been discussed.

  5. Lateral load-carrying capacity analyses of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德源; 刘凌飞; 朱立猛

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars (SCBs). Nonlinear finite element models of SCBs were established by using the finite element tool, Abaqus. Tie constraints were used to connect the binding bars and the steel plates. Surface-to-surface contact provided by the Abaqus was used to simulate the interaction between the steel plate and the core concrete. The established models could predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs with a reasonable degree of accuracy. A calculation method was developed by superposition principle to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs for the engineering application. The concrete confined by steel plates and binding bars is under multi-axial compression; therefore, its shear strength was calculated by using the Guo-Wang concrete failure criterion. The shear strength of the steel plates of SCBs was calculated by using the von Mises yielding criterion without considering buckling. Results of the developed method are in good agreement with the testing and finite element results.

  6. Hybrid/Tandem Laser-Arc Welding of Thick Low Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh

    High efficiency and long-term life of hydraulic turbines and their assemblies are of utmost importance for the hydropower industry. Usually, hydroelectric turbine components are made of thick-walled low carbon martensitic stainless steels. The assembly of large hydroelectric turbine components has been a great challenge. The use of conventional welding processes involves typical large groove design and multi-pass welding to fill the groove which exposes the weld to a high heat input creating relatively large fusion zone and heat affected zone. The newly-developed hybrid/tandem laser-arc welding technique is believed to offer a highly competitive solution to improve the overall hydro-turbine performance by combining the high energy density and fast welding speed of the laser welding technology with the good gap bridging and feeding ability of the gas metal arc welding process to increase the productivity and reduce the consumable material. The main objective of this research work is to understand different challenges appearing during hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) of thick gauge assemblies of low carbon 13%Cr- 4%Ni martensitic stainless steel and find a practical solution by adapting and optimizing this relatively new welding process in order to reduce the number of welding passes necessary to fill the groove gap. The joint integrity was evaluated in terms of microstructure, defects and mechanical properties in both as-welded and post-welded conditions. A special focus was given to the hybrid and tandem laser-arc welding technique for the root pass. Based on the thickness of the low carbon martensitic stainless steel plates, this work is mainly focused on the following two tasks: • Single pass hybrid laser-arc welding of 10-mm thick low carbon martensitic stainless steel. • Multi-pass hybrid/tandem laser-arc welding of 25-mm thick martensitic stainless steel.

  7. Response of a circular steel plate with different weld geometries subject to impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer L.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of clamped circular steel plates was experimentally investigated under impact loading. The experiments were performed using a high energy drop weight machine with a 5 ton drop weight, which falls from a height of 0.8 m and results in a total impact energy of 40 kJ. Target plates of 10 mm thickness and 580 mm diameter were welded in three different geometrical configurations of weld elements on the lower side. The impact process was carried out using a hemispherical punch. The force was registered by strain gages on the punch. A full dynamic strain field measurement was applied on the tension side using two high speed cameras. The evaluation of the strain field was carried out with the speckle photography technique. The effect of cracks and welding on the deformation and failure behavior was studied using pre-cracked disks and plates with welded webs, welded circular discs and also with a weld seam only. The failure of the plates was registered using the high speed cameras and from the force signal. The results are analyzed and discussed regarding the behavior of the material and component under high rate loading.

  8. Consideration on fatigue strength of corroded steel plates; Fushoku suimo koban no hiro kyodo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M.; Yajima, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Saito, T. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Discussions were given on fatigue strength of corroded steel plates taken from a hull of a ship seventeen years old after construction. The steel plates have had their original thickness of 13 mm reduced to 5.3 to 8.3 mm. After having been cut by a machine, the steel plates were used for tests as ground plates after going through grinding and as corroded plates with rust remaining on them. The fatigue test was performed in artificially made sea water at a temperature of 25{degree}C and in air with axial power pulsating tensile load and at iterative loading velocities of 3 to 5 Hz. The corroded material test verified that corrosion pits exist innumerably on the test piece surface and fatigue cracks have been developed and grown from bottoms of the pits. The stress concentration coefficient of the corrosion pits was about 1.9. Good agreement with the test result was found in the S-N chart in which the number of iteration of fracture was regarded as the number of iteratively generated cracks, and notch coefficient was estimated as 1.9. These results proved that the fatigue strength assessing method for virgin materials can be applied also to steel plates which have been exposed to corrosive environment for extended periods of time. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Analytical study of building height effects over Steel Plate Shear Wall Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Kioumarsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the latest three decades, the steel plate shear walls (SPSW system has emerged as a promising lateral load resisting system for both construction new buildings and retrofit of existing buildings. This system has acceptable stiffness for control of structure displacement, ductile failure mechanism and high energy absorption. This paper will quantify the effect of increasing the height over analytical behavior of SPSW (height effect. Considering abundant emergence of high-rise buildings all over the world in recent years and their need for strengthening, the importance of the studies presented in this paper cannot be overemphasized for optimum height usage of SPSW lateral resisting system. The study was performed through design of four models of dual system with special moment frames capable of resisting at least 25% of prescribed seismic forces. In this article, structure buildings consisting of 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories have been modelled. Results consisting of story shear absorption, support reaction forces, lateral story displacement and drift index have investigated for different cases. Results show that SPSW absorbs more shears at the lower stories than top stories. Furthermore, axial reaction of edge supports experience decreasing rate corresponding to increase in the story numbers. Drift magnitude of steel plate shear wall with the 5 stories has the maximum value at the top story while the systems with the 10 and the 15 stories have maximum drift at lower stories.

  10. Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks.

  11. Modeling Fragment Simulating Projectile Penetration into Steel Plates Using Finite Elements and Meshfree Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O’Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating fragment penetration into steel involves complicated modeling of severe behavior of the materials through multiple phases of response. Penetration of a fragment-like projectile was simulated using finite element (FE and meshfree particle formulations. Extreme deformation and failure of the material during the penetration event were modeled with several approaches to evaluate each as to how well it represents the actual physics of the material and structural response. A steel Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP – designed to simulate a fragment of metal from a weapon casing – was simulated for normal impact into a flat square plate. A range of impact velocities was used to examine levels of exit velocity ranging from relatively small to one on the same level as the impact velocity. The numerical code EPIC, used for all the simulations presented herein, contains the element and particle formulations, as well as the explicit methodology and constitutive models needed to perform these simulations. These simulations were compared against experimental data, evaluating the damage caused to the projectile and the target plates, as well as comparing the residual velocity when the projectile perforated the target.

  12. Thermally and air-plasma-oxidized titanium and stainless steel plates as solar selective absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Garcia, Alejandro [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV del IPN, Ap. Postal 14-740, Mexico DF, 07360 (Mexico); Morales-Ortiz, Ulises [Departamento Quimica, Area Electroquimica, UAM Iztapalapa, AP 55-534, 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-09-22

    Solar selective surfaces can be constructed in many ways. In particular, low emissivity ({epsilon}) is currently sought for by starting with surfaces bearing high infrared reflectance. It is well known that metallic surfaces behave in this way. Then, high solar absorptance ({alpha}) can be achieved by adding an appropriate thin layer through a wide variety of possibilities. In this work, a simple direct method to produce such type of coatings on titanium and 304 stainless steel plates is assessed: thermal oxidation. Good selectivities S(={alpha}/{epsilon}) 10 or higher in some cases were obtained mainly on steel substrates. An alternative is to expose these metallic surfaces to ionized oxygen species, rather than to neutral oxygen molecules. This was accomplished by oxidizing some plates in a typical glow discharge capacitive system. In this case, acceptable but not so high selectivities, as in the first case, were obtained. Some comments on the metallic surface morphology and the stability of the oxidized surfaces are also presented. (author)

  13. Effect of Interface on Mechanical Property of Steel-mushy Al-20Sn Bonding Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of Fe-Al compound at interCace, which could determine the quantity of Fe-Al compound at the interface of steel-mushy Al-20Sn bonding plate, was used to characterize the interfacial structure of steel-mushy Al-20Sn bonding plate quantitatively.The effect of ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface on interfacial shear strength was investigated perfectly.The results show that the relationship between ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and interfacial shear strength is S = 3.3 + 1.91 t -0.0135 t2 ( where t is ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and S is interfacial shear strength ).When the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface is 71% , the largest interfacial shear strength 70.9 MPa is got.This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrittlement.When the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface is higher than 71%, interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  14. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Schuster

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM which included energy-dispersive (X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549, a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  15. A preliminary study on the perforation resistance of high-strength steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børvik, T.; Dey, S.; Clausen, A. H.

    2006-08-01

    Thin plates of high-strength steel are frequently being used in ballistic protection systems. In this study, the perforation resistance of three different high-strength steel alloys impacted by 7.62 mm AP projectiles has been determined and compared against each other. The considered alloys are Weldox 500 E, Hardox 400 and Domex Protect 500. The yield stress in Domex Protect 500 is almost three times the yield stress in Weldox 500 E, while the opposite trend is found regarding strain to fracture in uniaxial tension. Perforation tests have been carried out using adjusted ammunition to determine the ballistic limit velocity of the steels using 6+6=12 mm thick targets. Moreover, a material test programme including high strain rate tests in a split-Hopkinson tension bar was carried out in order to be able to calibrate a proper constitutive equation and fracture criteria. Here, a simplified identification procedure was used together with a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive relation and the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion since it is considered important to limit the number of material tests in design. Finally, results from 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations using the non-linear FEM code LS-DYNA are included, and the different findings are compared.

  16. Electrochemical Behavior of Niobium Electrodeposited 316 Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for PEMFC in Choline Chloride Based Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Caihong; LIANG Chenghao; HUANG Naibao

    2015-01-01

    Niobium was electrodeposited on 316 stainless steel bipolar plates of a fuel cell in water and air-stable choline chloride based ionic liquids. The electrochemical corruption property of bipolar plates in simulated PEMFC environment was investigated. It was showed that the plating iflm was distributed on the surface of 316 stainless steel like isolated islands with height less than 50 nm. The XPS, XRD results showed that a smooth and strong chemical inert iflm of NbO and Nb2O5 was formed on the surface of 316 stainless steel. In simulated cathodic condition, the corrosion potential of Nb coated stainless steel was improved by 244 mV, whilst in an anodic condition, it was improved by 105 mV. The current densities for the coated 316 stainless steel were decreased to 2.479 4 µA•cm-2 from 14.810 µA•cm-2 at-0.1 V and to 0.576 µA•cm-2 from 13.417 µA/•cm-2 at 0.6 V, respectively. It was implied that the niobium coating effectively decreased the corrosion rate. The results of the electrochemical tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel was greatly improved after coated with niobium.

  17. Ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface of steel-backed Al-graphite semi-solid bonding plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yun-hui; LIU Han-wu; ZHANG Jun; ZENG Da-ben; BA Li-min

    2007-01-01

    The ratio of Fe-Al compound at the bonding interface of solid steel plate to Al-7graphite slurry was used to characterize the interfacial structure of steel-Al-7graphite semi-solid bonding plate quantitatively. The relationship between the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and bonding parameters (such as preheat temperature of steel plate. solid fraction of Al-7graphite slurry and rolling speed) was established by artificial neural networks perfectly. The results show that when the bonding parameters are 516 ℃ for preheat temperature of steel plate, 32.5% for solid fraction of Al-7graphite slurry and 12 mm/s for rolling speed.the reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound corresponding to the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is obtained to be 70.1%.This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrimement, namely, when the ratio of Fe-Al compound at intefface is larger than 70.1%.interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  18. An experimental and numerical study on nonlinear impact responses of steel-plated structures in an Arctic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K. J.; Lee, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Jung, B. G.; Han, X.(Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany); Paik, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ships and offshore platforms that operate in Arctic regions at low temperatures are likely subjected to impact loads that arise from collisions with icebergs. The aim of this paper was to examine the nonlinear impact response of steel-plated structures in an Arctic environment. In addition to material tensile tests for characterisation of the mechanical properties of polar-class high-tensile steel of grade DH36, an experimental study was undertaken in a dropped-object test facility on steel-p...

  19. Complexing agent and heavy metal removals from metal plating effluent by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabdaşli, Işik; Arslan, Tülin; Olmez-Hanci, Tuğba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Tünay, Olcay

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the treatability of a metal plating wastewater containing complexed metals originating from the nickel and zinc plating process by electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The study focused on the effect of important operation parameters on electrocoagulation process performance in terms of organic complex former, nickel and zinc removals as well as sludge production and specific energy consumption. The results indicated that increasing the applied current density from 2.25 to 9.0 mA/cm(2) appreciably enhanced TOC removal efficiency from 20% to 66%, but a further increase in the applied current density to 56.25 mA/cm(2) did not accelerate TOC removal rates. Electrolyte concentration did not affect the process performance significantly and the highest TOC reduction (66%) accompanied with complete heavy metal removals were achieved at the original chloride content ( approximately 1500 mg Cl/L) of the wastewater sample. Nickel removal performance was adversely affected by the decrease of initial pH from its original value of 6. Optimum working conditions for electrocoagulation of metal plating effluent were established as follows: an applied current density of 9 mA/cm(2), the effluent's original electrolyte concentration and pH of the composite sample. TOC removal rates obtained for all electrocoagulation runs fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well (R(2)>92-99).

  20. Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stresses in Butt Welding of Two AISI 304 Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinder Singh Brar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding is one of the most reliable and efficient permanent metal joining processes in the industry. When two plates are joined by welding, a very complex thermal cycle is applied to the weldment. Thermal energy applied results in irreversible elastic-plastic deformation and consequently gives rise to the residual stresses in and around fusion zone and heat affected zone (HAZ. It is well established fact that structural integrity of components is substantially affected by the residual stresses when subjected to thermal and structural loads. Presence of residual stresses may be beneficial or harmful for the structural components depending on the nature and magnitude of residual stresses. Using finite element based commercially available software, coupled thermal-mechanical three dimensional finite element model was developed by making an approximate geometry of the butt welded joint. Finite element analysis was performed to understand the complete nature of residual stresses in manual metal arc welded joint of AISI 304 stainless steel plate. Variation of residual stress in the plates in the heat affected zone was also being studied. The results obtained by finite element method agree well with those from X-ray diffraction method as published in literature for the prediction of residual stresses.

  1. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Austempering SUS440 Steel Thin Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUS440 is a high-carbon stainless steel, and its martensite matrix has high heat resistance, high corrosion resistance, and high pressure resistance. It has been widely used in mechanical parts and critical materials. However, the SUS440 martempered matrix has reliability problems in thin plate applications and thus research uses different austempering heat treatments (tempering temperature: 200 °C–400 °C to obtain a matrix containing bainite, retained austenite, martensite, and the M7C3 phase to investigate the relationships between the resulting microstructure and tensile mechanical properties. Experimental data showed that the austempering conditions of the specimen affected the volume fraction of phases and distribution of carbides. After austenitizing heat treatment (1080 °C for 30 min, the austempering of the SUS440 thin plates was carried out at a salt-bath temperature 300 °C for 120 min and water quenching was then used to obtain the bainite matrix with fine carbides, with the resulting material having a higher tensile fracture strength and average hardness (HRA 76 makes it suitable for use as a high-strength thin plate for industrial applications.

  2. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  3. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi; Peyman Beiranvand; Kasra Shahbazian; Shaahin Bidmeshki; Somaye Yaghooti

    2016-01-01

    Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB) are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained ...

  4. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  5. Electroless plating of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P alloy on carbon steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sen-lin; WU Hui-huang

    2004-01-01

    The autocatalytic deposition of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P alloys were carried out on carbon steel sheets from bath containing nickel sulfate, zinc sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, sodium citrate and boric acid. The effects of pH and mole ratio of NiSO4/ZnSO4 on the deposition rate and the composition of deposit were studied. It is found that the presence of zinc sulfate in the bath has an inhibitory effect on the alloy deposition. As a consequence, the mole fraction of zinc in the deposits never reaches high value, which is less than 18.0%. The structure and surface morphology of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P coatings were charactered by XRD and SEM. The alloys plated at all conditions consist of amorphous phase coexisting with a crystalline cubic Ni phase. The surface morphology of coating is dependent on the deposition parameters.

  6. Antisymmetric-Symmetric Mode Conversion of Ultrasonic Lamb Waves and Negative Refraction on Thin Steel Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young H. [Dept. of Physics and Earth Science, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Woo [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, focusing of ultrasonic Lamb wave by negative refraction with mode conversion from antisymmetric to symmetric mode was investigated. When a wave propagates backward by negative refraction, the energy flux is antiparallel to the phase velocity. Backward propagation of Lamb wave is quite well known, but the behavior of backward Lamb wave at an interface has rarely been investigated. A pin-type transducer is used to detect Lamb wave propagating on a steel plate with a step change in thickness. Conversion from forward to backward propagating mode leads to negative refraction and thus wave focusing. By comparing the amplitudes of received Lamb waves at a specific frequency measured at different distance between transmitter and interface, the focusing of Lamb wave due to negative refraction was confirmed.

  7. Cancelation of transducer effects from frequency response functions: Experimental case study on the steel plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Zamani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is a progressive science in the experimental evaluation of dynamic properties of the structures. Mechanical devices such as accelerometers are one of the sources of lack of quality in measuring modal testing parameters. In this article, elimination of the accelerometer’s mass effect of the frequency response of the structure is studied. So, a strategy is used for eliminating the mass effect using sensitivity analysis. In this method, the amount of mass change and the place to measure the structure’s response with least error in frequency correction is chosen. Experimental modal testing is carried out on a steel plate, and the effect of accelerometer’s mass is omitted using this strategy. Finally, a good agreement is achieved between numerical and experimental results.

  8. Effects of AC Coils Parameters on Transduction Efficiency of EMAT for Steel Plate Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the transduction efficiency of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT for steel plates inspection, the constitutive equation of magnetostrictive material was theoretically derived and simplified while the magnetostrictive force is parallel to the material surface. Based on the multiphysics field FEM, the effects of such excitation parameters as current, frequency, and pulse number in AC coils on magnetostrictive strain were mainly simulated, and the influence of the coil with different winding shapes on magnetostrictive strain was also analyzed. The simulation and experimental results indicate that magnetostrictive strain increases with a continuously increasing excitation current density, but it decreases with the increase of the frequency and pulse number of AC currents. Moreover, on condition that loop length and AC currents are held constant, spiral type coils have higher transduction efficiency than homocentric squares and figure-of-eight coils.

  9. Residual stresses in laser welded ASTM A387 Grade 91 steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: santosh@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Kundu, A. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Venkata, K.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Evans, A. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Truman, C.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Francis, J.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bhanumurthy, K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Bouchard, P.J. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dey, G.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Residual stresses in 9 mm thick ASTM A387 Grade 91 steel plates, joined using constant power (8 kW) low and high heat input laser welding processes, are characterised using neutron diffraction. The measured longitudinal and normal components of residual stress show a bimodal distribution across the welded joint with a low tensile or compressive trough at the weld centre flanked by high magnitude tensile peaks in parent metal adjacent to the heat affected zone boundaries. The width of the central trough and spread of the outboard tensile zones are significantly greater for the high heat input weld. In both cases, the stress distributions can be explained by the strains associated with the austenite to martensite solid-state transformation as the joint cools after welding.

  10. Experimental study and analysis on fatigue stiffness of RC beams strengthened with CFRP and steel plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi-yan; HU Ling; LI Shan; WANG Kang-hao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and steel plate. An experimental investigation and theoretical analysis were made on the law of deflection development and stiffness degradation, as well as the influence of fatigue load ranges. Test results indicate that the law of three-stage change under fatigue loading is followed by both midspan deflection and permanent deflection, which also have positive correlation with fatigue load amplitude. Fatigue stiffness of composite strengthened beams degrades gradually with the increasing of number of cycles. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model by effective moment of inertia method is developed for calculating the sectional stiffness of such composite strengthened beams under fatigue loading, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. 78 FR 73827 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the Russian Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003... of the Antidumping Duty Suspension Agreement, 78 FR 61333 (October 3, 2013) and accompanying Decision... Russian Federation; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Enforcement...

  12. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  13. 75 FR 67108 - Cut-To-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ..., Italy, Japan, and Korea (70 FR 72607). The Commission is now conducting second reviews to determine..., subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1... orders on imports of CTL carbon steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, and Korea (65 FR 6587)...

  14. 76 FR 8772 - Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 67108, November 1... COMMISSION Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea AGENCY: United..., Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed...

  15. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  16. 77 FR 37439 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review... determined that it should proceed to a full review in the subject five-year review pursuant to section 751(c...

  17. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  18. Effect of alumina nanofluid jet on the enhancement of heat transfer from a steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiara, A. M.; Chakraborty, Samarshi; Sarkar, Ishita; Pal, Surjya K.; Chakraborty, Sudipto

    2016-12-01

    Low thermal conductivity has been found to be a major constraint in developing energy efficient heat transfer fluids in several industrial applications. Nanofluids, prepared by the suspension of nanoparticles in water, have been found to enhance the thermal conductivity of the base fluid, and thereby the cooling rate of the steel surface. In this study, alumina nanofluid has been used to enhance the rate of cooling of a steel surface of dimension 100 mm × 100 mm × 6 mm, from an initial surface temperature of 900 °C. The sub-surface temperature data collected through thermocouple was used for inverse heat conduction calculation in order to estimate the temperature histories and heat flux at the surface. TEM analysis revealed that the nanoparticles were spherical in shape, having an average size of 14 nm. The concentration of the nanofluids was varied from 1 to 20 ppm in this study. A maximum cooling rate of 104 °C/s and critical heat flux (CHF) of 2.10 MW/m2 was obtained for a concentration of 10 ppm, which was 1.2 times and 1.5 times that attained in case of pure water, as depicted by the enhancement in thermal conductivity. Lower concentrations are used in order to strike a balance between surface roughness study and cooling applications. The surface roughness of the plate after the nanofluid jet impingement depicted an enhancement of 7.74%, thereby enhancing the number of nucleation sites and augmenting the value of CHF.

  19. Production of normalized steel plate through normalizing rolling; Producao de chapas grossas normalizadas diretamente do calor de laminacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorni, Antonio Augusto; Cavalcanti, Celso Gomes; Reis, Jackson Soares de Souza; Silveira, Jose Herbert Dolabela da [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (COSIPA), SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Normalized plates can be got directly from the rolling heat through the use of a normalizing rolling process. In such way, an additional step of the conventional process of production of normalized plates - the normalizing heat treatment - can be suppressed, reducing the manufacturing cost of the product and shortening its production time. This relatively new production route is being used in several steelworks all over the world for many years. This work describes the implementation trials of normalizing rolling at COSIPA`s plate mill, using an alternative process of controlled rolling called recrystallization controlled rolling. The results got with new technique were successful, as it was able to produce plates with properties very similar to the conventionally normalized material, attending the requirements of the DIN 17100 RR 52-3N standard. This is one of many standards that permit the use of this new route of normalized steel plate production. (author) 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  1. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  2. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamas, Tuncay, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Giurgiutiu, Victor, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Lin, Bin, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu [Mechanical Engineering University of South Carolina, 300 Main Str., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF GLASS PLATE FAILURE MECHANISM SUBJECTED TO COPPER AND STEEL PROJECTILE IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim H. Shah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE ABSTRACT: A glass plate was subjected to impact by spherical copper and steel projectiles at low velocities. The glass failure features consisted of a central Hertzian cone made up of comminuted glass and a spider web like cracking pattern around the cone with circumferential and radial cracks. The objective of the investigation was to determine if the damage caused by copper projectile impact compared to steel projectile impact was higher for the same kinetic energy (K.E. projectiles and the reason for this phenomenon. For the constant K.E. impact, copper projectile apparently caused higher damage in glass plate. Higher damage was attributed to projectile contact duration and the contact area between the projectile and the glass plate. Finite element analysis using LS-DYNA based upon maximum principal strain failure criterion for laminated glass model was able to predict the failed material under the impact location and the cracking pattern in the glass plate for a biased meshing scheme. Radial cracks in glass target were reported to be 15% higher for copper projectile impact than the steel projectile impact. ABSTRAK: Kepingan kaca dikenakan impak oleh projektil kuprum dan keluli berbentuk sfera pada halaju rendah. Ciri-ciri kegagalan kaca terdiri daripada kon berpusat Hertzian yang melibatkan kaca yang hancur dan corak pecahan berbentuk sesawang lelabah pada keliling kon dengan retakan lilitan dan jejarian. Tujuan penyelidikan adalah untuk menentukan sebab bagaimana  dengan projektil tenaga kinetik yang sama, kerosakan yang diakibatkan oleh impak projektil kuprum berbanding dengan impak projektil keluli adalah lebih tinggi. Untuk impak tenaga kinetik yang malar, projektil kuprum didapati menyebabkan kerosakan yang lebih ke atas kepingan kaca. Kerosakan lebih disebabkan oleh tempoh sentuhan projektil dan kawasan sentuhan di antara projektil dan kepingan kaca. Analisis unsur terhingga menggunakan LS

  4. Evaluation of crack arrest fracture toughness of parent plate, weld metal and heat affected zone of BIS 812 EMA ship plate steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, I. A.

    1993-10-01

    The steel chosen for the pressure hull of the Collins class submarine has undergone evaluation to compare the crack arrest fracture toughness, K(Ia), of the parent plate with that of weld metal and heat affected zone. The tests were conducted over a range of subzero temperatures on specimens slightly outside the ASTM standard test method specimen configuration. Shallow face grooved specimens were used to vary the propagating crack velocity from that of non face grooved specimens and determine if K(Ia), is sensitive to changes in crack velocity. The weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ), and parent plate were assessed to determine if the welding process had a deleterious effect on the crack arrest properties of this particular steel. Tests on each of these regions revealed that, for the combination of parent plate, welding procedure and consumables, no adverse effect on crack arrest properties was encountered. Crack arrest fracture toughness of the weld metal and HAZ was superior to that of the parent plate at comparable temperatures.

  5. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of Explosively Welded Titanium-Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowski, Marcin; Gloc, Michał; Ślęzak, Tomasz; Płociński, Tomasz; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a study of explosively welded titanium-carbon steel S355J2+N plates. Following the welding, plates underwent heat treatment at temperature of 600 °C for 90 min with cooling in furnace to 300 °C and in air to room temperature. The structure of the bonding was examined by using light, scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties before and after heat treatment were examined applying three-point bending tests with cyclic loads and hardness measurements. Fracture surfaces were investigated using computer tomography and SEM. It has been found that the bonding areas are characterized by a specific chemical composition, microstructure and microhardness. Between the steel and the Ti cladding, a strongly defected transition zone was formed and melted areas with altered chemical composition were observed. It was also demonstrated that the heat treatment commonly applied to welded steel-Ti plates had a significant and negative impact on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded plates due to formation of brittle intermetallic phases.

  6. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of Explosively Welded Titanium-Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowski, Marcin; Gloc, Michał; Ślęzak, Tomasz; Płociński, Tomasz; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a study of explosively welded titanium-carbon steel S355J2+N plates. Following the welding, plates underwent heat treatment at temperature of 600 °C for 90 min with cooling in furnace to 300 °C and in air to room temperature. The structure of the bonding was examined by using light, scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties before and after heat treatment were examined applying three-point bending tests with cyclic loads and hardness measurements. Fracture surfaces were investigated using computer tomography and SEM. It has been found that the bonding areas are characterized by a specific chemical composition, microstructure and microhardness. Between the steel and the Ti cladding, a strongly defected transition zone was formed and melted areas with altered chemical composition were observed. It was also demonstrated that the heat treatment commonly applied to welded steel-Ti plates had a significant and negative impact on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded plates due to formation of brittle intermetallic phases.

  7. In situ measured growth rates of bainite plates in an Fe-C-Mn-Si superbainitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-wei Hu; Guang Xu; Hai-jiang Hu; Li Wang; Zheng-liang Xue

    2014-01-01

    The growth rates of bainite plates in an Fe-C-Mn-Si superbainitic steel were investigated by in situ observation. The lengthening rates of ferrite bainite during both cooling and isothermal holding processes were observed and the growth rates of bainite plates nucleating at grain boundaries, within grains and on preformed bainite were measured. It is indicated that the lengthening rates of bainite plates during the cooling and isothermal processes were different, and that the growth rates of bainite plates nucleating at different types of sites also demon-strated diversity. The bainite plates initiating at grain boundaries during cooling grew the fastest, while the plates nucleating on preformed bainite did the slowest. However, the growth rate of the bainite plates nucleating at grain boundaries during isothermal transformation de-creased the most, whereas the bainite plates initiating within grains grew the fastest. In addition, the growth rate of ferrite bainite in the study supported the diffusion transformation mechanism of bainite from the viewpoint of growth rate.

  8. Solderability study of 63Sn-37Pb on zinc-plated and cadmium-plated stainless steel for the MC4636 lightning arrestor connector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Edwin Paul; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Rejent, Jerome Andrew; Martin, Joseph J.

    2004-06-01

    Cadmium plating on metal surfaces is commonly used for corrosion protection and to achieve good solderability on the 304L stainless steel shell of the MC4636 lightning arrestor connector (LAC) for the W76-1 system. This study examined the use of zinc as a potential substitute for the cadmium protective surface finish. Tests were performed with an R and RMA flux and test temperatures of 230 C, 245 C, and 260 C. Contact angle, {theta}{sub c}, served as the generalized solderability metric. The wetting rate and wetting time parameters were also collected. The solderability ({theta}{sub c}) of the Erie Plating Cd/Ni coatings was better than that of similar Amphenol coatings. Although the {theta}{sub c} data indicated that both Cd/Ni platings would provide adequate solderability, the wetting rate and wetting time data showed the Amphenol coatings to have better performance. The Zn/Ni coatings exhibited non-wetting under all flux and temperature conditions. Based on the results of these tests, it has been demonstrated that zinc plating is not a viable alternate to cadmium plating for the LAC connectors.

  9. Electrochemical behaviour and surface conductivity of niobium carbide-modified austenitic stainless steel bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Sun, Juncai; Kang, Bin; Li, Song; Ji, Shijun; Wen, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    A niobium carbide diffusion layer with a cubic NbC phase surface layer (∼6 μm) and a Nb and C diffusion subsurface layer (∼1 μm) is fabricated on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel (304 SS) bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using plasma surface diffusion alloying. The electrochemical behaviour of the niobium carbide diffusion-modified 304 SS (Nb-C 304 SS) is investigated in simulated PEMFC environments (0.5 M H2SO4 and 2 ppm HF solution at 80 °C). Potentiodynamic, potentiostatic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the niobium carbide diffusion layer considerably improves the corrosion resistance of 304 SS compared with untreated samples. The corrosion current density of Nb-C 304 SS is maintained at 0.058 μA cm-2 and 0.051 μA cm-2 under simulated anodic and cathodic conditions, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance of Nb-C 304 SS is 8.47 mΩ cm2 at a compaction force of 140 N cm-2, which is significantly lower than that of the untreated sample (100.98 mΩ cm2). Moreover, only a minor increase in the ICR of Nb-C 304 SS occurs after 10 h potentiostatic tests in both cathodic and anodic environments.

  10. Fracture behavior of stainless steel-toughened NiAl composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Vincent C.

    1992-02-01

    Analysis of the tensile and fracture behavior of a composite system consisting of boron carbide particulate-reinforced NiAl with continuous 304 stainless steel toughening regions was performed. The composite was fabricated by extrusion, with the toughening regions extending along the length of the plate in the extrusion direction. Mechanical properties were determined as a function of orientation. Tensile testing revealed that the composite modulus varied only slightly as a function of testing direction, the strength was approximately 25 pct greater in the longitudinal relative to the transverse orientation, and the transverse failure strain was only 0.3 pct compared to values in excess of 10 pct for longitudinal testing. Notched Charpy impact testing indicated that the energy absorption values varied significantly as a function of specimen location and crack growth direction, ranging from 2 to 40 Joules. In addition, K IC values measured on subsize compact tension samples were found to range from 17 to 27 MPa ṡ m1/2. It was also established that the K max values determined from the maximum load measured during compact tension testing were similar to the K Q values calculated from instrumented notched Charpy impact testing. Finally, the fatigue crack growth characteristics of the composite were determined as a function of orientation.

  11. Performance of RC Structures Equipped with Steel and Aluminium X-Plate Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchalwar, A.; Bakre, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    The supplementary energy dissipation using dampers represents an efficient technique for the seismic protection of structural system. Also, the optimal damper location in the building helps in reducing damper cost along with maximum response reduction. In this work, an effort has been made to use the X-plate metallic damper made of steel and aluminium for seismic response control. In the first phase of work, the building has been analysed without and with full dampers under real earthquake ground motion. The response quantities such as maximum displacement, max interstory drift, axial force, shear force and bending moment are compared. The results obtained after the analysis shows that the response quantities are reduced significantly thus establishing the effectiveness of damper to dissipate the input seismic energy. It is important to find out the optimal damper location format in the building to improve its efficiency and reduce total cost of dampers to accomplish the max reduction in the response of the building. Therefore, the second phase of work focuses on the optimal location of the damper in the building. To obtain the optimal damper location, the concept of genetic algorithm is used.

  12. Surface composition effect of nitriding Ni-free stainless steel as bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Shironita, Sayoko; Nakatsuyama, Kunio; Souma, Kenichi; Umeda, Minoru

    2016-12-01

    In order to increase the corrosion resistance of low cost Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel as the bipolar plate of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, a nitriding surface treatment experiment was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere under vacuum conditions, while an Ar atmosphere was used for comparison. The electrochemical performance, microstructure, surface chemical composition and morphology of the sample before and after the electrochemical measurements were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDS) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) measurements. The results confirmed that the nitriding heat treatment not only increased the corrosion resistance, but also improved the surface conductivity of the Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. In contrast, the corrosion resistance of the SUS445 stainless steel decreased after heat treatment in an Ar atmosphere. These results could be explained by the different surface compositions between these samples.

  13. Experiment and simulation analysis of roll-bonded Q235 steel plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao, Guanghui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-gauge Q235 steel plate was roll bonded, and the process was simulated using MARC software. Ultrasonic testing results revealed the presence of cracks and lamination defects in an 80-mm clad steel sheet, especially at the head and tail of the steel plate. There were non-uniform ferrite + pearlite microstructures and unbound areas at a bond interface. Through scanning electron microscopy analysis, long cracks and additional inclusions in the cracks were observed at the interface. A fracture analysis revealed non-uniform inclusions that pervaded the interface. Moreover, MARC simulations demonstrated that there was little equivalent strain at the centre of the slab during the first rolling pass. The equivalent centre increased to 0.5 by the fourth rolling pass. Prior to the final pass, the equivalent strain was not consistent across the thickness direction, preventing bonding interfaces from forming consistent deformation and decreasing the residual stress. The initial rolling reduction rate should not be very small (e.g. 5% as it is averse to the coordination of rolling deformation. Such rolling processes are averse to the rolling bond.Planchas de acero Q235 de espesor grueso se unieron mediante laminación y el proceso fue simulado numéricamente utilizando el programa de cálculo MARC. Los resultados obtenidos en ensayos mediante ultrasonidos revelaron la presencia de grietas y defectos en la laminación en una plancha de acero revestido de 80 mm, especialmente en el comienzo y final de la plancha. La microestructura consistía en ferrita+perlita y desunión en la interfase de unión. Mediante análisis por microscopía electrónica de barrido se observó que la interfase contenía grietas con inclusiones. Un análisis de la fractura reveló la presencia de inclusiones no uniformes en la interfase. Además, los datos de simulación utilizando el programa MARC demostraron que había poca tensión equivalente en el centro de la plancha

  14. Pre-oxidized and nitrided stainless steel alloy foil for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates. Part 2: Single-cell fuel cell evaluation of stamped plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toops, Todd J.; Brady, Michael P.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; Pihl, Josh A.; Estevez, Francisco; Connors, Daniel; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Mylan, William; Kosaraju, Sree Harsha

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr 2N, CrN, TiN, V 2N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of proton exchange membrane (PEM) single-cell fuel cell studies of stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided developmental Fe-20Cr-4V weight percent (wt.%) and commercial type 2205 stainless steel alloy foils. The single-cell fuel cell behavior of the stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided material was compared to as-stamped (no surface treatment) 904L, 2205, and Fe-20Cr-4V stainless steel alloy foils and machined graphite of similar flow field design. The best fuel cell behavior among the alloys was exhibited by the pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, which exhibited ∼5-20% better peak power output than untreated Fe-20Cr-4V, 2205, and 904L metal stampings. Durability was assessed for pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, 904L metal, and graphite plates by 1000+ h of cyclic single-cell fuel cell testing. All three materials showed good durability with no significant degradation in cell power output. Post-test analysis indicated no metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) occurred with the pre-oxidized and nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V or graphite plates, and only a minor amount of contamination with the 904L plates.

  15. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.sadiq@pnra.org [Center for Nuclear Safety (CNS), Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), PO Box 1912, Islamabad (Pakistan); Xiu Yun, Zhu, E-mail: lyzhuxiuyun@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China); Rong, Pan, E-mail: panrong@chinansc.cn [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact.

  16. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N.A.; S. Abdullah; Zamri,W. F. H.; M. F. Abdullah; M. Z. Omar; Sajuri, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectil...

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Hot-Rolled Extra High-Yield-Strength Steel Plates for Offshore Structure and Shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Li, Qingliang; Emi, Toshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Key parameters for a thermomechanically controlled processing and accelerated cooling process (TMCP-AcC) were determined for integrated mass production to produce extra high-yield-strength microalloyed low carbon SiMnCrNiCu steel plates for offshore structure and bulk shipbuilding. Confocal scanning microscopy was used to make in-situ observations on the austenite grain growth during reheating. A Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator was employed to investigate the flow stress behavior, static recrystallization (SRX) of austenite, and decomposition behavior of the TMCP conditioned austenite during continuous cooling. The Kocks-Mecking model was employed to describe the constitutive behavior, while the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) approach was used to predict the SRX kinetics. The effects of hot rolling schedule and AcC on microstructure and properties were investigated by test-scale rolling trials. The bridging between the laboratory observations and the process parameter determination to optimize the mass production was made by integrated industrial production trials on a set of a 5-m heavy plate mill equipped with an accelerated cooling system. Successful production of 60- and 50-mm-thick plates with yield strength in excess of 460 MPa and excellent toughness at low temperature (213 K (-60 °C)) in the parent metal and the simulated coarse-grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) provides a useful integrated database for developing advanced high-strength steel plates via TMCP-AcC.

  18. A discrete particle approach to simulate the combined effect of blast and sand impact loading of steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børvik, T.; Olovsson, L.; Hanssen, A. G.; Dharmasena, K. P.; Hansson, H.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    2011-05-01

    The structural response of a stainless steel plate subjected to the combined blast and sand impact loading from a buried charge has been investigated using a fully coupled approach in which a discrete particle method is used to determine the load due to the high explosive detonation products, the air shock and the sand, and a finite element method predicts the plate deflection. The discrete particle method is based on rigid, spherical particles that transfer forces between each other during collisions. This method, which is based on a Lagrangian formulation, has several advantages over coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian approaches as both advection errors and severe contact problems are avoided. The method has been validated against experimental tests where spherical 150 g C-4 charges were detonated at various stand-off distances from square, edge-clamped 3.4 mm thick AL-6XN stainless steel plates. The experiments were carried out for a bare charge, a charge enclosed in dry sand and a charge enclosed in fully saturated wet sand. The particle-based method is able to describe the physical interactions between the explosive reaction products and soil particles leading to a realistic prediction of the sand ejecta speed and momentum. Good quantitative agreement between the experimental and predicted deformation response of the plates is also obtained.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Impact on Mild Steel ArmourPlates using LS-DYNA: Part I: Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deb

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes  the simulation of impact of jacketed projectiles on steel armour plates usingexplicit finite element analysis as implemented in LS-DYNA. Validation of numerical modelling includesa comprehensive mesh convergence study leading to insights not previously reported in literature,using shell, solid, and axisymmetric elements for representing target plates. It is shown for a numberof cases that with a proper choice of contact algorithm, element size, and strain rate-dependent materialproperties, computed projectile residual velocities can match closely with corresponding test-basedvalues. The modelling requirements are arrived at by correlating against published test residual velocities1for variants of mild steel plates (designated as MS1, MS2 and MS3 of different thicknesses at impactvelocities in the range of ~820-870 m/s. Using the validated numerical procedure, a number of parametricstudies such as the effect of projectile shape and geometric aspect ratios as well as plate thickness onresidual velocity have been carried out and presented in Part II of the current paper.

  20. Corrosion kinetics of 316L stainless steel bipolar plate with chromiumcarbide coating in simulated PEMFC cathodic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. B.; Yu, H.; Xu, L. S.; Zhan, S.; Sun, M.; Kirk, Donald W.

    Stainless steel with chromium carbide coating is an ideal candidate for bipolar plates. However, the coating still cannot resist the corrosion of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environment. In this work, the corrosion kinetics of 316L stainless steel with chromium carbide is investigated in simulated PEMFC cathodic environment by combining electrochemical tests with morphology and microstructure analysis. SEM results reveal that the steel's surface is completely coated by Cr and chromium carbide but there are pinholes in the coating. After the coated 316L stainless steel is polarized, the diffraction peak of Fe oxide is found. EIS results indicate that the capacitive resistance and the reaction resistance first slowly decrease (2-32 h) and then increase. The potentiostatic transient curve declines sharply within 2000 s and then decreases slightly. The pinholes, which exist in the coating, result in pitting corrosion. The corrosion kinetics of the coated 316L stainless steel are modeled and accords the following equation: i0 = 7.6341t-0.5, with the corrosion rate controlled by ion migration in the pinholes.

  1. High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Yazdian, N.; Ma, J.; Kovacevic, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this investigation, two laser-based welding techniques, autogenous laser welding (ALW) and laser welding assisted with a cold wire (LWACW), were applied to join thick plates of a structural steel (A36) in a horizontal narrow gap butt joint configuration. The main practical parameters including welding method and laser power were varied to get the sound weld with a requirement to achieve a full penetration with the reinforcement at the back side of weld in just one pass. The weld-bead shape, cross-section and mechanical properties were evaluated by profilometer, micro-hardness test and optical microscope. In order to investigate the stability of laser-induced plasma plume, the emitted optical spectra was detected and analyzed by the spectroscopy analysis. It was found that at the laser power of 7 kW a fully penetrated weld with a convex back side of weld could be obtained by the LWACW. The microstructural examinations showed that for the ALW the acicular ferrite and for the LWACW the pearlite were formed in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The prediction of microstructure based on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and cooling curves obtained by thermocouple measurement were in good agreement with each other. According to the plasma ionization values obtained from the spectroscopy analysis the plume for both processes was recognized as dominated weakly ionized plasma including the main vaporized elemental composition. At the optimum welding condition (LWACW at the laser power of 7 kW) the fluctuation of the electron temperature was reduced. The spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that at the higher laser power more of the elemental compositions such as Mn and Fe were evaporated.

  2. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained results of the test and analysis have been compared. The confirmed models have been used for the analysis of two-dimensional frame of plain and perforated steel plate shear walls with a regular pattern of positing holes in the screen, buckling restrained brace and moment frame of 4 floors.

  3. A Study on Deformation Behavior of 304L Stainless Steel During and After Plate Rolling at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabdollah, P.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties of AISI 304L stainless steel were studied after rolling operations at elevated temperatures. Rolling experiments were conducted under warm and hot rolling conditions in the range of 600-1000 °C employing different reductions. Then, the developed microstructures and the mechanical properties of the steel were evaluated by means of uniaxial tensile testing, metallographic observations, and x-ray diffraction method. Besides, two-dimensional finite element analysis coupled with artificial neural network modeling was developed to assess thermo-mechanical behavior of the steel during and after rolling. The results show that inhomogeneities in strain and temperature distributions are reduced under warm rolling conditions. Static recrystallization can be operative under hot rolling conditions and relatively low reduction, i.e., reduction of 25%. However, for the case of higher reductions, the rate of recrystallization decreases considerably owing to severe temperature drop in the plate being rolled. Furthermore, the rolled plates show negative strain rate sensitivity while this phenomenon is affected by the rolling temperature.

  4. Detection system for inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates using MFLT with two different magnetizing strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsuji, Junichi; Koshihara, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    Recently, steel can manufacturing requires higher quality because otherwise minute non-metallic inclusions in thin sheets cause cracks and result in a burst during pressurization after the pressing process. Quality testing systems have already been installed in the final process in steel plants, but if there were another inspection in an earlier step, for example, at the hot strip mill, the mass manufacture of nonconforming products could be avoided and maintaining quality control would be more efficient. In order to detect inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates, the authors developed a new technique for MFLT (Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing) using different magnetizing forces. According to an analysis of the noise factors in MFLT, it was found that the signals generated from the scale layer on a steel surface are dominant. A different magnetizing force method is the used to decrease this overpowering noise level in MFLT. In this paper, it was confirmed that inclusions larger than 160μm in diameter and less than 0.45mm in depth can be detected utilizing this method.

  5. SnO2:F Coated Ferritic Stainless Steels for PEM Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Ferrite stainless steels (AISI441, AISI444, and AISI446) were successfully coated with 0.6 {micro}m thick SnO{sub 2}:F by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and investigated in simulated PEMFC environments. The results showed that a SnO{sub 2}:F coating enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloys in PEMFC environments, though the substrate steel has a significant influence on the behavior of the coating. ICP results from the testing solutions indicated that fresh AISI441 had the highest dissolution rates in both environments, and coating with SnO2:F significantly reduced the dissolution. Coating AISI444 also improved the corrosion resistance. Coating AISI446 steel further improved the already excellent corrosion resistance of this alloy. For coated steels, both potentiostatic polarizations and ICP results showed that the PEMFC cathode environment is much more corrosive than the anode one. More dissolved metallic ions were detected in solutions for PEMFC cathode environment than those in PEMFC anode environment. Sn{sup 2+} was detected for the coated AISI441 and AISI444 steels but not for coated AISI446, indicating that the corrosion resistance of the substrate has a significant influence on the dissolution of the coating. After coating, the ICR values of the coated steels increased compared to those of the fresh steels. The SnO{sub 2}:F coating seems add an additional resistance to the native air-formed film on these stainless steels.

  6. Corrosion Mechanism of Corrosion-Resistant Steel Developed for Bottom Plate of Cargo Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feilong SUN; Xiaogang LI; Fan ZHANG; Xuequn CHENG; Cheng ZHOU; Nianchun WU; Yuqun YIN

    2013-01-01

    A new type of corrosion-resistant steel consisting of ferrite and bainite phases was developed for cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers.The corrosion rate of this new steel was 0.22 mm/a,which was equivalent to ca.1/5 of the criterion (≤ 1 mm/a) for corrosion-resistant steels.The composition and element distribution of the corrosion products were investigated by micro-Raman spectrometry and energy dispersive spectrometer.The results demonstrated that the corrosion product was composed of α-FeOOH,Fe3O4 and a continuous Cu enrichment layer.This kind of corrosion product was protective to the steel matrix and accounted for the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the new developed steel.

  7. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  8. Improvement of two-dimension AR model and application in simulation on surface profiles of steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家道; 陈大融; 孔宪梅

    1999-01-01

    The order and parameter estimation is always difficult in two-dimension AR model because the two-dimension Yule-Walker equation does not have the property of uniqueness and identifiability as the one-dimension AR model.This paper provides an AR order estimation method for a two-dimension AR model, and an AR model parameter estimation method on the basis of an autocorrelation function. A simulation example on surface profiles of some kinds of steel plates is given using this improved AR model with positive results.

  9. Fatigue Property of Open-Hole Steel Plates Influenced by Bolted Clamp-up and Hole Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel plates with open holes are commonly used in structural assemblies. The fatigue properties of such details are influenced by bolted clamp-up and hole fabrication methods. The fracture surface, stiffness degradation and fatigue life of test specimens are investigated in detail and compared with the contemporary test data. The analysis results show that the presence of draglines greatly influences the fatigue crack initiation at the open-hole cut by laser. The bolted clamp-up condition greatly enhances the stiffness and the fatigue life of the open-hole details. A discussion is also made from a comparison with the referred fatigue life of hole fabrication details, such as the influence of plate thickness and plasma cutting, drilling and oxy-fuel gas cutting, with the details studied herein. This work could enhance the understanding of the fatigue property and design of such details.

  10. Depth profiling of hydrogen in ferritic/martensitic steels by means of a tritium imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Teppei, E-mail: t-otsuka@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tanabe, Tetsuo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► We applied a tritium imaging plate technique to depth profiling of hydrogen in bulk. ► Changes of hydrogen depth profiles in the steel by thermal annealing were examined. ► We proposed a release model of plasma-loaded hydrogen in the steel. ► Hydrogen is trapped at trapping sites newly developed by plasma loading. ► Hydrogen is also trapped at surface oxides and hardly desorbed by thermal annealing. -- Abstract: In order to understand how hydrogen loaded by plasma in F82H is removed by annealing at elevated temperatures in vacuum, depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen were examined by means of a tritium imaging plate technique. Owing to large hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H, the plasma-loaded hydrogen easily penetrates into a deeper region becoming solute hydrogen and desorbs by thermal annealing in vacuum. However the plasma-loading creates new hydrogen trapping sites having larger trapping energy than that for the intrinsic sites beyond the projected range of the loaded hydrogen. Some surface oxides also trap an appreciable amount of hydrogen which is more difficult to remove by the thermal annealing.

  11. Flow patterns of GaInSn liquid on inclined stainless steel plate under a range of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan-Cheng, E-mail: yangjc@xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Qi, Tian-Yu [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy and Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ni, Ming-Jiu, E-mail: mjni@ucas.ac.cn [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy and Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zeng-Hui [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy and Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The liquid GaInSn metal flow loop was built to study some fusion related liquid metal MHD phenomenon. • The flow patterns of GaInSn free surface flow with the change of Re number and Ha number were got by lot of experiments. • Some detailed descriptions of these flow patterns were also made, and a solid conclusion which agreed with some previous studies was got. - Abstract: In the present paper, some preliminary experimental studies have been conducted to show the flow pattern of liquid metal flow using visualization method. For the convenience of experiments in lab, Ga{sup 67}In{sup 20.5}Sn{sup 12.5} in liquid state at room temperature is used. A test section made by stainless steel is inserted in a traverse magnetic field with strength (B{sub 0}) varies from 0 to 1.28 T. The inclined angle of stainless steel plate in test section is about 9°. Visualization results obtained by high-speed camera (Phantom M/LC 310) shown that GaInSn liquid flow on inclined stainless steel plate behaved unstable liquid column flow pattern in the low flow rate, while behaved large area spreading flow pattern with small waves on the free surface in the large flow rate. However, in the magnetic field, under the action of electromagnetic force, the flow patterns of GaInSn liquid have some significant changes on the spreading width and surface structure of free surface. Some detailed analyses on these changes have been also showed in the present paper. Plans for future work are also presented.

  12. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  13. A Model for Predicting the Yield Strength Difference between Pipe and Plate of Low-Carbon Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Ding, Dongyan; Gu, Mingyuan

    2012-12-01

    A combination of finite-element calculation and tension-compression tests was employed to predict the yield strength difference between the pipe and plate of low-carbon microalloyed steel (LCMS) in the production of high-frequency straight bead welding pipes (HFSBWPs). The deformation process was divided into bending, flattening, and tension deformations. The bending and flattening deformations were simulated using a finite-element method in order to obtain circumferential strains at pipe wall positions along the wall thickness. These strains were the transition strains in the subsequent tension-compression-tension and compression-tension tests. The yield stresses (0.5 pct proof stresses) at the pipe wall positions were derived from the obtained stress-strain curves. The average of the obtained yield stresses was taken as the predicted yield strength of the pipes. It is found that the difference between the latter and the strength of the original steel plates is a result of the combined action of the Bauschinger effect and strain hardening caused by bending and reverse bending deformations. It is strongly dependent on the ratio of pipe wall thickness to pipe outer diameter ( T/D ratio). At low T/D ratios, the Bauschinger effect was dominant, resulting in a decreased yield strength. Strain hardening due to work hardening was dominant at higher T/D ratios, resulting in an increased yield strength. The increase in yield strength was greater at the inner pipe walls than at outer ones, indicating that strain hardening is stronger at inner pipe walls. The yield strength differences predicted with the presented approach are comparable with the values obtained from industrial productions of HFSBWPs, indicating that this approach can be used to predict the yield strength difference between pipe and plate of LCMS.

  14. A Surface Pattern on MALDI Steel Plate for One-Step In-Situ Self-Desalting and Enrichment of Peptides/Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Chunsheng; Li, Ying; Ling, Ling; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    We report a novel strategy to achieve simultaneous one-step in-situ self-desalting and enrichment (OISE) of peptides/proteins on a facilely fabricated patterned MALDI steel plate with a circular paraffin-steel-polystyrene structure. The OISE plate could efficiently segregate salts from both analytes and matrices while retaining both analyte and matrix concentrate, and facilitating them to form homogeneous co-crystals on the centrally located polystyrene pattern. With the OISE plate, high quality and reproducible spectra could be obtained for low abundance peptides even in the presence of high salt concentrations (200 mM NH4HCO3, 1 M NaCl, or 400 mM urea). Using this strategy, a significant sensitivity enhancement was gained over traditional MALDI plate. The practical utility of this method was further demonstrated by the successful profiling of BSA digests and human serum.

  15. Effect of Temperature Variation on Bond Characteristics between CFRP and Steel Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composite materials in the strengthening of existing reinforced concrete structures has gained widespread attention, but the retrofitting of metallic buildings and bridges with CFRP is still in its early stages. In real life, these structures are possibly subjected to dry and hot climate. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the bond behavior between CFRP and steel at different temperatures. To examine the bond between CFRP and steel under hot climate, a total of twenty-one double strap joints divided into 7 groups were tested to failure at constant temperatures from 27°C to 120°C in this paper. The results showed that the joint failure mode changed from debonding along between steel and adhesive interface failure to debonding along between CFRP and adhesive interface failure as the temperature increased beyond the glass transition temperature (Tg of the adhesive. The load carrying capacity decreased significantly at temperatures approaching or exceeding Tg. The interfacial fracture energy showed a similar degradation trend. Analytical models of the ultimate bearing capacity, interfacial fracture energy, and bond-slip relationship of CFRP-steel interface at elevated temperatures were presented.

  16. Crack growth prediction of deck plate-stiffener joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Gration, D.; Vonk, E.; Dooren, F. van

    2013-01-01

    Orthotropic deck structures are used in many steel bridges. Due to the typical detailing applied as around 1970, a significant number of deck structures constructed in that period suffer from fatigue damage. In many countries cracks have been detected, in particular in the weld between the deck plat

  17. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  18. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  19. Comparison of the Time Domain Windows Specified in the ISO 18431 Standards Used to Estimate Modal Parameters in Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Camacho-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedures used to estimate structural modal parameters as natural frequency, damping ratios, and mode shapes are generally based on frequency methods. However, methods of time-frequency analysis are highly sensible to the parameters used to calculate the discrete Fourier transform: windowing, resolution, and preprocessing. Thus, the uncertainty of the modal parameters is increased if a proper parameter selection is not considered. In this work, the influence of three different time domain windows functions (Hanning, flat-top, and rectangular used to estimate modal parameters are discussed in the framework of ISO 18431 standard. Experimental results are conducted over an AISI 1020 steel plate, which is excited by means of a hammer element. Vibration response is acquired by using acceleration records according to the ISO 7626-5 reference guides. The results are compared with a theoretical method and it is obtained that the flat-top window is the best function for experimental modal analysis.

  20. Subsurface deformation and the role of surface texture—A study with Cu pins and steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep L Menezes; Kishore; Satish V Kailas

    2008-06-01

    The extent of subsurface deformation below the worn surface influences friction and transfer layer formation during sliding. Thus, in this study, the extent of plastic deformation and strain localization events that occur at various depths beneath the worn surface in the subsurface zones of Cu pins slid against steel plate with various surface textures have been determined using simple metallographic techniques. Results showed that the magnitude of plastic strain gradient and the depth of highly deformed zone depend on both coefficient of friction and transfer layer formation, which in-turn depends on the surface texture of harder counterface, under both dry and lubricated conditions. In addition, it was seen that the gradient of equivalent strain, as it approached the worn surface, was higher under dry conditions when compared to that under lubricated conditions.

  1. THE INVESTIGATION ON PLASMA ARC TREATMENT OF CHROMIUM PLATED ALLOY STRUCTURE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.M. Fan; J.W. Huang; K.H. Wang; Q. Liu

    2005-01-01

    The technology of plasma arc was used to modify the interface adhesion between chromium coating and steel substrate. The interface microstructure was studied as a function of plasma arc processing parameters. Microstructure analysis was performed by optical microscopy,scanning electron microscopy and electron probe. The microhardness distribution along the depth of a cross-section of the chromium coating and the substrate was measured. The results show the energy density of transferred plasma arc is obviously higher than plasma non-transferred arc. The molten interface was obtained by plasma transferred arc. Interfaces between chromium coating and steel substrate can be divided by plasma non-transferred arc into three classes: non-molten, a little molten and molten. Good interface bonding was obtained by proper process parameters. The microhardness of chromium coating decreases with increasing energy density of plasma arc.

  2. Lumped Parameter experiments for Single Mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Thin Stainless Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengying; Jia, Ye; Han, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zongkai; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the parameters on laser cutting stainless steel including workpiece thickness, cutting speed, defocus length and assisting gas pressure. The cutting kerf width, dross attachment and cut edge squareness deviation are examined to provide information on cutting quality. The results show that with the increasing thickness, the cutting speed decrease rate is about 27%. The optimal ranges of cutting speed, defocus length and gas pressure are obtained with maximum quality. The first section in your paper

  3. Shaking table test study on shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate%钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙振动台试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 王尧鸿; 董宏英; 张建伟

    2011-01-01

    进行了4个钢板剪力墙模型的模拟地震振动台试验,其中2个模型为钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙,高宽比分别为1.7和3.2;2个模型为钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙,高宽比分别为1.7和3.2.试验中输人Taft地震动,测试了各试件在不同峰值加速度下的时程地震反应和动力特性,分析了剪力墙的破坏特征.研究表明:钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板混凝土剪力墙与钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙相比,地震反应明显较小,抗震性能显著提高.%Four steel-plate shear walls were tested on the shaking table. Two of the walls are steel-plate shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and the other two are composite shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate. The ratio of height to width is 1.7 and 3.2 respectively. The Taft seismic ground motion was input in the shaking table test. Based on the experiment, dynamic characters, dynamic responses and failure modes of the four specimens in different seismic peak accelerations are contrastively analyzed. The results show that compared with the steel-plate shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns, shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate have the following characteristics: the dynamic responses are significantly reduced, the seismic behavior is significantly improved.

  4. Evaluation of Electrochemical Characteristics on Graphene Coated Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Metallic Bipolar Plates in PEMFC Fabricated with Hydrazine Reduction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong-Yun; Lee, Jae-Bong [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Graphene was coated on austenitic and martensitic stainless steels to simulate the metallic bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a hydrazine process. rGO was confirmed by FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between the bipolar plate and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) was measured to confirm the electrical conductivity. Both ICR and corrosion current density decreased on graphene coated stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was also improved with immersion time in cathodic environments and satisfied the criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE), USA. The total concentrations of metal ions dissolved from graphene coated stainless steels were reduced. Furthermore hydrophobicity was improved by increasing the contact angle.

  5. Conductive and corrosion behaviors of silver-doped carbon-coated stainless steel as PEMFC bipolar plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Hong-feng Xu; Jie Fu; Ying Tian

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Cr enrichment on stainless steel SS316L resulting from chemical activation enabled the deposition of carbon by spraying a stable suspension of carbon nanoparticles; trace Ag was depositedin situ to prepare a thin continuous Ag-doped carbon film on a porous carbon-coated SS316L substrate. The corrosion resistance of this film in 0.5 mol·L−1 H2SO4 solution containing 5 ppm F− at 80°C was inves-tigated using polarization tests. The results showed that the surface treatment of the SS316L strongly affected the adhesion of the carbon coating to the stainless steel. Compared to the bare SS316L, the Ag-doped carbon-coated SS316L bipolar plate was remarkably more stable in both the anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the interface contact resistance between the specimen and Toray 060 carbon paper was reduced from 333.0 mΩ·cm2 to 21.6 mΩ·cm2 at a compaction pressure of 1.2 MPa.

  6. A novel diffusion model considering curvature radius at the bonding interface in a titanium/steel explosive clad plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao Jiang; Qiang Kang; Xiao-qian Yan

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an element diffusion behavior model for a titanium/steel explosive clad plate characterized by a typical curved interface during the heat-treatment process. A series of heat-treatment experiments were conducted in the temperature range from 750°C to 950°C, and the effects of heat-treatment parameters on the microstructural evolution and diffusion behavior were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and electron-probe microanalysis. Carbon atoms within the steel matrix were observed to diffuse toward the titanium matrix and to aggregate at the bonding interface at 850°C or lower;in contrast, when the temperature exceeded 850°C, the mutual diffusion of Ti and Fe occurred, along with the diffusion of C atoms, resulting in the for-mation of Ti–Fe intermetallics (Fe2Ti/FeTi). The diffusion distances of C, Ti, and Fe atoms increased with increasing heating temperature and/or holding time. On the basis of this diffusion behavior, a novel diffusion model was proposed. This model considers the effects of vari-ous factors, including the curvature radius of the curved interface, the diffusion coefficient, the heating temperature, and the holding time. The experimental results show good agreement with the calculated values. The proposed model could clearly provide a general prediction of the elements’ diffusion at both straight and curved interfaces.

  7. Gold plating of free cutting 303 stainless steel%易切削303不锈钢的镀金工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋路路; 江洪涛; 唐建国

    2014-01-01

    提出了一种易切削303不锈钢电镀金工艺,其流程主要包括化学除油、电化学除油、去碱膜、活化、预镀镍、镀亮镍和镀金。介绍了各工序的配方、工艺条件和注意事项。除油后的去碱膜工序能很好地解决303不锈钢易钝化、难电镀的问题,所得镀层均匀一致,结合力良好。该工艺拓宽了易切削303不锈钢的应用范围。%A process for gold plating on free cutting 303 stainless steel mainly including chemical degreasing, electrochemical degreasing, alkaline film removal, activation, nickel pre-plating, bright nickel plating, and gold plating was developed. The bath composition, process conditions, and matters needing attention were introduced. The removal of alkaline film after degreasing solves the problem of easy passivation and difficult plating on 303 stainless steel surface. The coating obtained is uniform and well adhered. The process widens the application range of free-cutting 303 stainless steel.

  8. RESEARCH ON THICKNESS DEVIATION CRITERIA OF STEEL PLATE IN STEEL STRUCTURE CODE%钢结构规范中钢板厚度偏差问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会荣

    2012-01-01

    Thickness is a main factor affecting the bearing capacity of steel plate. If the thickness deviation of steel plate is not clear, potential safety hazard may exist or unnecessary waste may be caused. Due to the fact that allowable thickness deviation of steel plate is not unified in national standards, supervision and construction units may choose different criteria during comprehension and implementation of these standards, causing relatively obvious errors. Rational proposals are put forward after comparison of steel plate thicknesses between Code for design of steel structures (GB 50017-2003) and Code for acceptance of construction quality of steel structures(GB 50205-2001).%钢板的厚度尺寸是影响承载力的主要因素,如果板厚尺寸偏差不明确,不是造成安全隐患,就是造成不必要的浪费.在钢板厚度允许偏差上,由于国家标准的不统一,使得在工程监理及施工单位的理解和执行中,选择规范不同而造成误差.通过对比《钢结构设计规范》(GB 50017-2003)、《钢结构工程施工质量验收规范》(GB 50205-2001)等规范中钢板厚度允许偏差,提出合理化建议.

  9. A new alloy design concept for austenitic stainless steel with tungsten modification for bipolar plate application in PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Kim, Kyoo Young

    The feasibility of a new alloy design concept utilizing the principle of 'tungsten bronze effect' is critically evaluated for the development of metallic bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). An austenitic stainless steel (ASS) is modified with W and La to improve the stability of the passive film in an acidic environment as well as to reduce the contact resistance by the tungsten bronze effect. The experimental ASS containing W and La was evaluated in a simulated PEMFC environment of H 3PO 4 and H 2SO 4 solutions at 80 °C, and the electrical property was evaluated by performing a contact resistance test. The test results show that the ASS modified with W and La has good passive film stability for corrosion resistance and low contact resistance. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis clearly suggests the possibility of the tungsten bronze effect from the change in valency state of W 6+ to W 5+ in the passive film formed on the modified ASS. The feasibility of a new alloy design concept utilizing the 'tungsten bronze effect' is well demonstrated; however, more study is highly required for the development of metallic bipolar plates of PEMFC.

  10. 组合钢板剪力墙受剪性能分析%Shear Performance of Composite Steel Plate Shear Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖神冰; 陈麟; 吴珊瑚; 吴轶

    2012-01-01

    改进型组合钢板剪力墙(I-CSPW)和防屈曲钢板剪力墙(BR-CSPW)均由边缘框架、钢板和与钢板用螺栓连接的混凝土板构成,但BR-CSPW在混凝土板上预留了比螺杆直径大的孔.进行了两种组合钢板剪力墙的低周反复加载试验,研究了I-CSPW和BR-CSPW在水平往复荷载作用下的破坏模式、承载力、抗侧刚度、耗能能力和延性.利用ABAQUS软件建立有限元模型,通过变化钢板和混凝土板的厚度,考察两种组合剪力墙在水平荷载作用下的承载力、抗侧刚度及混凝土损伤的差异.结果表明,随着钢板厚度增大,I-CSPW的混凝土板损伤发生时间提早,损伤程度增大.相反,钢板厚度的增大却能延迟BR-CSPW的混凝土板破坏.为抑制钢板屈曲,BR-CSPW所需的混凝土板厚度较I-CSPW小.%Two composite shear wall systems studied herein consist of steel boundary frame and steel plate with reinforced concrete plates attached to both sides by bolts. In the system called "innovative" composite shear wall (I-CSPW) the bolt hole in the concrete plate is in direct match with the bolt rod, while in the system called buckling-restrained steel plate shear wall (BR-CSPW) there is a gap in between. This paper presents the results of model tests and behavior aspects of the two composite shear walls under cyclic loading including the failure modes, strength, stiffness, energy dissipation capacity and ductility. Analytical models for the shear strength, stiffness and concrete damage of the composite walls are developed by using ABAQUS software. Results indicate that with increase in steel plate thickness the concrete plate damage decreases in BR-CSPW, while in I-CSPW, concrete plate damage occurs earlier and more seriously. Hence to restrain buckling of steel plate, thicker concrete plate should be used in I-CSPW than in BR-CSPW.

  11. Reconstruction of size and depth of simulated defects in austenitic steel plate using pulsed infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka-Fotek, Olga; Oliferuk, Wiera; Maj, Michał

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the size and depth (distance from the tested surface) of defects in austenitic steel were estimated using pulse infrared thermography. The thermal contrast calculated from the surface distribution of the temperature is dependent on both these parameters. Thus, two independent experimental methods of defect size and depth determination were proposed. The defect size was estimated on the basis of surface distribution of the time derivative of the temperature, whereas the defect depth was assessed from the dependence of surface thermal contrast vs. cooling time.

  12. Experimental, numerical, and analytical studies on the seismic response of steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epackachi, Siamak

    The seismic performance of rectangular steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls is assessed for application to buildings and mission-critical infrastructure. The SC walls considered in this study were composed of two steel faceplates and infill concrete. The steel faceplates were connected together and to the infill concrete using tie rods and headed studs, respectively. The research focused on the in-plane behavior of flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. An experimental program was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo and was followed by numerical and analytical studies. In the experimental program, four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure- and flexure-shear critical. The progression of damage in the four walls was identical, namely, cracking and crushing of the infill concrete at the toes of the walls, outward buckling and yielding of the steel faceplates near the base of the wall, and tearing of the faceplates at their junctions with the baseplate. A robust finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA for nonlinear cyclic analysis of the flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. The DYNA model was validated using the results of the cyclic tests of the four SC walls. The validated and benchmarked models were then used to conduct a parametric study, which investigated the effects of wall aspect ratio, reinforcement ratio, wall thickness, and uniaxial concrete compressive strength on the in-plane response of SC walls. Simplified analytical models, suitable for preliminary analysis and design of SC walls, were

  13. Advancements in Steel for Weight Reduction of P900 Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    do not require high cost alloys, such as nickel, cobalt , or chromium and are less costly than titanium alloys. Tailorable properties via age...Both plates had a dendritic austenite microstructure with 5 volume % ferrite . Figure 4(b) shows clearly the dendrite cast structure and adiabatic...the exit side showing ductile deformation and cracking (d). Shear band Ferrite Crack formation (a) (b) (c) Figure 4. Adiabatic

  14. Pre-oxidized and nitrided stainless steel alloy foil for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates: Part 1. Corrosion, interfacial contact resistance, and surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M. P.; Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.; Meyer, H. M.; More, K. L.; Tortorelli, P. F.; McCarthy, B. D.

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr 2N, CrN, TiN, V 2N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of scale-up studies to determine the feasibility of extending the nitridation approach to thin 0.1 mm stainless steel alloy foils for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plates. Developmental Fe-20Cr-4V alloy and type 2205 stainless steel foils were treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation to form low-ICR, corrosion-resistant surfaces. As-treated Fe-20Cr-4V foil exhibited target (low) ICR values, whereas 2205 foil suffered from run-to-run variation in ICR values, ranging up to 2× the target value. Pre-oxidized and nitrided surface structure examination revealed surface-through-layer-thickness V-nitride particles for the treated Fe-20Cr-4V, but near continuous chromia for treated 2205 stainless steel, which was linked to the variation in ICR values. Promising corrosion resistance was observed under simulated aggressive PEMFC anode- and cathode-side bipolar plate conditions for both materials, although ICR values were observed to increase. The implications of these findings for stamped bipolar plate foils are discussed.

  15. Study of the temperature distribution on welded thin plates of duplex steel to be used for the external clad of a cask for transportation of radiopharmaceuticals products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betini, Evandro G.; Ceoni, Francisco C.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Politano, Rodolfo; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: egbetini@ipen.br, E-mail: fceoni@hotmail.com, E-mail: csmucsi@ipen.br, E-mail: politano@ipen.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Orlando, Marcos T.D., E-mail: mtdorlando@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCE/DFIS/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The clad material for a proprietary transport device for radiopharmaceutical products is the main focus of the present work. The production of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc transport cask requires a receptacle or cask where the UNS S32304 duplex steel sheet has shown that it meets high demands as the required mechanical strength and the spread of impact or shock waves mitigation. This work reports the experimental efforts in recording the thermal distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The UNS S32304 duplex steel is the most probable candidate for the external clad of the containment package for the transport of radioactive substances so it is highly relevant the understanding of all its physical parameters and its behavior under the thermal cycle imposed by a welding process. For the welding of the UNS S32304 autogenous plates the GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process was used with a pure argon arc protection atmosphere in order to simulate a butt joint weld on a thin duplex steel plate without filler metal. The thermal cycles were recorded by means of K-type thermocouples embedded by electrical spot welding near the weld region and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental apparatus for the future complete analysis of the welding experiment and further comparison to numerical analysis. (author)

  16. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Stack tests were run at 850 °C for periods from 80 hours to 1,150 hours to develop contacting procedures and at the same time evaluate the performance of a 5 μm electroplated nickel coating on a ferritic Fe22Cr interconnect. The metallic nickel coating reacted relatively quickly during the initial...... heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...

  17. Improvement of Surface Roughness Quality for Stainless Steel 420 Plate Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya M. Hamad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to improve the surface roughness quality of the stainless steel 420 using magnetic abrasive finishing method (MAF. Four independent operation parameters were studied (working gap, coil current, feed rate, and table stroke, and their effects on the MAF process were introduced. A rotating coil electromagnet was designed and implemented to use with plane surfaces. The magnetic abrasive powder used was formed from 33%Fe and 67% Quartz of (250µm mesh size. The lubricant type SAE 20W was used as a binder for the powder contents. Taguchi method was used for designing the experiments and the optimal values of the selected parameters were found. An empirical equation representing the relation between surface roughness with operation parameters have been achieved.

  18. Seismic Research and Application on Embedded Steel Plate Concrete Shear Wall with Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns%钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板组合剪力墙抗震研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 张文江; 张建伟; 董宏英; 王立长

    2011-01-01

    提出了钢管混凝士边框内藏钢板组合剪力墙.完成了 12个不同构造的钢板组合剪力墙模型的低周反复荷载试验,其中包括5个钢管混凝土边框纯钢板剪力墙、7个钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙.分析了各试件的承载力、耗能、延性、滞回特征等.给出了部分组合剪力墙的承载力计算模型,计算结果与试验结果符合较好.研究表明,钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板组合剪力墙具有承载力高、延性好、耗能能力强、滞回性能稳定等特点.这种新型组合剪力墙已用于工程,效果良好.%The embedded steel plate concrete shear wall with concrete filled steel tube columns was proposed. The tests of 12 shear wall specimens under cyclic loading have been accomplished, including 5 specimens of pure steel plate shear wall with concrete filled steel tube columns and 7 specimens of embedded steel plate concrete shear wall with concrete filled steel tube columns. The performances of specimens such as load-bearing capacity, energy dissipation, ductility and hysteretic behavior have been investigated. Formulas for load-bearing capacity of some specimens are put forward and the calculation results agree well with the experimental ones. It is shown that the embedded steel plate concrete shear wall with concrete filled steel tube columns has excellent aseismic features of higher capacity, better ductility, larger energy dissipation and more stable hysteretic behavior. This new kind of composite shear wall has been applied to the actual projects and the received response is satisfactory.

  19. Open reduction and Internal Fixation of Displaced Proximal Humerus Fractures with AO Stainless Steel T-Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures are considered the last unsolved fractures in orthopaedics. The treatment is controversial and various operative modalities have been reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate functional outcome and complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures by proximal humerus AO stainless steel Tplate. Twenty-five (25 patients with displaced proximal humerus fractures treated with proximal humerus T-plate between May 2005 and June 2008 were included in the study. Fractures were classified according to the Neer classification into displaced 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures. Patients were followed-up for a minimum period of two years. Functional evaluation was done according to the Neer scoring system. Scores were compared with other studies in the literature using similar implant. Twenty patients had 2-part fracture, four had 3-part fracture, and one had 4-part fracture. Eighty-eight [88% (n = 22] patients had good to excellent result, eight [8% (n = 2] had fair, and four [4% (n = 1] had poor result. Difference in Neer’s score between 2-part and 3-part fractures was not significant. Complications encountered in this series were screw backout in 8% (n = 2, superficial infection in 12% (n= 3, and avascular necrosis in 4% (n = 1 of cases. We conclude that proximal humerus AO T- plate is a cheap and easily available implant, aspects which are particularly relevant in third world countries like India. It gives reliable fixation for 2-part and 3-part fractures. Its use in more complicated fracture patterns of 4-part fractures is not recommended.

  20. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  1. Consideration on buckling and plastic breakdown strength characteristics of a steel plate with surface layers of ultra fine grain microstructure (SUF); Hyoso chosairyu koban no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo tokusei ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yao, T.; Yajima, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Morita, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogihara, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Buckling and plastic breakdown strength characteristics of a structure fabricated by using new steel plates with surface layer made into ultra fine grain structure were analyzed and discussed by using a belt plate buckling and plasticity test and the finite element method. The tested steel plate has a thickness of 25 mm, and was fabricated for ocean vessel use, with surface layers on both sides of about 1/6 of the whole thickness having been made an ultra fine grain structure. As a result of a belt steel buckling and plasticity test on a steel plate with surface ratio of 29%, both of the initial yield stress and the buckling stress were found increased by about 4 to 10% as compared with a steel plate having surface ratio of 0%. An analysis by using the finite element method was made on square steel plates with a length of 80 cm, a width of 100 cm, and thicknesses of 12 mm and 24 mm. A result was obtained that, in the case of surface layer ratio of 33%, both of the initial yield stress and the maximum load withstanding force were higher by 5 to 16% than the case of surface ratio of 0%. Similar rise in strength was shown also in bend preventing plates which are basic constituting members of a vessel. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

    2003-09-01

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

  3. Probing Formability Improvement of Ultra-thin Ferritic Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate of PEMFC in Non-conventional Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyuk Jong; Barlat, Frédéric; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Formability increase in non-conventional forming profiles programmed in the servo-press was investigated using finite element analysis. As an application, forming experiment on a 0.15-mm-thick ferritic stainless steel sheet for a bipolar plate, a primary component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, was conducted. Four different forming profiles were considered to investigate the effects of forming profiles on formability and shape accuracy. The four motions included conventional V motion, holding motion, W motion, and oscillating motion. Among the four motions, the holding motion, in which the slide was held for a certain period at the bottom dead point, led to the best formability. Finite element simulations were conducted to validate the experimental results and to probe the formability improvement in the non-conventional forming profiles. A creep model to address stress relaxation effect along with tool elastic recovery was implemented using a user-material subroutine, CREEP in ABAQUS finite element software. The stress relaxation and variable contact conditions during the holding and oscillating profiles were found to be the main mechanism of formability improvement.

  4. A Flat Solar Collector Built from Galvanized Steel Plate, Working by Thermosyphonic Flow, Optimized for Mexican Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Marroquín de Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled type, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198–L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m2, about 20% smaller than comparable copper–tube–based collectors offered in the market. Temperature measurements conducted over a 30–day period gave values which were a few degrees lower than the theoretically calculated water temperatures. Momentary thermal efficiency values between 35% and 77% were observed. The water temperature achieved in the tank at the end of the day aver ages 65°C in winter weather conditions in the central Mexican highland. This design of solar water heater is well suited to Mexican conditions, as it makes use of the high local intensity of the solar radiation, and as the channel shape of the ducts minimizes bursting during the rare occurrences of freezing temperatures in the region; it also has the advantage of being manufacturable at low cost from simple materials.

  5. 激光扫描技术在钢板宽度检测中的应用%Application of Laser Scanning Technology in Steel Plate Width Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜占平

    2014-01-01

    The computer digital image processing technology was used for steel plate width inspection in real-time. In the hard-ware structure aspect,the dual CCD cameras and the optical imaging laser scanning measurement technology were employed to improve the inspection accuracy of the system. According to the CCD imaging principles and similar triangle theorems,the computer model for width changing caused by steel plate width changing and steel plate edge floating was derived. The laser sub-line method that using blocking plate in the laser projected way was put forward to determine the measurement errors caused by steel plate edge floating,and the steel plate width was corrected according to the results of measurement. At the same time,through the analysis of CCD camera laser stripe optimal imaging method,the experimental calibration was implement for the system. The result manifests that the inspection ac-curacy of the system can meet the practical application requirements well.%采用计算机数字图像处理技术对钢板宽度进行实时检测。在硬件结构上,采用双CCD感光器加激光线辅助光源扫描检测技术,提高系统检测精度。根据CCD成像原理及三角形相似定理,对因钢板宽度变化及钢板边缘上浮所引起的宽度变化计算模型进行了推导,提出了采用激光线遮挡板分线法来判定钢板边缘上浮所引起的测量误差,并根据误差测量结果,对钢板宽度进行了修正;同时,通过分析CCD激光线条最佳成像方法对系统进行了试验标定。结果表明,该系统的测量精度能满足实际生产需求。

  6. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  7. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  8. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  9. Talking about the Usage and Management of the Steel Plate Silo%浅谈钢板筒仓的使用与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滨海; 吴立胜

    2011-01-01

    The silo has been used wider and wider in the bulk cargo terminal of the port for its advantage of small space occupancy,large capacity and higher mechanization . This paper introduces the status of steel plate silo used by Rizhao Port Yulang Terminal Co.,Ltd.,and the composition of the steel plate silo . Emphatically it states the operation demands in 5 stages of using the silo and items should be paid attention to. Meanwhile it introduces a few effective methods for managing the steel plate silo .%立筒仓以其占地小、储量大、机械化程序高等优点,越来越广泛地应用于港口散货码头。介绍了日照港裕廓码头有限公司现有钢板筒仓的概况和钢板筒仓的组成。着重阐述了筒仓使用5个阶段的操作要求和注意事项。并介绍了搞好钢板筒仓管理的一些行之有效的做法。

  10. 探究某高层建筑工程钢板剪力墙设计与施工%Design and Construction of Steel Plate Shear Wall of a High-rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清晓

    2014-01-01

    Based on a super-high building project cases, this paper introduces the design and construction conditions of steel plate shear wall and steel plate shear wall construction points.%本文根据某超高层建筑工程案例,介绍了钢板剪力墙的设计与施工细则以及钢板剪力墙施工要点。

  11. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  12. Anticorrosion Coating of Carbon Nanotube/Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Film on the Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite film of carbon nanotube (CNT and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was formed from dispersion fluids of CNT and PTFE. The composite film showed high electrical conductivity in the range of 0.1–13 S/cm and hydrophobic nature. This composite film was applied to stainless steel (SS bipolar plates of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC as anticorrosion film. This coating decreased the contact resistance between the surface of the bipolar plate and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA of the PEMFC. The output power of the fuel cell is increased by 1.6 times because the decrease in the contact resistance decreases the series resistance of the PEMFC. Moreover, the coating of this composite film protects the bipolar plate from the surface corrosion.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE ANGULAR DISTORTION IN GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDED STAINLESS STEEL 202 GRADE PLATES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SUDHAKARAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on optimization of process parameters using particle swarm optimization to minimize angular distortion in 202 grade stainless steel gas tungsten arc welded plates. Angular distortion is a major problem and most pronounced among different types of distortion in butt welded plates. The process control parameters chosen for the study are welding gun angle, welding speed, plate length, welding current and gas flow rate. The experiments were conducted using design of experiments technique with five factor five level central composite rotatable design with full replication technique. A mathematical model was developed correlating the process parameters with angular distortion. A source code was developed in MATLAB 7.6 to do the optimization. The optimal process parameters gave a value of 0.0305° for angular distortion which demonstrates the accuracy of the model developed. The results indicate that the optimized values for the process parameters are capable of producing weld with minimum distortion.

  14. Hardness and microstructural response to thermal annealing of irradiated ASTM A533B class 1 plate steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, D.E. [SMS Concast, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kumar, A.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Hardness measurements were used to determine the post-irradiation annealing response of A533B class 1 plate steel irradiated to a fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at 150 C. Rockwell hardness measurements indicated that the material had hardened by 6.6 points on the B scale after irradiation. The irradiation induced hardness increase was associated with a decrease in upper shelf energy from 63.4 J to 5-1.8 J and a temperature shift in the Charpy curve at the 41 J level from 115 C to 215 C. Specimens were annealed after irradiation at temperatures of 343 C (650 F), 399 C (750 F), and 454 C (850 F) for durations of up to one week (168 h). Hardness measurements were made to chart recovery of hardness as a function of time and temperature. Specimens annealed at the highest temperature 454 C recovered the fastest, fully recovering within 144 h. Specimens annealed at 399 C recovered completely within 168 h. Specimens annealed at the lowest temperature, 343 C recovered only {approximately}70% after 168 h of annealing. After neutron irradiation, a new feature of black spot damage was found to be superimposed on the unirradiated microstructure. The density of black spots was found to vary from 2.3 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3} with an average diameter of 2.85 nm. Following annealing at 454 C for 24 h the black spot damage was completely annealed out. It was concluded that the black spot damage was responsible for 70% of the irradiation-induced hardness.

  15. Pressure Measurements in a PBX 9501 Gauged Acceptor When Impacted by a Steel Plate that is Accelerated by a Thermally Cooked Off PBX 9501 Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Urtiew, P A; Vandersall, K S; Greenwood, D W; Tarver, C M

    2002-03-11

    Measuring the violence of a thermal explosion of a cased explosive is important for evaluating safety issues of explosive devices in fires. A sympathetic initiation scenario was studied here where a 9.0 cm diameter by 2.5 cm thick disc of PBX 9501 donor charge encased in a 304 stainless steel assembly was heated on top and bottom flat surfaces until it thermally exploded. The initial heating rate at the metal/explosive interface was 5 C per minute until it reaches 170 C; then this temperature is held for 35 minutes to allow temperature equilibration to within a few degrees throughout the explosive. The heating resumed at a rate of 1 C per minute until the PBX 9501 donor thermally exploded. A PBX 9501 acceptor charge with carbon resistor and manganin foil pressure gauges inserted at various depths was placed at a 10 cm standoff distance from the donor charge's top steel cover plate. Piezoelectric arrival time pins were placed in front of the acceptor surface to measure the velocity and shape of the impacting plate. The stainless steel cover plate of the donor charge had a nominal velocity of 0.55 {+-} 0.04 mm/{micro}s upon impact and was non-symmetrically warped. The impact of the tilted curved plate induced a three-dimensional compression wave into the acceptor. The rise times of the pressure waves were nominally 1.5 {micro}s with the closest carbon resistor gauges giving peak pressure of 10 kb that decayed to 3 kb for a wave run distance of 2.4 cm.

  16. 护堤钢板阴极保护电场的有限元仿真%Finite Element Simulation for Cathodic Protection System of Steel Plates Used to Protect Wharfs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王在峰; 侯保荣; 孙虎元; 宋积文; 陈胜利; 张大勇

    2015-01-01

    To supply a cathodic protection system for steel plates used to protect old wharfs, and find out distributions of e-lectrical field in cathodic protection system of steel plates in complex conditions, an ideal model of cathodic protection system of steel palates is established.Finite element simulation instead of traditional experiential estimate is used in calculation for cathodic protection system of steel plates under different conditions.Distributions of electrical field in cathodic protection system of steel plates in different corrosion medias are given, as well as the distributions of electrical field between two influenced steel plates.%为了给老式靠船码头的护堤钢板添加阴极保护系统,为护堤钢板阴极保护设计提供依据,建立护堤钢板阴极保护体系的理想模型,用有限元仿真代替传统经验估算法对不同情况下护堤钢板的阴极保护体系进行模拟计算,找到护堤钢板在不同的腐蚀介质及钢板之间相互影响时的阴极保护电场的分布规律。

  17. Measurements of Residual Stresses in Cold-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel Plates Using X-Ray Diffraction with Rietveld Refinement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the residual stresses using X-ray powder diffraction in a series of cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates, deforming 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175 and 196 % reduction in thickness has been carried out. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement method. The analysis shows that for all specimens, the martensite particles are closely in compression and the austenite matrix is in tension. Both the martensite and austenite, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness (containing of about 1% martensite phase the average lattice strains are anisotropic and decrease approximately exponential with an increase in the corresponding percent reduction (essentially phase content. It is shown that this feature can be qualitatively understood by taking into consideration the thermal expansion mismatch between the martensite and austenite grains. Also, for all cold-rolled stainless steel specimens, the diffraction peaks are broader than the unrolled one (instrumental resolution, indicating that the strains in these specimens are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was predicted. The average residual stresses in cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates showed a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of the martensite particles and the austenite matrix.

  18. Required grades of hull steel plates in consideration of fracture toughness; Hakai jinsei wo koryoshita sentaiyo koban shiyo kubun ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Ogaki, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the required grades of hull steel plates based on the steel ship rule of Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK). The minimum value of the allowable crack length in NK rule (critical safety crack length at 0degC just before brittle unstable crack causing fatal fracture) was estimated. In the case where the estimated crack tip exists in a matrix, the crack length was a minimum of 200-210mm, while nearly 60mm in a fusion line at high-heat-input welded joint. The allowable crack lengths estimated from a specified value in the NK rule were fairly different. The allowable crack length at 0degC was also estimated from the minimum value in V-notch Charpy impact test. The private proposal on the required grades of hull steel plates in consideration of fracture toughness was discussed. Thirty-five percent of crack lengths found in real ships is 100mm or less, however, cracks of 250-400mm long are frequently found suggesting the allowable crack length of 400mm. The required grade integrally considering required values and design conditions is demanded to secure the reliability of hull strength. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Comparison of microstructural properties and Charpy impact behaviour between different plates of the Eurofer97 steel and effect of isothermal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Ludek; Hadraba, Hynek; Bursik, Jiri; Dlouhy, Ivo

    2011-09-01

    The microstructure and fracture properties of the Eurofer97 steel plates of thickness 14 mm and 25 mm were investigated in as-received state and in state after long-term thermal ageing (550 °C/5000 h). Detailed microstructure studies were carried out by means of optical light, electron and quantitative electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by means of Charpy impact testing and hardness testing and fracture surfaces were fractographically analysed in macro and microscales. The microstructure of the Eurofer97 consisted of tempered martensite with M 23C 6 and MX precipitates. Microstructure of 14 mm plate was more homogenous and fine grained than 25 mm plate. Due to different microstructure the tDBTT of thicker plate was on +10 °C higher than for 14 mm plate for which reached -60 °C. Slight microstructural changes on the level of subgrain consisting of their partial recrystallization and slight carbide coarsening were observed after applied ageing. The isothermal ageing caused evident shift in tDBTT about +5 °C, which was most likely caused by recrystallization of subgrains.

  20. 侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试技术%Overload Testing Technology of Penetrating Multi-Layer Steel Target Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美云; 王敬斌; 王丹; 石庚辰

    2016-01-01

    针对在弹丸侵彻钢靶板过程中高过载带来的问题,研究了一种能够抗高冲击作用的弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试装置。该装置采用灌封、多层材料组合缓冲以及二次电源的措施,能保证测试装置抗高冲击作用和可靠工作。对弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板的过载特性进行了测试,结果表明所研究的测试装置能够可靠获取与记录弹丸穿过各层靶板时的加速度。%This paper presented a testing device with the ability of resisting high shock while penetrating multi-layer steel target plate to guarantee the high overload problem with plate process in the projectile penetrating steel target. Combined with potting technology, multi-layer shock absorb materials and secondary electrical power source,the device shows resistance to high shock and the ability of reliable working.Experiments on overload characteristic further proved that the device can collect and store the acceleration of penetrating multi-layer target plate with high reliability.

  1. Ex situ evaluation of nanometer range gold coating on stainless steel substrate for automotive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Ricketts, M.; Hirano, S. [Ford Motor Company, 2101 Village Road, Dearborn, MI 48121 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The bipolar plate in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell helps to feed reactant gases to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and collect current from the MEA. To facilitate these functions, the bipolar plate material should exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance under fuel cell operating conditions, and simultaneously be of low-cost to meet commercialization enabling targets for automotive fuel cells. In the present work, we focus on the benchmarking of 10 nm gold coated SS316L (a.k.a. Au Nanoclad {sup registered}) bipolar plate material through ex situ tests, which is provided by Daido Steel (Japan). The use of nanometer range Au coatings help to retain the noble properties of gold while significantly reducing the cost of the bipolar plate. The area specific resistance of the flat sample is 0.9 m{omega} cm{sup 2} while that for the formed bipolar plate is 6.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} at compaction force of 60 N cm{sup -2}. The corrosion current density was less than 1 {mu}A cm{sup -2} at 0.8 V/NHE with air sparge simulating cathodic conditions. Additionally, gold coated SS316L showed anodic passivation of SS316L, thereby exhibiting robustness towards coating defects including surface scratches that may originate during the manufacturing of the bipolar plate. These series of ex situ tests indicate that 10 nm gold coated SS316L has good potential to be considered for commercial bipolar plates in automotive fuel cell stack. (author)

  2. 三层钢框架-薄钢板剪力墙结构抗震性能试验%Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Three-Story Steel Frame-Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建华; 顾强

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究三层钢框架-薄钢板剪力墙结构的破坏模式、滞回性能、承载力和延性等性能,为该种结构体系的工程应用和理论分析提供了依据.方法 基于墙板抗剪承载力设计的三层钢框架-薄钢板剪力墙结构在水平反复荷载作用下进行试验.结果 在水平荷载作用下墙板先屈曲,后屈服;试件最终破坏时,顶点侧移角达到了1/31.钢框架柱发生整体失稳和严重的局部屈曲,柱脚处腹板向外鼓曲,且外翼缘扭曲,但试件的承载力基本保持不变.卸载后二层剪力墙板的平面外残余变形最大.中间层的层间位移比第一层和顶层大得多,达到了34.67mm;结构具有良好的塑性变形能力,正向加载时的位移延性系数为5.85,反向加载时为3.51.结论 钢板剪力墙结构的滞回环饱满,能量耗散良好,承载力退化缓慢,具有良好的延性.%The performances of failure mode, hysteretic performance, bearing capacity and ductility index for three-story steel frame-thin steel plate shear walls were investigated in order to provide the basis on engineering application and theoretical analysis of this lateral resisting structural system. The three-story steel frame-thin steel plate shear wall dual system designed according to shear bearing capacity of plate was tested under the horizontal cyclic loading. The thin shear walls first buckle in shear at low horizontal load levels, and then yield at the more horizontal loads. At the end of test,the maximum drift rotation at the top is 1/31. The whole instability and serious local buckling occur at the steel frame column. The outward buckling appears in the web of column bases and the serious distortion deformation occurs at the flange,but the bearing capacity of specimen remains about the same. The out-of-plane residual deformation of shear plate at the second floor after unloading is the largest. The inter-story drift of 34.67 mm at the middle story is more than that at

  3. 77 FR 31834 - Clad Steel Plate from Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... or backing of ferrous metal (usually carbon or low alloy steel) where the latter predominates by... A263 (400 series stainless types) and A264 (300 series stainless types). Nickel and nickel-base alloy...

  4. An investigation of the typical corrosion parameters used to test polymer electrolyte fuel cell bipolar plate coatings, with titanium nitride coated stainless steel as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A.; Kongstein, O. E.; Hamilton, P. J.; Oedegaard, A.; Svenum, I. H.; Cooke, K.

    2015-07-01

    Stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have good manufacturability, durability and low costs, but inadequate corrosion resistance and elevated interfacial contact resistance (ICR) in the fuel cell environment. Thin film coatings of titanium nitride (TiN) of 1 μm in thickness, were deposited by means of physical vapour deposition (PVD) process on to stainless steel (SS) 316L substrates and were evaluated, in a series of tests, for their level of corrosion protection and ICR. In the ex-situ corrosion tests, variables such as applied potential, experimental duration and pH of the sulphate electrolyte at 80 °C were altered. The ICR values were found to increase after exposure to greater applied potentials and electrolytes of a higher pH. In terms of experimental duration, the ICR increased most rapidly at the beginning of each experiment. It was also found that the oxidation of TiN was accelerated after exposure to electrolytes of a higher pH. When coated BPPs were incorporated into an accelerated fuel cell test, the degradation of the fuel cell cathode resembled the plates that were tested at the highest anodic potential (1.4 VSHE).

  5. Multilayered Zr-C/a-C film on stainless steel 316L as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Feifei; Peng, Linfa; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin

    2016-05-01

    A multilayered zirconium-carbon/amorphous carbon (Zr-C/a-C) coating is synthesized by magnetron sputtering in order to improve the corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity of stainless steel 316L (SS316L) as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Zr-C/a-C film contains an outmost pure amorphous carbon layer and a sub zirconium containing carbon layer. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between carbon paper and coated SS316L decreases to 3.63 mΩ cm2 at 1.4 MPa. Potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that the corrosion potential of Zr-C/a-C coated sample is more positive than pure a-C coated sample and the current density is only 0.49 μA cm-2 at the cathode applied potential 0.6 V. Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy also indicates that multilayered Zr-C/a-C film coated SS316L has much higher charge transfer resistance than the bare sample. After potentiostatic polarization, ICR values are 3.92 mΩ cm2 and 3.82 mΩ cm2 in the simulated PEMFCs cathode and anode environment, respectively. Moreover, XPS analysis of the coated samples before and after potential holding tests shows little difference, which disclose the chemical stability of multilayered Zr-C/a-C film. Therefore, the multilayered Zr-C/a-C coating exhibits excellent performance in various aspects and is preferred for the application of stainless steel bipolar plates.

  6. 冷轧钢板锈蚀原因及防锈对策%CORROSION AND PROTECTION OF COLD ROLLED STEEL PLATE IN HUMID ATMOSPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李处森; 张学元; 杜元龙

    2001-01-01

    通过对冷轧钢板在高温、高湿大气环境中锈蚀原因进行系统分析,提出了利用油-气两相缓蚀的方案解决钢板表面防锈油涂覆不均造成的腐蚀问题.阐述了气相防锈油DZL的设计方案,通过静态湿热腐蚀试验和气相防锈性能试验评价了接触缓蚀和气相缓蚀性能,并用电化学方法对其气相缓蚀作用进行了研究.%By analyzing systematically the reasons of corrosion and rust of cold rolled steel plate in humid atmosphere, it is put forward to use both oil and vapor phase inhibition to solve the serious corrosion problem on the surface of steel plate caused by partially covered anti - rust oil. In the paper, the design of the vapor phase anti - rust oil DZL was elaborated, and the properties of touching inhibition and vapor phase inhibition were evaluated by corrosion test in humid atmosphere and by vapor phase anti - rust test. In addition, the vapor phase inhibition was also studied and clarified by electrochemical methods.

  7. Acoustic Emission tomography based on simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to visualize the damage source location in Q235B steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Xu, Feiyun; Xu, Bingsheng

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) tomography based on Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART), which combines the traditional location algorithm with the SART algorithm by using AE events as its signal sources, is a new visualization method for inspecting and locating the internal damages in the structure. In this paper, the proposed method is applied to examine and visualize two man-made damage source locations in the Q235B steel plate to validate its effectiveness. Firstly, the Q235B steel plate with two holes specimen is fabricated and the pencil lead break (PLB) signal is taken as the exciting source for AE tomography.Secondly, A 6-step description of the SART algorithm is provided and the three dimensional(3D)image contained the damage source locations is visualized by using the proposed algorithm in terms of a locally varying wave velocity distribution. It is shown that the AE tomography based on SART has great potential in the application of structure damage detection. Finally, to further improve the quality of 3D imaging, the Median Filter and the Adaptive Median Filter are used to reduce the noises resulting from AE tomography. The experiment results indicate that Median Filter is the optimal method to remove Salt & Pepper noises.

  8. Calculating Method for Deformation of Structures of Reinforced Concrete- steel Plate against Explosion Action%混凝土-钢板结构在爆炸作用下变形的计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢国强; 林润德

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a practical method of calculating steel - plate deformation of composite structure is got by means of explosion simulated tests for composite structure models of reinforced concrete - steel plate. Theorical calculation is bassicaly equal to testing results. Therefore, the practical method of calculating steel - plate deformation is effective and can be applied in practical engineerings.%通过对钢筋混凝土内贴钢板的大比例尺模型结构进行爆炸模拟试验,导出了组合结构中钢板变形的实用计算方法,试验结果与理论计算基本一致,表明该方法是可行的,可以指导实际工程的应用.

  9. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  10. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate.

  11. 钢管-双层钢板-混凝土组合剪力墙抗震性能试验研究%Experimental study on seismic behavior of steel tube-double steel plate-concrete composite shear walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓东; 蒋飞明; 钱稼茹; 杨懿; 施正捷

    2013-01-01

    提出一种适用于超高层建筑底部楼层的钢管-双层钢板-混凝土组合剪力墙,通过5个剪跨比为2.5的一字形截面组合剪力墙试件的拟静力试验,研究组合剪力墙的抗震性能.试验结果表明:试件的破坏形态为压弯破坏,墙底部边缘构件矩形钢管管壁和钢板鼓曲、钢管断裂、混凝土压溃;矩形钢管混凝土约束边缘构件沿墙肢长度显著影响试件的变形能力和耗能能力;钢板含钢率基本不影响试件的变形能力;矩形钢管混凝土边缘构件内设置圆钢管可提高试件承载力,但对其变形能力影响不大.矩形钢管混凝土约束边缘构件沿墙肢长度为0.2倍墙截面高度、设计轴压比为0.45时,组合墙试件的屈服位移角不小于0.005 rad、极限位移角可达0.030 rad.提出组合墙正截面承载力的计算式,计算结果与试验值吻合较好,误差小于10%.%This paper proposed an innovative composite wall,named the steel tube-double plate-concrete composite shear wall,which is suited for use in the lower stories of super high-rise buildings.The seismic behavior of the composite walls was examined through results of an experimental research program where five rectangle-shaped wall specimens with a shear span ratio of 2.5 were tested.The test results indicate that the specimens fail in a flexural mode,characterized by local buckling of boundary steel tubes and steel plates,fracture of steel tubes,and compressive crushing of concrete at the wall base.The extent of concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) boundary elements significantly affects the deformation and energy dissipation capacities of the composite walls.The area ratio of steel plate has a minimal effect on the deformation capacity of the wall specimens.The addition of circular steel tubes embedded in the CFST boundary elements leads to an increase in the lateral load-carrying capacity of the composite walls,but it does not increase the wall' s deformation

  12. Optimization of Process Parameters to Minimize Angular Distortion in Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Stainless Steel 202 Grade Plates Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakaran .R,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on optimization of process parameters using genetic algorithm to minimize angular distortion in 202 grade stainless steel gas tungsten arc welded plates. Angular distortion is a major problem and most pronounced among different types of distortion in butt welded plates. The extent of distortion depends onthe welding process control parameters. The important process control parameters chosen for study are gun angle (θ, welding speed (V, plate length (L, welding current (I and gas flow rate (Q. The experiments are conducted based on five factor five level central composite rotatable designs with full replication technique. A mathematical model was developed correlating the process parameters and the angular distortion. The developed model is checked for the adequacy based on ANOVA analysis and accuracy of prediction by confirmatory test. The optimization of process parameters was done using genetic algorithms (GA. A source code was developed using C language to do the optimization. The optimal process parameters gave a value of 0.000379° for angular distortion which demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the model presented and program developed. The obtained results indicate that the optimized parameters are capable of producing weld with minimum distortion.

  13. 钢板-混凝土组合受弯加固梁疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental research on fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened by steel plate-concrete composite technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建国; 王宇航

    2011-01-01

    Based on fatigue experiments on eight RC beams strengthened by steel plate-concrete composite (SPCC) technique, fatigue life and variation trend of strain under constant amplitude fatigue loading were studied.The experimental results show that the fatigue failure mode of steel plate-concrete composite beam is fatigue failure of the steel plates.The initial fatigue crack in steel plates appears near the welded toe of stud and then expansion though.But different from general RC beams, the fatigue failure mode of specimens is ductile.Amplitude of stress in steel plate has most important influence on fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.Level and amplitude of stress in steel plate should be controlled strictly in practical design and high strength steel and thin steel plate are not suitable for RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The pre-stress in steel plate can improve fatigue life of RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The S-N relation for tension steel plate welded with studs provided in ' Code for railway steel bridges design' is safe enough for the design of steel plates in RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The calculational method for fatigue life is proposed considering effects of stress level and stress amplitude.%通过对8根钢板-混凝土组合受弯加固简支梁(以下简称组合加固梁)的等幅疲劳加载试验,研究了组合加固梁在疲劳荷载作用下的寿命及应变变化规律.试验结果表明:组合加固梁的疲劳破坏是由钢板裂纹从栓钉焊趾处开始缓慢扩展直至贯通导致的,与普通钢筋混凝上梁相比,组合加固梁的疲劳破坏具有较好的延性;钢板应力幅对组合加同梁的疲劳性能影响较大,实际设计时应严格控制钢板的应力幅和应力上限,不宜采用高强钢材和较薄的钢板;加固层预应力可有效提高组合加固梁的疲劳性能;按TB 10002.2-2005中规定的焊有栓钉的受拉钢板的S-N关系对钢板-混凝

  14. 76 FR 66271 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... broader organization in terms of corporate strategy, organizational structure, management, ownership... corporate parent, ArcelorMittal S.A., approved a spin-off of AMSB's stainless and specialty steels business..., pursuant to the corporate name change from AMSB to Aperam, there were no changes to the production...

  15. Characterization of 2.25Cr1Mo welded ferritic steel plate by using diffractometric and ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Albertini, G.; Ceretti, M.; Rustichelli, F. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Medica; Castelnuovo, A.; Depero, L. [Univ. degli studi, Brescia.Fac. di ingegneria, dip. di ingegneria meccanica (Italy); Giamboni, S.; Gori, M. [Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Four different techniques (X-ray and neutron diffraction, ultrasonic birefringence and incremental hole drilling method) were applied for evaluating residual stress in a butt-welded ferritic steel palte. Measurements were carried out both before and after welding. Effects of post-welding heat treatment is also considered. A comparison between results obtained by using four different techniques is done.

  16. Effects of stainless steel copper plating on YAG laser welding of aluminum/steel%不锈钢表面镀铜对铝/钢 YAG 激光焊接的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉龙; 李鹤; 王裕波; 余啸; 温昌金; 崔庆波

    2016-01-01

    对0.3 mm 厚的316L 不锈钢/6061铝合金进行了脉冲激光(YAG)封边焊接试验。为了改善铝钢的冶金结合,对不锈钢表面进行了镀 Cu 处理,对比了镀铜前后的焊接情况;利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜及能谱分析等方法研究了接头界面区显微组织特征、熔合情况、元素分布和断口形貌。结果表明:对于铝/钢直接焊接,焊接电流 I =130 A,激光脉宽 D =4 ms,激光频率 f=13 Hz,焊接速度 V =150 mm /min,气体流量25 L/min,零离焦时,焊缝平整、成型美观。镀铜层形成了铝钢焊接的过渡层,减缓了界面处液态金属传递,抑制了铁铝之间的熔合,铝钢熔合线向钢一侧偏移。不锈钢未镀铜情况下,焊接接头组织主要由靠近铝一侧的针状或粗大板条状 Fe2 Al5及靠近钢一侧的 FeAl 组成;镀铜后 Cu 主要固溶到 Fe 中,接头界面组织主要由(Fe,Cu)2 Al5、(Fe,Cu)3 Al 组成。镀铜前后接头拉伸断口形貌未发生明显变化,然而,接头强度明显提高,提高约40.32%,达到15.63 N /mm。%31 6L stainless steel and 6061 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 0.3 mm were jointed by using YAG la-ser welding method.In order to improve the metallurgical bonding characteristics of aluminum and steel,stainless steel was plated with a Cu coating.Welding effects of aluminum/steel were compared before and after copper plating.Microstructure,fusion effect,element distribution and fracture morphology of welding joints were studied by optical microscope,scanning electron microscope,energy dispersive spectrometer.The results show that when the weld-ing conditions were welding current of 1 30 A,laser pulse width of 4 ms,laser frequency of 1 3 Hz,welding speed of 1 50 mm/min,the gas flow rate of 25 L/min and defocusing amount of 0mm,the appearance and quality of the welding joint were good.The Cu-coating layer as transition layer of aluminum and

  17. Estimation of Corrosion Probability for Steel Tank Floor-plates%钢质油罐底板腐蚀概率估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨廷鸿; 何超; 吴松林; 王春林

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the floor⁃plate corrosion,which is the main issue of corrosion of steel oil tank. Firstly,it analyses the characteristic of data from engineering detection of oil tank floor⁃plate corrosion and the statistical analysis theory of corrosion test data,and finds that the information of engineering detection data for floor⁃plate corrosion is incomplete for corrosion probability estimation. Then based on the above analysis and theory,the model of corrosion probability estimation is established by the estimation of slight corrosion area and with the goal of maximal corrosion depth prediction. Finally the correctness and feasibility of the model and the maximal corrosion depth of oil tank floor⁃plate are tested through 27 tanks in Guangzhou and other areas of approximately 900 engineering detection data. The maximal relative error is less than 45%,and about 80%of relative error is less than 30%.%  针对钢质油罐底板腐蚀,首先分析了油罐底板腐蚀工程检测数据的特点和腐蚀试验数据统计分析理论;然后针对工程检测信息不完全的特性,以最大腐蚀深度的预测估计为目标,建立了以轻微腐蚀面积估计来实现腐蚀概率修正估计的模型;最后利用广州等地27个罐约900条检测数据估计了油罐底板的最大腐蚀深度。其最大相对误差小于45%,约80%的相对误差优于30%。

  18. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight

  19. 镀铌不锈钢双极板的电化学性能%Electrochemical Characteristic of Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates Deposited with Niobium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹彩红; 梁成浩; 黄乃宝

    2013-01-01

    Niobium was electrodeposited on 316 stainless steel in water and air-stable choline chloride based ionic liquid (choline chloride: ethylene glycol=1:2 (mole ratio)). The electrochemical characteristic of the coated steel was investigated in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environment. The results indicated that the uniform film was obtained on stainless steel surface. In simulated PEMFC environment, after 316 stainless steel was coated with niobium, its electrochemical characteristics were improved greatly, such as the corrosion potential increased, the passivation current density decreased, the pitting potential moved toward positive, and the reaction resistance increased. The deposited niobium film was mainly composed of Nb, NbO and Nb2O5, among them NbO and Nb2O5 behaved as an anti- corrosion barrier and improved the passavition ability of surface layer. So the electrochemical stability of the stainless steel bipolar plate was increased remarkably.%采用对水和空气稳定的氯化胆碱∶乙二醇=1∶2(摩尔比)的离子液体为电解质,在316不锈钢基体上进行电镀铌,考察模拟质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFC)环境中镀铌不锈钢双极板的电化学性能.结果表明,以氯化胆碱类离子液体为电解质在316不锈钢表面可获得平整均匀的颗粒状铌镀层.在模拟质子交换膜燃料电池环境中,镀铌316不锈钢的腐蚀电位得到提高,维钝电流密度减小,阳极极化性能得到改善;孔蚀电位正移,反应电阻增大,耐蚀性能提高.能谱和X射线衍射分析结果表明,镀铌后316不锈钢表面生成化学惰性良好的NbO和Nb2O5,形成耐蚀“屏障”,改善了不锈钢表面膜的钝化能力,提高了不锈钢的电化学稳定性能.

  20. Development of an impact-reduction device by applying ultrasonic vibrations to a high-strength steel plate using a downsized transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Ikeoka, Shota; Tsujino, Jiromaru

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we attempted to downsize an ultrasonic impact-reduction device and studied its use in vehicles because the use of large devices increases the overall vehicle weight and size and reduces fuel economy. We downsized the ultrasonic transducer to 195 mm from 435 mm and measured the vibration, deformation, and impact-reduction characteristics. The resonant frequency changed after a bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducer was connected with the horn, and the motional admittance decreased. Upon application of ultrasonic vibrations to a high-strength steel plate, the deformation magnitude increased, the springback magnitude decreased by up to 25%, and the impact force decreased by 18%. While the downsized impact reduction system was found to be less effective, it still showed an impact reduction effect.

  1. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  2. 钢铁基体上碱性无氰光泽镀铜%Alkaline Cyanide-Free Bright Copper Plating on Steel Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞祥

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种在钢铁基体上碱性无氰光泽镀铜的工艺.该工艺不使用剧毒的氰化物,而用优选合成的配位剂(AZO-b)取代.研究了pH值和电流密度对镀层性能的影响.结果表明:镀层与钢铁基体之间的结合力好,镀液使用8个月后仍保持稳定,镀层呈半光亮的金红色.%A process of alkaline cyanide-free bright copper plating on steel substrate is presented. The process uses an optimized synthetic complexing agent (AZO-b) instead of toxic cyanide. The effects of pH value and current density on coating properties were investigated. The results show that the binding force between coating and steel substrate is good, and the bath is still stable after 8 months of operation, with a semi-bright golden red coating.

  3. 不同构造措施的钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙抗震性能试验研究%Experimental Study on Seismic Performance of Steel-plate Shear Walls with Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns and Different Constructional Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 曹万林; 董宏英; 李刚; 张文江

    2011-01-01

    The steel-plate shear wall with concrete filled steel tube columns is a new type of composite shear wall. In order to assess the seismic performance of new shear walls with different constructional measures, experimental study of three specimens with the same shear span ratio 1-5 were carried out undercyclic loading: one with the steel plate and the steel tubes being connected by welding, one with the steel plate and the steel tubes being connected by bolts, and one with the steel plate and the steel tubes being connected by welding as well as with low opening ratio of holes in the steel plate. Based on the experiment , the damage characteristics, hysteretic behavior, load-carrying capacity, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation of the specimens were contrastively analyzed. The experimental results showed that the connection type between the steel plate and the steel tubes, either in welding or in bolting, had little effect on the overall performance of the shear walls. Compare to the normal steel-plate shear walls with concrete filled steel tube columns, the load-carrying capacity, ductility, stiffness and energy dissipation of the perforated steel-plate shear walls with concrete filled steel tube columns had not obvious change under low opening ratio of holes.%钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙是一种新型抗震剪力墙,为了比较不同构造措施对该新型剪力墙抗震性能的影响,进行了3个剪跨比为1.5的钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙低周反复荷载试验.其中,试验模型1为墙体钢板与边框柱钢管焊接,试验模型2为墙体钢板与边框柱钢管螺栓连接,试验模型3为墙体钢板开孔并与边框柱钢管焊接.通过试验研究,比较了各剪力墙的破坏特征、滞回特性、承载力、刚度、延性以及耗能能力.结果表明:在墙体钢板与边框柱钢管的连接方式中,采用焊接或栓接对剪力墙的整体性能影响不大;与普通钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙相

  4. Influence of obliquity effect on the ballistic performance of high strength steel plate%倾角效应对高强度钢板抗弹性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红亮; 李晓源; 时捷; 韩赟; 曹文全; 雍岐龙

    2011-01-01

    选择53式7.62 mm普通弹和53式7.62 mm穿燃弹两种弹型,对不同厚度的高强度马氏体均质钢板和有孔结构钢板进行抗弹性能试验.研究对应不同的弹丸类型和钢板结构时,倾角效应对抗弹性能的影响.结果表明,53普通弹和53穿燃弹冲击时,倾斜角增大,均质钢板抗弹性能均提高.钢板防护53普通弹时的抗弹性能对倾斜角不敏感,而钢板防护53穿燃弹时的抗弹性能对倾斜角敏感.弹丸以跳飞角入射时,钢板防护53普通弹和53穿燃弹的临界厚度基本相当.有孔结构钢板在大角度倾斜抗弹时,抗弹性能较好;在垂直抗弹时,孔结构导致的边缘效应明显降低钢板的抗弹性能.%Ballistic resistance tests were carried out on high-strength martensitic homogeneous steel plates with different thickness and the perforated steel plates, using 53-type ordinary ball and 53-type armor-piercing incendiary. The influence of obliquity effect on the ballistic performance under the different types of bullet and the structure of plates was studied. The results show that with the oblique angle increasing, the ballistic performance of homogeneous steel plates against the 53-type ordinary ball and 53-type armor-piercing incendiary increases. Moreover, ballistic performance against the 53-type ordinary ball is not sensitive to oblique angle, while it is contrary for 53-type armor-piercing incendiary. When the steel plate is impacted at ricochet angle, the critical thickness of plate against 53-type ordinary ball and 53-type armor-piercing incendiary is roughly equal. The perforated steel plate impacted at large oblique angle has preferable ballistic performance; while at normal impact, the ballistic performance of the perforated steel plate deteriorates obviously by edge effect.

  5. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Agreements is grade X-70 plate. Although the HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and customs.... For assessment purposes, we calculated importer (or customer)- specific assessment rates for... customer) by dividing the total dumping margins for reviewed sales to that party by the total...

  6. 3D finite element simulation of temperature distribution, residual stress and distortion on 304 stainless steel plates using GTA welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatkumar, D.; Ravindran, D. [National Engineering College, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    In the present study, the distortion induced in rectangular plate of AISI 304 SS during autogenous GTA welding process is measured experimentally and further validated using Finite element (FE) analysis. The thermal histories are measured at fixed locations over the surface of the plate and the results are compared with FE analysis. The Gaussian surface and Volumetric heat source models are simulated and transient heat transfer analysis is performed. The heat source models have been tested with two different speeds. The effectiveness of change in thermal histories of the heat sources have been studied and reported. In FE analysis, the sequentially coupled thermomechanical analysis is performed using the thermal histories as input and the distortion of the plates are predicted and compared with experimental measurements. The large and small displacement theories are employed for the above purpose and the effectiveness of the theories are reported. The edge deformation of the plates have been measured and validated for both the theories. The residual stress and distortion at the mid span are predicted and discussed. The results predicted using large displacement theory is in good agreement with measured values.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer on 316L stainless steel: Novel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, M.; Mahboubi, F.; Mousavi Khoie, S. M.; Aparicio, M.; Hübner, R.; Soldera, F.; Gago, R.

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient corrosion resistance and surface conductivity are two main issues that plague large-scale application of stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). This study explores the use of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer coatings to improve the electrical and electrochemical performance of polished 316L SS bipolar plates. The multilayer coatings have been deposited by (reactive) magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of bare and coated substrates has been evaluated in simulated PEMFC working environments by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests at ambient temperature and 80 °C. The results show that the Ta/TaN multilayer coating increases the polarization resistance of 316L SS by about 30 and 104 times at ambient and elevated temperatures, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) shows a low value of 12 mΩ × cm2 before the potentiostatic test. This ICR is significantly lower than for the bare substrate and remains mostly unchanged after potentiostatic polarization for 14 h. In addition, the high contact angle (92°) with water for coated substrates indicates a hydrophobic character, which can improve the water management within the cell in PEMFC stacks.

  8. 带钢镀锡生产中的电解酸洗%Study on Electrolytic Pickling Process for Strip Steel in Tin Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 吴健

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of electrolytic pickling for strip steel in tin plating was analyzed, the factors of electro- lytic pickling such as electrolysis plate and electrolytic pickling process parameters were studied. The results indicated that increase of protection measures by Pb-Ca-Sn positive electrode, electrolyte temperature 40℃, sulfuric acid concentration70 g/l, and current density 10 c/dm2 conditions could gain better effects for electrolytic pickling.%在分析低碳冷轧带钢酸洗机理的基础上,研究了低碳带钢电解酸洗的影响因素(电解极板及电解工艺参数),研究表明:对Pb—Ca-Sn酸洗阳极增加保护措施及采用酸洗温度40℃、酸液浓度70g/L、电流密度10c/dm^2的电解工艺参数可得到较好的酸洗效果。

  9. 非对称热轧高品质不锈钢复合板可行性模拟研究%Simulation research on feasibility of hot rolling asymmetrically assembled high quality stainless clad steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心金; 何冰冷; 祝志超; 何毅; 李萌蘖

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,an extra-thick clad steel plate and a thin clad steel plate were asymmetrically assembled,and the strains,contact stresses and temperature distributions of assembly during the hot rolling process were calculated by ABAQUS finite software.Through temperature compensation and cooling control,the feasibility of hot rolling asymmetrically assembled clad steel plates was also inves-tigated by numerical simulation.The results show that asymmetrical assembly design is beneficial to the interfacial bonding between carbon steel layer and stainless steel layer of the extra-thick clad plate during each rolling pass.By controlling the temperature difference between upper and lower surface, the slab warping phenomenon can be effectively improved,and both a thin and an-extra thick stainless clad steel plates can be obtained at the same time,thus improving the production efficiency.Moreo-ver,asymmetrical assembly design also enables the control of rolling and cooling,and therefore en-sures the cooperative deformation of stainless steel and carbon steel in the core section and promotes its interfical bonding as a consequence.%利用特厚规格复合板与较薄规格复合板进行非对称组坯,采用 ABAQUS 有限元软件对其热轧过程中的应变、接触应力及温度分布进行计算,并通过温度补偿及冷却控制的手段,对热轧非对称复合坯的可行性进行模拟分析。结果表明,采用非对称组坯设计,有利于特厚复合板碳钢层与不锈钢层在各道次轧制中的界面结合;通过控制复合坯上、下表面的温差,能有效改善板坯翘曲现象,并可一次性获得一块宽幅特厚复合板与一块宽幅较薄规格复合板,提高生产效率;此外,采用非对称组坯设计还可实现控轧控冷,保证芯部不锈钢与碳钢的协同变形,促进其界面结合。

  10. A Physical Metallurgical Basis for Heat-Affected Zone and Base-Plate Properties of a Microalloyed HSLA Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    times at peak temperature experienced by the HAZ, in general would produce an inhomogeneous austenite. 2.3.1. Austenite Formation The formation of austenite has...1971). 29. G. R. Speich, A. Szlrmae, " Formation of Austenite From Ferrite and Ferrite-Carbide Aggregates," Trans. AIME, 245, pp.1063, (1969). 30. N. C...Law, 0. V. Edmonds, "The Formation of Austenite In a Low Alloy Steel," Met. Trans. A., lla, pp.33-46. January, (1980). 31. C. I. Garcia, A. J

  11. A New Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Design for Generating and Receiving S0 Lamb Waves in Ferromagnetic Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianpeng; Dixon, Steve; Hill, Samuel; Xu, Ke

    2017-05-04

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are non-contact, ultrasonic transducers that are usually kept within 5 mm from the sample surface to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). One important issue associated with operation on a ferromagnetic plate is that the strong attraction force from the magnet can affect measurements and make scanning difficult. This paper investigates a method to generate fundamental, symmetric Lamb waves on a ferromagnetic plate. A coil-only, low-weight, generation EMAT is designed and investigated, operating at lift-offs of over 5 mm. Another design of an EMAT is investigated using a rectangular magnet with a much higher lift-off than the coil, of up to 19 mm. This results in a much lower force between the EMAT and sample, making scanning the EMAT much easier.

  12. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO2 nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Vibha; Duchaniya, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO2 on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO2 nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO2 nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO2 coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating.

  13. 切割方式对直接淬火钢板的影响%Effect of cutting method on direct quenched steel plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪生; 张所全; 韩剑宏

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of microstructure and hardness near cutting area of the direct quenched steel with thickness of 20 mm and strength of 600 MPa after different cutting method were studied .The results show that flame cutting leads to an obvious softened region near the cutting face, but the plasma cutting and laser cutting do not .Plasma and laser cutting lead to re-quenching effect at the area close to the cutting face, and the hardness is much higher than that of the matrix away from the cutting face .The size of the heat affected area by flame cutting is larger than those by plasma and laser cutting .Considering the thickness range and acceptable size of the heat affected area , plasma cutting method is recommended for the investigated direct quenching steel plate .%研究了20 mm厚60 kg级直接淬火钢板不同切割方式下切割区域附近组织和硬度的特点。结果表明,火焰切割后,在割口附近会形成明显的软化区域,而等离子切割和激光切割无明显软化区域;等离子割口和激光割口处会重新淬火,其硬度远高于远离割口处;火焰切割割口的热影响区域大于等离子切割和激光切割。考虑到等离子切割和激光切割的适应厚度范围以及热影响区域的大小,推荐采用等离子切割20 mm厚60 kg级直接淬火钢板。

  14. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Vibha, E-mail: vibhauttam74@gmail.com; Duchaniya, R. K., E-mail: rkduchaniya.meta@mnit.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, MNIT Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO{sub 2} nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy–dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating.

  15. An Approach to Maximize Weld Penetration During TIG Welding of P91 Steel Plates by Utilizing Image Processing and Taguchi Orthogonal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Debnath, Tapas; Dey, Vidyut; Rai, Ram Naresh

    2016-06-01

    P-91 is modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Fabricated structures and components of P-91 has a lot of application in power and chemical industry owing to its excellent properties like high temperature stress corrosion resistance, less susceptibility to thermal fatigue at high operating temperatures. The weld quality and surface finish of fabricated structure of P91 is very good when welded by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). However, the process has its limitation regarding weld penetration. The success of a welding process lies in fabricating with such a combination of parameters that gives maximum weld penetration and minimum weld width. To carry out an investigation on the effect of the autogenous TIG welding parameters on weld penetration and weld width, bead-on-plate welds were carried on P91 plates of thickness 6 mm in accordance to a Taguchi L9 design. Welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate were the three control variables in the investigation. After autogenous (TIG) welding, the dimension of the weld width, weld penetration and weld area were successfully measured by an image analysis technique developed for the study. The maximum error for the measured dimensions of the weld width, penetration and area with the developed image analysis technique was only 2 % compared to the measurements of Leica-Q-Win-V3 software installed in optical microscope. The measurements with the developed software, unlike the measurements under a microscope, required least human intervention. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) confirms the significance of the selected parameters. Thereafter, Taguchi's method was successfully used to trade-off between maximum penetration and minimum weld width while keeping the weld area at a minimum.

  16. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... the subject merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel...

  17. Finite element analysis of plate rolling of duplex-layer steels for long-period fast reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jungki; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    With same roll speed and same friction coefficient, curvature is formed on rolled product from FEA result. To reduce this curvature and plastic strain which cause reduction in fabricability, two ways are selected; (i) controlling upper/lower roll speed, and (ii) adjusting upper/lower friction coefficient and contacts. Both results shows it can reduce the curvature and equivalent plastic strain of the plate after the rolling. It can be applied in real plate rolling processing and also the next research for pilgering process for tube and pipe production. The FEA results of equivalent stress and plastic deformation distribution are showed in figure 5. The von-Mises equivalent stress distribution showed that the stress is still concentrated on upper Fe-12Cr-2Si layer, however, it also shows that equivalent plastic strain is distributed uniformly comparing with upper and lower roll speed ratio is 1.0. In high temperature liquid metal environment, there are usually two types of corrosion; one is corrosion by dissolution of alloy elements into liquid metal, and another is corrosion by chemical reaction among impurities in liquid metal and structural alloy. There have been some researches to develop new alloys that can form more dense scale on the surface even in wider impurity range and higher temperature range . M.P Short et al. devised functionally graded composite which is composed of two layers . one is a thin corrosion resistant layer and another is thick structural layer which guarantees mechanical strength, creep rupture strength and shows less irradiation swelling.

  18. Cyclic-Tension Fatigue Behavior in a SS400 Steel Plate Studied Using Ultrasonic Linear and Nonlinear Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hideki; Fukuhara, Mikio

    2015-11-01

    Three acoustic probe configurations were used to assess cyclic-tension fatigue in SS400 steel at room temperature via a diffracted horizontally polarized shear wave (SH) transmission method. Linear analysis of the propagation time and amplitude of shear and longitudinal waves with fatigue progression revealed that the linear behavior was governed by residual stress, attributed to the acoustoelastic effect. Specifically, the propagation time of the shear waves increased and the wave amplitude decreased with fatigue progression. Our results also revealed that the propagation paths of the waves became deeper with progressive fatigue. Additionally, when the probe angle was optimized for diffraction, the estimated change in the length prior to fatigue breakage was 0.61 pct. Nonlinear analysis results revealed that second harmonic β-parameters increased as fatigue progressed, up to ~800 pct for the optimal frequency configuration; this was attributed to an increase in the number of dislocation-associated viscoelastic effects. The proposed approach shows great potential for nondestructive evaluation of metal fatigue via parameter analysis of residual stress and dislocation variations.

  19. Automatic system for measuring the steel plate size based on laser scanning%基于激光扫描的钢板尺寸自动测量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志华; 熊烽; 刘祥谋

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a laser-based scanning of automatic measurement scheme in detecting the steel plate size,which uses laser scanners,data acquisition card and industrial control computer,and calculating the steel plate size by picking the boundary points.The experiments show that the scheme has high precision,low cost and good static repeatability.%提出了一种基于激光扫描的钢板尺寸自动测量方案,该方案利用激光扫描仪、数据采集卡和工控机对钢板进行自动测量,并通过拾取钢板的边界特征点来计算钢板尺寸,实验表明,该方案不仅检测精度高、成本低,且输出稳定性好。

  20. 格构式钢板加固在抗震加固中的应用%APPLICATIONS OF LATTICE STEEL PLATE REINFORCEMENT TEC HNOLOGY IN THE SEISMIC STRENGTHENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于孝军; 张广泰

    2011-01-01

    格构式钢板加固法具有工期短,加固后不影响建筑的使用效果和对原结构的损害小等优点.本文结合新疆阜康市某五层砖混住宅房屋抗震加固改造工程,介绍格构式钢板—砖砌体组合结构在抗震加固中的优点和加固思路,可供类似工程参考.%Lattice Steel Plate Reinforcement Technology takes shorter construction period and not affect the architectural application. There was also less damage to the original stucture. Based on reinforcement engineering of Fu Kang city a five-floor brick house, the article introduces the advantage and reinforce ideas of lattice steel plate and brick structure composite structure in the seismic strengthening.

  1. Development of Extra Heavy S550Q/Z35 Steel Plate for Hydropower Generating Units%水电机组用超厚 S550Q/Z35钢板的研制开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚丽; 李建立

    2014-01-01

    通过合理的化学成分设计以及电渣重熔冶炼、轧制和热处理工艺设计,成功研制开发了280 mm超大厚度规格 S550Q/ Z35钢板。钢板的各项性能良好,完全可以应用于大型水轮发电机组制造。%With rational chemical compositions design and ESR melting,rolling and heat treatment process de-sign,Wugang successfully develops 280 mm thickness extra heavy S550Q/ Z35 steel plate. The steel plate is of good properties and can be used for the manufacture of large scale water turbine generator units.

  2. 预应力CFRP板加固钢梁抗弯疲劳试验研究%Experimental Study of Flexural Fatigue Performance of Steel Girder Reinforced by Prestressed CFRP Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶华文; T. Ummenhofer; 强士中

    2009-01-01

    Bonding Prestressed carbon fiber reinforcement polyester (CFRP) plate is a promising technique to strengthen steel member damaged by fatigue. First, a modification of Paris' equation was used to analyze the crack propagation of the steel member strengthened by CFRP plate. Four-point bending fatigue test of pre-cracked steel girder strengthened with prestressed CFRP plates was also conducted to investigate the flexural fatigue performance of reinforced steel girder. In the end a simplified calculation and design method was also presented to estimate the re-quired prestress preliminary to stop the propagation of fatigue cracks. The result shows that (1) this technique pro-duces a significant increment of fatigue life of steel girder which is more than 10 times compared with that of pre-crack stage; (2) the fatigue lives, which extended from the reinforcement with different pre-crack sizes, differ up to 10 times. The post-tensioning method was applied to prestress the CFRP of steel girder plate successfully and an-chorage system can real-time control the prestress in CFRP plates and the prestress loss is slight.%首先,采用修正的Pairs公式分析粘贴预应力CFRP板加固的钢构件的疲劳裂纹扩展行为.然后通过粘贴CFRP板的预制裂纹钢梁4点弯曲进行疲劳试验研究,最后基于阻止裂纹扩展的角度提出一种初步估计加固所需预应力大小的简化计算和设计方法.结果表明,粘贴预应力CFRP板对钢梁疲劳寿命的影响很大,与预制裂纹阶段比寿命提高最高可达10倍以上.不同的预制裂纹,同样的加固措施效果差别可达10倍.采用后张法施加预应力效果很好,锚固装置可以实时控制有效预应力,且预应力损失很小.

  3. 锆钢复合板反应器制作技术%Relative Manufacturing Technology on Zirconium- steel Clad Plate Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雪涛; 高振宇

    2009-01-01

    Some key technology and method on the manufacturing zirconium - steel clad plate reactor is presented. This paper summarizes and compares some different solutions during the domestic manufacture process, then some comparative better solution were found out. These solution and technology is proved good for the equipment quality and the production etficiency through the manufacture practice and some relative analyze, so it's worth to be spread and referenced to other similar equipment manufacture.%介绍了锆钢复合板反应设备国产化过程中的一些重点技术.通过总结、比较的方法,得出较优的一些解决方案.通过实际生产应用的效果及原理分析,可以看出这些技术方案有利于保证设备质量并提高生产效率,对以后类似设备的制作具有推广及借鉴作用.

  4. Thermally Nitrided Stainless Steels for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 2: Beneficial Modification of Passive Layer on AISI446

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brady, Michael P [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2004-01-01

    Thermal nitridation of AISI446 mod-1 superferritic stainless steel for 24 h at 1100 C resulted in an adherent, inward growing surface layer based on (Cr, Fe){sub 2}N{sub 1-x} (x = 0--0.5). The layer was not continuous, and although it resulted in low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and good corrosion resistance under simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodic conditions; poor corrosion resistance was observed under simulated anodic conditions. Nitridation for 2 h at 1100 C resulted in little nitrogen uptake and a tinted surface. Analysis by SEM, XPS, and AES suggested a complex heterogeneous modification of the native passive oxide film by nitrogen rather than the desired microns-thick exclusive Cr-rich nitride layer. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in both good corrosion resistance under simulated cathodic and anodic conditions and low ICR, well over an order of magnitude lower than the untreated alloy. Further, little increase in ICR was observed under passivating polarization conditions. The potential of this phenomenon for PEMFC bipolar plates is discussed.

  5. Effect of B2O3 containing fluxes on the microstructure and mechanical properties in submerged arc welded mild steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Roy, J.; Rai, R. N.; Prasada Rao, A. K.; Saha, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper represents a study on the effect of B2O3 additions in fluxes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal formed during Submerged Arc Welding of Mild Steel plates. Five fluxes with about 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% B2O3 were used with a low carbon electrode. Welding process parameters were kept constant for all the conditions. The microstructure of weld metal for each flux consisted mainly of acicular ferrite, polygonal ferrite, grain boundary ferrites and equiaxed pearlite. It was noted that the Vicker's hardness value was a function of boron content and shows a mixed trend. Impact Energy and Tensile Strength were increased with the increase in boron content in welds this can be attributed to relation with the higher acicular ferrite percentage. However an optimum level of toughness and tensile strength was available with 7.5% and 5% of B2O3 respectively. A qualitative comparison has also be done with fresh flux by means of full metallography and mechanically.

  6. Effect of microstructural types on toughness and microstructural optimization of ultra-heavy steel plate: EBSD analysis and microscopic fracture mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijng 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Yu, Hao, E-mail: yuhao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijng 100083 (China); Wang, Shaoyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijng 100083 (China)

    2016-03-21

    The uniformity of toughness along thickness direction has long been the critical problem for producing ultra-heavy steel plate. To clarify the rule and mechanism of the influence of microstructures on toughness, different microstructures and their mixtures have been obtained through various heat treatment processes. The microstructures and substructures were characterized by means of optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, the correlations between misorientation, grain size, microscopic fracture propagation and toughness have been studied in detail using electron backscatter diffraction. Results suggest that after tempering, lath bainite can achieve better toughness property than martensite, whereas granular bainite is detrimental for toughness. Note that firstly generated lath bainite can effectively refine subsequent martensitic packets and blocks, and increase barriers for fracture propagation. Compared with single-phase martensite microstructure, the mixture of martensite+bainite obtains finer substructure and more percentage of large misorientation, which are favorable for hindering the propagation of microcrack, meanwhile it is an ideal microstructural type to achieve the optimal combination of toughness and strength. Besides, functional mechanism of packet boundaries and block boundaries for hindering crack propagation is different, as it is more difficult for crack propagation to bridge between different lattice planes than between different crystallographic orientations.

  7. Analysis for Scar Defect on Q345q Bridge Steel Plate Surface%桥梁钢Q345q疤状缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余宏伟; 王世森; 王孝东; 洪君

    2011-01-01

    The configuration and chemical compositions of scar on hot rolled plate surface of bridge steel Q345q were analyzed by optical microscope,scan electron microscope and EDS analysis.The results show that the scar defects are non-metallic nubby inclusions or%针对鄂钢轧制的部分宽厚板表面出现结疤现象,应用金相显微镜、扫描电镜和能谱分析仪对Q345q热轧态钢板表面疤状物形态和成分进行观察,对形成原因进行分析并提出改进措施。结果表明:疤状缺陷为块状的非金属夹杂/渣,并在钢板表面形成凹坑,其成分为含有Si、Ti、Al、Ca、Mg的氧化物或硅酸盐、铝酸盐等,其主要为炼钢过程中的脱氧产物和合金的氧化产物。因此在生产过程中,通过去除钢水中夹杂物和清理铸坯等,减少非金属夹杂/渣,以提高钢板表面质量。

  8. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...

  9. Novel process of cyanide-free copper plating on steel and its application%新型钢铁无氰镀铜工艺及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋义锋; 陈明辉; 杨防祖; 田中群; 周绍民

    2012-01-01

    The second generation of novel cyanide-free alkaline copper plating process was developed based on the first generation of cyanide-free alkaline copper plating process, and the problem of bath stability was successfully resolved. The basic bath composition and operation conditions are as follows: CuSO4·5H2O 25.0 g/L, C6H5O7K3·H2O 0.2 mol/L, assistant complexing agent 0.05 mol/L, stabilizer 0.2 mol/L, activator 0.02 mol/L, H3BO3 30 g/L, KOH 20 g/L, additive 10 mL/L, temperature 45 ℃, pH 8.8-9.2, current density 1.0-1.5 A/dm2, and electrolytic copperas anode. The addition of cuprous stabilizer and activator to plating bath ensures the stable application of the novel process. The influence of bath composition and process conditions on coating properties and current efficiency as well as the anti-impurity performance of the process were studied by Hull cell test and rack plating experiment. The coating obtained under the given process conditions has good properties, the current efficiency is above 90%, and the impurity resistance of the bath is excellent. The given process is suitable for copper pre-plating on steel and copper alloys. The bath keeps stable and the products are qualified after continuous use in production for months.%在第一代钢铁无氰镀铜工艺的基础上,开发出第二代无氰碱性镀铜新工艺,成功地解决了镀液的稳定性问题.镀液的基础配方和工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 25.0 g/L,C6H5O7K3·H2O0.2 mol/L,辅助配位剂0.05 mol/L,稳定剂0.2 mol/L,活化剂0.02 mol/L,H3BO3 30g/L,KOH 20 g/L,添加剂10 mL/L,温度45℃,pH 8.8~9.2,电流密度1.0~1.5 A/dm2,阳极为电解铜.在新工艺镀液中引入一价铜稳定剂和活化离子,保证了其稳定应用.通过赫尔槽和挂镀试验研究了镀液组分和工艺条件对镀层性能和电流效率的影响,以及镀液的抗杂质能力.结果表明,在本工艺条件下,所得镀层性能良好,电流效率高于90%,镀液的抗杂质性能优良.本工

  10. Numerical simulation of seismic performance for different types of steel plate shear walls%不同类型钢板剪力墙抗震性能的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 王栋; 郭宏超; 吴冠男; 方飞虎

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide theory support for the use of steel plate shear walls in actual engineering, the seismic performance of the thin steel plate shear wall, the cross stiffener steel plate shear wall and the steel plate shear wall with slits, based on experiments, was simulated under the low cycle reciprocating loading via ANSYS and compared with the test data. The hysteresis curve, skeleton curve, the stress and deformation of infill plate were analyzed. The results indicate that the finite element model data agrees well with the experimental ones. The maximum error of yield load is 10. 9% , and that of peak load is only 1.4%. The stress of infill plates gets full development within dividers, while the disabled cross stiffener just gives a weak restraint on the out plane deformation of an infill plate in the later loading period. The local instability below the beam - column joints and column base lead to the failure of the whole structure.%为了给钢板剪力墙在实际工程中的应用提供理论支持,在试验研究的基础上,通过ANSYS模拟了薄钢板、十字加劲及开缝钢板剪力墙在低周往复荷载作用下的抗震性能,并与试验数据进行了对比,分析了滞回曲线、骨架曲线、内填板应力及变形等指标.结果表明:有限元分析与试验数据吻合较好,屈服荷载最大误差为10.9%,峰值荷载最大误差仅为1.4%;加劲肋使得内填板应力在小区格范围内发展更充分,但加载后期,加劲肋失效,对内填板面外约束作用微弱;柱脚和梁柱节点以下部位发生局部屈曲,导致整个结构失效.

  11. 密柱钢板深梁结构抗震性能试验研究%Experimental study on seismic behavior of structure with dense columns-deep steel plate beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宏英; 张力嘉; 曹万林; 乔崎云; 刘恒超

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种内藏密柱钢板深梁混凝土组合剪力墙,密柱钢板深梁为其核心钢构.为研发高性能密柱钢板深梁结构,对4个具有不同设计参数的试件进行了低周反复荷载试验.试件的密柱分为方钢管混凝土、圆钢管混凝土、工字钢3种截面,钢板深梁分为Q235,Q345两种钢材,试件剪跨比为1.5.基于试验,分析了各试件的承载力、刚度及退化过程、延性、滞回特性、耗能、损伤与破坏过程,提出了密柱钢板深梁结构承载力计算模型,计算结果与实测结果符合较好.研究结果表明:“强密柱、弱钢板深梁”型结构可实现延性屈服机制;密柱截面用钢量相同时,采用圆钢管混凝土密柱的结构性能最好;与采用Q345钢板深梁的结构相比,采用Q235钢板深梁的结构虽承载力略小但延性更好;密柱钢板深梁结构具有良好的抗震性能和延性屈服机制.%The composite concrete shear wall embedded with dense columns-deep steel plate beams as the core structure was proposed.In order to investigate a high-performance structure with dense columns-deep steel plate beams, low cyclic loading experiments were carried out on four specimens with different design parameters.Three section styles, including concrete filled square steel tube col-umn, concrete filled circular steel tube column, and I-section steel column, were adopted for dense columns.The steel strengths of deep beams included two grades, Q235 and Q345.The shear span ratios of all the specimens were 1.5.Based on the experiments, the load-bearing capacities, stiffness and deterioration processes, ductilities, hysteretic behaviors, energy dissipations, damage and failure processes of specimens were analyzed.The load-bearing capacity calculation model was established, and the calculation results were in good agreement with the test results.The investigation results show that the structure with“strong columns

  12. Effects of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of hot rolled stainless steel clad plate%热处理对热轧不锈钢复合板组织性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会云; 张心金; 李龙

    2013-01-01

    对热轧奥氏体不锈钢复合板的热处理工艺进行了研究,利用金相显微镜对基层碳钢组织进行了观察,通过剪切、拉伸及冲击等试验对热处理前后的界面结合性能及力学性能进行了研究,并对复层不锈钢耐蚀性进行了测量.结果表明,热轧不锈钢复合板基层碳钢组织主要为铁素体和珠光体,强度较低,复层不锈钢的耐腐蚀性也较差;快冷处理后,复合板的强度增加,但由于快冷基层碳钢产生了大量的马氏体和贝氏体组织,塑性明显下降.回火后试样的塑性有明显改善,但仍不能满足使用要求.快冷+缓冷处理后,碳钢层组织为较细小铁素体、贝氏体和少量珠光体,不锈钢复合板力学性能符合标准要求.热处理后的不锈钢复合板抗剪切强度均> 380 MPa,界面结合性好;复层不锈钢的腐蚀速率从热轧后的36.2 g/(m2-h)降低到了2 g/(m2·h)左右.最佳热处理工艺为高温(1000℃)快冷+低温(500℃)缓冷.%Heat treatment of stainless steel clad plate made by hot rolled bonding was studied.The microstructure was analyzed by OM,interfacial adhesion and mechanical properties before and after heat treatment were investigated.Corrosion resistance of the stainless steel clad plate was also evaluated.The results show that,after hot rolled bonding,the microstructure of the base carbon steel consists of ferrite and pearlite with low strength,and the corrosion resistance of the clad stainless steel is poor.By rapid cooling after hot rolling,its strength increases,but the ductility obviously decreases because much of martensite and bainite formed in the carbon steel.The ductility of the base carbon steel after tempering can remarkably be improved,but still not satisfy the demand for use.After the treatment of rapid cooling plus slow cooling,the microstructure of the carbon steel consists of fine ferrite,bainite and a small amount of pearlite,and the mechanical properties of the clad plate

  13. 中性盐雾腐蚀环境中Q235钢板力学性能的退化规律%Degradation Law of Mechanical Properties of Q235 Steel Plate in Neutral Salt Spray Corrosion Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐善华; 王皓; 苏磊

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion test was carried out on Q235 steel plate in neutral salt spray corrosion environment for 0-178 days,and then the data of corroded steel plate surface were collected by using optical surface measurement technology to establish the corroded surface geometry model of Q235 steel plate by Geomagic studio.Degradation law of mechanical properties of Q235 steel plate were investigated by uniaxial tensile tests.The results show that yield strength,tensile strength and elongation obeyed a linear degradation with the increase of corrosion mass loss ratio,the yield platform became shorter rapidly.The corroded steel plate with big pits more easily entered its stage of necking because of plastic damage.By modifying the second plastic flow model,the stress-strain constitutive degradation model of corroded Q235 steel plate was established,and the degradation law of the model shape control parameters based on the corrosion mass loss ratio was achieved finally.In neutral salt spray corrosion environment,the main corrosion feature of Q235 steel plate was pitting corrosion,corrosion pit exhibited uneven distribution,separate characteristic and randomness,however,the effect of layered erosion could not be ignored.%在中性盐雾腐蚀环境中对 Q235钢板进行0~178 d的加速腐蚀试验,采用光学表面测量技术对锈蚀钢板表面进行数据采集,运用Geomagic studio逆向工程软件建立了 Q235钢板锈蚀表面的几何模型;通过单轴拉伸试验研究了 Q235钢板力学性能的退化规律。结果表明:随着锈蚀质量损失率增大,Q235钢板的屈服强度、抗拉强度和断后伸长率均呈明显的线性退化趋势,屈服平台迅速缩短,严重蚀坑的存在使得锈蚀钢板更易产生塑性损伤而进入颈缩阶段;通过对二次塑流模型进行修正,建立了锈蚀 Q235钢板的应力-应变退化本构模型,得到了模型形状控制参数随锈蚀质量损失率变化的退化规律

  14. Simulations and measurements of artificial cracks and pits in flat stainless steel plates using tone burst eddy-current thermography (TBET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, M. N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Maxfield, B. W.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Tone Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET) is a new hybrid, non-contacting, Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method which employs a combination of Pulsed Eddy current Thermography (PEC) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE). For understanding the influence of cracking and pitting on heat generation and flow within a metallic body, a fundamental knowledge of the detailed induced current density distribution in the component under test is required. This information enables us to calculate the amount of heat produced by the defects and how that heat diffuses to the surface where it is imaged. This paper describes simulation work done for artificial pits and cracks within pits on the far surface of poorly conducting metals like stainless steel. The first phase of this investigation simulates the transient thermal distribution for artificial 2D pit and crack-like defects using the finite element package COMSOL multi-physics with the AC/DC module and general heat transfer. Considering the reflection measurement geometry where thermal excitation and temperature monitoring are on the same surface, pitting reduces the material volume thereby contributing to a larger temperature rise for the same thermal energy input. A crack within a pit gives a further increase in temperature above the pure pit baseline. The tone burst frequency can be changed to obtain approximately uniform heating (low frequency) or heating of a thin region at the observation surface. Although front surface temperature changes due to 10% deep far-side pits in a 6 mm thick plate can be measured, it is not yet clear whether a 20% deep crack within this pit can be discriminated against the background. Both simulations and measurements will be presented. The objective of this work is to determine whether the TBET method is suitable for the detection and characterization of far side pitting, cracking and cracks within those pits.

  15. Composition and corrosion resistance of palladium film on 316L stainless steel by brush plating%316L不锈钢上电刷镀钯膜的组成与耐蚀性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鋆磊; 左禹; 唐聿明; 熊金平

    2012-01-01

    利用电刷镀工艺在316L不锈钢上制备了结合力良好的钯膜.使用扫描电子显微镜、X射线能谱、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、质量损失实验和电化学测试研究了膜层的性能.结果表明,电刷镀钯膜主要是由钯元素构成的;XPS分析表明,膜层中的钯为金属态.电刷镀钯后的不锈钢试样在沸腾的20%硫酸溶液和含0.005 mol/L溴离子的甲酸和乙酸混合溶液中均显示了非常好的耐蚀性能.镀钯试样的腐蚀速率比不锈钢试样的下降了2个数量级.%Palladium films with good adhesive strength were deposited on 316L stainless steel by brush plating.Scanning electronic microscopy,energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),mass loss tests and electrochemical methods were used to study the properties of the films.The brush plated palladium film mainly consisted of palladium.XPS analysis indicated that palladium was present in the films as metal state.The palladium plated stainless steel samples showed excellent corrosion resistance in boiling 20% H2SO4 solution and boiling acetic/formic acids with 0.005 mol/L Br ions added.The corrosion rates of the palladium plated 316L stainless steel samples were about two orders of magnitude lower than those of the original 316L stainless steel samples.This method provides a possibility to prepare protective palladium films on stainless steel facilities with large areas in industrial sites.

  16. 高韧性抗层状撕裂钢板 Q345FTE - Z35的开发%Development of Q345FTE - Z35 Steel Plate with High Toughness and Through - Thickness Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向华; 秦军; 刘奉家; 胡小伟

    2015-01-01

    通过 Nb、V、Ti、Cu、Ni 复合微合金化的成分设计,采用两阶段控制轧制生产工艺,八钢成功开发出风塔用 Q345FTE - Z35钢板,在保证钢板强韧性的同时,获得了良好的抗层状撕裂性能,各项性能指标均满足国家标准要求。%By means of chemical composition design of Nb,V、Ti、Cu、Ni composite microalloying and II Phase controlled rolling process,Bayi Iron and Steel Co. has successfully developed Q345FTE - Z35 steel plate for wind power tower,of which sufficient strength and toughness,good lamellar resistance are maintained with all properties items satis-fying the requirements of national standards.

  17. 两种不同强塑性薄钢板抗弹性能的试验和数值模拟%Experiment and Numerical Simulation on Ballistic Performance of Two Thin Steel Plates With Different Strength and Ductility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红亮; 时捷; 曹文全; 雍岐龙; 董瀚

    2012-01-01

    51B-type 7.62mm pistol bullets were fired at thin steel plates with different strength and ductility. And the numerical simulation for the experiments was carried on by ANSYS/LS-DYNA too. The macro-appearance in the process of testing and numerical simulation were compared, such as the impact craters, bulge height and residual projectile size. At last, combined with the energy absorption of the steel plate and the bullet, the influence of the strength and ductility on ballistic performance was analyzed. The results show that: two tested steel plates almost have the same ballistic performance against the 5113 type 7.62 mm pistol bullets, although the very different tensile strength and elongation they have. The numerical simulation result is consistent with the experiment, and it can re- flect the process of the bullets impact target rightly. To the higher strength steel plate, energy absorption by making the projectile deformation is greater than the lower strength one, and to the higher ductility steel plate, energy absorption though its own deformation is larger than the lower ductility one. Thus, the result of two tested steel plates almost have the same ballistic performance is explained.%利用51B式7.62mm手枪弹对不同强度和塑性的薄钢板进行枪击试验,采用ANSYS/LS-DYNA软件对试验过程进行数值模拟,对试验和数值模拟过程的钢板破坏形貌、背凸高度、残余弹丸长度等宏观形貌进行比较。结合抗弹过程中弹丸和钢板消耗的能量,分析了强度和塑性对钢板抗弹性能的影响。结果表明:尽管两种钢板的抗拉强度和断后伸长率差异较大,但其抗51B式7.62mm手枪弹性能相当。试验和数值模拟结果吻合较好,模拟方法能够正确地反映弹丸冲击靶板过程。因较高强度钢板使弹丸变形消耗的能量大于较低强度钢板,塑性较好钢板本身变形消耗的能量大于较低塑性钢板,从而解释了两种钢板抗弹性能相当的试验结果。

  18. Less Invasive Stabilization System with Steel Plate Treating Comminuted Fracture of Proximal Tibia%微创内固定系统钢板治疗胫骨近端粉碎性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴善瑜

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the methods and clinical effects of less invasive stabilization system with steel plate treating comminuted fracture of proximal tibia. Methods:In our hospital, 4 cases of proximal tibial comminuted fracture were treated with steel plate of less invasive stabilization sys-tem. Results:4 cases were all primary healing, with the excellent rate of 100%. Growing callus of postoperative 4 weeks, knee joint was able to with-stand force, and its function was normal, with normal gait without pain, tibia without angular deformity, cripetura less than 5mm and rotation less than 5 °. Conclusions:Less invasive stabilization system with steel plate is an effective method for treating comminuted fracture of proximal tibia, lit-tle trauma and less complications.%  目的:探讨微创内固定系统钢板治疗胫骨近端粉碎性骨折的方法和临床效果。方法:我院4例胫骨近端粉碎性骨折患者使用微创内固定系统钢板治疗。结果:4例伤口均一期愈合,优良率为100%。术后4周出现骨痂,膝关节功能正常并能对抗力量,步态正常无疼痛,胫骨无成角畸形、短缩<5mm、旋转<5°。结论:微创固定内系统钢板创伤小,并发症少,是治疗胫骨近端粉碎性骨折的有效方法。

  19. Mechanical Performance of Steel Vierendeel Sandwich Plate Structure%钢空腹夹层板结构基本力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 何秋霖; 马克俭; 张蕾

    2016-01-01

    钢空腹夹层板是一种新型楼盖结构,具有跨度大、重量轻、厚度薄等特点,它与一般井字梁结构不同之处在于空腹夹层板需考虑剪切变形对结构的影响。采用拟夹层板连续化分析建立结构上下肋的等效薄膜刚度方程和剪力键夹心层的折算剪切刚度方程,给出结构在四边简支条件下的解析解。针对同一算例,将连续化分析的结果与有限元分析以及简化计算进行对比研究,结果表明:3种方法得出的挠度误差在5%以内,下弦杆件轴力误差在15%以内;采用连续化分析进行钢空腹夹层板结构的静力计算,具有较高的精度,简化计算方法具有足够的安全储备,可应用于实际工程。%Steel vierendeel sandwich plate (SVSP) is a new kind of floor system, with the characteristics of long span, light weight and thin thickness. The influence of shear deformation needs to be considered in SVSP structures, which is deferent from me⁃chanical performance of normal cross beams. Based on the principle of continuous analysis, the membrane stiffness of upper and lower surface layers and the equivalent shear stiffness of shear connecter interlayer are established, respectively. Then the analytic solution is gotten under boundary condition simply supported on four sides. According to a calculation example, the results of contin⁃uous analysis are compared with those of FEM analysis and simplified calculation. The comparison results show that the deflection error in mid⁃span is less than 5%and the axial force error in lower chord is less than 15%. Obviously, the continuous analysis has good accuracy and the simplified calculation method has high safety and good feasibility used in actual engineering.

  20. 基于滞回耗能谱的钢板剪力墙结构性态设计方法%Performance based seismic design of steel plate shear walls using hysteretic energy spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国华; 顾强; 何若全; 方有珍

    2011-01-01

    The damages of buildings under earthquakes are related to cumulative effects of the ground motion.In order to reflect the ground motion effect,an energy-based seismic design method of steel plate shear wall,based on the normalized hysteretic energy spectrum and accumulated ductility spectrum,was proposed.The computation methods for accumulated hysteretic energy of steel beam,steel column,and steel plate infill wall were constructed.The different hysteretic behavior of steel components was taken into consideration by pinching parameters.Capacity design method was used to determine the sections of steel components,and to ensure that SPSW could produce the favorite failure mode under rare earthquakes.A ten-story,three-span SPSW was designed based on this new design method.The seismic behavior was evaluated by nonlinear time history method.The maximum average story drift of the example SPSW structure can meet the requirement of the Chinese seismic code.The reliability of this method is proved.%结构在地震作用下的损伤往往与地面运动的加速度循环特征密切相关,为反映这种地面运动特征,引入了累积延性比,并结合标准化的滞回耗能谱,提出了钢板剪力墙(SPSW)结构基于能量的性态抗震设计方法。该方法给出了SPSW结构中钢梁、钢柱、剪力墙板累积滞回耗能的计算方法,引入捏缩系数来反映构件的滞回特性,采用能力设计方法确定剪力墙板周边的梁、柱截面,确保SPSW结构在罕遇地震作用下出现理想的塑性机构。通过对1榀10层3跨的SPSW结构算例分析,采用弹塑性时程分析对所设计结构进行了验证。计算结果表明:结构最大楼层侧移平均值满足我国现行抗震规范的要求,与设计假定的目标侧移基本一致,验证了建议方法的合理性。

  1. 316L钢表面纳米银镀层的制备、性质及血液相容性%Preparation, Property and Blood Compatibility of Nanometer Silver Plating on 316L Steel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛歆; 李淑梅; 范立双; 牛利; 刘斌; 常静; 张晶; 张基昌; 赵雷; 赵卓

    2012-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles films were prepared by electrodeposition. The thin films were then treated with a avantin solution of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl triethoxysilane(25% , volume fraction) for 20 h. After these solution, 316L stainless steel' s surface mircoscopic view changed, so the hydrophobicity and oleophobic property were improved. The blood compatibility effect of the films was tested by dynamic blood coagulation experiment, anticoagulant time measurement, platelet adhesion experiment, hemolysis test, Protein adsorption experiment. As a result, platelet adsorption amount, activity level, albumin absorption amount have improved a lot by the nanometer silver plating on 316L steel surface, other index is similar with the bare steel. Nanometer silver plating on 316L steel surface can improve the blood compatibility of 316L steel. Compared with bare 316L stainless steel, Ag nanoparticles films has a better blood compatibility, it' s a appropriate material for coronary artery stent.%采用恒电位电沉积方法在316L不锈钢表面沉积银纳米镀层,并将钢板置于全氟硅烷溶液中浸泡,通过动态凝血实验、抗凝血时间测定、血小板黏附实验、溶血实验和蛋白吸附实验等手段,测试材料的血液相容性.结果表明,通过上述方法可明显改善316L不锈钢的血液相容性,而抗凝血性能、溶血率及纤维蛋白吸附量不亚于裸钢板.与316L裸不锈钢相比,银镀膜全氟硅烷浸泡316L不锈钢具有良好的血液相容性,是一种比较理想的冠状动脉支架材料,具有良好的应用前景.

  2. Effect of different surface treatments on the stability of stainless steels for use as bipolar plates in low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.; Schmidt, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Wolfsburg (Germany); Tuebke, J.; Cremers, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The stability of different stainless steels against corrosion under simulated low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating conditions was studied. These investigations showed a moderate corrosion resistance for a couple of steels under LT-PEMFC conditions. However, for the HT-PEMFC conditions all specimens except one exhibit visible corrosion traces. With regards to their corrosion resistance after different surface treatments results show a minor improvement in corrosion resistance after the electro polishing process for most of the tested stainless steel samples. (orig.)

  3. Combined Plate-Beam Element Method for Local Vibration Computation of Orthotropic Steel Bridge Deck%正交异性钢桥面板局部振动计算的组合板梁单元法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马牛静; 王荣辉

    2011-01-01

    Proposed in this paper is a combined plate-beam element method to calculate the local vibration of the orthotropic steel bridge deck with trapezoid stiffened ribs, which is used in the long-span steel bridge. In this method, the top plate and the trapezoid stiffened rib are respectively taken as the flat shell element and the plate-beam element, and the corresponding displacement model is established according to the deformation coordination relationship between the plate and the rib. Moreover, the stiffness matrix of the combined plate-beam element is obtained based on the energy-variation principle, and the consistent mass matrix and the consistent load matrix are obtained based on the shape function of each sub-element. Then, the finite dynamic equilibrium equations are obtained. Finally, a calculation program of dynamic finite element is presented for the combined plate-beam element, and the first 10 consequent natural frequencies are compared with those of the shell finite element, finding that the latters accord well with the formers. Thus, the proposed method proves to be feasible and efficient.%针对大跨度钢桥中采用梯形加劲肋的正交异性钢桥面板,提出一种计算钢桥面板局部振动的组合板梁单元法.其中顶板用平板壳单元分析,梯形加劲肋视为板梁单元,两者的位移模式根据板与肋的变形协调关系建立.组合板梁单元的刚度矩阵通过能量变分原理得到,利用各子单元的形函数可以求得组合板梁单元的一致质量矩阵与一致荷载列阵,进而得到相应的有限元动力平衡方程组.最后编制了组合板梁单元的有限元动力计算程序,将其前10阶自振频率与板壳有限元计算结果进行比较,验证了该方法的可行性与高效性.

  4. Analysis of Microstructures and Property of Welded Joint of EH36 Thick Steel Plate for Offshore Platform%海洋平台用EH36厚钢板焊接接头的组织性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of EN 10225-2009 appendix E Standard, the EH36 thick steel plate with 100 mm thickness for offshore platforms was welded by submerge-arc welding technology with 50 kJ/cm high heat input. The microstructure and properties of the weld joint were analyzed. The results showed that either welded or heat treated after welding, the hardness HV10 of the weld joint of EH36 thick steel plate ≤ 280, tensile strength ≥ 510 MPa, the mean value of absorbed-in-fracture energy at-40℃≥50 J, the surface microstructure mainly are coarse lath bainite+a small amount of granular bainite and the core structure is fine ferrite+pearlite. This showed that the EH36 thick steel plates developed by Jinan Steel meet the welding needs of offshore platforms. The differences of the fusion line shape and heat transfer status between the surface and center of weld joint are main reasons to lead to surface HAZ grain coarser than those of center HAZ, so surface toughness is lower than that of center.%按照EN 10225-2009附录E标准要求,采用50 kJ/cm大热输入埋弧焊工艺焊接厚为100 mm海洋平台用EH36钢板,测试分析了焊态及焊后热处理态焊接接头的组织与性能。结果表明,无论焊态还是焊后热处理态,EH36厚钢板焊接接头的硬度HV10≤280,抗拉强度≥510 MPa,-40℃冲击功均值≥50 J,表面组织以粗大的板条状贝氏体+少量粒状贝氏体为主,心部组织以细小的铁素体+珠光体为主,表明济钢开发的EH36厚钢板满足海洋平台的焊接生产要求。焊接接头表面与心部熔合线形状及传热状态的差异,是导致表面HAZ晶粒比心部粗大、因而表面韧性低于心部的主要原因。

  5. 高强船板拉力分层原因分析及改进措施%Analysis on Causes Leading to Tensile Lamination in High Strength Steel Plates for Ship-building and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 张维维; 赵成林; 廖相巍; 王丽娟

    2015-01-01

    The lamination phenomenon occurred in high strength steel plates for ship-build-ing during tensile test is analyzed by such means as metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer. The results show that a large amount of sulphide and oxide inclusions, non zap-lop voids after rolled and the banded structure caused by composition segregation of C and Mn are the main causes leading to the tension lamination. After taking such measures as feeding silicon and calcium wires into molten steel after vacuum treatment, optimizing continuous casting process, optimizing the heating process and thermo-mechanical control process, the qualification rate of steel plates for ship-building during flaw detecting after finishing rolling is obviously improved.%利用金相显微镜、扫描电镜和电子探针等手段对高强船板拉伸试验中出现的分层现象进行了分析,认为大量硫化物和氧化物夹杂、轧制后未轧合的孔洞以及C、Mn成分偏析造成的带状组织是导致拉力分层的直接原因。通过采取真空处理完毕后向钢液中喂入硅钙线、优化连铸工艺、优化加热及控轧控冷工艺等措施后,船板钢轧后探伤合格率明显提高。

  6. D evelopm entand A pplication ofA utom atic M easuring System ofSteelPlate W idth%钢板自动测宽系统的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱琴

    2014-01-01

    To improve the width measurement precision, the on-line automatic measurement system was installed in front of roughing mill in medium and heavy plate mill on 2500 production line of Jinan Steel. The composition of the system mainly consists of a CCD device, video automatic gain controller, image acquisition card, industrial control compute, etc. After the application of the system, it could measure the width of plate steel in the process of rolling at any time, and could adjust the reduction of mill rolling easily at any time, it improved the qualified rate of length to width scale plate. The finished cutting edge residue quantity was reduced by 4 mm, and reduced the revision rate of 0.02%products.%为提高宽度测量精度,济钢中厚板厂2500产线在粗轧机前安装在线自动测宽系统,该系统主要由CCD器件、视频自动增益控制器、图像采集卡、工控计算机等组成。系统应用后,可实时测量轧制过程中钢板宽度,便于随时调整压下量,提高了长宽定尺板合格率,成品切边放尺量减少了4 mm,产品改判率降低0.02%。

  7. 77 FR 19192 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... chromium; (vi) 0.30 percent of cobalt; (vii) 0.40 percent of lead; (viii) 1.25 percent of nickel; (ix) 0.30... owner of two of Zenith's three plants. Thus, subsidies that THPL received prior to its merger with... Zenith merged with THPL, which was the previous owner of two of Zenith's three plant locations during the...

  8. 立式钢制拱顶储罐瓜皮板预制方案%Prefabrication Method for Melon Peel Shaped Plates of Vertical Steel Dome Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 周思柱; 袁新梅; 程文佳

    2013-01-01

    The methods for making melon peel shaped plates of vertical steel dome storage tanks are miscellaneous, for which reason factors influencing the size of a melon peel shaped plate were analyzed, computation formulas were summarized and transformed to computer programs, then a simple computing method was brought forward. The melon peel shaped plates of ordinary storage tanks in some oil depots and metering stations were calculated by this method, which provides convenience for petrochemical engineering construction.%针对拱顶储罐瓜皮板预制下料方法繁杂的问题,分析影响瓜皮板下料尺寸因素,总结计算公式并编制计算机程序,提出了一种较为简便的计算方法.用此方法计算出油库、计量站常用拱顶储罐的瓜皮板尺寸,可为石油化工工程设计提供便利.

  9. Experiment study on fatigue behavior of composite girders with steel plate-concrete composite bridge decks%带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板的组合梁疲劳性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 周现伟; 薛建阳; 霍旭东

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the fatigue behaviour of the steel plate-concrete composite-deck composite girders under the fatigue load, constant-amplitude fatigue tests of six specimens of the steel plate-concrete composite-deck composite beam were carried out and static loading experiments of two specimens were conducted. The influence of the main factors including the upper and lower limits of fatigue load and the stress amplitude on the failure modes and the fatigue damage extent of composite girders under fatigue load were focused on. The dynamic deflection, strains of concrete and steel plates, strains of steel beam, residual deflection and residual bearing capacity were measured and analyzed. From the tests results, the fatigue life-spans of the composite girders specimens were directly related with their stress amplitudes, but the upper and lower limits of fatigue load had little effect. With regard to the fatigue failure modes of the composite girders specimens, positive moment composite girders were all failed due to collapse of the steel beam and crush of concrete of compressive zone, but not to the negative moment of composite girders, as a result of steel-beam buckling under static tests after fatigue tests. This paper were very helpful for this type of compsite girders design.%为研究带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板的组合梁在疲劳荷载下的受力性能,对2个试件进行静力试验研究,并对6个试件进行等幅疲劳试验研究。疲劳试验试件按承受正弯矩和承受负弯矩两组类型试件分别考虑,在各组试件中均主要考察疲劳荷载上、下限值及疲劳荷载幅值等因素对带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板组合梁的疲劳破坏模式及疲劳累积损伤的影响。疲劳试验过程中对组合梁试件在各主要循环加载次数下的动挠度、残余挠度、混凝土应变、底部钢板应变、试件钢梁应变及试件受弯刚度进行试验测量和分析。疲劳试验结果表明:正

  10. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  11. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  12. 高层建筑用 Q460GJD-Z35厚钢板研发实践%Development practice of Q460GJD-Z35 thick steel plates for high-rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 李忠波; 唐郑磊; 刘庆波; 庞百鸣

    2015-01-01

    The development process of 60-80 mm thickness Q460GJD-Z35 steel plate for high-rise building in Nan-yang Hanye Special Steel Co.,Ltd.,by 100t converter-LF+VD refining-pouring-3800mm mill TMCP rolling was introduced.Based on the rational design of the chemical compositions,severe smelting and casting as well as the reasonable billet heating and TMCP rolling process control,the 60-80 mm thickness Q460GJD-Z35 steel plate un-der TMCP delivery state was successfully developed.With the micro-alloying composition design,through the TM-CP process,the excellent mechanical performance indexes for the steel under controlled rolling condition was ob-tained by making full use of fine grain strengthening,precipitation,strengthening and other means..Without the normalizing heat treatment process,the cost was reduced and the production period was also shorten.%阐述了60~80 mm 厚高层建筑用 Q460GJD-Z35钢板在南阳汉冶特钢采用100 t 转炉—LF+VD 精炼—浇注—3800 mm 轧机 TMCP 轧制的工艺研制开发过程,通过合理的化学成分设计、严格的冶炼、浇铸、合理的钢坯加热、TMCP 轧制工艺控制,最终确保了 TMCP 交货状态的60~80 mm 厚 Q460GJD-Z35钢板成功研制。采用微合金化的成分设计,通过 TMCP 工艺,充分利用细晶强化、析出强化等手段,获得了控轧状态的该钢种各项优异力学性能指标,去掉了钢板正火热处理工艺,降低成本的同时也缩短了生产周期。

  13. Ultimate negative bending-moment capacity of outer-plated steel-concrete continuous composite beams%外包钢-混凝土连续组合梁的负弯矩极限承载力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华; 李爱群; 娄宇; 李培彬

    2009-01-01

    Static load tests and bearing capacity analyses are cardeA out for two outer-plated steel-concrete continuous composite beams.The load-deflection curve and the loat-strain culve of specimens are obtained and analyzed.The test results indicate that effective cooperation can be achieved by the shear-resistant connection between the reinforcement in the negative moment area and the outer-plated steel beam,and the overall working performance of the composite beams is favorable.At the load-bearing limiting state,the plastic strain on the maximum negative and positive moment section becomes fully developed so as to form relatively ideal plastic hinges.With the increase in the reinforcement ratio,the moment-carrying capacity of the composite beams improves significantly,but the ductility of the beams and the rotation ability of the plastic hinges decrease.The formulae for calculating the limit bending capacity in the negative moment area of outer-plated steel-concrete composite beams are proposed based on the test data.The calculated results agree well with the test results.%对2根外包钢-混凝土连续梁试件进行了静力加载实验研究与承栽力分析.测量并分析了试件的荷栽-挠度及荷载-应变关系曲线.结果表明:外包钢-混凝土组合梁负弯矩区钢筋和外包钢梁通过抗剪连接措施能有效地共同工作,整体工作性能良好.在承栽能力极限状态,负弯矩和正弯矩最大截面的塑性应变均充分发展,并形成比较理想的塑性铰.随着配筋率的提高,组合梁受弯承栽力明显提高,而延性和转动能力相应降低.在试验数据基础上,给出了外包钢-混凝土组合梁在负弯矩区极限受弯承载力的计算公式,计算结果与实验结果吻合良好.

  14. Dissections in the Steel Plate to Fix and Application of CPM to the Treatment of Shinbone Near-end Bone Fracture%解剖钢板内固定和应用CPM治疗胫骨近端骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梅军; 梁志建; 邓思然; 黎全猛; 唐扬伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical value dissections in the steel plate (golf) to fix and the application of the CPM to the treatment of proximal tibia bone fracture. Methods Uses in the incision replacement, the golf steel plate fixed (when necessary to plant bone, to damage ligament, meniscus to carry on patching, common peroneal nerve injury repair) and to apply the CPM machine to the treatment proximal tibia bone fracture, to evaluate the appraisal to the joint function. Results 43 example patients attain the revisit, who make a follow-up visit for 6~81 months, the average 28 months, knee joint function grading: Superior 28 examples, good 11 examples, but 3 examples, different 1 example. Conclusion In incision replacement, golf steel plate fixed (when necessary to plant bone) and application the CPM machine to the treatment proximal tibia bone fracture, are one of more ideal methods of treatment in treating proximal tibia bone fracture at present.%目的 探讨解剖钢板(高尔夫型)内固定和应用CPM治疗胫骨近端骨折的临床价值.方法 采用切开复位、高尔夫钢板内固定(必要时植骨,对损伤的韧带、半月板进行修补,腓总神经损伤者探查修复)和应用CPM机治疗胫骨近端骨折,对关节功能进行评价.结果 43例患者均获随访,随访6~81个月,平均28个月,膝关节功能评分:优28例,良11例,可3例,差1例.结论 切开复位、高尔夫钢板内固定(必要时植骨)和应用CPM机治疗胫骨近端骨折,是目前治疗胫骨近端骨折较为理想的治疗方法之一.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CFRP STRENGTHENING OF LARGE AREA AND CORRODED STEEL PLATE%碳纤维增强复合材料加固含大面积腐蚀缺陷钢板试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 贾彬; 张春涛; 刘潇

    2016-01-01

    Static tensile test was carried out for large area corroded steel plate.And it was discussed that the influence law of the change in the position of CFRP with respect to the defect and its area on bearing capacity of the steel plate;it was also comprehensively analyzed the failure process and failure characteristics of CFRP and steel plate under the effect of various factors.Last the influence law was obtained of the position of CFRP with respect to the defect and defect area on the reinforcement effect.The bearing capacity of the unreinforced, back-reinforced and front-reinforced specimens were decreased with the increase in the defect area; the front-reinforced effect was better than back-reinforced one, and the yield load and ultimate load could be increased by about 1% -3% and 1%respectively.%通过对含大面积缺陷钢板进行静力拉伸试验,探讨碳纤维增强复合材料( CFRP)布与缺陷的相对位置及腐蚀面积两因素的变化对钢板承载力的影响,全面分析在各因素影响下CFRP布与钢板的破坏过程和破坏特征,获得CFRP布与缺陷的相对位置及缺陷面积对加固效果的影响规律:随着缺陷面积的增加,未加固试件、背面加固试件和正面加固试件的承载能力降低;正面加固效果优于背面加固,可提高屈服荷载1%~3%,极限荷载1%左右。

  16. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STEEL PLATE REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE IN NUCLEAR POWER ENGINEERING%钢板混凝土结构在核电工程中应用的发展状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘蓉; 吴婧姝; 张心斌

    2014-01-01

    分析有关钢板混凝土结构在核电工程中应用的相关问题,重点讨论如何将此项新型结构应用于核电厂这一类安全重要性极高的复杂工程中。利用钢板混凝土这一新型结构具有的优点,可以整体改进核电工程的安全性和可靠性,有利于促进未来核电厂设计和建造的标准化、模块化,有利于缩短建设周期,降低工程风险。同时也指出钢板混凝土结构在核电工程应用中需要关注和解决的问题,以及在设计、施工、检测以及质量控制和质量保证等方面需解决的一系列科学和技术上的问题。%The purpose of this paper was to observe and analyse the related issues of the application of steel plate reinforced concrete structure in nuclear power engineering, focusing on how to apply the new type of structure to the type of complex projects of high safety importance such as nuclear power plant.The advantages of steel plate reinforced concrete structure were pointed out.This type of structure could improve both of the safety and the reliability of nuclear power engineering, and it was favorable for promoting the standardization and the modularity of the design and the construction of future nuclear power plant and also for the implementation of shorter construction cycle and lower project risk.It was also pointed out the problems, to which attention should be gave attention to and should be solved in the application of steel plate reinforced concrete structure in nuclear power engineering and a series of scientific and technical problems should be solved in the design, construction, testing,quality control and quality assurance.

  17. Calculation and comparison between alternate and continuous controlled cooling technology for X65 pipeline steel plate%X65管线钢板交替与连续控冷工艺的计算与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德丰; 陆建生; 吕建国; 宋鹏; 杜重麟

    2012-01-01

    为减小X65管线钢板控制冷却后的残余应力和翘曲,通过开发线性混合热膨胀模型、拓展Avrami相变动力学模型和应用Leblond的相变诱发塑性(TRIP)模型建立了热力耦合有限元模型,考虑了控冷时的弹塑性变形、热膨胀、相变潜热、相变膨胀、TRIP等所有物理效应.用该模型研究了2种控制冷却工艺下X65管线钢板的温度、残余应力、残余应变及翘曲.结果表明:与连续控冷相比,交替控冷使板的温度进一步降低7℃;上表面一侧的残余拉应力峰值进一步减小44 MPa;下表面一侧的残余总压应变峰值进一步增加0.001;翘曲由0.54×10-3减至0.09×10-3;故交替控冷可降低板内的残余应力,并减小翘曲.%To decrease the residual stress and warping of X65 pipeline steel plate after controlled cooling, a thermo-mechanical coupled FEM model was established according to linear mixture thermal expansion model, modified Avrami transformation dynamics model and Leblond transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) model. All relevant physical effects of elastoplastic deformation, thermal expansion, latent heat, transformation dilatation and TRIP effect were considered in the FEM model. Temperature, residual stress, residual strain and warping of X65 pipeline steel plate were analyzed by the proposed model under two controlled cooling technologies. The results show that the temperature of plate under alternate controlled cooling is 7 ℃ less than that under continuous controlled cooling. The residual tensile stress peak value near top surface is decreased by 44 Mpa with enhanced residual compressive strain peak value of 0.001 near bottom surface, while the warping is reduced from 0. 54 × 10-3 to 0. 09 × 10-3. Alternate controlled cooling can reduce residual stress and warping of plate.

  18. The clinical experience analysis of applying locked steel plates to treat humerus-end fracture%锁定钢板治疗肱骨近端骨折临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨应用肱骨近端锁定钢板治疗中老年患者肱骨近端骨折的疗效.方法 回顾性分析我院近年来收治的中老年患者的临床资料.结果 2006年4月~2010年8月使用肱骨近端锁定钢板治疗肱骨近端骨折54例,年龄45~81岁;平均54岁.骨折按Neer分型:2部分骨折15例,3部分骨折28例,4部分骨折11例,均予肱骨近端锁定钢板内固定.41例获随访,随诊6~24个月,平均14个月.均获骨性愈合,平均愈合时间4.8个月.肩关节功能按Neer疗效评分系统评定,优24例,良16例,可1例,差1例,优良率93.5%.结论 锁定加压钢板治疗中老年患者肱骨近端骨折疗效满意,是目前治疗肱骨近端骨折较理想的内固定方法.只要重视肩袖损伤的修复,术后,早期进行功能锻炼,抗骨质疏松治疗,功能恢复良好.%Objective Explore the treatment effects of applying the humerus-end fixed steel plates to treat the humerusend fracture of middle-aged and old patients. Methods Review and analyze the clinical data of the middle-aged and old patients that our hospital has received and treated in recent years. Results Apply the humerus-end fixed steel plates to treat 54 cases of the humerus-end fracture from June,2006 to August,2008,aged from 45 to 81 with an average of 54, the fracture is divided according to Neer:There are 15 cases of part 2 fracture, 28 cases of part 3 fracture, 11 cases of part 4 fracture, which are all internally fixed by the humerus-end fixed steel plates. 41 cases have gotten the follow-up treatment for 6 to 24 months with an average of 14 months. Their bones are all healed,the average curing time is 4.8 months. The shoulder joints functions are assessed according to Neer's effect grading system, among which 24 cases are excellent, 16 cases are good, 1 case is ok, 1 case is bad with the excellent-good rate of 93.5%, Conclusion The treatment effects of applying the fixed pressurization steel plates to treat the humerus

  19. Electromagnetic ultrasonic detection method for steel plate based on phase control technique%基于相控技术的钢板电磁超声检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 刘珂丞; 高松巍; 邢燕好

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the electromagnetic ultrasonic echo signal in the steel plate,an electromagnetic ultrasonic detection method for steel plate based on phase control technique was proposed.The phase control focusing technique and the transduction mechanism of electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer in steel plate were studied,and the excitation transducer array was composed of multi array elements.With the time delay rule,the equiphase superposition of ultrasonic was achieved in the target area,and the ultrasonic focusing was realized.In addition,the experimental verification was carried out on Q235 steel plate with the discrete structure.The results show that the proposed method can effectively compensate the phase deviation caused by the sound path difference between exciting and receiving transducers.When the excitation voltage is consistent,the amplitude of the echo signal received at 658 mm from the transducer array increases as 2 times as that of echo signal with the single excitation of central transducer.With the three-element excitation transducer array detection method,the ultrasonic focusing of defects can be realized.Furthermore,the amplitude of defect echo signal at 520 mm increases as 1.83 times as that of echo signal with the single excitation of central transducer.%为了提高钢板中电磁超声回波信号,提出了一种基于相控技术的钢板电磁超声检测方法.研究了相控聚焦技术和钢板中电磁超声换能器的换能机理,通过多阵元组成激发换能器阵列,运用延时法使超声波在目标区等相位叠加,实现超声波聚焦,并在 Q235钢板上采用分立式结构进行实验验证.结果表明:该方法有效弥补了收发换能器间声程差引起的相位偏移,激励电压一致时,658 mm处接收的回波信号幅值提高为中心换能器单独激发时的2倍;采用三阵元激励换能器阵列检测方法可实现缺陷处的超声波聚焦,520 mm 处缺陷回波幅

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Friction Stir Spot Welding of BH Galvanized Steel Plates on Process Parameters and Weld Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sheikhhasani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW pin shape on overlapping galvanized BH plates. FSSW is done at 4, 6 and 9 seconds dwell time at two rotational speeds (1500 and 1800 rpm by tools with 10 and 14 mm shoulder diameter. Microstructural properties (OM and SEM, Vickers micro hardness and tension are tested on the welded spots. By increasing shoulder diameter from 10 to 14 mm to joint two plates, microstructural grain size decreases by 23% in SZ and 15% in TMAZ. Maximum fracture increases as shoulder diameter increases to 32%.

  1. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  2. Stainless Steel 2.0-mm Locking Compression Plate Osteosynthesis System for the Fixation of Comminuted Hand Fractures in Asian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing-Cheong Wong

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: The stainless steel 2.0-mm LCP is useful for the fixation of unstable comminuted hand fractures, especially in metacarpal bones, because of its advantage of better stability, which allows more aggressive rehabilitation. However, its design is not very versatile and, therefore, limits its use in the finger region. Its bulkiness frequently causes implant impingement. The patients must be informed about the chance of implant removal later.

  3. 海洋石油平台用E40钢板的高温变形行为%High Temperature Deformation Behavior for E40 Steel Plate Used for Offshore Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄国标; 刘美艳; 麻庆申; 司良英; 刘振宇

    2013-01-01

    在MMS-200型热模拟试验机上通过单道次压缩试验研究了海洋平台用E40钢板的高温变形行为及动态再结晶行为;确定了该钢理想的加热温度.结果表明:随着变形温度的升高,该钢的动态再结晶临界切应力呈减小的趋势;动态再结晶的开始温度在900~950℃范围内;850℃时真应力-真应变曲线下降的主要原因是应变诱导铁素体相变;900℃以上时真应力-真应变曲线的下降是动态再结晶所致;其理想的变形加热温度为1 200℃.%High temperature deformation behavior and dynamic recrystalization behavior of an E40 steel plate used for offshore platform were studied by single-pass compressive testing on MMS-200 hot simulation tester. A perfect austenization temperature for the tested steel was determined. The results show that critical shear stree for dynamic recrystalization decreased with the increase of deformation temperature. The start temperature for dynamic recrystalization varied in the range of 900-950℃. The true stress-true strain curve declined at 850℃, which could be explained by strain-induced ferrite transformation, and when deformation temperature was above 900 ℃,dynamic recrystalization led to true stress-true strain curve declining. Ideal deformation temperature of the steel was 1 200℃.

  4. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    alternative coatings qualified to MIL-PRE-23377 Class N and an electroplated zinc - nickel alloy passivated with a trivalent chromium solution which is...effect of a non-chromate primer and zinc - nickel plating with non-chromate passivation as alternatives to the chromate primer and cadmium plating with...NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 COATED 4340 STEEL by E. U. Lee C. Lei M. Stanley B. Pregger C. Matzdorf 26 August 2013

  5. Ferrium M54 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    Examination ................................................................................................. 2 Zinc - Nickel Alloy Plating...resistance measurements using scans from 100 mV below to 100mV above at a scan rate of 0.167 mV/s. ZINC - NICKEL ALLOY PLATING The Zn-14% Ni alloy...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Bare and Zn-14% Ni alloy coated Ferrium M54 steels were studied to

  6. Clinical efficacy of figure-of-eight steel plate half epiphyseal plate block method in treatment of children with lower limb angular deformity%8字钢板半骨骺阻滞法治疗儿童下肢成角畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 鲍昆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of minimally invasive implantation figure-ofeight steel plate in treatment of children with lower limb angular deformity caused by a variety of reasons.Methods The clinical data of 35 lower limb angular deformity children who treated with minimally invasive implantation figure-of-eight steel plate half epiphyseal plate block method were retrospectively analyzed.During pre-operation and post-operation,the X-ray of both lower limb was shoot,the mechanical axis of lower limb and femoral tibial angle (FTA) were measured,and the clinical efficacy combining clinical results was assessed.Results All the children were completed the follow-up,the average follow-up was 15 (13-20)months.The 35 children with lower limb angular deformity achieved satisfactory correction and restored normal the mechanical axis of lower limb.All children were normal,and no complications of epiphyseal plate injury were found,except 1 child appeared incision fat liquefied and healed after secondary wound debridement and suture.Conclusions Minimally invasive implantation figure-of-eight steel plate half epiphyseal plate block method in treatment of the children with lower limb angular deformity is simple,cheap,effective,needless osteotomy,well tolerated and with less complications.It is an easily learned technique for osteology surgeons and to be worth generalization at clinical especially those hospitals without establishing special department of children' s osteology.%目的 探讨微创植入8字钢板治疗各种原因所致的儿童下肢成角畸形的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析采用微创植入8字钢板半骨骺阻滞法治疗的35例儿童下肢成角畸形患儿的临床资料.手术前后拍摄双下肢全长X线片,测量下肢机械轴线、股骨胫骨角(FTA),并结合临床测量结果进行疗效评价.结果 所有患者均获得完整随访,平均随访时间15(13 ~20)个月,35例下肢成角畸形获得满意的矫正,并恢

  7. Analysis on Causes of Dimple and Cavity Decfects for Hot Rolling Plate of Steel%热轧基板板面凹坑和孔洞缺陷成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾松盛; 彭明耀; 王仕华; 周峰; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    无取向电工钢W800基板在热连轧轧制过程中板面出现凹坑和孔洞质量缺陷,采用化学成分检测和金相微观组织分析法进行了系列分析。结果表明,该类热轧基板的凹坑缺陷是由于板带轧制时撞击和磨擦精轧机组的侧导板,生成了不少外部异物,飞落到板带板面,经后续轧制压入板带表面,然后又脱落形成板面凹坑;由于带钢频繁撞击侧导板,导致板带边部形成裂口,同时侧导板局部断裂成小块,并压入带钢,经后续轧制时,因形变不一致生成了孔洞缺陷。%Dimple and cavity defects will appear on the W800 hot-rolled strips when being rolled of non-oriented electrical steel W800 plate,the causes were analyzed by the metallographic and chemical components analysis.The results show that the dimple defects were generated from the external abnormal substances with the strip impacting and rubbing the side guide plates,a lot of external abnormal substances were produced on the surface of strip,hence the external abnormal substances were rolled into the strip surface and peeled off when coiled.The edge breach defects resulted from the impacts between the strip and the side guide plates and the cavity defects from the external small grain abnormal substances rolled into the strip with inconsistent deformation.

  8. 304不锈钢板材制备过程中的磁性变化及其控制%Magnetic change and control of 304 austenitic stainless steel plate during manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金光秀; 黄弋力; 强文江

    2016-01-01

    研究了奥氏体不锈钢板(0Cr18Ni9)在加工制备过程中的磁性变化规律。结果表明,合金的饱和磁化强度Ms 与材料中磁性相含量有关。铸态合金存在残存的高温铁素体相而呈现一定磁性,饱和磁化强度M s 达35.8 kA/m。随着加工进行,主要是经历各道加热工序时,合金的Ms 逐渐减弱。最终固溶态下合金的Ms 已经降低为1.4 kA/m。锻态合金在单相奥氏体温度区内的退火处理可以有效减少合金中残存的高温铁素体并使饱和磁化强度降低,可作为控制磁性的有效措施。%Magnetic change rule of 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel plate during its manufacturing process was studied .The results show that the magnetic properties, characterized by saturation magnetization Ms, is mainly related to the content of ferro-magnetic phase.The steel, starting from the metastable δ-ferritic phase contained cast ingot , shows a saturation magnetization Ms of 35.8 kA/m.During the following process, especially through heating experience , the alloy reduces its Ms gradually.In the final solution state, it is lowered down to 1.4 kA/m.The annealing treatment in the single-phase austenite temperature region on forged steel can decrease retained ferrite of the steel obviously and lower saturation magnetization , and therefore can be used as an effective control measurement .

  9. Crane scheduling for a plate storage in a shipyard: Experiments and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Kristensen, Torben F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This document is the third in a series of three describing an investigation of possible improvements in methods for handling the storage of steel plates at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Steel ships are constructed by cutting up plates and afterwards welding them together to produce blocks. These b......This document is the third in a series of three describing an investigation of possible improvements in methods for handling the storage of steel plates at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Steel ships are constructed by cutting up plates and afterwards welding them together to produce blocks...

  10. Thermally Nitrided Stainless Steels for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 1 Model Ni-50Cr and Austenitic 349TM alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2004-01-01

    Thermal nitridation of a model Ni-50Cr alloy at 1100 C for 2 h in pure nitrogen resulted in the formation of a continuous, protective CrN/Cr{sub 2}N surface layer with a low interfacial contact resistance. Application of similar nitridation parameters to an austenitic stainless steel, 349{sup TM}, however, resulted in a discontinuous mixture of discrete CrN, Cr{sub 2}N and (Cr,Fe){sub 2}N{sub 1-x} (x = 0--0.5) phase surface particles overlying an exposed {gamma} austenite-based matrix, rather than a continuous nitride surface layer. The interfacial contact resistance of the 349{sup TM} was reduced significantly by the nitridation treatment. However, in the simulated PEMFC environments (1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 2 ppm F{sup -} solutions at 70 C sparged with either hydrogen or air), very high corrosion currents were observed under both anodic and cathodic conditions. This poor behavior was linked to the lack of continuity of the Cr-rich nitride surface formed on 349{sup TM} Issues regarding achieving continuous, protective Cr-nitride surface layers on stainless steel alloys are discussed.

  11. 计算机辅助钢板排料CASA开发与应用%Development and application of computer-aided steel plate arrangement(CASA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣平

    2000-01-01

    计算机辅助工艺CAPP是现代企业CIMS系统中的重要一环,计算机辅助钢板排料CASA(COMPUTER AIDEDSTEEL PLATE ARRANGEMENT)又是CAPP系统的一个重要组成部分,CASA与企业的生产密切相关.本文介绍了CASA应用的必要性,CASA的总体设计思想,主要处理逻辑,以及主要功能模块和系统的主要特点.

  12. 防锈铝板/镀锌钢板异种金属冷金属过渡熔钎焊接头的组织与抗拉强度%Microstructure and Tensile Strength of Rust-Proof Aluminum Plate and Zinc-Coated Steel Plates Braze-Weld Joint Prepared by Cold Metal Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯曰海; 王克鸿; 高飞; 杜刚

    2013-01-01

    The cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing-welding process was used to weld dissimilar metals of LF21 rust-proof aluminum plate and DD51D+Z zinc-coated steel plate,and the microstructure and tensile strength of the joint were studied.The results show that the compound layer of middle interface zone of the braze-weld joint was intermetallic compound FeAla with thickness of 4-6 μm.The average transverse tensile strength of the joint was up to 77 MPa and strength coefficient was 0.6.%采用冷金属过渡(CMT)熔钎焊接工艺,对LF21防锈铝板和DD51D+Z镀锌钢板进行了异种金属的连接,对接头的显微组织和抗拉强度进行了研究.结果表明:防锈铝板和镀锌钢板的熔钎焊接头的中间界面区化合物为4~6 μm厚的FeAl3金属间化合物,接头的平均横向抗拉强度为77MPa,接头的强度系数为0.6.

  13. Corrosion Reason Analysis on Galvanized Parts of Steel Plate Barn in a Port%某码头钢板仓镀锌件腐蚀原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 李建三; 刘钧泉

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion occurred on the surface of galvanized steel barn in a port,and three types of corrosion were found by the realty investigation.Corrosion reasons were analyzed by macro examination,zinc mass test and EDS.The results show that the zinc mass satisfied the requirement of design and had no relation with the corrosion.The main corrosion reason for the galvanized steel plate barn were in the high concentration of corrosive medium of the port environment,couple corrosion cell formed between zinc coating and the cutting edge,and the oxygen concentration different cell formed in the crevice between the galvanized parts and the ground or concrete.%某码头钢板仓镀锌件发生腐蚀生锈现象,通过现场调查对镀锌件的腐蚀形态进行分析发现,钢板仓镀锌件的腐蚀主要有3种形态。采用宏观分析、镀锌层质量试验以及腐蚀产物能谱分析等方法对镀锌件的腐蚀原因进行了分析。结果表明:钢板仓镀锌件发生腐蚀与镀锌层质量无关,钢板仓镀锌件发生腐蚀主要是由于钢板仓所在码头环境腐蚀性介质含量较高,镀锌层与切口处的钢铁形成了电偶腐蚀电池,以及镀锌件与地面或混凝土支座接触部位形成了氧浓差腐蚀电池所致。

  14. 数控机床用PEMFC热处理不锈钢双极板的热机械分析%Thermomechanical Analysis of Stainless Steel PEMFC Bipolar Plate for Numerical Control Machine via Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇

    2013-01-01

    在试验基础上,分析了不锈钢与石墨接触电阻在不同热处理温度下随热处理时间的变化关系,并建立了质子交换膜燃料电池热处理不锈钢双极板的热机械模型.结果表明:在同一温度下,不锈钢与石墨接触电阻随热处理时间的变化而变化;800℃的高温热处理的接触电阻比900℃的高温热处理的接触电阻明显低得多.热处理不锈钢双极板的最大等效应力和位移都足够小,这对于质子交换膜燃料电池十分重要,必须使其足够小才能使双极板准确分离阳极和阴极的氢气和氧气.%The effects of heat treatement time on the contact resistance between stainless steel and graphite at different temperature were analyzed, and a thermomechanical model of PEMFC bipolar plate via heat treatment was bulit. The results show that under the same time, the contact resistance between stainless steel and graphite varies with the increase of heat treatment time; the contact resistance under heat treatment of 800℃ is much lower than that under heat treatment of 900 ℃. The maximum von Mises stress and displacements are small enough to grant that the membrane can fulfill its function in separating hydrogen and oxygen in the anode and cathode compartments, respectively.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS FOR STEEL-PLATE SHEAR WALL BASED ON THE NODE CONNECTION CHARACTERISTICS%基于节点连接特性的钢板剪力墙结构数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏超; 郝际平; 潘秀珍; 刘建毅

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of a new semi-rigid composite frame with a steel-plate shear wall system,the structural bearing capacity of different wall forms,the stress and deformation development history are analyze using ANSYS program,and the effects on the bearing capacity of a hinged connection,a rigid connection and a semi-rigid connection are compared.The results show that the yield limitation of the frame is increased about 20%,and the ultimate bearing capacity is increased about 10% after setting stiffeners.For a bending-frame steel-plate shear-wall structure,the beam and the column are combined through the rigid connection with wall to form a double lateral force resisting system,and the ultimate bearing capacity of a rigid node is increased about 15% than that of a hinged one.There is about 5% difference for the ultimate bearing capacity between a semi rigid node and a hinged one,which is only a single lateral force resisting system.The research provides a basis for the new structural system and its theoretical analysis.%在半刚接框架-钢板剪力墙新型结构体系研究的基础上,采用ANSYS程序分析了不同墙体形式下结构的承载力、应力和变形发展历程,分析对比节点铰接、刚接、半刚接三种连接形式对钢板剪力墙结构承载力的影响.结果表明:设置加劲肋后,结构的屈服荷载提高约20%,极限承载力提高约10%.对于抗弯框架-钢板剪力墙结构,梁柱通过刚性连接与钢板墙组合,为双重抗侧力体系,节点刚接比铰接极限承载力提高约15%左右;节点半刚接和铰接极限承载力比较接近,相差仅在5%左右,为单重抗侧力体系.研究为该新型结构体系的工程应用和理论分析提供依据.

  16. Research of Asymmetrical Cold Rolling and Recrystallization Annealing Experiment of Flange Plate Steel%翼缘板钢非对称冷轧及再结晶退火实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荻; 戴辉; 孙蓟泉

    2011-01-01

    对翼缘板钢采用非对称冷轧,在压下率78%时,对轧件进行微观显微组织观察,结果表明:随着异速比增大,晶粒长度和宽度比值也增大;提出了在异步轧制条件下,晶粒长宽比值可以反映轧件所受附加剪切变形的大小.对冷轧后的轧件进行拉伸实验与不同温度的退火实验,并进行透射电镜观察,结果表明:随着异速比增加,规定非比例延伸强度增加,退火后晶粒平均直径变小;同时,观察到了较高位错密度的位错和较小尺寸的亚晶;由此验证了异步轧制可比同步轧制产生更多的附加剪切变形以及更多的位错和亚晶,可以提高翼缘板钢的强度,增加应变储能,降低再结晶退火温度.%Asymmetrical cold rolling technology was adopted for flange plate steel. Microstructure of rolled pieces was observed under the accumulated reduction of 78%. The results show that as the ratio of working rollers' speed is greater, the ratio of length to width of gain is higher. The idea is put forward that the ratio of length to width of gain can reflect the additional shear deformation size of rolled pieces under the condition of asymmetrical rolling. The tensile tests and annealing tests at different annealing temperatures were made for cold rolled pieces and the microstructure was observed by the transmission electron microscopy. The results show that as the ratio of working rollers' speed is greater, proof strength increases, average grain diameter decreases after cold rolled pieces annealed. With increase of the ratio of working rollers' speed, high density dislocations and the small size subgrains are observed. It indicates that asymmetrical rolling can present more additional shear strain than that of symmetrical rolling, more dislocations and subgrains can be generated in the course of asymmetrical rolling, and the strength of the flange plate steel is enhanced and the straining accumulation energy increases under the condition of

  17. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...... without collision, that delivers the plates needed for the given day and minimizes costs....

  18. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    The scientific hypothesis of this work is that modulation of the properties of hard materials to exhibit abrasion-reducing and low-energy surfaces will extend the functional lifetimes of elastomeric seals pressed against them in abrasive underwater systems. The initial motivation of this work was to correct a problem noted in the leaking of seals at major hydropower generating facilities subject to fouling by abrasive zebra mussel shells and extensive corrosion. Similar biofouling-influenced problems can develop at seals in medical devices and appliances from regulators in anesthetic machines and SCUBA diving oxygen supply units to autoclave door seals, injection syringe gaskets, medical pumps, drug delivery components, and feeding devices, as well as in food handling equipment like pasteurizers and transfer lines. Maritime and many other heavy industrial seal interfaces could also benefit from this coating system. Little prior work has been done to elucidate the relationship of seal plate surface properties to the friction and wear of elastomeric seals during sliding contacts of these articulating materials, or to examine the secondary influence of mineralized debris within the contacting interfaces. This investigation utilized the seal materials relevant to the hydropower application---neoprene elastomer against carbon steel---with and without the application of a silicone-epoxy coating (WearlonRTM 2020.98) selected for its wear-resistance, hydrophobicity, and "easy-release" capabilities against biological fouling debris present in actual field use. Analytical techniques applied to these materials before and after wear-producing processes included comprehensive Contact Angle measurements for Critical Surface Tension (CA-CST) determination, Scanning Electron Microscopic inspections, together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements for determination of surface texture and inorganic composition, Multiple

  19. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls for safety related nuclear facilities: Design for in-plane forces and out-of-plane moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Bowen Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R., E-mail: smalusht@bechtel.com [Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, MD (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Bowen Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lai, Zhichao, E-mail: laiz@purdue.edu [Bowen Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Steel-concrete (SC) composite walls being considered and used as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) walls in safety-related nuclear facilities due to their construction economy and structural efficiency. However, there is a lack of standardized codes for SC structures, and design guidelines and approaches are still being developed. This paper presents the development and verification of: (a) mechanics based model, and (b) detailed nonlinear finite element model for predicting the behavior and failure of SC wall panels subjected to combinations of in-plane forces. The models are verified using existing test results, and the verified models are used to explore the behavior of SC walls subjected to combinations of in-plane forces and moments. The results from these investigations are used to develop an interaction surface in principle force (S{sub p1}–S{sub p2}) space that can be used to design or check the adequacy of SC wall panels. The interaction surface is easy to develop since it consists of straight line segments connecting anchor points defined by the SC wall section strengths in axial tension, in-plane shear, and compression. Both models and the interaction surface (for design) developed in this paper are recommended for future work. However, in order to use these approaches, the SC wall section should be detailed with adequate shear connector and tie bar strength and spacing to prevent non-ductile failure modes.

  20. The Effective Comparisons of Tibial Distal Anatomical Steel Plates on Treating Intertrochanteric Fractures of the Middle and Lower Segment of Tibia%胫骨远端解剖钢板治疗胫骨中下段骨折疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃华; 陈岩; 李亚非

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this thesis is to make comparisons and analysis of the clinical effect between tibial distal medial anatomical steel plate and tibial distal anterolateral anatomical steel plate on treating fractures of the middle and lower segment of tibia.MethodsThe research method was to divide the 60 patients with fractures of the middle and lower segment of tibia into 2 groups according to different treating ways: one with tibial distal medial anatomical steel plate, the other with tibial distal anterolateral anatomical steel plate. The author applied operation time, intraoperative blood loss, fracture healing time, the rate of delayed healing of incision, fracture of the steel plate and bone nonunion as the indexes of clinical evaluation and evaluated the postoperative limb function on the base of Johner - Wruhs joint function evaluation standard. And the results were analyzed by statistical software SPSS13.0.ResultsThere was no statistical difference in operation time, intraoperative blood loss and fracture healing time, (P>0. 05); the rate of delayed healing of incision, fracture of the steel plate and bone nonunion was a little higher in the group with tibial distal anterolateral anatomical steel plate, but there was no statistical difference, (P>0. 05); According to the Johner - Wruhs evaluation, there was signiifcant difference in limb function recovery between the two groups.Conclusion Therefore, the conclusion of this thesis is that applying tibial distal medial anatomical steel plate on treating fractures of the middle and lower segment of tibia could get more desired effect, which is really worth promoting.%目的:应用胫骨远端内侧解剖钢板和胫骨远端前外侧解剖钢板治疗胫骨中下段骨折,对2种方法的临床疗效进行比较分析。方法63例胫骨中下段骨折患者按治疗方法不同,依次分为A组即胫骨远端内侧解剖钢板组和B组即胫骨远端前外侧解剖钢板组,分别以手术时间

  1. Industrial Trials and Production of TMCP High Strength Low Alloy Heavy Plate Steel%高强度低合金厚板TMCP工业试验与生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 赵德文; 刘相华; 杜林秀; 何元春; 隋鹤龙

    2009-01-01

    The industrial trials of 90 mm-gauge heavy plate steel were carried out through thermal mechanical control process (TMCP) with Q345D continuously cast slabs. The effect of total reduction in austenite non-recrystalliza-tion zone on microstructure and mechanical property was studied. The results indicate that using finishing rolling temperature 800-750℃, finishing cooling temperature 670-630℃, and adjusting the total reduction in austenite non-recrystallization zone, the strength of the heavy plate can reach the level of Q420E. The microstructure in sur-face layer consists of bainite and polygon proeutectoid ferrite which precipitated along the original austenite grain boundary, but in centre it consists of polygon ferrite and pearlite. As the total reduction in austenite non-recrystal-lization zone was increased from 25% to 36%, the grain was refined,z-direction property was enhanced and inter-nal soundness was improved. Up to the present, 4 200 t heavy plates have been successfully produced by using 36% to-tal reduction in austenite non-recrystallization zone.%利用Q345D连铸坯料,采用TMCP工艺进行了规格90 mm高强度厚板工业试验,研究了奥氏体未再结晶区总变形量对厚板组织性能的影响.结果表明,终轧温度800~750℃,终冷温度670~630℃时,调整奥氏体未再结晶区总变形量,钢板强度可达Q420E级,表面组织为沿奥氏体晶界析出的多边形先共析铁素体+贝氏体,心部为铁素体+珠光体.随着未再结晶区总变形量由25%增加到36%,钢板晶粒细化,z向性能提高,内部质量改善.目前,钢板批量试制产量已达4 200 t.

  2. THE PRACTICE OF SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION OF WORKS APPROVAL OF HULL STRUCTURE STEEL PLATE%船板工厂认可试样标识的实践做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉霞; 季春生; 郝少锋; 姜鸿亮

    2012-01-01

    Introduced the practice of specimen identification of Laiwu iron and steel group, when the certificate of works approval by nine countries' classification society. Formulated the identification rules of specimen, according to the rules, marked from the original plate, in circulation of machining process, until the final test specimen; And detailed arrangement the transfer process of the specimen identification. All of the above ensured the traceability of specimen, meet the rules of classification society requirements, and finally passed the certificate of works approval.%介绍了莱钢为进行船板的九国船级社工厂认可,试样标识的实践做法。编制了试样的标识规则,对需要进行的各试验项目,从原始钢板开始、样坯加工、直至最终试验试样,按规则标识,并对标识的转移过程,进行了详细安排,保证了试样的可追溯性,满足了各国船级社规范要求,并最终顺利通过了工厂认可。

  3. Steel Vierendeel Sandwich Plate Floor Structure Comfort Dynamic Time History Analysis%钢空腹夹层板楼盖结构舒适度动力时程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金爱兰

    2014-01-01

    For-large-span-floor-structure,-floor-comfort-is-an-important-criteria.-When-can-not-meet-the-requirements-will-seriously-affect-the-normal-use-of-floor.-In-this-paper,-using-a-large-finite-element-software-SAP2000,-choose-walking-routes-single---point-excitation-method-for-steel-vierendeel-sandwich-plate-floor-structure-of-natural-frequencies-and-the-analysis-of-ver-tical-vibration-acceleration-peak-value,-in-the-practical-engineer-ing-of-the-new-floor-structure-to-provide-design-basis.%对于大跨度楼盖结构,楼盖舒适度是一项重要评判标准。当不能满足要求时还会严重影响楼盖的正常使用。本文使用大型有限元软件SAP2000,选取行走路线单点激励法对钢空腹夹层板楼盖结构进行自振频率和竖向振动加速度峰值分析,以对该种新型楼盖结构的实际工程提供设计依据。

  4. Analysis on the Causes of Nonconformity in Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of X60 Steel Plate%X60管线钢超声波探伤不合原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪东

    2015-01-01

    利用超声波探伤、磁粉探伤、金相显微镜等检测手段对X60管线钢板探伤不合部位取样进行分析。结果表明:试样内部的夹杂、微裂纹是产生缺陷回波的主要原因。采取强化精炼以及连铸坯下线后堆垛缓冷等措施,提高了探伤合格率。%The samples from Nonconformity in Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of X60 steel plate was studied by means of Magnetic particle inspection and Metallurgical Microscopy etc. It has been proved that Micro-cracks and internal inclusions were the main causes of the echoes from defects. Through the technology improvement on refining measure controlling, stacking slow cooling to off line continuous casting slabs, the Conformity Ratio of Ultrasonic Flaw Detection has been improved.

  5. 薄板钢结构超声检测Lamb波激励与模态分析%Ultrasonic Detection of Lamb Wave Stimulation and Modal Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾春安; 王学勇; 刘瑜

    2012-01-01

    运用超声Lamb波对薄板钢结构进行检测,采用斜入射方式实施Lamb波的激励,并对检测信号进行模态分析.经实验发现选择合适的频率/入射角组合可实现对Lamb波模态的选择和控制,实现对检测对象的检测策略,并具有一定的工程应用价值.%This paper studies a common method and its procedure of ultrasonic detection of Lamb wave stimulation in thin steel plate structure. The signal was stimulated by ultrasonic oblique incident Lamb wave and the modes of the signal were analyzed. According to the experiment, it is found that with a proper combination of frequency and incident angle, selection and control of the modes of the Lamb wave can be realized. Thus, the best stimulating strategy of the detection can be obtained. This study is of important significance for the Lamb wave testing in engineering application.

  6. Performance of a New Beam-Column and Concrete-filled Steel Tubular Column-Flat Plate Composite Structure%新型梁柱-钢管混凝土板柱混合结构试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉敏; 苏幼坡; 苏经宇

    2013-01-01

    The new beam-column and concrete-filled steel tubular column-flat plate composite structure is characterized by the joint with dedicated connection device ( hinged connection) between steel columns and concrete slab. The nodes bear only vertical loads while the horizontal loads are born by the shear wall and beam-column frame, and the unbalanced moment in the joint should be very small even naught to avoid the punching damage of slab when an earthquake occurs. The new structure is different from the general frame-shear wall or slab-column structure, therefore the experiment should be implemented to study the performance of the floor system. Through a model test of concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) column-flat plate structure (inter-cross with less than 3) with 1/2-scale, the mechanical performance should be studied under vertical uniform and horizontal loads. Results show that the bearing capacity of the floor system with high security reserves is 2 times higher than the vertical design load; the relative displacement of the joint can achieve 2. 25 % of storey height that is two times more of a frame structure's story drift limit in Code for Seismic Design of Building Structure before the specimens were destroyed even in high ratio of shearing force from the weight of superstructure and punching shear capacity of slabs (gravity shear ratio, GSR >0. 8) . The seismic behavior exceeds ordinary flat floor slab.%新型梁柱-钢管混凝土板柱混合结构的特点是钢管混凝土柱-板节点处只承担竖向荷载,不出现或者出现较小的不平衡弯矩,同时提高节点抗侧移能力,避免地震时楼板发生冲切破坏,水平荷载则全部由抗震墙和梁柱框架承担.通过1个1/2比例钢筋混凝土梁柱-钢管混凝土柱无梁楼盖异型板(跨数少于3跨)结构模型试验,研究其在受竖向均布荷载和水平荷载作用下结构的受力性能.试验结果表明,楼盖系统的竖向承载力超出设计荷载的2倍以上,

  7. Crane scheduling for a plate storage in a shipyard: Solving the problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Kristensen, Torben F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This document is the second in a series of three describing an investigation of possible improvements in methods for handling the storage of steel plates at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Steel ships are constructed by cutting up plates and afterwards welding them together to produce blocks...

  8. Behaviour of plate anchorage in plate-reinforced composite coupling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W Y; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R K L; Pam, H J

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa.

  9. The Optimization Program of Steel Plate Feeding Device for LASW Pipe Production Line%直缝埋弧焊管生产线钢板上料装置优选方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 张增全; 韩保材; 汤跃先; 汤圣先

    2015-01-01

    In this article, it described the main structure and constitute of 3 kinds of commonly used feeding device of JCOE/UOE LSAW pipe production line, including the combined converyor of roller and chain, chain conveyor and vacuum suction cups hanging conveyer, and compared the main structure and constitute with several aspects, such as equipment structure and operation, operation and maintenance workload, equipment investment, installed capacity, production running cost, plate scratch, etc. The results indicated that vacuum suction cups hanging conveyer device is with some advantages, such as simple structure, easy operation, low workload for operation and maintenance, small investment, small installed capacity, low production running cost, and production rhythm can completely meet the design requirements, which is the best optimization program for LASW pipe production line steel plate feeding device.%对JCOE/UOE直缝埋弧焊管生产线上通常采用的三种上料装置, 即平辊和链条组合输送装置、 链条输送装置以及真空吸盘吊输送装置的主要结构和组成进行了描述, 并从设备结构与操作、运行与维护工作量、 设备投资、 装机容量、 生产运行成本、 钢板划伤等主要方面进行了对比. 结果表明, 采用真空吸盘吊输送装置具有设备结构简单、 操作方便、 运行与维护的工作量相对较低、 资金投入相对较少、 装机容量小、 生产运行成本低、 生产节奏完全能满足设计要求等优点, 是直缝埋弧焊管生产线钢板上料的最佳优选方案.

  10. 非加劲钢板剪力墙国内外设计方法比较分析%Comparative study on design methods for unstiffened steel plate shear wall in different codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建; 石永久; 戴国欣; 王元清; 杨蔚彪

    2012-01-01

    钢板剪力墙已在高层建筑中开始得到应用,国外已有钢板剪力墙的设计规范,但中国对钢板剪力墙的设计方法规定还比较保守,其设计准则仍基于厚钢板墙的设计理念.本文根据美国规范AISC-341 2005、加拿大规范CAN/CSA S16-01以及中国的高层建筑规程对非加劲钢板剪力墙的设计过程进行了对比,对墙板的抗剪承载力,尤其是对薄板屈曲后形成拉力场的性能进行了相关实例的计算,并对设计结果进行了比较.结果表明,美国和加拿大规范在高厚比较大时,能较准确反映墙板的抗剪承载力;中国规范只是在高厚比较小时能准确计算其抗剪承载力,高厚比较大时,既不准确,也不经济.%Steel Plate Shear Wall( short for SPSW) structures are beginning being used in structural application. Until now,there have been several design codes for unstiffened SPSW at abroad. However,such a specification on SPSW been prescribed in China is more conservative,whose design criteria is still based on the concept of thick SPSW design. According to American (AISC -341 2005) , Canadian (CAN/CSA S16 -01) and Chinese high-rise building regulations, the unstiffened SPSW was contrasted in the design process. The related example in calculations was given and the results of the design were compared. The item to be calculated here is the shear resistance, especially the postbuckling strength after the thin wall buckling and forming the tension field. The results show that the correlative provision in America and Canada can more accurately reflect the shear resistance of the wall with large height-thickness ratio. However,the provision in China can only accurately reflect it with small height-thickness ratio, which is not accurate or economical for thin plate wall.

  11. 碳纤维布与钢板粘结复合材料徐变性能试验研究%Experimental research on creep of steel plates bonded by carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亦焱; 张学朋; 唐志宇

    2011-01-01

    通过碳纤维布(CFRP)与钢板复合材料的徐变试验,分析了CFRP材料徐变与时间的关系,研究了加荷幅值、CFRP截面面积、初始应变等因素对其徐变性能的影响,揭示了CFRP材料徐变机理;通过徐变前后复合材料试件基本力学性能试验,研究了CFRP徐变对复合材料力学性能的影响;定性分析了徐变对复合加固混凝土梁的影响。研究表明:CFRP与钢板复合材料在40%极限荷载持续作用下,CFRP材料徐变值为初始应变的10%左右,且前期发展较快,100 h发展至70%左右,后期变缓;试件中CFRP材料的徐变值随着加载幅值、初始应变的升高而有所增大,但CFRP宽度对其影响不大;CFRP徐变后复合材料试件的屈服荷载、极限荷载和弹性模量均下降,且呈现徐变值越大,下降幅度越大的变化趋势;CFRP材料的徐变会引起复合材料加固构件截面应力重分布,导致CFRP应力减小、加固效果减弱。%The creep experiment on steel plates bonded by carbon fiber reinforced polymer was conducted to investigate the long-term properties of the composite material.The relationship between creep and time was analyzed,and the influential factors such as the stress amplitude,area of the CFRP,initial strain were also studied by the creep experiment which revealed the mechanism of creep of CFRP.The effect of the mechanical performance of the composite material was explained by the test of basic mechanical property before and after creep procedure.Through the theoretical analysis of mechanical behavior of the structure strengthened by composite material the influence of creep was discussed qualitatively.It is found that the ultimate creep is about ten percent of the initial strain under the constant load of 40% of the ultimate load,and the creep develops faster in the early period which can reach 70% of the ultimate creep in 100 hours.The creep of the CFRP increases with the increase of stress amplitude and initial

  12. Effects of complexing agents and additives on displacement plating of copper on steel substrate%配位剂和添加剂对钢铁基体化学置换镀铜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农兰平; 蔡洁; 巩育军

    2011-01-01

    研究了配位剂及添加剂对Q235钢上置换镀铜层的沉积速度、外观及耐腐蚀性能的影响.实验结果表明,三乙醇胺(TEA)和乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA-2Na)双配位体系中铜的沉积速率适中,能够获得结晶细腻、结合力好的镀层,且镀层在质量分数为5%的盐酸溶液中的自腐蚀电位明显正移,腐蚀电流密度大大降低,耐蚀性显著提高.采用含吡啶、甲基蓝和硫脲的镀液,可以获得更加光亮的镀层;采用含乌洛托品、甲基蓝和吡啶的镀液,能获得最均匀、结合力最好、耐蚀性最强的镀层.较佳的钢铁件上置换镀铜配方及工艺条件为:硫酸铜20 g/L,EDTA-2Na 14 g/L,TEA 70 mL/L,NaCl 40 g/L,甲基蓝0.2 g/L,吡啶2.0mL/L,硫脲0.10~0.25mg/L,乌洛托品3 g/L,室温,pH 1.5,时间30 s.%The effects of complexing agents and additives on deposition rate, appearance and corrosion resistance of copper coating on Q235 steel by displacement plating were studied. The results indicated that the deposition rate of copper is moderate in a bath containing triethanolamine (TEA) and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), and the coatings obtained feature fine grain, good adhesion, obvious positive shift of corrosion potential and significant decrease in corrosion current density in 5wt%HCl solution, showing enhanced corrosion resistance.Brighter coatings can be obtained from a bath containing pyridine, methyl blue and thiourea. Most uniform, best adhered and strongest anti-corrosive coatings can be obtained with urotropine, methyl blue and pyridine. The optimal bath formulation and process conditions for displacement plating of copper on steel substrates are as follows: copper sulfate 20 g/L, EDTA-2Na 14 g/L, TEA 70 mL/L, NaCl 40 g/L, methyl blue 0.2 g/L, pyridine 2.0 mL/L, thiourea 0.10-0.25 mg/L, urotropine 3 g/L, room temperature, pH 1.5, and time 30 s.

  13. 镀镍钢带冲压成形过程中的应变场研究%Study on the Strain Field of Stamping Process of Nickel Plated Steel Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓雷; 龙士国; 马增胜; 周猛

    2011-01-01

    用RG2000型微机控制电子万能试验机结合ARGUS板金成形网格应变测试系统对镀镍钢带进行了冲压成型试验,研究了镀镍钢带在不同压入深度下的应变分布.并用有限元软件ABAQUS对此过程进行了模拟验证.结果表明,杯形件底部区域应变变形不大,由圆角处开始逐渐增大,随着压入深度的增加,这种趋势越来越明显;实验和数值模拟同时证明镍镀层在凸模圆角处最易发生破坏,此处镀层厚度减薄率最大,约为11.08%.%Stamping forming was done on nickel plated steel strip by an RG2000 computer controlled electronic all purpose equipment combined with ARGUS optical forming analysis experimental system. The strain distribution under different punch penetrations was studied. And the finite element software ABAQUS was imported to simulate and verify this process. The results showed that small deformations at the bottom zone, high stretching at the sheet wall, these dilatation and contraction trends were more pronounced as the punch moved downwards. Both the experi-ment and numerical simulation proved that the most likely failure zone was around the punch radius and thinning ratio of the coating thickness here was the largest, up to 11.08%.

  14. 累积复合轧制不锈钢钢板的组织和性能%Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel plate fabricated by accumulative roll-bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷坤文; 袁守谦; 张兵; 赵田丽; 卢斌; 余海峰

    2011-01-01

    2, 4, 8, 16-layered laminate stainless steel plates were manufactured by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) in this experiment. With necessary tests and analysis, the variations of microstructure and mechanical properties with ARB deformation are concluded that grain refinement, tensile strength, bonding strength and micro-hardness of interfaces are improved after ARB, as grain size reaches 1-2 μm and tensile strength is doubled after 4 cycles of ARB; meanwhile, plasticity is obviously decreased, and the elongation is just 5.8% after 4 cycles of ARB.%采用累积复合轧制技术(ARB)成功制备2、4、8、16层不锈钢钢板,通过对不同道次金属材料的测试和分析.结果表明:随累积变形量的增加,材料组织显著得到细化,材料的抗拉强度、硬度提高和界面结合强度的增强,如经过ARB4道次后,试样晶粒直径达到1-2μm,抗拉强度提高了约1倍;材料延伸率随着ARB累积变形量的增加显著下降,ARB4道次后其断后伸长率仅为5.8%.

  15. Evaluation of the Benefits of HSLA Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    quenched and tempered steels , such as HY80 and HY1OO, require preheat and interpass temperature controls during welding of plates thicker than 1/2 inch...interpass tempera- tures and heat input limitations. Strict adherence to these requirements is mandatory to avoid cracking in hydrogen- sensitive steels ...requirement and excellent weldability of this steel will probably lower produc- tion costs and cracking -related repairs enough to overcome the slight

  16. Mathematical modeling of steel fiber concrete under dynamic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, N. N.; Yugov, N. T.; Kopanitsa, D. G.; Kopanitsa, G. D.; Yugov, A. A.; Shashkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a continuum mechanics mathematical model that describes the processes of deformation and destruction of steel-fiber-concrete under a shock wave impact. A computer modeling method was applied to study the processes of shock wave impact of a steel cylindrical rod and concrete and steel fiber concrete plates. The impact speeds were within 100-500 m/s.

  17. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  18. Soil carbon quality and nitrogen fertilization structure bacterial communities with predictable responses of major bacterial phyla

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural practices affect the soil ecosystem in multiple ways and the soil microbial communities represent an integrated and dynamic measure of soil status. Our aim was to test whether the soil bacterial community and the relative abundance of major bacterial phyla responded predictably to long-term organic amendments representing different carbon qualities (peat and straw) in combination with nitrogen fertilization levels and if certain bacterial groups were indicative of specific treatm...

  19. Steel Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Tarnished Hebei Iron and Steel Group regains chance to shine A lthough it is too early to tell whether the steel-making sector has emerged [from its gloom, a big divide is openling between China’s large and small producers. While most of the marginal players are still reeling from a market contagion, steel titans like the Shanghai-based Baosteel

  20. Stiffness Analysis of Nail-Plate Joints Subjected to Short-Term Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    with beams connected in joints with glue or a mechanical fastener. The types of mechanical fasteners are: nails, staples, bolts, dowels, screws and nail-plates. Bolts and dowels are generally applied to joints in solid structures, and the other fasteners are used in all kinds of light structures. Especially...... types of plates. There are two main types of nail-plates: steel plates perforated with holes in which separate nails are used and steel plates perforated by a stamping machine, so the nails are made from the plate, see figur 1.2 on page 7. This type is sometimes called "punching metal plate...

  1. A flat solar collector built from galvanized steel plate, working by thermosyphonic flow, optimized for Mexican conditions; Un colector solar plano construido de lamina de acero galvanizada, operando por flujo termosifonico, optimizado para las condiciones mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin de Jesus, A; Olivares Ramirez, J.M.; Ramos Lopez, G.A.; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: amarroquind@utsjr.edu.mx

    2009-07-15

    Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled types, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198-L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m{sup 2}, about 20% smaller than comparable copper-tube-based collectors offered in the market. Temperature measurements conducted over a 30-day period gave values which were a few degrees lower than the theoretically calculated water temperatures. Momentary thermal efficiency values between 35% and 77% were observed. The water temperature achieved the tank at the end of the day averages 65 degrees Celsius in winter weather conditions in the central Mexican highland. This design of solar water heater is well suited to Mexican conditions, as it makes use of the high local intensity of the solar radiation, and as the channel shape of the ducts minimizes bursting during the rare occurrences of freezing temperatures in the region; it also has the advantage of being manufacturable at low cost from simple materials. [Spanish] Se describe el diseno, construccion y pruebas del desempeno termico de un colector solar plano para calentamiento de agua para uso domestico. La placa absorbedora se construyo de materiales facilmente asequibles: dos placas de acero galvanizado, una del tipo acanalado y la otra plana, unidas mediante soldadura de acero electrico. La placa absorbedora esta conectada a un termotanque con capacidad de 198 L, aislado con espuma de poliuretano. La superficie receptora de este prototipo es de 1.35 m{sup 2}, aproximadamente 20% mas pequena comparado con los colectores, basados en tubos de cobre, ofertados en el mercado. Mediciones de temperatura por un periodo de 30 dias, arrojaron valores

  2. 夹芯钢板覆盖法(SPS)在钢箱梁桥正交异性桥面板维修加固中的应用与试验%Research on Application of Sandwich Plate System (SPS) on Strengthening Orthotropic Bridge Deck of Steel Box Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传博; 胡利平

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of sandwich plate system SPS ) on strengthening of steel box girder bridge with load test being carried out to verify the effect of SPS, which can provide a reference for the similar engineering practice.%结合工程实例,介绍了夹芯钢板覆盖法(SPS)在钢箱梁桥维修加固中的应用,并通过荷载试验对其加固效果进行了检验,可为类似维修加固工程提供参考。

  3. Development on multi-arc ion coating plant with 2-chamber to coat steel plate,TG-46S%TG-46S型双室双面镀钢板多弧离子镀膜机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学东; 李全富; 孙术辉; 李兰民

    2001-01-01

    叙述了TG-46S型双室双面镀钢板多弧离子镀膜机的主要参数、结构及其特点,并就该机的应用领域及其发展前景进行了探讨。%The main data, structure and performance of the multi-arc ion coating plant with 2-chamber to coat steel plate, TG-46S are described. The application fields and development prospect of the plant are also given.

  4. 钢管混凝土边框内藏带斜肋钢板中高剪力墙抗震性能试验%Experiments on the seismic behavior of mid-rise shear walls with CFST boundary columns and concealed steel plates with diametrically opposed cross-braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宏英; 张文江; 曹万林; 于传鹏

    2013-01-01

    提出了钢管混凝土边框内藏斜撑肋钢板组合中高剪力墙.为研究这种组合剪力墙的抗震性能,进行了5个不同构造的中高剪力墙模型低周反复荷载试验.分析了试件的损伤特征、承载力、耗能、滞回特性,提出了正截面抗弯承载力计算模型,计算结果与试验符合较好.研究表明:钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板组合剪力墙具有较高的承载力和良好的耗能性能;钢管混凝土边框内藏带斜撑肋钢板中高剪力墙,适于在墙体厚度小于钢管尺寸或内藏钢板厚度较薄的“强边框、弱墙体”情况下应用,可明显减轻钢管混凝土边框底部的损伤,延缓墙体性能退化,提高组合剪力墙的抗震能力.%A new design of mid-rise shear wall with CFST columns and concealed steel plate with diametrically opposed cross-braces is hereby set forward.In order to quantify its seismic behavior,5 mid-rise shear wall specimens are tested under low frequency cyclic loading.The ensuing failure characteristics,load-bearing and energy dissipation capacities,hysteretic behavior of these specimens are discussed herein.The calculated model of bend resistant load-bearing capacity is established and the results agree well with the experimental ones.The experiments show that the composite shear walls with CFST columns and embedded steel plate have a higher load-bearing and better energy dissipation capacities compared to conventional mid-rise shear walls.The proposed mid-rise shear wall with CFST boundary columns and concealed steel plate with diametrically opposed cross-braces is suitable for shear walls where thickness is smaller than the cross section of the CFST columns or shear walls with low-thickness embedded steel plates.The inclined cross-braces reduce the damage typically seen at the bottom of CFST columns,delay the stiffness degradation,and improve the integrative seismic behavior of the entire wall.

  5. Investigation of the plastic fracture of high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T. B.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation deals in detail with the three recognized stages of plastic fracture in high strength steels, namely, void initiation, void growth, and void coalescence. The particular steels under investigation include plates from both commercial purity and high purity heats of AISI 4340 and 18 Ni, 200 grade maraging steels. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer, together with observations made using light microscopy, revealed methods of improving the resistance of high strength steels to plastic fracture.

  6. Otimização de múltiplos objetivos na soldagem de revestimento de chapas de aço carbono ABNT 1020 utilizando arame tubular inoxidável austenítico Multi-objective optimization in cladding of ABNT 1020 carbon steel plate using an austenitic stainless steel cored wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique de Freitas Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A soldagem de revestimento de aços carbono com aços inoxidáveis tem obtido destaque no meio industrial por permitir que superfícies anti-corrosivas sejam obtidas a partir de materiais de baixo custo. No entanto, visando garantir a qualidade final dos revestimentos, é importante que o procedimento de soldagem seja bem ajustado, para que os cordões sejam depositados com a geometria desejada, com produtividade e sem defeitos. O objetivo deste trabalho é a otimização de múltiplas características do processo de revestimento de chapas de aço carbono ABNT 1020 utilizando arame tubular de aço inoxidável ABNT 316L. As características otimizadas incluem a largura, penetração, reforço e diluição, que representam a geometria do cordão. A produtividade foi maximizada através da taxa de deposição e do rendimento do processo. Como respostas de qualidade, considerou-se a formação de escória e o aspecto superficial. A estratégia de modelagem e otimização foi baseada em uma combinação da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta, Método do Critério Global e Algoritmo Genético. Os resultados indicam que os modelos de superfície de resposta desenvolvidos para as características do processo apresentaram altos ajustes. O Método do Critério Global e o Algoritmo Genético foram aplicados com sucesso, o que permitiu a identificação do ponto de ótimo.The stainless steel cladding process has highlighted in the industrial environment for allowing anti-corrosive surfaces are made from low cost materials. However, in order to ensure the claddings final quality, it is important that the welding procedure is well adjusted, so that the welds are deposited with the desired geometry, with productivity and flawless. The aim of this work is the multiple characteristics optimization in cladding of ABNT 1020 carbon steel plates using ABNT 316L stainless steel cored wire. The optimized features include the bead width, penetration, reinforcement

  7. 77 FR 19211 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ..., heat exchangers, refining furnaces and feedwater heaters, whether or not cold drawn; (b) finished... notice. DATES: Effective Date: March 30, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Austin Redington or... (v) directs that the Department will attribute subsidies received by certain other companies to...

  8. 75 FR 64700 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...), and Rio Negro Comercio e Industrial (Rio Negro), and two of its suppliers of iron ore consumed in the... results, we will rely on information available from the Banco Central do Brasil, Brazil's central...

  9. 77 FR 64483 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...: Fred Baker or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International Trade..., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations, to Paul Piquado, Assistant...), Room 7046 of the Main Department of Commerce building. In addition, a complete version of the Issues...

  10. 77 FR 32562 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Plastics Industries, Ltd. and its U.S. affiliate, Prime Metal Corporation USA. After reviewing all comments... (June 16, 1986) (describing subject merchandise as being ``intended for use in drilling for oil and...

  11. 77 FR 32552 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... named Universal Tube and Plastics Industries, Ltd. and its U.S. affiliate, Prime Metal Corporation USA... drilling for oil and gas'') with Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of...

  12. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... Industries LLC All-Others 4.12 In accordance with section 705(c)(1)(C) of the Act, we are directing...

  13. 76 FR 34101 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... instituted these reviews on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16504) and determined on July 6, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 42782, July 22, 2010). Notice of the scheduling of the Commission's reviews and of... notice in the Federal Register on October 12, 2010 (75 FR 62566). The hearing was held in Washington,...

  14. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (75 FR 42782, July 22, 2010....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November...

  15. 78 FR 33108 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information... countervailing duties). If you are a trade/business association, provide the information, on an aggregate basis...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on circular...

  16. 78 FR 72114 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ..., Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information... countervailing duties). If you are a trade/business association, provide the information, on an aggregate basis...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on circular...

  17. 77 FR 19635 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... cobalt; (vii) 0.40 percent of lead; (viii) 1.25 percent of nickel; (ix) 0.30 percent of tungsten; (x) 0... plant and machinery, raw materials requirements, and utilities requirements. (GSO QR at Appendix A.1.G-6... power plants, industrial estates, and LNG producers. Further, according to the GSO, the natural gas...

  18. 77 FR 19219 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... November 22, 2011, the Department released the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') data on imports... of Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') Data,'' dated November 22, 2011. On November 30, 2011, we... of Vietnam investigation, filed comments arguing that the treatment of double and triple stenciled...

  19. 77 FR 32531 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From Indonesia: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair... selling expenses (including commissions and bank charges), and billing adjustments. See the Al Jazeera... appropriate, circumstance-of-sale adjustments (i.e., bank charges). We added U.S. packing costs and...

  20. 76 FR 72164 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... for distributor mark-up. For the U.S. prices based on AUVs, the values were already on a free-along... the U.S. prices based on AUVs, the values were already reported at a free-along-side ship foreign port... for distributor mark-up. For the U.S. prices based on AUVs, the values were already on a...

  1. 76 FR 68208 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8.... The amendments will take effect on November 7, 2011. See 74 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011). For...

  2. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ..., varnished, or coated with plastics or other non-metallic substances, in coils (whether or not in..., SAE grade 1050, in coils, with an inclusion rating of 1.0 maximum per ASTM E 45, Method A, with...

  3. 77 FR 64478 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... Commerce (the Department) published the Preliminary Determination of sales at less than fair value (LTFV... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 77 FR 32562 (June 1, 2012) (``Preliminary Determination'')....

  4. 75 FR 19369 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Department's questionnaire (BCQR). On June 17, 2009, the Department issued section D (Cost of Production... aluminum, or 1.25 percent of chromium, or 0.30 percent of cobalt, or 0.40 percent of lead, or 1.25 percent... purposes of calculating a margin when they have production facilities for similar or identical...

  5. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...

  6. Optimization of electrical conduction and passivity properties of stainless steels used for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates; Opmisation des proprietes de conduction electrique et de passivite d'aciers inoxydables pour la realisation de plaques bipolaires de pile a combustible de type PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J

    2007-10-15

    Among the new technologies for energy for sustainable development, PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) offer seducing aspects. However, in order to make this technology fit large scale application requirements, it has to comply with stringent cost, performance, and durability criteria. In such a frame, the goal of this work was to optimize electrical conduction properties and passivity of stainless steels for the conception of PEMFC bipolar plates, used instead of graphite, the reference material. This work presents the possible ways of performance loss when using stainless steels and some methods to solve this problem. Passive film properties were studied, as well as their modifications by low cost industrial surface treatments, without deposition. Ex situ characterizations of corrosion resistance and electrical conduction were performed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water analysis, surface analysis by microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy allowed to study the impact of ageing on two alloys in different states, and several conditions representative of an exposure to PEMFC media. Correlations between semi-conductivity properties, composition, and structure of passive layers were considered, but not leading to clear identification of all parameters responsible for electrical conduction and passivity. The plate industrial state is not convenient for direct use in fuel cell to comply with durability and performance requirements. A surface modification studied improves widely electrical conduction at initial state. The performance is degraded with ageing, but maintaining a level higher than the initial industrial state. This treatment increases also corrosion resistance, particularly on the anode side. (author)

  7. Reversal Estimation Model of Mechanical Properties for X60 Pipeline Steel Plate during U--forming O--forming(mechanical) Expanding Processes%UOE成形中X60管线钢板的力学性能反推模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝峰; 赵石岩; 王林锋; 金淼

    2011-01-01

    Taking X60 pipeline steel for example, bending deformation features for different speci- fications during UOE processes were analyzed using FEM, to achieve reversal calculation method of mechanical properties of steel plate determined by pipe, for mechanical property changes of longitudinally submerged arc welding(LSAW) large diameter linepipe in the process of UOE forming and specimens flattening. Bending specimens with the same equivalent strain were made through four point bending. Mechanical property change law of X60 pipeline steel plate after bending and flattening was investigated according to API standards regarding flattening test methods of mechanical properties for pipe body specimens, and reversal estimation model of yield strength for X60 pipeline steel plate in the equivalent strain range of 0. 0104-0. 0586 was presented.%针对大直径直缝埋弧焊管线钢管在UOE成形及之后的试样压平过程中板料力学性能的变化问题,为实现从钢管力学性能确定毛坯钢板力学性能的反向计算,以X60管线钢为例,应用有限元数值模拟方法分析了不同规格钢管在UOE成形过程中重要特征部位的弯曲变形,采用4点弯曲方法制作了具有相同等效应变的弯曲试件,依据API标准关于管体试样力学性能压平试验方法,分析了X60管线钢在弯曲及压平变形后的力学性能变化规律,给出了等效应变在0.0104~0.0586区间的X60管线钢的屈服强度反向计算近似方法。

  8. 铝与钢、不锈钢、铜焊接,复合板制备及匙孔填充新技术——搅拌摩擦钎焊(FSB)的系列应用%New Techniques for Joining Aluminum/Steel, Aluminum/Stainless Steel and Aluminum/Copper, Fabricating Bimetallic Composite Plate and Filling Keyhole Based on Friction Stir Brazing (FSB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵锋; 焦伟民; 张建勋; 王士元

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome the wear of pin by the hard parent metal during friction stir welding (FSW), a novel process of friction stir brazing (FSB) was developed by Welding Research Institute, XPan Jiaotong University.Using the novel process,lap joints of Al/steel, Al/Cu , Al/stainless steel, and Al/steel, Al/stainless steel bimetallic composite plates were successfully prepared.Compared with furnace brazing, FSB has the following advantages: atmospheric environment, clean frictional heat source, the tool without pin and suitable filler metal beneficial to oxide film removal. While comparing with traditional FSW,the characteristics of FSB Can be summarized as follows;rapid dissolution of base metals, instead of the deformation of hard parent metal; multiple mechanisms of interfacial extruding and torsion action, undermining (with aid of filler metal) and extrusion of liquid phase to remove the oxide film; elimination wear of the pin by steel parent metal and no keyhole.%对传统搅拌摩擦焊因针的磨损而难以适应较硬金属材料的不足,西安交通大学开发了一种“搅拌摩擦钎焊(friction stir brazing:FSB)”专利技术,并利用该技术成功焊接了铝/钢、铝/铜和铝/不锈钢异种金属搭接接头,且成功焊接了铝/钢和铝/不锈钢双金属复合板.该技术以洁净高效的摩擦热为热源,采用无针柱状搅拌头,并预置合适钎料在大气环境下施焊.与传统炉中钎焊相比,因工具对界面的挤压与扭转作用,具有明显的去膜优势;与传统搅拌摩擦焊相比,该技术用母材的快速溶解代替较硬材料的塑性变形,通过“界面扭转、挤压+膜下潜流(钎料的加入)+加压挤出”多种机制有效去除母材表面的氧化膜,且可以避免较硬材料对搅拌头针端的磨损,不产生匙孔.

  9. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  10. Avaliação de soldagem de aço estrutural através do Ruído Magnético de Barkhausen Evaluation of carbon steel welded plates with Magnetic Barkhausen Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serna-Giraldo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta resultados de avaliação de juntas soldadas de aço estrutural ASTM A36 por meio do Ruído Magnético de Barkhausen (RMB. A soldagem foi feita em chapas de 6 mm de espessura com preparação de chanfro em V, com um e dois passes. Foram feitas a caracterização de microestructuras e microdurezas através da junta soldada, e na superfície foram feitas medições de RMB. Os sinais de RMB foram analisados com o valor máximo, uma média de valores acima de 80% do pico máximo, o rms e o rms do envelope, dos quais foram obtidas curvas da variação com respeito ao centro do cordão e também foram obtidos mapas superficiais. Na caracterização microestructural obteve-se que as amostras de um e dois passes apresentaram tamanhos da zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC diferente. As microdurezas mostraram que no limite de fusão tem-se a maior dureza enquanto que no fim da ZAC tem-se a menor dureza. O RMB mostrou que no limite de fusão tem o menor valor, enquanto que no fim da ZAC tem o maior valor. Este estúdio mostrou que as mudanças na microestrutura influenciam em todos os parâmetros analisados, sendo que a junta soldada ficou melhor representada pelo valor rms e rms do envelope do RMB.This paper shows results for the evaluation of ASTM A36 carbon steel welded joints by Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN. V-groove shape welded samples were made in a 6 mm thickness plates, with one-pass and two-pass. Microstructural and microhardness characterization were made on a transversal section of welds. In the surface was made measurement of MBN. The signal of MBN were analyzed with the maximum value, threshold of 80% above of maximum, the root mean square (rms, the root mean square of the profile, and these parameters were plotted in function of the distance to center bead. Surface maps were obtained, too. The microstructural characterization identified different heat affected zone (HAZ sizes for one-pass and two-pass. In addition

  11. Comparison of the Clinical Efficacy of the Proximal Humerus Pressure Plate With Traditional Steel Locking Proximal Humeral Fractures%比较肱骨近端加压锁定钢板与传统钢板治疗肱骨近端骨折的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜杰; 廖彦生; 袁春晓

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨肱骨近端加压锁定钢板与传统钢板治疗肱骨近端骨折的临床疗效。方法将78例肱骨近端骨折患者随机分为观察组(n=39)和对照组(n=39),观察组采取肱骨近端加压锁定钢板治疗,对照组应用传统钢板治疗,比较两组患者治疗效果。结果观察组并发症发生率、骨折愈合时间均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论与传统钢板治疗方案相比,肱骨近端加压锁定钢板治疗肱骨近端骨折的临床效果更佳。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of proximal humeral locking plate and the pressure plate of traditional treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Methods 78 cases of proximal humerus fractures were randomized into two groups (n=39) and control group (n=39), the observation group was taken the pressure locking proximal humerus plate treatment, control group was taken conventional plating treatment, compared outcomes in two groups.ResultsThe incidence of complications, healing time were better than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Compared with the traditional steel regimen, the clinical effect of locking proximal humerus plate for treatment of pressure proximal humerus fractures is better.

  12. Tensile and Impact Properties of Shielded Metal Arc Welded AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Shanmugam; A.K.Lakshminarayanan; V.Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel on tensile and impact properties of the ferritic stainless steel conforming to AISI 409M grade. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. Tensile and impact properties, microhardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals were evaluated and the results were reported. From this investigation, it is found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed higher tensile strength and hardness compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel filler metal exhibited higher ductility and impact toughness compared with the joints fabricated by ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals.

  13. Crane scheduling for a plate storage in a shipyard: Modelling the problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Kristensen, Torben F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This document is the first in a series of three describing an investigation of possible improvements in methods for handling the storage of steel plates at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Steel ships are constructed by cutting up plates and afterwards welding them together to produce blocks. These b...... a potential reduction in movements by 67% and reduction in time by 39% compared to current practices. This leads to an estimated cost saving by approx. 1.0 mill. dkr. per year. This paper describes the modelling aspects of the investigation.......This document is the first in a series of three describing an investigation of possible improvements in methods for handling the storage of steel plates at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Steel ships are constructed by cutting up plates and afterwards welding them together to produce blocks...

  14. Intergranular strains in textured steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daymond, M.R. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, C.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    2000-07-01

    Tensile specimens were machined from heat treated austenitic stainless steel plate prior to and after 70% reduction by uni-directional rolling. In addition to a specimen from the as-received plate, two specimens were cut from the rolled plate, with axes parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction respectively. In situ measurements of the strain response of multiple hkl lattice planes to an applied uniaxial tensile load were made using neutron diffraction. The experimental results are compared with predictions from a self-consistent Hill-Hutchinson model. The measured texture in the plate was approximately 3 times random, however its effect on the hkl response was small compared to the residual strains left by rolling. The apparent elastic modulus and Poisson's ratios of the planes is affected by the residual strains, which is attributed to the effect of micro-plasticity. Interpretation of residual stress measurements is considered in light of these results. (orig.)

  15. Behavior of CFRP Plate in Simulated ICCP System of Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Xing, Feng; LIU Wei; Bertolini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    An innovative effort was made to utilize carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate as an anode in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) of reinforced concrete structure. The feasibility was explored by bonding CFRP strips to concrete and then applying protection current through CFRP strips to steel rebar in concrete. Service life and performance of CFRP plate were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Steel potential results confirmed that the steel reb...

  16. Distribution Characteristics of Weld Residual Stress on Butt Welded Dissimilar Metal Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Maan Won [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, the weld residual stress distribution at a dissimilar-metal welded plate of low alloy carbon steel and stainless steel, which are widely used in nuclear power plants, was characterized. A plate mock-up with butt welding was fabricated using SA 508 low alloy steel and Type 304 stainless steel plates and the residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction method after electrolytic polishing of the plate specimen. Finite element analysis was carried out in order to simulate the butt welding of dissimilar metal plate, and the calculated weld residual stress distribution was compared with that obtained from the measured data. The characteristics of the three-dimensional residual stress distribution in a butt weld of dissimilar metal plates were investigated by comparing the measured and calculated residual stress data.

  17. 钢板和碳纤维布加固不同损伤状态下受弯构件的荷载试验研究%Load Experiment of Flexural Members Reinforced by Steel Plate and Carbon Fiber Sheet in Different Damaged States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保定; 薛保贵; 翟科玮

    2014-01-01

    Based on the destructive load experiment of the flexural members by steel plate and carbon fiber sheet in sound state and normal service limit damaged state,the deflection,crack and strain development status and changes of the flexural members reinforced by steel plate and carbon fiber sheet were studied. Comparing the difference of the bending bearing limit capacity,and other indicators with flexural members each other by different way of strengthening in sound state and normal service limit damaged state,evaluating the reinforcement effect comprehensively,the results show as follows. Two kinds of reinforcement measures have significant effect in improving the flexural capacity of the reinforced concrete flexural members in different damaged states. But the effect in sound state is superior to that in damaged state. The effect of the reinforcement by steel plate is superior to that by carbon fiber sheet.%基于钢板加固和碳纤维布加固完好状态下和正常使用极限损伤状态下的受弯构件的破坏荷载试验,研究钢筋混凝土受弯构件在采用粘贴钢板加固和粘贴碳纤维布加固措施后,其挠度、裂缝及应变等的发展变化规律。对比分析完好状态下和正常使用极限损伤状态下采用不同的加固方式,受弯构件极限承载力提高幅度的差异并将受弯构件的其他力学控制指标进行对比分析,综合检验评定其加固效果。试验结果表明:两种加固措施对提高在不同损伤状态下的钢筋混凝土受弯构件的抗弯承载力都具有显著效果,但完好情况下的加固效果优于受损情况,钢板加固措施优于碳纤维布加固。

  18. 钢板箍螺栓连接高强复合螺旋箍装配整体式柱抗震性能试验%SEISMIC BEHAVIOR RESEARCH OF STEEL PLATE HOOP-BOLT PREFABRICATED COLUMN CONFINED BY HIGH-STRENGTH COMPOSITE SPIRAL STIRRUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进; 陈鹏; 魏威; 李青宁

    2014-01-01

    通过低周反复拟静力试验方法,研究钢板箍螺栓连接装配整体式柱的抗震性能。试验共设计4根长柱试件,观察各试件开裂、屈服、破坏全过程和破坏状态,得出各试件荷载-位移滞回曲线和骨架线,对比研究各试件承载力、延性和耗能能力,研究钢板箍螺栓连接方式的可行性。试验证明:钢板箍螺栓连接高强复合螺旋箍筋装配整体式柱和现浇整体柱具有相当的承载力和抗震能力,在连接可靠的情况下可以在工程中代替现浇柱。%In order to study the seismic behavior of steel plate hoop-bolt prefabricated column by high-strength composite spiral stirrups , the low cyclic loading tests were carried out .Four long column specimens were designed . Cracking, yield, destroyed process and destroyed state of specimens were observed in the tests , and the load-displacement hysteretic curves and skeleton curves of each specimen were also obtained .Comparative study on carrying capacity , ductility and energy dissipation capacity of each specimen was conducted , and analysis of the reliability of steel plate hoop-bolt connection was done .The test proves that steel plate hoop-bolt prefabricated column confined by high-strength composite spiral stirrups has about the same bearing capacity and seismic capacity as compared with cast-in-place column, and the prefabricated column can be used to replace the cast-in-place column in project in case of secure connections .

  19. High-strength braze joints between copper and steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, R. F.

    1967-01-01

    High-strength braze joints between copper and steel are produced by plating the faying surface of the copper with a layer of gold. This reduces porosity in the braze area and strengthens the resultant joint.

  20. The proximal humerus pressure locking plate clinical efficacy for treatment of proximal humeral fractures with traditional steel%肱骨近端加压锁定钢板与传统钢板治疗肱骨近端骨折的临床疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐拥军

    2013-01-01

      目的对肱骨近端加压锁定钢板和传统钢板应用于肱骨近端骨折的效果加以对比分析。方法随机选择我院2009年5月~2011年5月肱骨近端骨折患者56名,分成A、B组,A组治疗组33名患者,B组对照组23名患者,分别给予加压锁定钢板和传统钢板方法加以医治。结果经医治,A组患者Neer功能分数高于B组,有效率高于B组,并发症概率低于B组患者。结论肱骨近端加压锁定钢板应用于肱骨近端骨折,效果较好。%Objective Pressurized locking plates and traditional steel to contrast analysis applied to the effect of proximal humerus fractures of the proximal humerus. Methods Random selection in our hospital from May 2009 to May 2011 proximal humeral fractures in 56 patients, divided into A, group B, group A treatment group of 33 patients, 23 patients of the B group, the control group were given pressurized locking plate andconventional plate method to be healed. Results A group of patients after healing the Neer function scores higher than group B, there are more efficient than group B, the complication probability lower than that in group B patients. Conclusion Pressurize the proximal humeral locking plate is applied to the proximal humerus fractures, better.

  1. Oblique Impact of Projectile on Thin Aluminium Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.U. Khan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed, wherein cylindrical projectiles made of hardened steel were impacted on commercially available aluminium plates at different angles. Projectiles were of 12.8 mm diameter and plates were of 0.81 mm, 1.52mm and 1.91mm thicknesses. Based on the experimental results, an analytical model has been developed to predict the residual velocity of the projectile and the ballistic limit of the plate.

  2. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  3. Coefficient of friction between carbon steel and perlite concrete surfaces. Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The results of coefficient of friction, ..mu.., tests conducted on perlite blocks and carbon steel plates under various conditions are discussed. Variables included in the test entailed the use of lubricants (i.e. water and simulated radioactive waste solution) abrasives (120 grit, 60 grit, 40 grit sand paper) applied to the surfaces of the perlite block and carbon steel plates.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  5. The Design of a Postweld Treatment Oven for Tank Whole Steel Plate with Nozzle on Site%10万m3储罐带 接管壁板现场整体焊后热处理炉体设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾印奎

    2001-01-01

    大型储罐带接管壁板的现场整体焊后热处理,需要在施工现场 建造出特型的热处理炉来满足工序要求,本文介绍这项热处理工艺的设计及功率推算过程, 具体给出了测温热电偶和电加热片的分布方式。%For whole steel plate with nozzle of a large scale tank, a special postweld heat treatment oven will be required to satisfy operating sequence. The paper introduced the design of heat treatment process & the power calculation and the arrangement of temprature testing couples & electric heaters.

  6. Analysis of 50 cases of arthroscopic minimal invasion combined with LISS steel plate in treatment of knee joint injuries%关节镜下微创加LISS钢板治疗膝关节损伤50例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉刚; 沙广钊; 朱献忠; 沙磊

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨关节镜下微创加LISS钢板治疗膝关节损伤的疗效。方法2010年1月~2014年7月我科收治膝关节损伤患者100例。分观察组和对照组各50例,观察组采用关节镜下微创加LISS钢板治疗;对照组采用开放复位钢板螺丝钉固定骨折,直视下修复交叉韧带和侧副韧带,修复或切除半月板。结果膝关节功能按Lysholm评估,观察组优良率为92.00%,对照组为74.00%,两组膝关节功能优良率比较有统计学意义(x2=5.4767,P<0.05)。两组并发症比较:观察组发生各种并发症7例,对照组发生各种并发症10例,两组并发症比较无统计学意义(x2=1.7718,P>0.05)。结论对于膝关节损伤患者,使用关节镜微创加LISS钢板固定,膝关节功能恢复优于开放治疗好,功能恢复满意。%ObjectiveTo explore curative effect of arthroscopic minimal invasion combined with LISS steel plate in treatment of knee joint injuries.Methods 100 patients with knee joint injuries who were admitted to our department in our hospital from April 2010 to July 2014 were selected and allocated to the observation group and the control group. The observation group was treated with arthroscopic minimal invasion combined with LISS steel plate while the control group was treated with open reduction steel plate screw fixed fracture, repairing cruciate ligament and collateral ligament under direct vision and repairing or resecting meniscus.ResultsExcellent and good rate of knee joint function in the observation group was 92.00% while that in the control group was 74.00% which was evaluated by Lysholm. Excellent and good rate of knee joint function of two groups had statistical significance (x2=5.4767,P0.05).Conclusion Arthroscopic minimal invasion combined with LISS steel plate fixation in treatment with patients with knee joint injuries has a better and satisfying knee joint function recovery than open treatment.

  7. NDE of explosion welded copper stainless steel first wall mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taehtinen, S.; Kauppinen, P.; Jeskanen, H.; Lahdenperae, K.; Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1997-04-01

    The study showed that reflection type C-mode scanning acoustic microscope (C-SAM) and internal ultrasonic inspection (IRIS) equipment can be applied for ultrasonic examination of copper stainless steel compound structures of ITER first wall mock-ups. Explosive welding can be applied to manufacture fully bonded copper stainless steel compound plates. However, explosives can be applied only for mechanical tightening of stainless steel cooling tubes within copper plate. If metallurgical bonding between stainless steel tubes and copper plate is required Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method can be applied. (orig.)

  8. Seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanpour, A.; Jönsson, J.; Moharrami, H.

    2012-01-01

    During the recent past decade semi-supported steel shear walls (SSSW) have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional type of steel plate shear walls. In this system the shear wall does not connect directly to the main columns of the building frame; instead it is connected to a pair of ...

  9. Active Vibration Control of a Thin Steel Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Yohji Okada; Ken-Ichi Matsuda; Junji Tani

    1995-01-01

    The commercial rolling process used in the steel industry to manufacture thin steel sheets tends to cause plate vibrations that lower the quality of the surface finish. This article introduces a noncontact method of active vibration control for reducing the flexural vibrations of a thin steel sheet. The proposed electromagnetic method of control has been implemented in a simple experimental setup where the signal from a motion sensor regulates the attractive force of the magnets that produce ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY OF DOUBLE COLD-FORMED THIN-WALLED C STEEL BACK-TO-BACK COMPOSITE COLUMN WITH PLATE COUPLED%带垫板的双肢背靠背C型钢组合柱承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 芦文文; 刘凯

    2014-01-01

    According to the composite column of double cold-formed thin-walled C steel back to back connected with gusset plate, the test and finite element analysis were carried out to study the stability bearing capacity and failure modes of the specimen under eccentric loading.The elements such as slenderness ratio, gusset plate thickness and gusset plate spacing were discussed , which produced the impacts to composite column ’ s bearing capacity, the relationship between stiffness and axial loading, and the curves of M-φof eccentricity.The results revealed that before the overall instability the local-buckling was occurred, the failure modes were belonging to the in-plane-flexural buckling.The major factors are slenderness ratio, eccentricity and gusset plate spacing which effected the mechanical behavior, while the gusset plate thickness has no obvious impact.In the end, the calculation method of the bearing capacity of the cold-formed thin-walled column was compared with that in“Technical Code of Cold-Formed Thin-Walled Section Steel Structures” ( GB 50018-2002 ) , some suggestions based on the type of composite section column calculation were put forward , and the bearing capacity correction coefficient of the steel composite columns was given .%针对带垫板的双肢背靠背C型钢组合柱,通过试验和有限元模拟分析,研究该类型组合柱在偏心荷载作用下的受力特性,就偏心距、长细比、垫板厚度和间距等参数对组合柱承载力、刚度与轴向荷载的关系和M-φ曲线的影响进行讨论。结果表明:C型钢腹板和受压翼缘在整体失稳之前出现了严重的局部屈曲,组合柱的破坏模式均为弯矩作用平面内的弯曲失稳。长细比、偏心距和垫板间距是影响组合柱受力性能的主要因素,垫板厚度的影响有限。最后与规范GB 50018-2002《冷弯薄壁型钢结构技术规范》规定的柱承载力的计算方法进行对比,对该类组合柱的

  11. CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF ALL-WELDED STEEL PLATE WALL OF OFFICE BUILDING IN BEIJING FORTUNE PLAZA PHASE Ⅱ %北京财富中心二期写字楼全焊接钢板墙施工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小红; 马健; 张军良

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing Fortune Plaza Phase II office building project, the core-tube wall on -4 to 20 floors is all-welded steel wall. Concentration of welds and huge heat input cause relatively big stress and obvious welding deformations during welding of the steel plate wall. Therefore, skip block welding, symmetry welding, strict control of welding sequence, setting of deformation control beam and reservation of welding shrinkage allowance are adopted during the construction and reusable welding manipulator is fabricated to basically avoid excessive welding deformation during construction.%北京财富中心二期写字楼-4~20层核心筒墙体中间为整体全熔透焊接钢板墙,焊缝集中和大量热输入导致钢板墙焊接过程产生了较大的应力及焊接变形,施工中采取了分段跳焊、对称焊接、严格控制焊接顺序、设置变形控制工艺梁、预留焊接收缩量等工艺,制作了可重复使用的焊接挂架,基本解决了焊接变形过大的问题.

  12. Assessing Impacts of 20 yr Old Miscanthus on Soil Organic Carbon Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Schäfer, Gerhard; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomass as a renewable energy source has become increasingly popular in Upper Rhine Region to meet the demand for renewable energy. Miscanthus is one of the most favorite biofuel crops, due to its long life and large yields, as well as low energy and fertilizer inputs. However, current research on Miscanthus is mostly focused on the techniques and economics to produce biofuel or the impacts of side products such as ash and sulfur emissions to human health. Research on the potential impacts of Miscanthus onto soil quality, especially carbon quality after long-term adoption, is very limited. Some positive benefits, such as sequestrating organic carbon, have been repeatedly reported in previous research. Yet the quality of newly sequestrated organic carbon and its potential impacts onto global carbon cycling remain unclear. To fully account for the risks and benefits of Miscanthus, it is required to investigate the quality as well as the potential CO2 emissions of soil organic carbon on Miscanthus fields. As a part of the Interreg Project to assess the environmental impacts of biomass production in the Upper Rhine Region, this study aims to evaluate the carbon quality and the potential CO2 emissions after long-term Miscanthus adoption. Soils were sampled at 0-10, 10-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm depths on three Miscanthus fields with up to 20 years of cultivation in Ammerzwiller France, Münchenstein Switzerland, and Farnsburg Switzerland. Soil texture, pH, organic carbon and nitrogen content were measured for each sampled layer. Topsoils of 0-10 cm and subsoils of 10-40 cm were also incubated for 40 days to determine the mineralization potential of the soil organic matter. Our results show that: 1) only in top soils of 0-10 cm, the 20 year old Miscanthus field has significantly higher soil organic carbon concentrations, than the control site. No significant differences were observed in deeper soil layers. Similar tendencies were also observed for organic

  13. Mechanical properties of Indonesian-made narrow dynamic compression plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Sharma, P K; Magetsari, R; Bor, T C; Vargas-Llona, L D; van Horn, J R; Busscher, H J; Verkerke, G J

    2012-09-01

    Osteosynthesis plates are clinically used to fixate and position a fractured bone. They should have the ability to withstand cyclic loads produced by muscle contractions and total body weight. The very high demand for osteosynthesis plates in developing countries in general and in Indonesia in particular necessitates the utilisation of local products. In this paper, we investigated the mechanical properties, i.e. proportional limit and fatigue strength of Indonesian-made Narrow Dynamic Compression Plates (Narrow DCP) as one of the most frequently used osteosynthesis plates, in comparison to the European AO standard plate, and its relationship to geometry, micro structural features and surface defects of the plates. All Indonesian-made plates appeared to be weaker than the standard Narrow DCP because they consistently failed at lower stresses. Surface defects did not play a major role in this, although the polishing of the Indonesian Narrow DCP was found to be poor. The standard plate showed indications of cold deformation from the production process in contrast to the Indonesian plates, which might be the first reason for the differences in strength. This is confirmed by hardness measurements. A second reason could be the use of an inferior version of stainless steel. The Indonesian plates showed lower mechanical behaviour compared to the AO-plates. These findings could initiate the development of improved Indonesian manufactured DCP-plates with properties comparable to commonly used plates, such as the standard European AO-plates.

  14. Newly developed high performance structural steels for long span bridge construction; Chotaikyo ni shiyosareru shinkozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-15

    This paper reports new steels for long span bridge construction with the thick steel plate as a main part. On the basis of the high-tension steel utilizing technology examined around 1965, a reheated, quenched-and-tempered martensitic steel plate (HT690) was used for the Onaruto Bridge and Seto Ohashi Bridge in a Honsyu-Shikoku linking project. Moreover, a larger number of quenched martensitic high-tension steel plates (HT670 and HT780) were used for the Yojima Bridge together with existing SM400, SM490, SM520, and SM570 steel plates. The lately built Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi Bridge that is 1990 m between struts is longest in the world. The newly developed steel plate (HT780) for a bridge girder of which weldability was improved for lightening was used actually. To reduce the welding cost or improve the welding environment, this steel plate decreased the preheating temperature for weld cracking prevention in a heat-affected zone from about 100degC to 50degC or less. A new wire (of 1800Mpa in tensile strength) was also used for a cable. In future, the bridge girder will be economically and rationally manufactured by the development of design and construction methods that fully draw the characteristics of the new steel. 33 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. SIMULATION TOOL OF VELOCITY AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES IN THE ACCELERATED COOLING PROCESS OF HEAVY PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Adel dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to develop and apply mathematical models for determining the velocity and temperature profiles of heavy plates processed by accelerated cooling at Usiminas’ Plate Mill in Ipatinga. The development was based on the mathematical/numerical representation of physical phenomena occurring in the processing line. Production data from 3334 plates processed in the Plate Mill were used for validating the models. A user-friendly simulation tool was developed within the Visual Basic framework, taking into account all steel grades produced, the configuration parameters of the production line and these models. With the aid of this tool the thermal profile through the plate thickness for any steel grade and dimensions can be generated, which allows the tuning of online process control models. The simulation tool has been very useful for the development of new steel grades, since the process variables can be related to the thermal profile, which affects the mechanical properties of the steels.

  16. Characterization of gold and nickel coating on AISI 304 stainless steel for use in the fabrication of current collector plates for fuel cells; Caracterizacion de recubrimientos de oro y niquel realizados sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304 para su empleo en la fabricacion de placas colectoras de corriente para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Hernandez, J. Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: jrflores@iie.org.mx; Aguilar Gama, M. Tulio [UNAM. Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cano Castillo, Ulises; Albarran, Lorena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Olvera, J. Carlos; Orozco, German [CIDETEQ, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Among the different components that compose fuel cell technology (MEA, bipolar plates, seals, etc.) current collector plates play an important role in the good performance of fuel cells, since they collect all of the current generated and distribute it to the external circuit. Therefore, the most important properties that the current collector plates should have are excellent conductivity and good resistance to the corrosive conditions present in the fuel cell. This document presents results obtained during the nickel and gold electrodeposition process on AISI 304 stainless steel and the morphology and thickness of each coating, their adhesion, hardness and conductivity values. Finally, results obtained during some of the electrochemical tests performed on the coatings are shown. [Spanish] De los diferentes componentes que integran la tecnologia de celdas de combustible (MEA's, placas bipolares, sellos, etc.), las placas colectoras de corriente tienen un importante rol en el buen desempeno de la celdas de combustibles, ya que en estas placas se colecta toda la corriente generada y se distribuye al circuito externo. Debido a esto, las propiedades mas importantes que deben tener las placas colectaras de corriente son: excelente conductividad y buena resistencia a las condiciones corrosivas presentes en la celda de combustible. En este documento se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de electrodeposicion de niquel y oro sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304, asi como la morfologia y el espesor de cada recubrimiento, sus valores de adherencia, dureza y conductividad. Finalmente se muestran tambien los resultados obtenidos de algunas pruebas electroquimicas a los que fueron sometidos los recubrimientos.

  17. 钙处理钢用镁尖晶石炭滑板的损毁机理%Wear mechanism of MgO-MA-C slide plate for casting Ca-treated steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金从进; 邱文冬; 杨时标; 张建忠

    2000-01-01

    对宝钢试用的镁尖晶石炭滑板进行了性能检测,并与铝炭锆、锆炭质滑板一起进行了抗CaO渣侵蚀试验,其抗侵蚀性优于后者。对用后的镁尖晶石炭滑板进行了显微结构分析,探讨了滑板的损毁机理。%The properties of MgO-MA-C slide plate were tested. Comparative testing of CaO corrosion resistance wascarried out among MgO-MA-C,Al2O3-C-ZrO2 and ZrO2-C materials. The CaO corrosion resistance of MgO-MA-C material was superior to the others. The microstructure of MgO-MA-C slide plate after being usedwas analyzed, and wear mechanism of MgO-MA-C slide plate was discussed.

  18. Technology of Welding Joints Mixed with Duplex Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Słania J.; Krawczyk R.; Masłoń D.

    2016-01-01

    Results of the examinations of sample plates of mixed joints with the duplex steel were discussed. Examinations were taken on the sample plates of mixed joints of sheet plates type P355NL1 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 welded by the flux-cored wire DW-329A by the Kobelco company of the following category T 22 9 3 NL RC/M3 in the gas shroud M21 (Ar+18%CO2) (plate no.1), and nickel covered electrodes E Ni 6082 by the Böhler company (plate no. 2). Results of the side bend test of welded joint, transverse ...

  19. Selecting the form of plate corrugations of heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, V.F.; Nagornyi, V.E.; Dolinskii, V.M.; Kolokolova, T.G.; Chekhov, O.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors, in the interest of enhancing the thermal efficiency of plate-type heat exchangers, seek to optimize the pattern and size of the corrugations and surface area of these plates as well as their thickness by assessing the corrosion and scale protection afforded by thermoplastic coatings applied to the carbon steels used in the plates. They test the coatings for the effects of pressure, temperature, and various corrosive media, and demonstrate a parametric technique for optimizing pressure and temperature distribution over the corrugated area, for reducing the potential for deformation, and for prolonging plate durability.

  20. Research and application of U-shaped steel plate-concrete composite open-web sandwich slab structure with high strength bolts%U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖结构研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡岚; 马克俭

    2012-01-01

    提出一种多层大跨度结构体系——U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖,该结构体系由U形钢板-混凝土组合下肋、钢筋混凝土上肋和上下肋间设置的钢筋混凝土剪力键形成的需考虑夹芯层剪切变形的空间楼盖。介绍了该楼盖结构体系的简化计算模型、弹性连续化理论分析方法和实用分析方法,通过仿真模型试验及实际工程应用,验证了弹性连续化理论分析方法与实用分析方法的正确性。研究结果表明:采用由上、下表层薄膜刚度和具有一定抗剪刚度的剪力键夹芯层组成的U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖简化计算模型进行弹性连续化理论分析,其分析结果与仿真模型试验结果基本相符,相对误差最大不超过5%;按等强和等刚度原则将U形钢板-混凝土组合空腹夹层板折算成钢筋混凝土实腹梁的实用分析方法,其计算结果与仿真模型试验结果基本相符,相对误差最大不超过4%。以黑龙江中医药大学文体中心B区57 m×39 m+57 m×36 m双跨多层(地下1层、地上3层)工程为算例,并与原位测试结果进行比较,说明U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖安全可靠,且具有较好的经济性。%A system of multilayer large span structure, the U-shaped steel plate and concrete composite open-web sandwich slab floor with high strength bolts was put forward. The structural system is composed of the U-shaped steel plate and concrete composite upper rib, the reinforced concrete bottom rib and the reinforced concrete shear keys between upper and bottom ribs, resulting in a sandwich layer of shear deformation of space floor. This paper comprehensively introduced the simplified calculation model of the structural system using the elastic continuum theory method and the practical analysis method, and verified the effectiveness of the model through the simulation

  1. Active Vibration Control of a Thin Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohji Okada

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial rolling process used in the steel industry to manufacture thin steel sheets tends to cause plate vibrations that lower the quality of the surface finish. This article introduces a noncontact method of active vibration control for reducing the flexural vibrations of a thin steel sheet. The proposed electromagnetic method of control has been implemented in a simple experimental setup where the signal from a motion sensor regulates the attractive force of the magnets that produce a damping force on the steel sheet.

  2. Analysis on Appearance and Cause of Scale Defects on the Steel Plate Surface%钢板表面氧化铁皮缺陷形貌及产生原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈连生; 卢珺玮; 宋进英; 田亚强

    2013-01-01

    The appearance, microstructures and compositions of iron oxide scale on the strip steel surface were studied by means of SEM, EDS and XRD, and the causes of scale defects were analyzed. The results show that there are four main kinds of scale defects on the surface: ①primary scale formed during roughing process which has not been removed by high-pressure water descaling box after slab is discharged from the furnace;②press-in of secondary scale remaining from high-pressure water descaling box before finishing process ;③press-in of tertiary oxide scale formed on the surface of hot rolled steel coil due to wear of oxide film on roll surface during finishing and the subsequent cooling processes; ④formation of red scale especially on the steel with high silicon content due to strong engagement between surface oxides and base metal during slab heating process.%通过扫描电镜、能谱仪和XRD衍射仪等相关试验手段对带钢表面氧化铁皮缺陷外貌形态、微区成分进行了试验分析,并对氧化铁皮缺陷产生的原因进行了研究.结果表明带钢的氧化铁皮缺陷主要有四种:①板坯出炉后未被高压水除鳞箱清除干净的粗轧时产生的一次氧化铁皮缺陷;②精轧前未完全被高压水除鳞而残存的二次氧化铁皮压入缺陷;③精轧过程中及随后的冷却过程中辊面氧化膜磨损造成热轧钢卷表面形成的三次氧化皮;④红色氧化铁皮的产生,主要是由于钢坯加热过程中表面氧化物与基体金属产生强烈啮合所致,大部分发生在高硅含量等特定的钢种上.

  3. Notch sensitivity jeopardizes titanium locking plate fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wo-Jan; Chao, Ching-Kong; Wang, Chun-Chin; Lin, Jinn

    2016-12-01

    Notch sensitivity may compromise titanium-alloy plate fatigue strength. However, no studies providing head-to-head comparisons of stainless-steel or titanium-alloy locking plates exist. Custom-designed identically structured locking plates were made from stainless steel (F138 and F1314) or titanium alloy. Three screw-hole designs were compared: threaded screw-holes with angle edges (type I); threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type II); and non-threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type III). The plates' bending stiffness, bending strength, and fatigue life, were investigated. The stress concentration at the screw threads was assessed using finite element analyses (FEA). The titanium plates had higher bending strength than the F1314 and F138 plates (2.95:1.56:1) in static loading tests. For all metals, the type-III plate fatigue life was highest, followed by type-II and type-I. The type-III titanium plates had longer fatigue lives than their F138 counterparts, but the type-I and type-II titanium plates had significantly shorter fatigue lives. All F1314 plate types had longer fatigue lives than the type-III titanium plates. The FEA showed minimal stress difference (0.4%) between types II and III, but the stress for types II and III was lower (11.9% and 12.4%) than that for type I. The screw threads did not cause stress concentration in the locking plates in FEA, but may have jeopardized the fatigue strength, especially in the notch-sensitive titanium plates. Improvement to the locking plate design is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Kiev, 1993. 7. High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Inernational, Tokyo...the Corrosion of Iron and Steels,” High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

  5. Point of Impact Prediction in Anisotropic Fiber Reinforced Composite Plates from the Acoustic Emission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, T.; Das, S.; Jata, K. V.

    2008-02-01

    A newly developed optimization based method is followed to locate the point of impact in anisotropic composite plates for which conventional triangulation technique fails. The new technique works for both anisotropic and isotropic plates. Experiments are carried out by dropping a steel ball on a graphite-epoxy composite plate and picking up acoustic signals by passive transducers adhesively bonded to the plate at different locations. Predicted points of impact are compared with the true impact point.

  6. Three Heavy Reflector Experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor: Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel, and Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, A.; de Andrade e Silva, G. S.; Mura, L. F.; Fuga, R.; Jerez, R.; Mendonça, A. G.

    2014-04-01

    The heavy reflector experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility comprise a set of critical configurations employing the standard 28×26-fuel-rod configuration. The heavy reflector, either Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel or Nickel plates, was placed at the west face of this reactor. 32 plates around 3.0 mm thick were used in all the experiments. The aim was to provide high quality experimental data for the interpretation and validation of the SS-304 heavy reflector calculation methods. The experiments of Carbon Steel, which is composed mainly of iron, and Nickel were performed to provide a consistent and an interpretative check to the SS-304 reflector measurements. The experimental data comprise a set of critical control bank positions, temperatures and reactivities as a function of the number of the plates. The competition between the effect of thermal neutron capture in the heavy reflector and the effect of fast neutrons back scattering to the core is highlighted by varying the reflector thickness. For the Carbon Steel case the reactivity gain when all the 32 plates are inserted is the smallest one, thus demonstrating that Carbon Steel or essentially iron does not have the same reflector properties as the Stainless Steel or Nickel plates do. Nickel has the highest reactivity gain, thus demonstrating that this material is better reflector than Iron and Stainless Steel. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. It was shown that this library has a very good performance up to thirteen plates and overestimates the reactivity for higher number of plates independently of the type of the reflector.

  7. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  8. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

  9. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Clinical Study of Minimal y Invasive Percutaneous Insertion of Steel Plate for Treatment of Fracture of Middle and Lower Segment of Tibia%微创经皮插入钢板治疗胫骨中下段骨折临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙向铖; 覃小武; 韦东; 李林峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method of minimal y invasive treatment for fracture of middle and lower segment of tibia. Method: 66 patients with fracture of middle and lower segment of tibia were treated with minimal y invasive percutaneous insertion of steel plate (observation group) and open reduction and internal fixation (control group) separately. Impacts of the two treatment methods on conditions of fracture healing and ankle joint recovery were analyzed. Result: Surgical length of incision and hospital stays of observation group were obviously shorter than control group (P0.05). Conclusion: Minimal y invasive percutaneous insertion of steel plate for treatment of fracture of middle and lower segment of tibia has advantages of convenience, reliability, smal wound surface, low infection rate and benefit for soft tissue recovery and fracture healing, so it is an ideal internal fixation method and worth of being popularized in clinical application.%目的:探讨微创治疗胫骨中下段骨折的治疗方法。方法对66例胫骨中下段骨折的患者分别应用微创经皮插入钢板(观察组)和切开复位内固定(对照组)治疗,分析两种方法治疗对骨折愈合及踝关节功能恢复情况的影响。结果观察组患者手术切口长度、住院时间明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),术后骨折愈合时间两组无统计学差异,Johner-wruhs标准评定治疗指标观察组明显优于对照组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论微创经皮插入钢板治疗胫骨中下段骨折较传统手术方法具有方便、可靠,创面小,感染率低,有利于软组织修复和骨折愈合等优点,是较为理想的内固定方法,值得临床推广使用。

  11. The Development and Application of Composite Magnesia Slide Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIZhongxian; WANGRuikun; 等

    2001-01-01

    High pure magnesite(MgO≥98%, CaO/SiO2≥3 with grain size≥ 50μm) was used as inner layer material and low and middle grade magnesite as out layer material to manufacture magnesia slide plates by means of direct composite ,high temperature burning,bonding,with waste paper pulp,without pitch impregnation nd steel hoop.They were successfully applied in batch in a 385 MT concasting ladle in a certain foreign steel mill,This paper describes the effects of magnesite and burning temperature on high temperature perfomance and linear change of magnesia slide plates.

  12. Surface texturing for adaptive Ag/MoS_2 solid lubricant plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to prepare specially designed surface texture on hard steel surface by electrochemical micromachining (EM) and to incorporate electroless plated Ag/MoS2 solid lubricant coating into the dimples of EM textured steel surface to effectively reduce friction and wear of steel-steel contacts. The friction and wear behavior of the Ag/MoS2 solid lubricant coating on EM textured steel surface was evaluated in relation to the size and spacing of the dimples thereon. The microstructur...

  13. 冷弯薄壁型钢钢板-螺栓梁柱节点的力学性能分析%Mechanical properties investigation of cold-formed steel beam-column joints with bolt-plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 钟延营

    2011-01-01

    The ANSYS software is used to investigate the influential factors of the static behavior of gusset plate-bolted connection. The influential factors of the connections of three kinds of width of beam-column web were studied, including bolt pitch, the thickness of gusset plate, and the thickness of web and the width of flange and so on. It is found that the width of beam-column web the thickness of gusset plate, the thickness of web are highly effective factors for the static behavior,while the bolt pitch and the width of flange do not affect the initial stiffness and the ultimate bearing capacity of the joints. Finally, design proposals of three sections form connections are demonstrated, the dynamic performance of three kinds of recommended connections have been preliminarily studied in this paper.%为了观察不同梁、柱截面尺寸冷弯薄壁型钢钢板-螺栓节点静力性能的影响因素,采用AN-SYS软件对连接进行非线性有限元分析,研究3种梁柱腹板的节点螺栓间距、连接板厚度、腹板厚度和翼缘宽度等因素对其连接性能的影响.结果表明,梁柱腹板宽度、连接板厚度、梁柱腹板厚度是影响该连接节点静力性能的有效因素,而改变螺栓间距、梁柱翼缘宽度对节点的初始刚度和极限承载力的影响都不明显.给出了3种截面形式节点的设计建议,并对节点滞回性能进行了初步探讨,提出了滞回性能指标分析结论.

  14. 低氮低钒D36船板钢中析出相的特征及沉淀强化作用%Characteristics and strengthening effect of precipitates in low-nitrogen and low-vanadium D36 ship plate steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贞顺; 李胜利; 孙卫华; 徐洪庆

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of precipitates in low-nitrogen and low-vanadium D36 ship plate steel was observed by tansmission electron microscopy and the effect of precipitation strengthening was discussed.The results indicate that the microstructure of the steel consists of ferrite and pearlite.Precipitates are observed in ferrite but have not been detected in pearlite.Within ferrite the precipitates of VCx with rectangular platelet shape present a uniform and dispersive distribution.The precipitates,with a(001)α-Fe habit plane exhibit the Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with matrix.The TEM observation also reveals the existence of a few sphericall shaped precipitate of V6C5(monoclinic system) having an orientation relationship with ferrite.It appears that the V6C5 phase is transformed from the coherent VCx by redistribution of carbon atoms.The precipitation strengthening increment is about 63 MPa in the low-nitrogen and low-vanadium steel containing 0.05%V.The strengthening effect of vanadium can be enhanced by high density dislocations in ferrite with addition of small amounts of niobium.%通过透射电镜观察了低氮低钒D36船板钢的析出相特征,并讨论了其沉淀强化作用。结果表明:实验用钢的组织均为铁素体-珠光体组织,珠光体中未见析出相,仅在铁素体中观察到析出相。VCx析出相为矩形片状形貌,在铁素体基体上均匀弥散沉淀,析出相以{100}α-Fe为惯习面,与基体存在Baker-Nutting取向关系;少量球状V6C5析出相(单斜结构)与铁素体基体存在一定取向关系,可能是共格VCx相通过碳原子重新分布转变而成。低氮低钒钢中加入0.05%V,沉淀强化值约为63 MPa,加入微量铌后在铁素体内形成一定密度的位错能有效发挥钒的沉淀强化作用。

  15. Evaluation of metal release and local tissue response to indigenous stainless steel miniplates used in facial fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Dugal, Arun; Dadhe, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The issue of metal release from stainless steel bone plates has gained considerable momentum advocating the removal of stainless steel miniplates after healing of fracture. So far no study has been published in the literature regarding metal release with the indigenously manufactured stainless steel miniplates.

  16. The improvements on reactor building liner plate erection work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Myungsub; Choi, Sangmoo [Ulchin Nuclear Division, KHNP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    The pressurized water reactor, with its primary cooling circuit and steam generators, is housed in a cylindrical building. This 'containment' building is 44m in diameter and 80m high, and has a hemispherical or dome roof. A 6mm steel plate lines the entire interior of this containment building. This steel lining covers the floors, walls, dome and is made gas tight. There are more than 160 penetrations in the containment building for: equipment and personnel access, piping and electrical services. There are also over 370 field welded embedments fixed to the steel liner plate. Reducing construction costs of commercial nuclear power plants is essential in order to expand the future use of nuclear energy. One of the major components of reducing construction costs is the continuous improvement in construction technology. This is also essential in order to increase the nuclear culture in Quality Assurance of nuclear power plants. These improvements can make up for shortages in skilled craft labor necessary during site construction. In this paper, a number of improvements for the containment building steel liner plate fabrication and erection work will be described; adoption of flux core arc welding process, welding improvement in thickened liner plates, prefabrication of reactor cavity wall liner plates in the yard and optimization of the number of field welded embedments. Eventually these improvements may provide cost reduction and may allow reduction in the critical path schedule.

  17. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional temperature field on plate surface of 40Cr steel in laser surfacing process%40Cr钢平板表面激光堆焊三维温度场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 韩文月; 禹志超; 王鹏; 郭鹏; 任晶鑫

    2012-01-01

    基于ANSYS数值模拟平台,建立了三维瞬态激光堆焊40Cr钢温度场有限元模型,利用APDL参数设计语言实现热源的移动,对40Cr钢表面激光相变硬化处理过程的温度场进行模拟,得出熔池温度随时间的变化规律,并对比了不同功率和不同扫描速度对温度场的影响。结果表明:随热源的移动,温度场呈现彗星状云图,且激光光斑前缘温度梯度大,后部温度梯度小;不同功率对比结果表明,在相同的激光扫描速度6 mm/s时,表面温度最大值随激光功率增大而升高,在900 W时达到4238℃;不同速度对比结果表明,在相同功率800 W时,表面温度最大值随激光速度增大而减小,在6 mm/s时达到3738℃。%Based on a numerical simulation platform ANSYS,a finite element model of three-dimensional transient laser surfacing temperature field of 40Cr steel was build,and heat source movement was realized using APDL parameter design language.The temperature field on 40Cr steel surface in laser hardening process was simulated,the molten bath temperature change law with time was deduced,and the influence of laser power and scanning speed on temperature field was compared.The results show that the temperature field shows contour map like Comet during the heat source movement,and there exist large temperature gradient in the front of laser spot and small temperature gradient at the back of it.The maximum surface temperature increases with the increase of laser power,and it reaches 4238 ℃ when laser power is 900 W and scanning speed is 6 mm/s;The maximum surface temperature increases with the decrease of laser scanning speed,and it reaches 3738 ℃ when scanning speed is 6 mm/s and laser power is 800 W.

  18. Creep-fatigue propagation of semi-elliptical crack at 650 deg. C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints; Propagation de fissures semi-elliptiques en fatigue-fluage a 650 deg. C dans des plaques d'acier 316L(N) avec ou sans joints soudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtit, F

    2000-07-01

    This study realised in LISN Laboratory of CEA Saclay, deals with the creep fatigue propagation of semi elliptical crack at the temperature of 650 deg C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints. A vast majority of the studies on creep fatigue propagation models are based on specimen (CT) especially designed for crack propagation study. The PLAQFLU program performed in LISN laboratory deals with the application and adaptation of these models to complex crack shape, which are more representative of the cracks observed in industrial components. In this scope, we use propagation tests realised at the temperature of 650 deg C with wide plates containing semi elliptical defects. For some of them, the initial defect is machined in the middle of a welded joint, which constitute a privileged site for the crack initiation. The approach used in this study is based on global parameters of fracture mechanics. At first, tests on CT specimen are used in order to determine the propagation laws correlating the crack growth rate to the global parameters K or C{sup *}. These laws are then supposed to be intrinsic to our materials and are used to analysed the semi elliptical crack propagation. The analysis of the comportment of the crack during the hold time demonstrates the possibility to establish a correlation between the crack propagation both in the deepest and the surface point and the local value of C{sup *}. These correlations are coherent in the different points of the crack front for the different applied hold times, and they present a reasonably good agreement with the creep propagation law identified on CT specimen. The simulation of test performed on based metal specimen with a model of summation of both creep and pure fatigue crack growth gives acceptable results when the calculus of the simplified expression of C{sup *}{sub s} considers a continuous evolution of creep deformations rate during the all test. (author)

  19. Flexural performance experimental study on steel beam strengthened with prestressed CFRP plate based on optical fiber bragg grating%基于光纤光栅的预应力碳纤维板加固钢梁抗弯性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朗妮; 梁静远; 廖羚; 彭来; 赵思敏

    2015-01-01

    结合碳纤维增强复合材料(CFRP)的高强特性及光纤光栅(OFBG)的感知特性,研制开发CFRP-OFBG智能复合板,通过试验验证其应变传感性能。完成预应力CFRP-OFBG板加固钢梁静载试验,监测钢梁的应变和屈服破坏过程,研究预应力CFRP-OFBG智能碳纤维板加固钢梁的抗弯性能。结果表明:预应力CFRP-OFBG智能碳纤维板是一种集受力和传感于一体的新型土木工程材料,克服了光纤光栅埋设的工艺问题,并且能有效提高加固钢梁的抗弯性能,具有良好的推广价值和应用前景。%By combining the high strength of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) with the sensing characteristics of optical bragg grating (OFBG), a smart CFRP-OFBG composite laminate is developed. Its mechanical properties and sensing characteristics are studied by test. The steel beams strengthened with prestressed CFRP-OFBG plates were tested to monitor the process of yield damage and strain while studying the flexural performance at the same time. The experimental results show that the prestressed CFRP-OFBG plate is a new material combined force and contingency perception; it can solve the problem of technology of embedded optical fiber Bragg grating and effectively improve the flexural capacity in the meanwhile, has good popularized value and application prospects.

  20. 基于数值模拟的TRIP钢板汽车覆盖件成形研究%Numerical-simulation-based cover panel forming for TRIP steel plates cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仕宇; 詹艳然

    2011-01-01

    In the forming process for a car's inner hood made of a new type of high-strength steel,I. E. TRIP, the nonlinear mapping between forming process parameters and qualities is first established via BP neural network. Then, the optimal process parameters are obtained based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm, I.e. NSGA-Ⅱ. Next, the finite element numerical simulation is applied for verification. Finally, it is found that the optimal process parameters can be acquired by integrating aforementioned techniques. As such,this approach is proven feasible to form large car cover panels using TRIP.%对使用新型高强度相变诱发塑性钢(TRIP)钢板拉伸成形的汽车发动机罩内板进行研究,采用BP( BackPropagation)神经网络建立内板成形工艺参数与成形质量之间的非线性映射关系,使用多目标遗传算法NSGA-Ⅱ获得成形最优工艺参数,并利用有限元数值模拟进行验证.研究发现,神经网络结合多目标遗传算法可以获得最优成形工艺参数,使用TRIP钢板生产大型汽车覆盖件是可行的.

  1. Reconstruction of Space Steel Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    BRODNIANSKY, Jan; AGOCS, Zoltan; AROCH, Rudolf; SLIVANSKY, Milos

    2010-01-01

    p. 1328-1337 Reconstruction of some special types of constructions - silos, timber roof structure and a winter stadium are described. The silos are cylindrical with a diameter of 36.0m with a total height of 50.5m. The silo shell is made from steel plates of variable thickness. Capacity of the silo is 60 000t. Gradually, during more than 30 years of operation, local deformations and distinctive 6000mm high cracks in the bottom part of the shells of the silos developed. On the basis o...

  2. Development of Intermediate Cooling Technology and Its Control for Two-Stand Plate Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a plate rolling production line, thermomechanically controlled processing is critical for plate quality. In this paper, a set of intermediate cooling equipment of a two-stand plate mill with super density nozzles, medium pressure, and small flow is developed. Based on a simplified dynamic model, a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback, and adaptive algorithms is put forward. The new controlled rolling process and the highly efficient control system improve the controlled rolling efficiency by an average of 17.66%. The proposed intermediate cooling system can also effectively inhibit the growth of austenite grain, improve the impact toughness and yield strength of Q345B steel plate, reduce the formation of secondary oxide scale on the plate surface and the chromatic aberration of the plate surface, and greatly improve the surface quality of the steel plate.

  3. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  4. A plating method for metal coating of fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Li; Hua Zhang; Yan Feng; Gang Peng

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for metal coating optical fiber and in-fiber Bragg grating. The technology process which is based on electroless plating and electroplating method is described in detail. The fiber is firstly coated with a thin copper or nickel plate with electroless plating method. Then, a thicker nickel plate is coated on the surface of the conductive layer. Under the optimum conditions, the surfaces of chemical plating and electroplating coatings are all smooth and compact. There is no visible defect found in the cross-section. Using this two-step metallization method, the in-fiber Bragg grating can be well protected and its thermal sensitivity can be enhanced. After the metallization process, the fiber sensor is successfully embedded in the 42CrMo steel by brazing method. Thus a smart metal structure is achieved. The embedding results show that the plating method for metallization protection of in-fiber Bragg grating is effective.

  5. Influence of Different Combinations of Explosively Welded Plates with the Same Areal Density on Their Antipenetration Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhou, N.; Peng, C.

    2014-11-01

    In order to analyze the influence of different thickness distributions on the antipenetration performance of layered plates with a good surface-to-surface combination, five types of two-layer steel/aluminum and three-layer steel/aluminum/steel plates with the same areal density were manufactured by the method of explosive welding. Ballistic experiments and numerical simulation were performed to study the antipenetration performance of the plates impacted by a spherical steel projectile of diameter 8 mm. A 14.5-mm riffled gun was used to launch the projectile, and the numerical simulation were carried out by using the LS-DYNA 3D explicit finite-element code. Effects of the number of layers, their thickness distribution, and total thickness on the antipenetration performance of the layered plates were investigated. Results showed that the antipenetration performance of the multilayer plates was better than that of a monolithic plate with the same areal density — the ballistic limit speed of the two-layer and three-layer plates, on the average, increased by 9.6 and 19.9% compared with that of the monolithic one. In addition, the antipenetration performance of the three-layer plates was better than that of the two-layer ones if the thickness of the steel and aluminum plates was same. The influence of layer thickness distribution on the antipenetration performance was more pronounced for the two-layer plates.

  6. Effects of Welding Processes on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Weld Metal of Corrosion Resistant Ship Plate Steel DH36%焊接工艺对 DH36耐蚀船板钢焊缝金属组织与耐蚀性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋志强; 齐彦昌; 王军丽; 马成勇

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion resistant ship plate steels DH36 were welded by using submerged-arc welding,flux cored wire CO 2 gas shielded welding and shielded metal arc welding processes,and then corrosion experiments were carried out in the simulated environment around bottom plates of cargo oil tanks,the effects of welding processes on microstructure and corrosion resistance of weld metals were studied.The results show that under three welding processes,microstructure of the weld metals consisted predominantly of acicular ferrite,ferrite side-plate and proeutectoid ferrite.Compared with shielded metal arc welding and gas shielded welding,the weld metal prepared by submerged-arc welding had the best corrosion resistance,this due to the decrease of proeutectoid ferrite caused by higher heat input.Under three welding processes,the size and distribution of inclusion in weld metal were similar,and there was no obvious difference in the effects of inclusion on corrosion property of weld metal.%分别采用埋弧焊、药芯焊丝 CO 2气体保护焊和焊条电弧焊工艺对 DH36耐蚀船板钢进行对接焊,然后在模拟油船货油舱下底板的腐蚀环境中进行腐蚀试验,研究了焊接工艺对焊缝金属组织和耐蚀性能的影响。结果表明:在3种焊接工艺下,焊缝金属的组织均主要由先共析铁素体、侧板条铁素体和针状铁素体组成;与焊条电弧焊和气体保护焊相比,采用埋弧焊得到的焊缝金属的耐蚀性能最优,这源于埋弧焊较高的热输入导致针状体素体数量减少;在三种焊接工艺下,焊缝金属中夹杂物的尺寸、分布均相似,它们对焊缝金属耐蚀性能的影响基本相同。

  7. Effect of tempering on fine microstructure of NV-F690 thick steel plate with balanced strength and toughness%回火工艺对高强韧NV-F690厚船板精细组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳重祥; 刘东升

    2012-01-01

    Effect of tempering on fine microstructure of an NV-F690 thick (100 mm) steel plate with balanced strength and toughness for offshore structure and shipbuilding was characterized with SEM, EBSD and TEM, and the relationship between low temperature impact fracture behavior and microstructure of the plate was investigated. The results show that direcf quenched microstructure consist of mainly lath- like bainite (LB) and granular bainite (GB) with coarse martensite/austenite (MA) at ND/2, and LB with narrow laths at ND/4. The impact toughness at ND/2 is lower than that at ND/4. After tempering at 650-690 ℃ for 6 h, profuse Cu precipitation occurs at the tempered plate. Coarse MA constituents decompose, the fraction of high angle grain boundary (HAGB) increases and effective grain size decreases at ND/2, which results in impact toughness improved.%采用SEM、EBSD和TEM研究回火工艺对低C含Cu特厚(100mm)高强韧NV—F690船体和海洋平台用钢板精细组织的影响,深入探讨钢板低温冲击断裂行为与精细组织之间的关系。结果表明,轧后直接淬火态DQ钢板心部(ND/2)组织为板条贝氏体+粒状贝氏体,板条间距较宽,粒状贝氏体中存在较粗大MA组元,低温韧性差;1/4厚度(ND/4)处组织为板条贝氏体,板条间距窄,低温韧性好。650—690℃回火6h后,大量ε-Cu弥散沉淀相在钢板基体组织中析出,钢板ND/2处粗大粒状MA组元分解,大角度晶界分数增加,有效晶粒尺寸减小,低温韧性显著提高。

  8. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  9. 用于造船的夹层板构件(SPS)%A new concept for a new age Sandwich Plate System (SPS) for shipbuilding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄沛成

    2005-01-01

    The revolutionary Sandwich Plate System (SPS) is superior in every practical way to conventional, stiffened steel plate. A totally new concept in heavy engineering construction, SPS, a steelelastomer-steel structural laminate, is a new-generation building material bringing the shipbuilding and civil engineering industries to the threshold of a new era.

  10. Thermomechanically-controlled Processing for Producing Ship-building Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanically-controlled processing of a newly developed high-strength lowalloy steel has been designed in such a way that the problems, normally faced in producing thequench and tempered steels, have been mitigated and the final product (steel plates are available in as rolled condition rather than quench and tempered steels.A low-carbon, low-alloy steel having nickel, chromium, copper, niobium, boron, has been designed for ease of welding, improved weldability over the conventional steels, and responsiveto the thermomechanically-controlled processing. A number of laboratory-scale batches of the alloy were made with different combinations of thermomechanically-controlled processingparameters. The different thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters studied include (i slab-reheating temperature,~ (ii. def.orm ation above recrvstallisation temperature, (iiideformation below recrystallisation temperature, and (iv finish-rolling temperature. The thermomechanically-processed steel plates, under certain combinations of  thermomechanically-controlled ~rocessi-ne.o arameters. showed excellent combination of imvact and tensile n.r on. erties. In this paper, the microstructure-property correlation has been made to throw light on the type of microstructure required to obtain such superior package of mechanical properties. Further, the optimised laboratory-scale thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters, which were used to process newer hatches of the steel made through industrial route, have delivered encouraging results.

  11. Friction Stir Welding of Shipbuilding Steel with Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Friction Stir Welding has proven its merits for welding of aluminium alloys and is focused in expanding its material database to steel and titanium and also to assess new joint configurations. The use of welded structures in shipbuilding industry has a long tradition and continuously seeks for innovation in terms of materials and processes maintaining, or even, reducing costs. Several studies have been performed in the past years on FSW of steel. However, just recently were reported defect-free welds, free of martensite with stable parameters in steel without Primer. FSW of steel with primer has not been addressed. This work aims to fulfil a knowledge gap related to the use of friction stir for welding shipbuilding steel by analysing the effect of welding parameters on the metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties of welds obtained with an innovative FSW tool in joining steel plates with a primer. Welds were performed in 4mm thick GL-A36 steel plates painted with a zinc based primer followed by a detailed microscopic, chemical and mechanical analysis. The results that matching fatigue properties are obtained using this technique, in FSW of shipbuilding steel with Primer.

  12. Market challenges for steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauprecht, W.E.; Bulla, W.

    1981-11-01

    Country-wise division of generation of high-alloyed steels, stainless steel and alloyed steel in Western Europe/the Western World. Review of expanding markets for alloyed steels on sectors like-oil field pipes, offshore structure gas- and oil transport in pipelines, coal conversion, nuclear energy, condenser tubes, solar energy, car industry, environmental protection and chemistry.

  13. 薄板激光焊机激光梁位置伺服系统%Position Servo System for Laser Beam of Laser Welding in Thin Strip Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董砚; 杨洪; 王睿; 何林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了冷轧薄板生产线LW21L激光焊机激光梁位置伺服控制系统的相关工艺和控制方法.该位置伺服系统采用SIMODRIVE 611U变频、1FK7交流同步伺服电机和旋转编码器等电器.根据焊接工艺需要伺服系统的定位方式设置为手动控制和自动控制两种,定位系统设置为相对位置定位系统和绝对位置定位系统.采用PROFIBUS通信,保证了参数的快速、准确传递.该系统实现了切割光头和焊接光头的精确定位以及速度的闭环控制.%Technological process of servo system and control system for laser beam of LW21L type laser welder in cold rolled plate production line were introduced. Siemens SIMODR1VE 611U inverter, 1FK7 ac synchronous servo motor and revolving encoder were adopted in the control system. Manual localization way for the servo control system was set as manual control and automatic control, positioning system was set as relative positioning system and absolute positioning system according to the welding process. PROFIBUS was adopted to communicate,to ensure the parameters of the rapid and accurate transfer. This system realizes the cutting baldheaded and welding baldheaded of accurate location and speed closed-loop control.

  14. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  15. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  16. Effect of shear connectors on local buckling and composite action in steel concrete composite walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai, E-mail: kai-zh@purdue.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R., E-mail: smalusht@bechtel.com [Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, MD (United States); Gallocher, Stewart, E-mail: stewart.gallocher@steelbricks.com [Modular Walling Systems Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Steel concrete composite (SC) walls are being used for the third generation nuclear power plants, and also being considered for small modular reactors. SC walls consist of thick concrete walls with exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement. These steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete infill using shear connectors, for example, headed steel studs. The steel faceplate thickness (t{sub p}) and yield stress (F{sub y}), and the shear connector spacing (s), stiffness (k{sub s}), and strength (Q{sub n}) determine: (a) the level of composite action between the steel plates and the concrete infill, (b) the development length of steel faceplates, and (c) the local buckling of the steel faceplates. Thus, the shear connectors have a significant influence on the behavior of composite SC walls, and should be designed accordingly. This paper presents the effects of shear connector design on the level of composite action and development length of steel faceplates in SC walls. The maximum steel plate slenderness, i.e., ratio of shear connector spacing-to-plate thickness (s/t{sub p}) ratio to prevent local buckling before yielding is also developed based on the existing experimental database and additional numerical analysis.

  17. Chladni's patterns for random vibration of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.; Wittig, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    A typical Chladni pattern for pure tone excitation is shown. The aluminum plate used is clamped in a steel frame. The measured fundamental frequency is 13 Hz. The random vibration of a taut spring is discussed together with the random vibration of a thin plate and approximations for the modal sum. The Chladni pattern for wide band excitation applied at a certain point is shown together with the predicted distribution of mean square velocity as a function of the y coordinate of the plate and the experimentally measured distribution of mean square velocity as a function of y.

  18. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  19. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF ATYPICAL SPECIAL PLATE SHEAR WALLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Russell; Robert E. Spears; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2007-07-01

    The structure of a building undergoing a seismic reevaluation at the Idaho National Laboratory includes a number of steel plate walls and a roof liner which will act as shear diaphragms during an earthquake. Since the facility was designed and built long before such criteria were formulated, it is not surprising that these walls are not configured to meet all of the recently formulated requirements for such structures. To take advantage of this unusual structural feature, nonlinear analysis was used to ensure accurate modeling of the plate walls in a linear elastic seismic analysis of the full superstructure. The modeling was also used to establish the capacity of the plate.

  20. Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...

  1. The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used

  2. The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used

  3. 77 FR 20782 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from South Africa, 62... increased Saha Thai's reported painting labor costs to reflect the higher of transfer or market prices in...

  4. Research on Failure Modes and Key Parameters of Corrugated Steel Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrugated steel plate shear wall is an effective and economical lateral load resisting system. And the thin steel plate is easy to buckle. And it is necessary to use much more thickness or ribs to prevent the buckle at out of plane direction, which is not economical or complicated to construct. A number of corrugated shear walls are analyzed by nonlinear static pushover analysis method. And failure modes, buckling, the ultimate capacity, and shear force-drift curves are studied. The results showed that the corrugated steel plate can be designed according to the failure modes, in order to have a desirable failure mode that the corrugated steel plate yield before buckling.

  5. 小夹板外固定与钢板内固定材料置入对骨折断端成骨活性的影响%Influence of external fixation by small splint versus Internal fixation by steel plate on osteogenetlc activity of fracture bones☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 邹季; 熊勇

    2008-01-01

    influence of external fixation of small splint on healing of long bone fracture of rabbit, and compare to the internal fixation of steel plate.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled animal trial. SETTING: Research Institute of Orthopedics, Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Orthopedics, Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from April 2006 to April 2007. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into small splint fixation group and steel plate fixation group with 15 rabbits in each group. Small splint was self-made of fir-barks with good elasticity, and composed of exterior, interior, front and back splints. The upper part of the splint was wide and the lower part was narrow. We sting an eyelet in the small splint that is used in front and behind part. A hole was drilled in the front and back splints close to the tubercle of tibia. Steel plate was provided by Jiangsu Golden Deer Group (Type HA2.0). METHODS: The standard models of transverse fracture of 3 mm in the meta-infer 1/3 of left tibia were established. In small splint fixation group (SSF group), the fracture was fixed by plaster stone, and 5 days later, replaced by external fixation of small splint. The steel fixation group (SF group) was fixed by steel plate with 4 holes. Animals were executed 14, 24, and 34 days after surgery, respectively. The growth condition of bony callus in fracture sites was observed, and the histomorphology of bony callus and bone cell production during fracture healing was observed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macroscopic observation of rabbit tibial bony callus, and histomorphology of bony callus and bone cell formation. RESULTS: In SSF group, the bony callus formed early, and there were plentiful and active osteoblast. Thirty-four days after surgery, bony union was observed in fracture sites. In SF group, there was little fibrous bony callus in the fracture ends 14 days after surgery, accompanied by granulation tissue

  6. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel

  7. 薄壁钢板组合PEC柱(强轴)滞回性能试验研究%Hysteretic behavior of PEC columns (strong axis) with thin steel plate composite section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方有珍; 陆佳; 马吉; 孙国华

    2012-01-01

    目前我国规范关于PEC组合柱构件及由此组成的结构体系方面的有关内容还基本空白,通过了解国际上在PEC组合柱研究领域的现状,对3个变化混凝土强度等级和拉结筋间距的薄壁钢板组合截面PEC柱足尺试件在恒定轴压下进行水平循环荷载的滞回性能试验。观测记录各个试件加载阶段的薄壁钢板组合截面翼缘的局部屈曲和混凝土裂缝开裂与压溃现象,得到构件的荷载-位移滞回曲线。根据试验结果分析构件的承载力、抗侧刚度、构件的抗震延性和破坏模式等力学性能。结果表明:试验试件具有较好的变形能力和耗散地震能的双重功效;构件的破坏模式为薄壁钢板组合截面翼缘发生局部屈曲,随之柱脚部位混凝土压溃和拉结筋屈服甚至拉断。研究进一步丰富了PEC柱研究成果,为PEC组合柱组成的结构体系规范制订和工程应用提供了合理的理论依据。%According to the development in the field of partially encased composite columns (PEC) and the demand for modification of the relevant structural specification, PEC columns fabricated with thin-wall composite section were investigated. 3 specimens with various concrete strength and transverse link spacing were manufactured to represent the middle-storey column of a PEC column-steel beam composite frame structure. The test of the specimens were conducted under lateral cyclic loading along the strong axis with constant axial compression, and the hysteretic curves were obtained. Base on the test results, the global responses were analyzed, including the load-carrying capacity, lateral- resistant stiffness, energy-dissipation capacity, the ductility property and the failure mode. The specimens exhibited sound ductility and energy-dissipation capacity; the failure mode was primarily local buckling in the flange of a thin-wall composite section, crushing and spalling of concrete at the comer

  8. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  12. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  13. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  18. The RT Fixed Position Detecting Technology to Welding Default of Backing Plate in Stainless Steel Liner in Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂不锈钢覆面带垫板焊缝中焊接缺陷的RT定位检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新朝; 罗应模

    2012-01-01

    论述了核电厂不锈钢覆面衬里的带垫板焊缝中的焊接缺陷的RT定位检测方法,总结了其检测重点。采取二次联合曝光方法,并运用几何作图法进行缺陷的准确定位,以判断缺陷的埋藏深度,为建造阶段缩短判定周期,指导工程的正常进行提供依据。同时,对于焊件中的缺陷给出了一种立体拍片定位方法,可准确判定缺陷的位置。该技术的应用,可适用于各类钢结构中带垫板的焊接接头的缺陷定位,更利于压力容器、锅炉的封口焊缝的缺陷定位,减少不必要的返修,缩短生产周期。%The paper discusses the RT fixed position detecting technology to hacking plate welding joints of stainless steel liner ,which can show the detail locations to the welding-default in the joint, as well as the major detecting items. The paper also summarizes the detection key point in RT, shows us the RT second exposure contrast of the defects location and the accurate fixed position during plotting method defect, and tells how to judge the hidden depth of the defects in construct period which can shorten the criterion period. Therefore, the method can directs us how to be in good progress on the project. At the same time the paper tells us the RT method in three- dimensional RT fixed position detecting technology, which can accurately fix position and judge the hidden depth of the defects. The technology can he used in the steel structure, pressure vessel, the soldering seal seam to boiler defect, and can decrease unnecessary repair to welding joint, hence reducing the production cycle.

  19. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  20. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue...