WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon-phosphorous lyase pathway

  1. Structure of PhnP: a phosphodiesterase of the carbon-phosphorous lyase pathway for phosphonate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzelinska, Kateryna; He, Shu-Mei; Wathier, Matthew;

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-phosphorus lyase is a multienzyme system encoded by the phn operon that enables bacteria to metabolize organophosphonates when the preferred nutrient, inorganic phosphate, is scarce. One of the enzymes encoded by this operon, PhnP, is predicted by sequence homology to be a metal-dependent ......Carbon-phosphorus lyase is a multienzyme system encoded by the phn operon that enables bacteria to metabolize organophosphonates when the preferred nutrient, inorganic phosphate, is scarce. One of the enzymes encoded by this operon, PhnP, is predicted by sequence homology to be a metal....... A second, remote Zn2+ binding site is also observed, composed of a set of cysteine and histidine residues that are strictly conserved in the PhnP family. This second metal ion site appears to stabilize a structural motif....

  2. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorous lyase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a l...

  3. Structure and Mechanism of PhnP, a Phosphodiesterase of the Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Shu-Mei; Wathier, Matthew; Podzelinska, Kateryna;

    2011-01-01

    PhnP is a phosphodiesterase that plays an important role within the bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase (CP-lyase) pathway by recycling a "dead-end" intermediate, 5-phospho-α-d-ribosyl 1,2-cyclic phosphate, that is formed during organophosphonate catabolism. As a member of the metallo-β-lactamase s...

  4. Metabolism of β-valine via a CoA-dependent ammonia lyase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otzen, Marleen; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Postema, Christiaan P; Wijma, Hein J; Heberling, Matthew M; Szymanski, Wiktor; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Janssen, Dick B

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas species strain SBV1 can rapidly grow on medium containing β-valine as a sole nitrogen source. The tertiary amine feature of β-valine prevents direct deamination reactions catalyzed by aminotransferases, amino acid dehydrogenases, and amino acid oxidases. However, lyase- or aminomutase-mediated conversions would be possible. To identify enzymes involved in the degradation of β-valine, a PsSBV1 gene library was prepared and used to complement the β-valine growth deficiency of a closely related Pseudomonas strain. This resulted in the identification of a gene encoding β-valinyl-coenzyme A ligase (BvaA) and two genes encoding β-valinyl-CoA ammonia lyases (BvaB1 and BvaB2). The BvaA protein demonstrated high sequence identity to several known phenylacetate CoA ligases. Purified BvaA enzyme did not convert phenyl acetic acid but was able to activate β-valine in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and CoA-dependent manner. The substrate range of the enzyme appears to be narrow, converting only β-valine and to a lesser extent, 3-aminobutyrate and β-alanine. Characterization of BvaB1 and BvaB2 revealed that both enzymes were able to deaminate β-valinyl-CoA to produce 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, a common intermediate in the leucine degradation pathway. Interestingly, BvaB1 and BvaB2 demonstrated no significant sequence identity to known CoA-dependent ammonia lyases, suggesting they belong to a new family of enzymes. BLAST searches revealed that BvaB1 and BvaB2 show high sequence identity to each other and to several enoyl-CoA hydratases, a class of enzymes that catalyze a similar reaction with water instead of amine as the leaving group.

  5. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzed synthesis of amino acids by an MIO-cofactor independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Sarah L; Lloyd, Richard C; Turner, Nicholas J

    2014-04-25

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PALs) belong to a family of 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) cofactor dependent enzymes which are responsible for the conversion of L-phenylalanine into trans-cinnamic acid in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Under conditions of high ammonia concentration, this deamination reaction is reversible and hence there is considerable interest in the development of PALs as biocatalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of non-natural amino acids. Herein the discovery of a previously unobserved competing MIO-independent reaction pathway, which proceeds in a non-stereoselective manner and results in the generation of both L- and D-phenylalanine derivatives, is described. The mechanism of the MIO-independent pathway is explored through isotopic-labeling studies and mutagenesis of key active-site residues. The results obtained are consistent with amino acid deamination occurring by a stepwise E1 cB elimination mechanism.

  6. C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase pathway are produced by product recycling through lipoxygenase-2 in Nicotiana attenuata leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kallenbach; P.A. Gilardoni; S. Allmann; I.T. Baldwin; G. Bonaventure

    2011-01-01

    In response to diverse stresses, the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) pathway produces C(6) aldehydes and 12-oxo-(9Z )-dodecenoic acid ((9Z )-traumatin). Since the original characterization of (10E )-traumatin and traumatic acid, little has been added to our knowledge of the metabolism and fluxes associate

  7. Role of the cystathionine γ lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway in human melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Elisabetta; De Cicco, Paola; Armogida, Chiara; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Gigantino, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Germano, Domenico; Napolitano, Maria; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Ianaro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In humans, two main metabolic enzymes synthesize hydrogen sulfide (H2 S): cystathionine γ lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β synthase (CBS). A third enzyme, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), synthesizes H2 S in the presence of the substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP). The immunohistochemistry analysis performed on human melanoma samples demonstrated that CSE expression was highest in primary tumors, decreased in the metastatic lesions and was almost silent in non-lymph node metastases. The primary role played by CSE was confirmed by the finding that the overexpression of CSE induced spontaneous apoptosis of human melanoma cells. The same effect was achieved using different H2 S donors, the most active of which was diallyl trisulfide (DATS). The main pro-apoptotic mechanisms involved were suppression of nuclear factor-κB activity and inhibition of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. A proof of concept was obtained in vivo using a murine melanoma model. In fact, either l-cysteine, the CSE substrate, or DATS inhibited tumor growth in mice. In conclusion, we have determined that the l-cysteine/CSE/H2 S pathway is involved in melanoma progression.

  8. Inhibition of the cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells by cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Guang-zhen; YANG Xin-chun; JIA Li-ping; CHEN Feng-rong; CUI Ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation is a promising treatment for in stent restenosis and restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, which has troubled interventional cardiologists for a long time. It inhibits neointima hyperplasia, vascular remodeling, and increases the mean luminal diameter. The mechanism of intracoronary brachytherapy for restenosis is not well understood. Endogenous gaseous transmitters including nitric oxide and carbon monoxide are closely related to restenosis. Hydrogen sulfide, a new endogenous gaseous transmitter, is able to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular remodeling. This study aimed to clarify the effect of radiation on cystathionine-y-lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway in rat smooth muscle cells.Methods We studied the effect of radiation on the cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells were radiated with 60Co y at doses of 14 Gy and 25 Gy respectively. Then the mRNA level of cystathionine-γ-lyase was studied by quantitative reverse-transcription competitive polymerase chain reaction. Hydrogen sulfide concentration in culture medium was determined by methylene blue spectrophotometry. Cystathionine-γ-lyase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells was also studied.Results 60Co y radiation at a dose of 1 Gy did not affect the cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway significantly. However, 60Co y radiation at doses of 14 Gy and 25 Gy decreased the hydrogen sulfide synthesis by 21.9% (P <0.05) and 26.8% (P <0.01 ) respectively. At the same time, they decreased the cystathionine-γ-lyase activity by 15.1% (P <0.05) and 20.5% (P <0.01) respectively, and cystathionine-γ-lyase mRNA expression by 29.3% (P <0.01 ) and 38.2% (P <0.01) respectively.Conclusion Appropriate 60Co γ radiation inhibits the H2S synthesis by inhibiting the gene expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase and the cystathionine-y-lyase activity.

  9. Mechanistic pathways of mercury removal from the organomercurial lyase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro J; Rodrigues, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial populations present in Hg-rich environments have evolved biological mechanisms to detoxify methylmercury and other organometallic mercury compounds. The most common resistance mechanism relies on the H(+)-assisted cleavage of the Hg-C bond of methylmercury by the organomercurial lyase MerB. Although the initial reaction steps which lead to the loss of methane from methylmercury have already been studied experimentally and computationally, the reaction steps leading to the removal of Hg(2+) from MerB and regeneration of the active site for a new round of catalysis have not yet been elucidated. In this paper, we have studied the final steps of the reaction catalyzed by MerB through quantum chemical computations at the combined MP2/CBS//B3PW91/6-31G(d) level of theory. While conceptually simple, these reaction steps occur in a complex potential energy surface where several distinct pathways are accessible and may operate concurrently. The only pathway which clearly emerges as forbidden in our analysis is the one arising from the sequential addition of two thiolates to the metal atom, due to the accumulation of negative charges in the active site. The addition of two thiols, in contrast, leads to two feasible mechanistic possibilities. The most straightforward pathway proceeds through proton transfer from the attacking thiol to Cys159 , leading to its removal from the mercury coordination sphere, followed by a slower attack of a second thiol, which removes Cys96. The other pathway involves Asp99 in an accessory role similar to the one observed earlier for the initial stages of the reaction and affords a lower activation enthalpy, around 14 kcal mol(-1), determined solely by the cysteine removal step rather than by the thiol ligation step. Addition of one thiolate to the intermediates arising from either thiol attack occurs without a barrier and produces an intermediate bound to one active site cysteine and from which Hg(SCH3)2 may be removed only after

  10. Metabolism of β-valine via a CoA-dependent ammonia lyase pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otzen, Marleen; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Postema, Christiaan P.; Wijma, Hein J.; Heberling, Matthew M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Janssen, Dick B.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas species strain SBV1 can rapidly grow on medium containing β-valine as a sole nitrogen source. The tertiary amine feature of β-valine prevents direct deamination reactions catalyzed by aminotransferases, amino acid dehydrogenases, and amino acid oxidases. However, lyase- or aminomutase-me

  11. Crystal Structure of PhnH: an Essential Component of Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams,M.; Luo, Y.; Hove-Jensen, B.; He, S.; van Staalduinen, L.; Zechel, D.; Jia, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphonates are reduced forms of phosphorous that are characterized by the presence of a stable carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bond, which resists chemical hydrolysis, thermal decomposition, and photolysis. The chemically inert nature of the C-P bond has raised environmental concerns as toxic phosphonates accumulate in a number of ecosystems. Carbon-phosphorous lyase (CP lyase) is a multienzyme pathway encoded by the phn operon in gram-negative bacteria. In Escherichia coli 14 cistrons comprise the operon (phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP) and collectively allow the internalization and degradation of phosphonates. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the PhnH component at 1.77 Angstroms resolution. The protein exhibits a novel fold, although local similarities with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent transferase family of proteins are apparent. PhnH forms a dimer in solution and in the crystal structure, the interface of which is implicated in creating a potential ligand binding pocket. Our studies further suggest that PhnH may be capable of binding negatively charged cyclic compounds through interaction with strictly conserved residues. Finally, we show that PhnH is essential for C-P bond cleavage in the CP lyase pathway.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway contributes to the proliferation of hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Inhibition of H2S/CSE pathway strongly stimulates cellular apoptosis. • Inhibition of H2S/CSE pathway suppresses cell growth by blocking EGFR pathway. • H2S/CSE pathway is critical for maintaining the proliferation of hepatoma cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H2S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H2S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H2S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction

  13. Dysregulation of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide pathway contributes to ox-LDL-induced inflammation in macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Wang, Fen; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Cao, Li-Dan; Han, Qiao; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in vascular system, emerges as a novel gasotransmitter exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Alterations of CSE/H2S pathway may thus be involved in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study showed that the levels of CSE mRNA and protein expression, as well as H2S production were decreased in ox-LDL-treated macrophage. CSE overexpression reduced the ox-LDL-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) generation in Raw264.7 and primary macrophage while CSE knockdown enhanced it. Exogenous supplementation of H2S with NaHS and Na2S also decreased the production of TNF-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage, and alleviated the adhesion of macrophage to endothelial monolayer. Cysteine, a CSE preferential substrate for H2S biosynthesis, produced similar effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokine generation, which were reversed by CSE inhibitors PAG and BCA, respectively. Moreover, NaHS and Na2S attenuated the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and p65 nuclear translocation, as well as JNK activation caused by ox-LDL. The JNK inhibitor suppressed the NF-κB transcription activity in ox-LDL-treated cells. Furthermore, inhibitors of NF-κB (PDTC), ERK (U0126 and PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) partially blocked the suppression by ox-LDL on the CSE mRNA levels. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that ox-LDL may down-regulate the CSE/H2S pathway, which plays an anti-inflammatory role in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage by suppressing JNK/NF-κB signaling. The study reveals new therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis, based on modulating CSE/H2S pathway.

  14. Cystathionine γ-lyase, an enzyme related to the reverse transsulfuration pathway, is functional in Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordana, Lucila; Mantilla, Brian Suárez; Santana, Marianela; Silber, Ariel M; Nowicki, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania parasites seem capable of producing cysteine by de novo biosynthesis, similarly to bacteria, some pathogenic protists, and plants. In Leishmania spp., cysteine synthase (CS) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) are expected to participate in this metabolic process. Moreover, the reverse transsulfuration pathway (RTP) is also predicted to be operative in this trypanosomatid because CBS also catalyzes the condensation of serine with homocysteine, and a gene encoding a putative cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is present in all the sequenced genomes. Our results show that indeed, Leishmania major CGL is able to rescue the wild-type phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGL-null mutant and is susceptible to inhibition by an irreversible CGL inhibitor, DL-propargylglycine (PAG). In Leishmania promastigotes, CGL and CS are cytosolic enzymes. The coexistence of de novo synthesis with the RTP is extremely rare in most living organisms; however, despite this potentially high redundancy in cysteine production, PAG arrests the proliferation of L. major promastigotes with an IC50 of approximately 65 μM. These findings raise new questions regarding the biological role of CGL in these pathogens and indicate the need for understanding the molecular mechanism of PAG action in vivo to identify the potential targets affected by this drug.

  15. A cardioprotective insight of the cystathionine γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Huang

    2015-06-01

    However, CSE/H2S pathway's role in inflammation mitigation is still clouded, due to both pro and anti-inflammatory results presented in the literature, depending on the concentration and form of H2S used in specific experiment models.

  16. Five phosphonate operon gene products as components of a multi-subunit complex of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochimsen, Bjarne; Lolle, Signe; McSorley, Fern R.;

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphonate utilization by Escherichia coli requires the 14 cistrons of the phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP operon, of which the carbon-phosphorus lyase has been postulated to consist of the seven polypeptides specified by phnG to phnM. A 5,660-bp DNA fragment encompassing phnGHIJKLM is cloned, followed ...

  17. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway contributes to the proliferation of hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yan; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway strongly stimulates cellular apoptosis. • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway suppresses cell growth by blocking EGFR pathway. • H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway is critical for maintaining the proliferation of hepatoma cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H{sub 2}S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction.

  18. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway. PMID:26040426

  19. Selenocysteine Lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtman, Thressa C

    2004-12-01

    Selenocysteine is a naturally occurring analog of cysteine in which the sulfur atom of the latter is replaced with selenium. This seleno-amino acid occurs as a specific component of various selenoproteins and selenium-dependent enzymes. Incorporation of selenocysteine into these proteins occurs cotranslationally as directed by the UGA codon. For this process, a special tRNA having an anticodon complimentary to UGA, tRNASec, is utilized. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, this tRNA first is amino acylated with serine, and the seryl-tRNASec is converted to selenocysteyl-tRNASec. The specific incorporation of selenocysteine into proteins directed by the UGA codon depends on the synthesis of selenocysteyl-tRNASec. Included in the selenium delivery protein category are rhodaneses that mobilize selenium from inorganic sources and NIFS-like proteins that liberate elemental selenium from selenocysteine. The NIFS protein from Azotobacter vinelandii was found to serve as an efficient catalyst in vitro for delivery of selenium from free selenocysteine to Escherichia coli selenophosphate synthetase for selenophosphate formation. The widespread distribution of selenocysteine lyase in numerous bacterial species was reported and the bacterial enzymes, like the pig liver enzyme, required pyridoxal phosphate as cofactor. Three NIFS-like genes were isolated from E. coli by Esaki and coworkers and the expressed gene products were isolated and characterized. One of these NIFS-like proteins also exhibited a high preference for selenocysteine over cysteine. M. vannielii, an anaerobic methane-producing organism, that grows in a mineral medium containing formate as sole organic carbon source, synthesizes several specific selenoenzymes required for growth and energy production under these conditions. PMID:26443359

  20. Activation of the jasmonic acid pathway by depletion of the hydroperoxide lyase OsHPL3 reveals crosstalk between the HPL and AOS branches of the oxylipin pathway in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Liu

    Full Text Available The allene oxide synthase (AOS and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL branches of the oxylipin pathway, which underlie the production of jasmonates and aldehydes, respectively, function in plant responses to a range of stresses. Regulatory crosstalk has been proposed to exist between these two signaling branches; however, there is no direct evidence of this. Here, we identified and characterized a jasmonic acid (JA overproduction mutant, cea62, by screening a rice T-DNA insertion mutant library for lineages that constitutively express the AOS gene. Map-based cloning was used to identify the underlying gene as hydroperoxide lyase OsHPL3. HPL3 expression and the enzyme activity of its product, (E-2-hexenal, were depleted in the cea62 mutant, which resulted in the dramatic overproduction of JA, the activation of JA signaling, and the emergence of the lesion mimic phenotype. A time-course analysis of lesion formation and of the induction of defense responsive genes in the cea62 mutant revealed that the activation of JA biosynthesis and signaling in cea62 was regulated in a developmental manner, as was OsHPL3 activity in the wild-type plant. Microarray analysis showed that the JA-governed defense response was greatly activated in cea62 and this plant exhibited enhanced resistance to the T1 strain of the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonasoryzaepvoryzae (Xoo. The wounding response was attenuated in cea62 plants during the early stages of development, but partially recovered when JA levels were elevated during the later stages. In contrast, the wounding response was not altered during the different developmental stages of wild-type plants. These findings suggest that these two branches of the oxylipin pathway exhibit crosstalk with regards to biosynthesis and signaling and cooperate with each other to function in diverse stress responses.

  1. Interaction between hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine γ-lyase and carbon monoxide/heme oxygenase pathways in aortic smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-fang JIN; Jun-bao DU; Xiao-hui LI; Yan-fei WANG; Yin-fang LIANG; Chao-shu TANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the interaction between hydrogen sulfide (H2S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and carbon monoxide (CO)/heme oxygenase (HO) pathways in aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMC). Methods: The ASMCs were divided into the following groups: (1) the control group; (2) the zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) 20 (μmol/L group; (3) the propargylglycine (PPG) 2 mmol/L, 4 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L groups; and (4) the sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) 1×10-5 mol/L, 1×10-4 mol/L and 1×10-3 mol/L groups. Each of the groups was further divided into 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h subgroups. The CO level, represented by carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) content was measured using a spectrophotometric method and H2S content was detected by a sensitive electrode method. CSE and HO-1 expressions were detected by Western blotting. Results: The H2S content in the medium and CSE expression by ASMC were markedly increased by ZnPP compared with the control group. HbCO content in the medium and HO-1 expression by the ASMC started strengthening following 24 h treatment with PPG at 2 mmol/L, but were further strengthened following 18 h and 24 h treatment with PPG at 4 mmol/L compared with the controls (P<0.01). PPG at 10 mmol/L increased the HbCO level in the medium following 18 h treatment and increased HO-1 expression by the ASMC following 12 h treatment. Moreover, NaHS at 1×10-5 mol/L and 1×10-4 mol/L decreased the HbCO level in the medium and HO-1 expression by the ASMC after 6 h and 12 h treatment, while NaHS at 1×10-3 mol/L decreased them at all time points of the treatments. Conclusion: The results suggested that endogenous CO/HO and H2S/CSE pathways inhibited each other in ASMC under physiological conditions.

  2. Increased renal methylglyoxal formation with down-regulation of PGC-1α-FBPase pathway in cystathionine γ-lyase knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Untereiner

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that hydrogen sulfide (H(2S, a gasotransmitter and vasodilator has cytoprotective properties against methylglyoxal (MG, a reactive glucose metabolite associated with diabetes and hypertension. Recently, H(2S was shown to up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC-1α, a key gluconeogenic regulator that enhances the gene expression of the rate-limiting gluconeogenic enzyme, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase. Thus, we sought to determine whether MG levels and gluconeogenic enzymes are altered in kidneys of 6-22 week-old cystathionine γ-lyase knockout (CSE(-/-; H(2S-producing enzyme male mice. MG levels were determined by HPLC. Plasma glucose levels were measured by an assay kit. Q-PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of PGC-1α and FBPase-1 and -2. Coupled-enzymatic assays were used to determine FBPase activity, or triosephosphate levels. Experimental controls were either age-matched wild type mice or untreated rat A-10 cells. Interestingly, we observed a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels along with a significant increase in plasma MG levels in all three age groups (6-8, 14-16, and 20-22 week-old of the CSE(-/- mice. Indeed, renal MG and triosephosphates were increased, whereas renal FBPase activity, along with its mRNA levels, were decreased in the CSE(-/- mice. The decreased FBPase activity was accompanied by lower levels of its product, fructose-6-phosphate, and higher levels of its substrate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in renal extracts from the CSE(-/- mice. In agreement, PGC-1α mRNA levels were also significantly down-regulated in 6-22 week-old CSE(-/- mice. Furthermore, FBPase-1 and -2 mRNA levels were reduced in aorta tissues from CSE(-/- mice. Administration of NaHS, a H(2S donor, increased the gene expression of PGC-1α and FBPase-1 and -2 in cultured rat A-10 cells. In conclusion, overproduction of MG in CSE(-/- mice is due to a H(2S-mediated down-regulation of

  3. Studies on pectin lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdenhoven, van F.E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The pectin lyase activity in the commercial enzyme preparation Ultrazym originates from more then one type of enzyme; two of them, accounting for 95 % of the total activity, have been completely purified. As purity criteria specific activity, polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis and SDS electroph

  4. Probing the structure of glucan lyases – the lytic members of GH31 - by sequence analysis, circular dichroism and proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Heidi; Lo Leggio, Leila; Yu, Shukun;

    2005-01-01

    Glucan lyase (GL) is a polysaccharide lyase with unique characteristics. It is involved in an alternative pathway for the degradation of alpha-glucans, the anhydrofructose pathway. Sequence similarity suggests that this lytic enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 31, for which until very r...

  5. Induction of a Proinflammatory Response in Cortical Astrocytes by the Major Metabolites Accumulating in HMG-CoA Lyase Deficiency: the Role of ERK Signaling Pathway in Cytokine Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Seminotti, Bianca; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Santamaria, Abel; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria (HMGA) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency. It is biochemically characterized by predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate (HMG) and 3-methylglutarate (MGA). Affected patients commonly present acute symptoms during metabolic decompensation, including vomiting, seizures, and lethargy/coma accompanied by metabolic acidosis and hypoketotic hypoglycemia. Although neurological manifestations are common, the pathogenesis of brain injury in this disease is poorly known. Astrocytes are important for neuronal protection and are susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HMG and MGA on important parameters of redox homeostasis and cytokine production in cortical cultured astrocytes. The role of the metabolites on astrocyte mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction) and viability (propidium iodide incorporation) was also studied. Both organic acids decreased astrocytic mitochondrial function and the concentrations of reduced glutathione without altering cell viability. In contrast, they increased reactive species formation (2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) oxidation), as well as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF α release through the ERK signaling pathway. Taken together, the data indicate that the principal compounds accumulating in HMGA induce a proinflammatory response in cultured astrocytes that may possibly be involved in the neuropathology of this disease. PMID:26099308

  6. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  7. Cystathione gamma lyase/Hydrogen Sulphide Pathway Up Regulation Enhances the Responsiveness of α1A and α1B-Adrenoreceptors in the Kidney of Rats with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Azam, Maleeha; Abdulla, Mohammed H.; Khan, Safia A.; Hashmi, Fayyaz; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between H2S and NO (nitric oxide) in the kidney and to evaluate its impact on the functional contribution of α1A and α1B-adrenoreceptors subtypes mediating the renal vasoconstriction in the kidney of rats with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In rats the LVH induction was by isoprenaline administration and caffeine in the drinking water together with intraperitoneal administration of H2S. The responsiveness of α1A and α1B to exogenous noradrenaline, phenylephrine and methoxaminein the absence and presence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU) and chloroethylclonidine (CEC) was studied. Cystathione gamma lyase (CSE), cystathione β synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphar transferase (3-MST) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were quantified. There was significant up regulation of CSE and eNOS in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group (P<0.05). Baseline renal cortical blood perfusion (RCBP) was increased (P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The responsiveness of α1A-adrenergic receptors to adrenergic agonists was increased (P<0.05) after administration of low dose 5-Methylurapidil in the LVH-H2S group while α1B-adrenergic receptors responsiveness to adrenergic agonists were increased (P<0.05) by both low and high dose chloroethylclonidine in the LVH-H2S group. Treatment of LVH with H2S resulted in up-regulation of CSE/H2S, CBS, and 3-MST and eNOS/NO/cGMP pathways in the kidney. These up regulation of CSE/H2S, CBS, and 3-MST and eNOS/NO/cGMP pathways enhanced the responsiveness of α1A and α1B-adrenoreceptors subtypes to adrenergic agonists in LVH-H2S. These findings indicate an important role for H2S in modulating deranged signalling in the renal vasculature resulting from LVH development. PMID:27191852

  8. Truth and consequences of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Ana; Saba, Julie D.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for the irreversible catabolism of the lipid signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). SPL catalyzes the cleavage of S1P resulting in the formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine phosphate. S1P functions as a ligand for a family of ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors that mediate autocrine and paracrine signals controlling cell migration, proliferation and programmed cell death pathways. S1P has a...

  9. Cystathionine γ-lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Jurkowska; Marta Kaczor-Kamińska; Patrycja Bronowicka-Adamska; Maria Wróbel; Katarzyna Leszczyńska; Dorota Cibor; Tomasz Mach; Zofia Dzierżewicz

    2014-01-01

    γ-Cystathionase (CTH, EC: 4.4.1.1), an enzyme widely distributed in the world of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, catalyzes the formation and transformations of sulfane sulfur-containing compounds and plays a pivotal role in the L-cysteine desulfuration pathway. Human, tetrameric CTH is composed of two dimers and each monomer binds pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 1, consists of 13 exons and 12 introns. As a result of alternative splicing, three...

  10. Rhamnogalacturonan lyase reveals a unique three-domain modular structure for polysaccharide lyase family 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonough, Michael A.; Kadirvelraj, Renuka; Harris, Pernille;

    2004-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RG-lyase) specifically recognizes and cleaves alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds between L-rhamnose and D-galacturonic acids in the backbone of rhamno galacturonan-I, a major component of the plant cell wall polysaccharide, pectin. The three-dimensional structure of RG-lyase from...

  11. [Cystathionine γ-lyase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Kaczor-Kamińska, Marta; Bronowicka-Adamska, Patrycja; Wróbel, Maria

    2014-01-01

    γ-Cystathionase (CTH, EC: 4.4.1.1), an enzyme widely distributed in the world of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, catalyzes the formation and transformations of sulfane sulfur-containing compounds and plays a pivotal role in the L-cysteine desulfuration pathway. Human, tetrameric CTH is composed of two dimers and each monomer binds pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 1, consists of 13 exons and 12 introns. As a result of alternative splicing, three isoforms of human CTH arise. Analysis of genetic variations of the CTH encoding gene showed a large number of polymorphisms. A decrease of the expression of CTH entails a drop in the level of cysteine , glutathione (GSH), taurine and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the cells and, more importantly, leads to cystathioninuria. H2S, endogenously formed by CTH, affects the vasodilation and regulation of blood pressure. CTH knockout mice have decreased levels of H2S, hypertension, and reduced capacity for vascular endothelium relaxation. Overexpression of the gene encoding CTH in the cells leads to increased production of H2S. H2S plays a role in protection of neurons against oxidative stress, and stimulates an increase in γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and thereby an increase in the level of GSH. Sulfurtransferases, including CTH, can locally prevent oxidative stress due to reversible oxidation of - SH groups in the presence of increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and reduction in the presence of GSH and/or reduced thioredoxin.

  12. Cystathionine γ-lyase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Jurkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Cystathionase (CTH, EC: 4.4.1.1, an enzyme widely distributed in the world of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, catalyzes the formation and transformations of sulfane sulfur-containing compounds and plays a pivotal role in the L-cysteine desulfuration pathway. Human, tetrameric CTH is composed of two dimers and each monomer binds pyridoxal phosphate (PLP. The gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 1, consists of 13 exons and 12 introns. As a result of alternative splicing, three isoforms of human CTH arise. Analysis of genetic variations of the CTH encoding gene showed a large number of polymorphisms. A decrease of the expression of CTH entails a drop in the level of cysteine , glutathione (GSH, taurine and hydrogen sulfide (H2S in the cells and, more importantly, leads to cystathioninuria. H2S, endogenously formed by CTH, affects the vasodilation and regulation of blood pressure. CTH knockout mice have decreased levels of H2S, hypertension, and reduced capacity for vascular endothelium relaxation. Overexpression of the gene encoding CTH in the cells leads to increased production of H2S. H2S plays a role in protection of neurons against oxidative stress, and stimulates an increase in γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and thereby an increase in the level of GSH. Sulfurtransferases, including CTH, can locally prevent oxidative stress due to reversible oxidation of – SH groups in the presence of increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and reduction in the presence of GSH and/or reduced thioredoxin.

  13. CyanoLyase: a database of phycobilin lyase sequences, motifs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaudeau, Anthony; Coste, François; Humily, Florian; Garczarek, Laurence; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Collin, Olivier; Schluchter, Wendy M; Partensky, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    CyanoLyase (http://cyanolyase.genouest.org/) is a manually curated sequence and motif database of phycobilin lyases and related proteins. These enzymes catalyze the covalent ligation of chromophores (phycobilins) to specific binding sites of phycobiliproteins (PBPs). The latter constitute the building bricks of phycobilisomes, the major light-harvesting systems of cyanobacteria and red algae. Phycobilin lyases sequences are poorly annotated in public databases. Sequences included in CyanoLyase were retrieved from all available genomes of these organisms and a few others by similarity searches using biochemically characterized enzyme sequences and then classified into 3 clans and 32 families. Amino acid motifs were computed for each family using Protomata learner. CyanoLyase also includes BLAST and a novel pattern matching tool (Protomatch) that allow users to rapidly retrieve and annotate lyases from any new genome. In addition, it provides phylogenetic analyses of all phycobilin lyases families, describes their function, their presence/absence in all genomes of the database (phyletic profiles) and predicts the chromophorylation of PBPs in each strain. The site also includes a thorough bibliography about phycobilin lyases and genomes included in the database. This resource should be useful to scientists and companies interested in natural or artificial PBPs, which have a number of biotechnological applications, notably as fluorescent markers.

  14. Isocitrate lyase localisation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, R S; Herrero, P; Ordiz, I; Angeles del Brio, M; Moreno, F

    1997-10-01

    The isocitrate lyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was only located in the cell cytoplasm. This protein was found not to be associated with cell organelles, even under growth conditions that induce peroxisome proliferation. This conclusion is supported by experiments carried out by damaging the protoplast plasma membrane with DEAE-dextran, by differential centrifugation of osmotically lysed protoplast and by using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria as a reporter fusion tag to localise the subcellular compartment to which isocitrate lyase is targeted.

  15. Volatile sulphur compounds-forming abilities of lactic acid bacteria: C-S lyase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Irene; Martínez-Bartolomé, Miguel A; Achemchem, Fouad; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall aroma of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavours. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. Here, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from different ecological origins were screened for their abilities to produce VSCs from L-methionine. From the data presented, VSC-forming abilities were shown to be strain-specific and were correlated with the C-S lyase enzymatic activities determined using different approaches. High VSCs formation were detected for those strains that were also shown to possess high thiol-producing abilities (determined either by agar plate or spectrophotometry assays). Moreover, differences in C-S lyase activities were shown to correspond with the enzymatic potential of the strains as determined by in situ gel visualization. Therefore, the assessment of the C-S lyase enzymatic potential, by means of either of these techniques, could be used as a valuable approach for the selection of LAB strains with high VSC-producing abilities thus, representing an effective way to enhance cheese sulphur aroma compounds synthesis. In this regard, this study highlights the flavour forming potential of the Streptococcus thermophilus STY-31, that therefore could be used as a starter culture in cheese manufacture. Furthermore, although C-S lyases are involved in both biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, an association between methionine and cysteine auxotrophy of the selected strains and their VSCs-producing abilities could not be found.

  16. Xylella fastidiosa esterase rather than hydroxynitrile lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Guzman; Ribeiro de Souza, Fayene Zeferino; Carrilho, Emanuel; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, we reported that the product of the gene SCJ21.16 (XFa0032) from Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-restricted plant pathogen that causes a range of diseases in several important crops, encodes a protein (XfHNL) with putative hydroxynitrile lyase activity. Sequence analysis and activity tests indicated that XfHNL exhibits an α/β-hydrolase fold and could be classified as a member of the family of FAD-independent HNLs. Here we provide a more detailed sequence analysis and new experimental data. Using pure heterologously expressed XfHNL we show that this enzyme cannot catalyse the cleavage/synthesis of mandelonitrile and that this protein is in fact a non-enantioselective esterase. Homology modelling and ligand docking simulations were used to study the active site and support these results. This finding could help elucidate the common ancestor of esterases and hydroxynitrile lyases with an α/β -hydrolase fold. PMID:25684099

  17. Impact of different alginate lyases on combined cellulase–lyase saccharification of brown seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin; Nyffenegger, Christian; Saake, B.;

    2016-01-01

    , indicating that the degradation of mannuronic acid blocks inhibited cellulase catalyzed glucose release from L. digitata. Nevertheless, combined alginate lyase and cellulase treatment for 24 hours released all potential glucose regardless of the applied lyase. The enzymatic treatment moreover induced......-guluronic acid. When applied together with a fungal cellulase preparation (Cellic®CTec2) at pH 6 and 40 °C on a glucan rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata the viscosity decreased in the initial minutes while measurable alginate degradation occurred primarily within the first 1–2 hours of reaction. Whereas FALy...

  18. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase through evolution: A bioinformatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Hemmati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL is the first entry enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that converts phenylalanine to cinnamic acid which is the precursor of various secondary metabolites. PAL is recently formulated for phenylketonuric patients in pegylated forms; therefore, screening a PAL with the highest affinity to the substrate is of a great importance. PAL exists in all higher plants and some fungi and few bacteria. Ancestors of land plants have been adopted by evolving metabolic pathways. A multi-gene family encodes PAL by gene duplication events in most plants. In this study, the taxonomic distribution and phylogeny of pal gene found in land plants, fungi and bacteria have been analyzed. It seems that the ancestor of plants acquired a pal gene via horizontal gene transfer in symbioses with bacteria and fungi. Gymnosperms have kept a diverse set of pal genes that arose from gene duplication events. In angiosperms, after the divergence of dicotyledons from monocots, pal genes were duplicated many times. The close paralogues of pal genes in some species indicate expansion of gene families after the divergence in plant pal gene evolution. Interestingly, some of the plant pals clustered by species in a way that pals within one species are more closely related to each other than to homologs in the other species which indicates this duplication event occurred more recently.

  19. Pectate lyase PelI of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 belongs to a new family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-12-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pel4, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE genes and a set of secondary pectate lyases, two of which, pelL and pelZ, have been already identified. We cloned the pelI gene, encoding a ninth pectate lyase of E. chrysanthemi 3937. The pelI reading frame is 1,035 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 344 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 19 amino acids. The purified mature PelI protein has an isoelectric point of about 9 and an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa. PelI has a preference for partially methyl esterified pectin and presents an endo-cleaving activity with an alkaline pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+ ions. PelI is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out secretory pathway of E. chrysanthemi. The PelI protein is very active in the maceration of plant tissues. A pelI mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence did not appear to be affected on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants. The pelI gene constitutes an independent transcriptional unit. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelI is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, temperature, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelI expression appeared to be dependent on the three repressors of pectinase synthesis, KdgR, PecS, and PecT, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. A functional KdgR binding site was identified close to the putative pelI promoter. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PelI revealed high homology with a pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (65% identity) and low homology with pectate lyases of the phytopathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca (Fusarium solani). This finding indicates that PelI belongs to pectate lyase class

  20. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur J. L. Cooper; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Bruschi, Sam A.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes that catalyze the conversion of cysteine S-conjugates [RSCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] and selenium Se-conjugates [RSeCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] that contain a leaving group in the β position to pyruvate, ammonium and a sulfur-containing fragment (RSH) or selenium-containing fragment (RSeH), respectively. At least ten PLP enzymes catalyze β-elimination reactions with such cysteine S-conjugates. All are enzymes involved in amino acid m...

  1. Effects of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants, controlling biosynthesis of a variety of structural and defense compounds including monolignols that polymerize into lignin. Gaps remain in our understanding of how genetic alterations to this pathwa...

  2. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalanotti, C.; Dubini, A.; Subramanian, V.; Yang, W. Q.; Magneschi, L.; Mus, F.; Seibert, M.; Posewitz, M. C.; Grossman, A. R.

    2012-02-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism.

  3. A novel, inducible, citral lyase purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Loo, W.J.V. van; Tramper, J.; Werf, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. This cofacto

  4. A rationale for autoinduction of a transcriptional activator: ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EutBC) and the operon activator (EutR) compete for adenosyl-cobalamin in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, D E; Roth, J R

    1994-01-01

    The ethanolamine utilization (eut) operon of Salmonella typhimurium is controlled by a positive regulatory protein (EutR) which stimulates eut operon expression in response to the simultaneous presence of two effectors, ethanolamine and adenosyl-cobalamin (Ado-B12). Ado-B12 is a cofactor for ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (lyase), the first enzyme in the ethanolamine-degradative pathway. The dependence of this pathway on the use of Ado-B12 as an effector in eut operon induction may be explained b...

  5. Complementation of a phycocyanin-bilin lyase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with a nucleomorph-encoded open reading frame from the cryptophyte Guillardia theta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyalwidhe Julius

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptophytes are highly compartmentalized organisms, expressing a secondary minimized eukaryotic genome in the nucleomorph and its surrounding remnant cytoplasm, in addition to the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion and the plastid. Because the members of the nucleomorph-encoded proteome may contribute to essential cellular pathways, elucidating nucleomorph-encoded functions is of utmost interest. Unfortunately, cryptophytes are inaccessible for genetic transformations thus far. Therefore the functions of nucleomorph-encoded proteins must be elucidated indirectly by application of methods in genetically accessible organisms. Results Orf222, one of the uncharacterized nucleomorph-specific open reading frames of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta, shows homology to slr1649 of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Recently a further homolog from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was characterized to encode a phycocyanin-β155-bilin lyase. Here we show by insertion mutagenesis that the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 slr1649-encoded protein also acts as a bilin lyase, and additionally contributes to linker attachment and/or stability of phycobilisomes. Finally, our results indicate that the phycocyanin-β155-bilin lyase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can be complemented in vivo by the nucleomorph-encoded open reading frame orf222. Conclusion Our data show that the loss of phycocyanin-lyase function causes pleiotropic effects in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and indicate that after separating from a common ancestor protein, the phycoerythrin lyase from Guillardia theta has retained its capacity to couple a bilin group to other phycobiliproteins. This is a further, unexpected example of the universality of phycobiliprotein lyases.

  6. Phycobilin:cystein-84 biliprotein lyase, a near-universal lyase for cysteine-84-binding sites in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai-Hong; Su, Ping; Tu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Xing; Liu, Hui; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Yang, Bei; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    Phycobilisomes, the light-harvesting complexes of cyanobacteria and red algae, contain two to four types of chromophores that are attached covalently to seven or more members of a family of homologous proteins, each carrying one to four binding sites. Chromophore binding to apoproteins is catalyzed by lyases, of which only few have been characterized in detail. The situation is complicated by nonenzymatic background binding to some apoproteins. Using a modular multiplasmidic expression-reconstitution assay in Escherichia coli with low background binding, phycobilin:cystein-84 biliprotein lyase (CpeS1) from Anabaena PCC7120, has been characterized as a nearly universal lyase for the cysteine-84-binding site that is conserved in all biliproteins. It catalyzes covalent attachment of phycocyanobilin to all allophycocyanin subunits and to cysteine-84 in the beta-subunits of C-phycocyanin and phycoerythrocyanin. Together with the known lyases, it can thereby account for chromophore binding to all binding sites of the phycobiliproteins of Anabaena PCC7120. Moreover, it catalyzes the attachment of phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-84 of both subunits of C-phycoerythrin. The only exceptions not served by CpeS1 among the cysteine-84 sites are the alpha-subunits from phycocyanin and phycoerythrocyanin, which, by sequence analyses, have been defined as members of a subclass that is served by the more specialized E/F type lyases.

  7. Analysis of the sulfur-regulated control of the cystathionine γ-lyase gene of Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reveal Brad S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystathionine γ-lyase plays a key role in the transsulfuration pathway through its primary reaction of catalyzing the formation of cysteine from cystathionine. The Neurospora crassa cystathionine γ-lyase gene (cys-16+ is of particular interest in dissecting the regulation and dynamics of transsulfuration. The aim of this study was to determine the regulatory connection of cys-16+ to the Neurospora sulfur regulatory network. In addition, the cys-16+ promoter was characterized with the goal of developing a strongly expressed and regulatable gene expression tool. Findings The cystathionine γ-lyase cys-16+ gene was cloned and characterized. The gene, which contains no introns, encodes a protein of 417 amino acids with conserved pyridoxal 5’-phosphate binding site and substrate-cofactor binding pocket. Northern blot analysis using wild type cells showed that cys-16+ transcript levels increased under sulfur limiting (derepressing conditions and were present only at a low level under sulfur sufficient (repressing conditions. In contrast, cys-16+ transcript levels in a Δcys-3 regulatory mutant were present at a low level under either derepressing or repressing conditions. Gel mobility shift analysis demonstrated the presence of four CYS3 transcriptional activator binding sites on the cys-16+ promoter, which were close matches to the CYS3 consensus binding sequence. Conclusions In this work, we confirm the control of cystathionine γ-lyase gene expression by the CYS3 transcriptional activator through the loss of cys-16+ expression in a Δcys-3 mutant and through the in vitro binding of CYS3 to the cys-16+ promoter at four sites. The highly regulated cys-16+ promoter should be a useful tool for gene expression studies in Neurospora

  8. Polysaccharide Lyase: Molecular Cloning, Sequencing, and Overexpression of the Xanthan Lyase Gene of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

    2001-01-01

    When grown on xanthan as a carbon source, the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 produces extracellular xanthan lyase (75 kDa), catalyzing the first step of xanthan depolymerization (H. Nankai, W. Hashimoto, H. Miki, S. Kawai, and K. Murata, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2520–2526, 1999). A gene for the lyase was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 2,793 bp coding for a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 99,308. The poly...

  9. In Silico Characterization of Pectate Lyase Protein Sequences from Different Source Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 121 protein sequences of pectate lyases were subjected to homology search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, and motif analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed different clusters based on different source organisms representing bacterial, fungal, plant, and nematode pectate lyases. The multiple accessions of bacterial, fungal, nematode, and plant pectate lyase protein sequences were placed closely revealing a sequence level similarity. The multiple sequence alignment of these pectate lyase protein sequences from different source organisms showed conserved regions at different stretches with maximum homology from amino acid residues 439–467, 715–816, and 829–910 which could be used for designing degenerate primers or probes specific for pectate lyases. The motif analysis revealed a conserved Pec_Lyase_C domain uniformly observed in all pectate lyases irrespective of variable sources suggesting its possible role in structural and enzymatic functions.

  10. Redesign of a Phenylalanine Aminomutase into a Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, S.; Wybenga, G.G.; Jansen, M.; Heberling, M.M.; Wu, B.; Dijkstra, B.W.; Janssen, D.B.

    2013-01-01

    An aminomutase, naturally catalyzing the interconversion of (S)--phenylalanine and (R)--phenylalanine, was converted into an ammonia lyase catalyzing the nonoxidative deamination of phenylalanine to cinnamic acid by a rational single-point mutation. It could be shown by crystal structures and kineti

  11. Priming ammonia lyases and aminomutases for industrial and therapeutic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heberling, Matthew M.; Wu, Bian; Bartsch, Sebastian; Janssen, Dick B.; Truppo, Matthew D.; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia lyases (AL) and aminomutases (AM) are emerging in green synthetic routes to chiral amines and an AL is being explored as an enzyme therapeutic for treating phenylketonuria and cancer. Although the restricted substrate range of the wild-type enzymes limits their widespread application, the no

  12. Enhancing RGI lyase thermostability by targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Inês R.; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Jers, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    experimental verification of the thermal stability of the designed mutants versus the original wild-type RGI lyase, several promising single point mutations were obtained, particularly in position Glu434 on the surface of the enzyme protein. The best mutant, Glu434Leu, produced a half-life of 31 min at 60 °C......, corresponding to a 1.6-fold improvement of the thermal stability compared to the original RGI lyase. Gly55Val was the second best mutation with a thermostability half-life increase of 27 min at 60 °C, and the best mutations following were Glu434Trp, Glu434Phe, and Glu434Tyr, respectively. The data verify...

  13. Isolation of Protoplasts from Undaria pinnatifida by Alginate Lyase Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoke; JIANG Xiaolu; GUAN Huashi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate protoplasts from Undaria pinnatifida. Protoplasts of the alga were isolated enzymatically by using alginate lyase, which was prepared by fermenting culture of a strain Vibrio sp. 510. Monofacterial method was applied for optimizing digestion condition. The optimum condition for protoplast preparation is enzymatic digestion at 28 ℃ for 2 h using alginate lyase at the concentration of 213.36 U (8 mL) every 0.5 g fresh thalline with NaCl 50 and at the shaking speed of 150 r min-1 during digestion. The protoplast yield can reach 2.62 + 0.09 million per 0.5 g fresh leave under the optimum condition. The enzyme activity is inhibited by Ca2+ and slightly enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+ at concentrations of 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 molL-1.

  14. Isolation of protoplasts from undaria pinnatifida by alginate lyase digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoke, Hu; Xiaolu, Jiang; Huashi, Guan

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate protoplasts from Undaria pinnatifida. Protoplasts of the alga were isolated enzymatically by using alginate lyase, which was prepared by fermenting culture of a strain Vibrio sp. 510. Monofacterial method was applied for optimizing digestion condition. The optimum condition for protoplast preparation is enzymatic digestion at 28°C for 2h using alginate lyase at the concentration of 213.36 U (8 mL) every 0.5g fresh thalline with NaCl 50 and at the shaking speed of 150 r min-1 during digestion. The protoplast yield can reach 2.62±0.09 million per 0.5 g fresh leave under the optimum condition. The enzyme activity is inhibited by Ca2+ and slightly enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+ at concentrations of 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mol L-1.

  15. Bioscouring Knitted Cotton Fabric with an Experimental Pectate Lyase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D K Appiah; MAO Zhi-ping; L(U) Jia-hua

    2007-01-01

    An experimental pectate lyase enzyme was used toscour knitted cotton fabric and the emphasis was on pectinremoval. Using an enzyme dosage of 0.2 g/L at temperature55℃ and pH 6.35 for 30 rain, good scouring properties wereobtained. When appropriate concentrations of 1 - HydroxyEthylidene- 1, 1 - Diphosphonic Acid(HEDP) and CaCl2were added, the percentage pectin removal improvedsignificantly.

  16. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stuy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB. The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet.

  17. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuy, M; Chen, G-F; Masonek, J M; Scharschmidt, B F

    2015-09-01

    A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS) and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet.

  18. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuy, M.; Chen, G.-F.; Masonek, J.M.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS) and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet. PMID:26937403

  19. HISTIDINE BIOTRANSFORMATION MEDIATED BY L-HISTIDINE-AMMONIA-LYASE

    OpenAIRE

    Borisova, G.; Bessonova, O.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetics of the metabolism of the heterocyclic amino acid histidine exposed to the L-histidine ammonia-lyase enzyme has been investigated and the technology of extraction of histidine biotransformation products (urocanic acid and ammonia) from casein hydrolyzates enabling the subsequent use of these hydrolyzates as a milk protein concentrate for the production of specialized dietary products for the nutrition of histidinemia patients has been developed.

  20. Active site proton delivery and the lyase activity of human CYP17A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatri, Yogan; Gregory, Michael C.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G., E-mail: s-sligar@illinois.edu

    2014-01-03

    equivalents and protons are funneled into non-productive pathways. This is similar to previous work with other P450 catalyzed hydroxylation. However, catalysis of carbon–carbon bond scission by the T306A mutant was largely unimpeded by disruption of the CYP17A1 acid-alcohol pair. The unique response of CYP17A1 lyase activity to mutation of Thr306 is consistent with a reactive intermediate formed independently of proton delivery in the active site, and supports involvement of a nucleophilic peroxo-anion rather than the traditional Compound I in catalysis.

  1. Inactivating effects of the lactoperoxidase system on bacterial lyases involved in oral malodour production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Manabu; Shin, Kouichirou; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Hironaka, Shouji

    2015-10-01

    The main components of oral malodour have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). The lactoperoxidase (LPO) system (consisting of LPO, glucose oxidase, glucose and thiocyanate) was previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities against some oral bacteria in vitro and suppressive effects on VSCs in mouth air in a clinical trial. Here, we examined the in vitro effects of the LPO system on the activities of the bacterial lyases involved in the production of VSCs by oral anaerobes. The exposure of crude bacterial extracts of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis or purified methionine γ-lyase to the LPO system resulted in the inactivation of their lyase activities through l-cysteine and l-methionine, which was linked to the production of H(2)S and CH(3)SH, respectively. The exposure of living F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis cells to the LPO system resulted in the suppression of cell numbers and lyase activities. The inactivation of the crude bacterial extracts of F. nucleatum and purified methionine γ-lyase by the LPO system was partly recovered by the addition of DTT. Therefore, the LPO system may inactivate bacterial lyases including methionine γ-lyase by reacting with the free cysteine residues of lyases. These results suggested that the LPO system suppresses the production of VSCs not only through its antimicrobial effects, but also by its inactivating effects on the bacterial lyases of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis.

  2. A C⋅As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-05-27

    Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C ⋅ As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe(2+)-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C ⋅ As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C ⋅ As lyase.

  3. ¹³C metabolic flux analysis identifies an unusual route for pyruvate dissimilation in mycobacteria which requires isocitrate lyase and carbon dioxide fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany J V Beste

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires the enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL for growth and virulence in vivo. The demonstration that M. tuberculosis also requires ICL for survival during nutrient starvation and has a role during steady state growth in a glycerol limited chemostat indicates a function for this enzyme which extends beyond fat metabolism. As isocitrate lyase is a potential drug target elucidating the role of this enzyme is of importance; however, the role of isocitrate lyase has never been investigated at the level of in vivo fluxes. Here we show that deletion of one of the two icl genes impairs the replication of Mycobacterium bovis BCG at slow growth rate in a carbon limited chemostat. In order to further understand the role of isocitrate lyase in the central metabolism of mycobacteria the effect of growth rate on the in vivo fluxes was studied for the first time using ¹³C-metabolic flux analysis (MFA. Tracer experiments were performed with steady state chemostat cultures of BCG or M. tuberculosis supplied with ¹³C labeled glycerol or sodium bicarbonate. Through measurements of the ¹³C isotopomer labeling patterns in protein-derived amino acids and enzymatic activity assays we have identified the activity of a novel pathway for pyruvate dissimilation. We named this the GAS pathway because it utilizes the Glyoxylate shunt and Anapleurotic reactions for oxidation of pyruvate, and Succinyl CoA synthetase for the generation of succinyl CoA combined with a very low flux through the succinate--oxaloacetate segment of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We confirm that M. tuberculosis can fix carbon from CO₂ into biomass. As the human host is abundant in CO₂ this finding requires further investigation in vivo as CO₂ fixation may provide a point of vulnerability that could be targeted with novel drugs. This study also provides a platform for further studies into the metabolism of M. tuberculosis using ¹³C-MFA.

  4. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Dubini, Alexandra; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Yang, Wenqiang; Magneschi, Leonardo; Mus, Florence; Seibert, Michael; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism. PMID:22353371

  5. Possible role of cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase in species differences in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Rieko; Nagata, Saori; Iida, Hiroko; Yamagishi, Norio; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2011-09-01

    To better understand species differences in cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we focused on renal cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase (C-S lyase), which may play a crucial role in the metabolism of platinum (Pt)-cysteine conjugates. Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride (AOAA), an inhibitor of C-S lyase, reduced renal injuries due to cisplatin in rats, suggesting involvement of C-S lyase. On day 5 following a bolus cisplatin injection, three species showed in vivo nephrotoxic potentials in the order of rats>mice=rabbits (the highest to lowest), based on body surface. The levels of renal Pt residue at the nephrotoxic dose were in order of rabbits>rats>mice. Meanwhile, the activity of endogenous (basal) mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (AST), one of the C-S lyases, in the renal cortex of naive animals was rats>mice=rabbits. In a qualitative Western blot analysis, expression of mitochondrial C-S lyase in the kidney was observed at approximately 37kDa in all five species used. In in vitro studies, the cytotoxicity of cisplatin was dependent on the expression level of C-S lyase mRNA in the respective renal cells. These results demonstrate that species differences in cisplatin nephrotoxicity are attributable to an interaction of renal Pt transition with C-S lyase activity.

  6. Spectroscopic studies on the active site of hydroperoxide lyase : the influence of detergents on its conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Expression of high quantities of alfalfa hydroperoxide lyase in Escherichia coli made it possible to study its active site and structure in more detail. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that hydroperoxide lyase consists for about 75% of alpha-helices. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spec

  7. Alfalfa contains substantial 9-hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenase can be cleaved by hydroperoxide lyase resulting in the formation of short-chain aldehydes and omega-oxo acids. Plant hydroperoxide lyases use 13- or 9-hydroperoxy linoleic and linolenic acid as substrates. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been reporte

  8. Structure and mechanism of the phycobiliprotein lyase CpcT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Ding, Wen-Long; Zeng, Xiao-Li; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-09-26

    Pigmentation of light-harvesting phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria requires covalent attachment of open-chain tetrapyrroles, bilins, to the apoproteins. Thioether formation via addition of a cysteine residue to the 3-ethylidene substituent of bilins is mediated by lyases. T-type lyases are responsible for attachment to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits. We present crystal structures of CpcT (All5339) from Nostoc (Anabaena) sp. PCC 7120 and its complex with phycocyanobilin at 1.95 and 2.50 Å resolution, respectively. CpcT forms a dimer and adopts a calyx-shaped β-barrel fold. Although the overall structure of CpcT is largely retained upon chromophore binding, arginine residues at the opening of the binding pocket undergo major rotameric rearrangements anchoring the propionate groups of phycocyanobilin. Based on the structure and mutational analysis, a reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for chromophore stabilization and regio- and stereospecificity of the addition reaction. At the dimer interface, a loop extending from one subunit partially shields the opening of the phycocyanobilin binding pocket in the other subunit. Deletion of the loop or disruptions of the dimer interface significantly reduce CpcT lyase activity, suggesting functional relevance of the dimer. Dimerization is further enhanced by chromophore binding. The chromophore is largely buried in the dimer, but in the monomer, the 3-ethylidene group is accessible for the apophycobiliprotein, preferentially from the chromophore α-side. Asp-163 and Tyr-65 at the β- and α-face near the E-configured ethylidene group, respectively, support the acid-catalyzed nucleophilic Michael addition of cysteine 155 of the apoprotein to an N-acylimmonium intermediate proposed by Grubmayr and Wagner (Grubmayr, K., and Wagner, U. G. (1988) Monatsh. Chem. 119, 965-983).

  9. Structure and mechanism of the phycobiliprotein lyase CpcT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Ding, Wen-Long; Zeng, Xiao-Li; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-09-26

    Pigmentation of light-harvesting phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria requires covalent attachment of open-chain tetrapyrroles, bilins, to the apoproteins. Thioether formation via addition of a cysteine residue to the 3-ethylidene substituent of bilins is mediated by lyases. T-type lyases are responsible for attachment to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits. We present crystal structures of CpcT (All5339) from Nostoc (Anabaena) sp. PCC 7120 and its complex with phycocyanobilin at 1.95 and 2.50 Å resolution, respectively. CpcT forms a dimer and adopts a calyx-shaped β-barrel fold. Although the overall structure of CpcT is largely retained upon chromophore binding, arginine residues at the opening of the binding pocket undergo major rotameric rearrangements anchoring the propionate groups of phycocyanobilin. Based on the structure and mutational analysis, a reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for chromophore stabilization and regio- and stereospecificity of the addition reaction. At the dimer interface, a loop extending from one subunit partially shields the opening of the phycocyanobilin binding pocket in the other subunit. Deletion of the loop or disruptions of the dimer interface significantly reduce CpcT lyase activity, suggesting functional relevance of the dimer. Dimerization is further enhanced by chromophore binding. The chromophore is largely buried in the dimer, but in the monomer, the 3-ethylidene group is accessible for the apophycobiliprotein, preferentially from the chromophore α-side. Asp-163 and Tyr-65 at the β- and α-face near the E-configured ethylidene group, respectively, support the acid-catalyzed nucleophilic Michael addition of cysteine 155 of the apoprotein to an N-acylimmonium intermediate proposed by Grubmayr and Wagner (Grubmayr, K., and Wagner, U. G. (1988) Monatsh. Chem. 119, 965-983). PMID:25074932

  10. Two pathways for cysteine biosynthesis in Leishmania major

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roderick A. M.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Coombs, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Genome mining and biochemical analyses have shown that L. major possesses two pathways for cysteine synthesis - the de novo biosynthesis pathway comprising serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS) and the reverse transsulfuration (RTS) pathway comprising cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL). The L. major CS (LmjCS) is similar to the type A CSs of bacteria and catalyses the synthesis of cysteine using O-acetyserine and sulfide...

  11. Molecular insight into the role of the N-terminal extension in the maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of a bacterial alginate lyase from polysaccharide lyase family 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Wei, Tian-Di; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Li, Chun-Yang; Wang, Peng; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-10-24

    Bacterial alginate lyases, which are members of several polysaccharide lyase (PL) families, have important biological roles and biotechnological applications. The mechanisms for maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of PL18 alginate lyases are still largely unknown. A PL18 alginate lyase, aly-SJ02, from Pseudoalteromonas sp. 0524 displays a β-jelly roll scaffold. Structural and biochemical analyses indicated that the N-terminal extension in the aly-SJ02 precursor may act as an intramolecular chaperone to mediate the correct folding of the catalytic domain. Molecular dynamics simulations and mutational assays suggested that the lid loops over the aly-SJ02 active center serve as a gate for substrate entry. Molecular docking and site-directed mutations revealed that certain conserved residues at the active center, especially those at subsites +1 and +2, are crucial for substrate recognition. Tyr(353) may function as both a catalytic base and acid. Based on our results, a model for the catalysis of aly-SJ02 in alginate depolymerization is proposed. Moreover, although bacterial alginate lyases from families PL5, 7, 15, and 18 adopt distinct scaffolds, they share the same conformation of catalytic residues, reflecting their convergent evolution. Our results provide the foremost insight into the mechanisms of maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of a PL18 alginate lyase.

  12. Biodegradation of all stereoisomers of the EDTA substitute iminodisuccinate by Agrobacterium tumefaciens BY6 requires an epimerase and a stereoselective C-N lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokesa, Zeljko; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim; Rieger, Paul-Gerhard

    2004-07-01

    Biodegradation tests according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development standard 301F (manometric respirometry test) with technical iminodisuccinate (IDS) revealed ready biodegradability for all stereoisomers of IDS. The IDS-degrading strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens BY6 was isolated from activated sludge. The strain was able to grow on each IDS isomer as well as on Fe(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, and Ca(2+)-IDS complexes as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In contrast, biodegradation of and growth on Mn(2+)-IDS were rather scant and very slow on Cu(2+)-IDS. Growth and turnover experiments with A. tumefaciens BY6 indicated that the isomer R,S-IDS is the preferred substrate. The IDS-degrading enzyme system isolated from this organism consists of an IDS-epimerase and a C-N lyase. The C-N lyase is stereospecific for the cleavage of R,S-IDS, generating d-aspartic acid and fumaric acid. The decisive enzyme for S,S-IDS and R,R-IDS degradation is the epimerase. It transforms S,S-IDS and R,R-IDS into R,S-IDS. Both enzymes do not require any cofactors. The two enzymes were purified and characterized, and the N-termini were sequenced. The purified lyase and also the epimerase catalyzed the transformation of alkaline earth metal-IDS complexes, while heavy metal-IDS complexes were transformed rather slowly or not at all. The observed mechanism for the complete mineralization of all IDS isomers involving an epimerase offers an interesting possibility of funneling all stereoisomers into a catabolic pathway initiated by a stereoselective lyase.

  13. Cloning and expression of isocitrate lyase from human round worm Strongyloides stercoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui A.A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A full length cDNA (1463 bp encoding isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1 of Strongyloides stercoralis is described. The nucleotide sequence of this insert identified a cDNA coding for the isocitrate lyase. The conceptually translated amino acid sequence of the open reading frame for S. stercoralis isocitrate lyase encodes a 450 amino acid residue protein with an apparent molecular weight of 50 kDa and a predicted pl of 6.39. The sequence is 69 % A/T, reflecting a characteristic A/T codon bias of S. stercoralis. The amino acid sequence of S. stercoralis isocitrate lyase is compared with bifunctional glyoxylate cycle protein of Caenorhabditis elegans and isocitrate lyases from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Myxococcus xanthus. The full length cDNA of S. stercoralis was expressed in pRSET vector and bacteriophage T7 promoter based expression system. S. stercoralis lyase recombinant protein, purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography, showed a molecular mass of 50 kDa on polyacrylamide gels. The role of isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle and energy metabolism of S. stercoralis is also discussed.

  14. The importance of four histidine residues in isocitrate lyase from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, P; McFadden, B A

    1994-01-01

    By site-directed mutagenesis, substitutions were made for His-184 (H-184), H-197, H-266, and H-306 in Escherichia coli isocitrate lyase. Of these changes, only mutations of H-184 and H-197 appreciably reduced enzyme activity. Mutation of H-184 to Lys, Arg, or Leu resulted in an inactive isocitrate lyase, and mutation of H-184 to Gln resulted in an enzyme with 0.28% activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that isocitrate lyase containing the Lys, Arg, Gln, and L...

  15. A novel gene encoding xanthan lyase of Paenibacillus alginolyticus strain XL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Hartmans, S.; Verdoes, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Xanthan-modifying enzymes are powerful tools in studying structure-function relationships of this polysaccharide. One of these modifying enzymes is xanthan lyase, which removes the terminal side chain residue of xanthan. In this paper, the cloning and sequencing of the first xanthan lyase-encoding gene is described, i.e., the xalA gene, encoding pyruvated mannose-specific xanthan lyase of Paenibacillus alginolyticus XL-1. The xalA gene encoded a 100,823-Da protein, including a 36-amino-acid s...

  16. A Pyruvated Mannose-Specific Xanthan Lyase Involved in Xanthan Degradation by Paenibacillus alginolyticus XL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijssenaars, Harald J.; de Bont, Jan A. M.; Hartmans, Sybe

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan-degrading bacterium Paenibacillus alginolyticus XL-1, isolated from soil, degrades approximately 28% of the xanthan molecule and appears to leave the backbone intact. Several xanthan-degrading enzymes were excreted during growth on xanthan, including xanthan lyase. Xanthan lyase production was induced by xanthan and inhibited by glucose and low-molecular-weight enzymatic degradation products from xanthan. A xanthan lyase with a molecular mass of 85 kDa and a pI of 7.9 was purified...

  17. Mitochondrial Sulfide Detoxification Requires a Functional Isoform O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase C in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Consolación (A)lvarez; Irene García; Luis C.Romero; Cecilia Gotor

    2012-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic species,the main source of cyanide derives from ethylene and camalexin biosyntheses.In mitochondria,cyanide is a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome c oxidase and is metabolized bythe β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1,catalyzing the conversion of cysteine and cyanide to hydrogen sulfide and β-cyanoalanine.The hydrogen sulfide released also inhibits the cytochrome c oxidase and needs to be detoxified by the O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase mitochondrial isoform,OAS-C,which catalyzes the incorporation of sulfide to O-acetylserine to produce cysteine,thus generating a cyclic pathway in the mitochondria.The loss of functional OAS-C isoforms causes phenotypic characteristics very similar to the loss of the CYS-C1 enzyme,showing defects in root hair formation.Genetic complementation with the OAS-C gene rescues the impairment of root hair elongation,restoring the wild-type phenotype.The mitochondria compromise their capacity to properly detoxify cyanide and the resulting sulfide because the latter cannot re-assimilate into cysteine in the oas-c null mutant.Consequently,we observe an accumulation of sulfide and cyanide and of the alternative oxidase,which is unable to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species probably due to the accumulation of both toxic molecules.Our results allow us to suggest that the significance of OAS-C is related to its role in the proper sulfide and cyanide detoxification in mitochondria.

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Deng, Guang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Xiaohua; Li, Linling; Cheng, Hua; Rong, Xiaofeng; Li, Jinbao

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL), implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  19. Structural Snapshots of Heparin Depolymerization by Heparin Lyase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Hyun; Garron, Marie-Line; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Wan-Seok; Zhang, Zhenqing; Ryu, Kyeong-Seok; Shaya, David; Xiao, Zhongping; Cheong, Chaejoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Linhardt, Robert J.; Jeon, Young Ho; Cygler, Miroslaw; (SNU); (Korea BSI); (McGill); (UST-Korea); (Rensselaer)

    2010-01-12

    Heparin lyase I (heparinase I) specifically depolymerizes heparin, cleaving the glycosidic linkage next to iduronic acid. Here, we show the crystal structures of heparinase I from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron at various stages of the reaction with heparin oligosaccharides before and just after cleavage and product disaccharide. The heparinase I structure is comprised of a {beta}-jellyroll domain harboring a long and deep substrate binding groove and an unusual thumb-resembling extension. This thumb, decorated with many basic residues, is of particular importance in activity especially on short heparin oligosaccharides. Unexpected structural similarity of the active site to that of heparinase II with an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6} fold is observed. Mutational studies and kinetic analysis of this enzyme provide insights into the catalytic mechanism, the substrate recognition, and processivity.

  20. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase in isolated hepatocytes. Stoichiometry and relation to the phosphoenzyme intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M C; Palmer, J L; Pointer, R H; Kowaloff, E M; Koumjian, L L; Avruch, J

    1982-02-25

    We have estimated the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase by two methods. Isolated hepatocytes incorporate extracellular 32P into [gamma-35P] ATP and immunoprecipitated ATP-citrate lyase to steady state levels by 1 h. The content of acid-stable 32P in hepatocyte ATP-citrate lyase at steady state is 0.33 +/- 0.038 mol of P/mol (tetrameric) holoenzyme. Insulin (1 milliunit/ml) increases the 32P content of immunoprecipitated lyase 2- to 3-fold in 10 min. Over 90% of acid-stable 32P on lyase is 32P-serine in enzyme isolated from both control and insulin-treated cells. ATP-citrate lyase isolated from hepatocytes contains 0.95 +/- 0.1 mol of alkali-labile phosphate/mol of holoenzyme. Insulin treatment of hepatocytes (1 milliunit/ml for 10 min) increases the alkali-labile P content by 45%. Evidence is presented which indicates that the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation does not arise by intramolecular migration from the catalytic phosphoenzyme intermediate. These observations support the conclusion that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase is mediated either by an insulin-induced increase in the activity of lyase kinase and/or decrease in a lyase phosphatase. The functional role of the substoichiometric phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase remains unknown.

  1. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J; Beale, Michael H; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow.

  2. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  3. High cerebral guanidinoacetate and variable creatine concentrations in argininosuccinate synthetase and lyase deficiency : Implications for treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, F. J.; Reijngoud, D. J.; Verhoeven, N. M.; Soorani-Lunsing, R. J.; Jakobs, C.; Sijens, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral creatine and guanidinoacetate and blood and urine metabolites were studied in four patients with argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) or argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency receiving large doses of arginine. Urine and blood metabolites varied largely. Cerebral guanidinoacetate was increa

  4. Isocitrate lyase and the glyoxylate cycle. Progress report, February 15, 1989--February 15, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, B.A.

    1990-12-31

    Active site modifications of isocitrate lyase (icl) from Escherichia coli are described. In addition directed mutagenesis of icl gene are detailed aimed at varying the charge yet conserving the structure of the enzymes active site.

  5. Oxylipin Pathway in Rice and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Wassim Chehab; John V. Perea; Banu Gopalan; Steve Theg; Katayoon Dehesh

    2007-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex signaling pathways to coordinate responses to developmental and environmental information. The oxylipin pathway is one pivotal lipid-based signaling network, composed of several competing branch pathways, that determines the plant's ability to adapt to various stimuli. Activation of the oxylipin pathway induces the de novo synthesis of biologically active metabolltes called "oxylipins". The relative levels of these metabolltes are a distinct indicator of each plant species and determine the ability of plants to adapt to different stimuli. The two major branches of the oxylipln pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) are responsible for production of the signaling compounds,jasmonates and aldehydes respectively. Here, we compare and contrast the regulation of AOS and HPL branch pathways in rice and Arabidopsis as model monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous systems. These analyses provide new Insights into the evolution of JAs and aldehydes signaling pathways, and the complex network of processes responsible for stress adaptations in monocots and dicots.

  6. Effect of Culture Conditions on the Production of Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase by Erwinia herbicola

    OpenAIRE

    Para, G. M.; Baratti, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of environmental parameters on the growth and the tyrosine phenol-lyase content of Erwinia herbicola was investigated. On mineral medium containing glycerol, l-tyrosine increased the enzyme content 23-fold. When the l-tyrosine was also the carbon source, bacterial growth was 300 times greater than the basal level. On a rich medium, tyrosine phenol-lyase production was strongly dependent on pH and aeration. Catabolite repression and induction both probably control enzyme content.

  7. In vivo synthesis of histidine by a cloned histidine ammonia-lyase in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, R L; Kane, J F

    1985-01-01

    Histidine ammonia-lyase catalyzes the first step in histidine catabolism, the deamination of histidine to urocanate and ammonia. In vitro experiments have shown that histidine ammonia-lyase also can catalyze the reverse (amination) reaction, histidine synthesis, relatively efficiently under extreme reaction conditions (4 M NH4OH, pH 10). An Escherichia coli hisB deletion strain was transformed with a pBR322 derivative plasmid (pCB101) containing the entire Klebsiella aerogenes histidine utili...

  8. The Active Site of Oligogalacturonate Lyase Provides Unique Insights into Cytoplasmic Oligogalacturonate β-Elimination*

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, D. Wade; Gilbert, Harry J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2010-01-01

    Oligogalacturonate lyases (OGLs; now also classified as pectate lyase family 22) are cytoplasmic enzymes found in pectinolytic members of Enterobacteriaceae, such as the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. OGLs utilize a β-elimination mechanism to preferentially catalyze the conversion of saturated and unsaturated digalacturonate into monogalacturonate and the 4,5-unsaturated monogalacturonate-like molecule, 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate. To provide mechanistic insights into the specificity of th...

  9. Characterization of AlgMsp, an alginate lyase from Microbulbifer sp. 6532A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Swift

    Full Text Available Alginate is a polysaccharide produced by certain seaweeds and bacteria that consists of mannuronic acid and guluronic acid residues. Seaweed alginate is used in food and industrial chemical processes, while the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate is associated with pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alginate lyases cleave this polysaccharide into short oligo-uronates and thus have the potential to be utilized for both industrial and medicinal applications. An alginate lyase gene, algMsp, from Microbulbifer sp. 6532A, was synthesized as an E.coli codon-optimized clone. The resulting 37 kDa recombinant protein, AlgMsp, was expressed, purified and characterized. The alginate lyase displayed highest activity at pH 8 and 0.2 M NaCl. Activity of the alginate lyase was greatest at 50°C; however the enzyme was not stable over time when incubated at 50°C. The alginate lyase was still highly active at 25°C and displayed little or no loss of activity after 24 hours at 25°C. The activity of AlgMsp was not dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Comparing activity of the lyase against polymannuronic acid and polyguluronic acid substrates showed a higher turnover rate for polymannuronic acid. However, AlgMSP exhibited greater catalytic efficiency with the polyguluronic acid substrate. Prolonged AlgMsp-mediated degradation of alginate produced dimer, trimer, tetramer, and pentamer oligo-uronates.

  10. Utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to produce pectin lyase from various agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Koser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the culture influence on pectin lyase production potential of fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme profile of A. oryzae showed highest activity of pectin lyase after 3rd day of incubation on lemon peel waste under solid state fermentation conditions. To induce the pectin lyase synthesis capability of A. oryzae at optimal level various culture variables including physical and nutritional parameters were optimized by adopting classical optimization technique. Therefore, through fermentation process optimization the production of pectin lyase was substantially induced up to the level of 875 U/mL, when fermentation medium of lemon peel waste inoculated with 5 mL spore suspension of A. oryzae. The optimal fermentation conditions for maximum pectin lyase yield were as: optimum pH 5, 70% moisture level and incubated at 40 °C in addition with 1% sterile glucose solution as readily available carbon source and 0.2% yeast extract as an inexpensive nitrogen supplement (1%. The results obtained in current investigation so far demonstrated that culture conditions have great influence on the pectin lyase production potential of A. oryzae.

  11. Three Alginate Lyases from Marine Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HZJ216: Purification and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liyan, Li [Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PRC; Jiang, Xiaolu [Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PRC; Wang, Peng [Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PRC; Guan, Huashi [Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PRC; Guo, Hong [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Three alginate lyases (A, B, and C) from an alginate-degrading marine bacterium strain HZJ216 isolated from brown seaweed in the Yellow Sea of China and identified preliminarily as Pseudomonas fluorescens are purified, and their biochemical properties are described. Molecular masses of the three enzymes are determined by SDS-PAGE to be 60.25, 36, and 23 kDa with isoelectric points of 4, 4.36, and 4.59, respectively. Investigations of these enzymes at different pH and temperatures show that they are most active at pH 7.0 and 35 C. Alginate lyases A and B are stable in the pH range of 5.0 9.0, while alginate lyase C is stable in the pH range of 5.0 7.0. Among the metal ions tested, additions of Na+, K+, and Mg2+ ions can enhance the enzyme activities while Fe2+, Fe3+, Ba2+, and Zn2+ ions show inhibitory effects. The substrate specificity results demonstrate that alginate lyase C has the specificity for G block while alginate lyases A and B have the activities for both M and G blocks. It is the first report about extracellular alginate lyases with high alginate-degrading activity from P. fluorescens.

  12. Reduced Lignin Content and Altered Lignin Composition in Transgenic Tobacco Down-Regulated in Expression of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase or Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewalt, VJH.; Ni, W.; Blount, J. W.; Jung, H. G.; Masoud, S. A.; Howles, P. A.; Lamb, C.; Dixon, R. A.

    1997-09-01

    We analyzed lignin content and composition in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines altered in the expression of the early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). The reduction of C4H activity by antisense expression or sense suppression resulted in reduced levels of Klason lignin, accompanied by a decreased syringyl/guaiacyl monomer ratio as determined by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Similar reduction of lignin levels by down -regulation of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, the enzyme preceding C4H in the central phenylpropanoid pathway, did not result in a decreased syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. Rather, analysis of lignin methoxyl content and pyrolysis suggested an increased syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. One possible explanation of these results is that monolignol biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine might occur by more than one route, even at the early stages of the core phenylpropanoid pathway, prior to the formation of specific monolignol precursors. PMID:12223790

  13. Bioactivation of cysteine conjugates of 1-nitropyrene oxides by cysteine conjugate beta-lyase purified from Peptostreptococcus magnus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, K; Kinouchi, T; Akimoto, S; Ohnishi, Y

    1995-01-01

    To determine the role of cysteine conjugate beta-lyase (beta-lyase) in the metabolism of mutagenic nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we determined the effect of beta-lyase on the mutagenicities and DNA binding of cysteine conjugates of 4,5-epoxy-4,5-dihydro-1-nitropyrene (1-NP 4,5-oxide) and 9,10-epoxy-9,10-dihydro-1-nitropyrene (1-NP 9,10-oxide), which are detoxified metabolites of the mutagenic compound 1-nitropyrene. We purified beta-lyase from Peptostreptococcus magnus GAI0663, since...

  14. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from Bacillus licheniformis by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm;

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  15. Optimization of Culturing Condition and Medium Composition for the Production of Alginate Lyase by a Marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened,and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25℃. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  16. Optimization of culturing condition and medium composition for the production of alginate lyase by a marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened, and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25°C. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  17. Production and Purification of a Novel Xanthan Lyase from a Xanthan-Degrading Microbacterium sp. Strain XT11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A xanthan lyase was produced and purified from the culture supernatant of an excellent xanthan-modifying strain Microbacterium sp. XT11. Xanthan lyase was induced by xanthan but was inhibited by its structural monomer glucose. Its production by strain XT11 is much higher than that by all other reported strains. The purified xanthan lyase has a molecular mass of 110 kDa and a specific activity of 28.2 U/mg that was much higher than that of both Paenibacillus and Bacillus lyases. It was specific on the pyruvated mannosyl residue in the intact xanthan molecule, but about 50% lyase activity remained when xanthan was partially depyruvated. Xanthan lyase was optimally active at pH 6.0–6.5 and 40°C and alkali-tolerant at a high pH value of 11.0. The metal ions including K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Li+ strongly stimulated xanthan lyase activity but ions Zn2+ and Cu2+ were its inhibitor. Xanthan lyase should be a novel enzyme different from the other xanthan lyases ever reported.

  18. Production and Purification of a Novel Xanthan Lyase from a Xanthan-Degrading Microbacterium sp. Strain XT11

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Yang; Lan Yang; Xiaoyu Guo; Xue Wang; Lili Li; Zhicheng Liu; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Xianzhen Li

    2014-01-01

    A xanthan lyase was produced and purified from the culture supernatant of an excellent xanthan-modifying strain Microbacterium sp. XT11. Xanthan lyase was induced by xanthan but was inhibited by its structural monomer glucose. Its production by strain XT11 is much higher than that by all other reported strains. The purified xanthan lyase has a molecular mass of 110 kDa and a specific activity of 28.2 U/mg that was much higher than that of both Paenibacillus and Bacillus lyases. It was specifi...

  19. Crystal structures of halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyases from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yu, Fujio; Ohtaki, Akashi; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Noguchi, Keiichi; Yohda, Masafumi; Odaka, Masafumi

    2015-12-01

    Halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase (H-Lyase) is a bacterial enzyme that is involved in the degradation of halohydrins. This enzyme catalyzes the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a vicinal hydroxyl group in halohydrins to produce the corresponding epoxides. The epoxide products are subsequently hydrolyzed by an epoxide hydrolase, yielding the corresponding 1, 2-diol. Until now, six different H-Lyases have been studied. These H-Lyases are grouped into three subtypes (A, B, and C) based on amino acid sequence similarities and exhibit different enantioselectivity. Corynebacterium sp. strain N-1074 has two different isozymes of H-Lyase, HheA (A-type) and HheB (B-type). We have determined their crystal structures to elucidate the differences in enantioselectivity among them. All three groups share a similar structure, including catalytic sites. The lack of enantioselectivity of HheA seems to be due to the relatively wide size of the substrate tunnel compared to that of other H-Lyases. Among the B-type H-Lyases, HheB shows relatively high enantioselectivity compared to that of HheBGP1 . This difference seems to be due to amino acid replacements at the active site tunnel. The binding mode of 1, 3-dicyano-2-propanol at the catalytic site in the crystal structure of the HheB-DiCN complex suggests that the product should be (R)-epichlorohydrin, which agrees with the enantioselectivity of HheB. Comparison with the structure of HheC provides a clue for the difference in their enantioselectivity.

  20. Cystathionine γ-lyase deficiency mediates neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bindu D; Sbodio, Juan I; Xu, Risheng; Vandiver, M Scott; Cha, Jiyoung Y; Snowman, Adele M; Snyder, Solomon H

    2014-05-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a mutation in the gene encoding huntingtin (Htt) leading to expanded polyglutamine repeats of mutant Htt (mHtt) that elicit oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and motor and behavioural changes. Huntington's disease is characterized by highly selective and profound damage to the corpus striatum, which regulates motor function. Striatal selectivity of Huntington's disease may reflect the striatally selective small G protein Rhes binding to mHtt and enhancing its neurotoxicity. Specific molecular mechanisms by which mHtt elicits neurodegeneration have been hard to determine. Here we show a major depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the biosynthetic enzyme for cysteine, in Huntington's disease tissues, which may mediate Huntington's disease pathophysiology. The defect occurs at the transcriptional level and seems to reflect influences of mHtt on specificity protein 1, a transcriptional activator for CSE. Consistent with the notion of loss of CSE as a pathogenic mechanism, supplementation with cysteine reverses abnormalities in cultures of Huntington's disease tissues and in intact mouse models of Huntington's disease, suggesting therapeutic potential.

  1. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  2. Regulation by glutathionylation of isocitrate lyase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedhomme, Mariette; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe H; Gao, Xing-Huang; Moslonka-Lefebvre, Mathieu; Michelet, Laure; Decottignies, Paulette; Lemaire, Stéphane D

    2009-12-25

    Post-translational modification of protein cysteine residues is emerging as an important regulatory and signaling mechanism. We have identified numerous putative targets of redox regulation in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. One enzyme, isocitrate lyase (ICL), was identified both as a putative thioredoxin target and as an S-thiolated protein in vivo. ICL is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle that allows growth on acetate as a sole source of carbon. The aim of the present study was to clarify the molecular mechanism of the redox regulation of Chlamydomonas ICL using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. The results clearly show that purified C. reinhardtii ICL can be inactivated by glutathionylation and reactivated by glutaredoxin, whereas thioredoxin does not appear to regulate ICL activity, and no inter- or intramolecular disulfide bond could be formed under any of the conditions tested. Glutathionylation of the protein was investigated by mass spectrometry analysis, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis. The enzyme was found to be protected from irreversible oxidative inactivation by glutathionylation of its catalytic Cys(178), whereas a second residue, Cys(247), becomes artifactually glutathionylated after prolonged incubation with GSSG. The possible functional significance of this post-translational modification of ICL in Chlamydomonas and other organisms is discussed.

  3. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  4. Novel Proton MR Spectroscopy Findings in Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Maria; Lin, Doris D.M.; Van der Graaf, Marinette; Barker, Peter B.; Fahrner, Jill A.; Marie, Sandrine; Morava, Eva; De Boer, Lonneke; Willemsen, Michel A.A.P; Vining, Eileen; Horská, Alena; Engelke, Udo; Wevers, Ron A.; Maegawa, Gustavo H.B.

    2016-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting in accumulation of metabolites including succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado) in the brain and other tissues. Patients with ADSL have progressive psychomotor retardation, neonatal seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, and autistic features, although variable clinical manifestations may make the initial diagnosis challenging. Two cases of the severe form of the disease are reported here: an 18-month-old boy with global developmental delay, intractable neonatal seizures, progressive cerebral atrophy, and marked hypomyelination, and a 3-month-old girl presenting with microcephaly, neonatal seizures, and marked psychomotor retardation. In both patients in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) showed the presence of S-Ado signal at 8.3 ppm, consistent with a prior report. Interestingly, SAICAr signal was also detectable at 7.5 ppm in affected white matter, which has not been reported in vivo before. A novel splice-site mutation, c.IVS12 + 1/G > C, in the ADSL gene was identified in the second patient. Our findings confirm the utility of in vivo proton MRS in suggesting a specific diagnosis of ADSL deficiency, and also demonstrate an additional in vivo resonance (7.5 ppm) of SAICAr in the cases of severe disease. PMID:23055421

  5. Transcriptional Regulation of Cystathionine-γ-Lyase in Endothelial Cells by NADPH Oxidase 4-Dependent Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rajesh K.; Murray, Thomas V. A.; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Martin, Daniel; Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Santos, Celio; Eaton, Philip; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2016-01-01

    The gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as an important mediator of endothelial cell homeostasis and function that impacts upon vascular tone and blood pressure. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is the predominant endothelial generator of H2S, and recent evidence suggests that its transcriptional expression is regulated by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. However, the cellular source of H2O2 and the redox-dependent molecular signaling pathway that modulates this is not known. We aimed to investigate the role of Nox4, an endothelial generator of H2O2, in the regulation of CSE in endothelial cells. Both gain- and loss-of-function experiments in human endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated Nox4 to be a positive regulator of CSE transcription and protein expression. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon a heme-regulated inhibitor kinase/eIF2α/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) signaling module. ATF4 was further demonstrated to bind directly to cis-regulatory sequences within the first intron of CSE to activate transcription. Furthermore, CSE expression was also increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice, compared with wild-type littermate controls. Using wire myography we demonstrate that endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice exhibit a hypo-contractile phenotype in response to phenylephrine that was abolished when vessels were incubated with a CSE inhibitor, propargylglycine. We, therefore, conclude that Nox4 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CSE in endothelial cells and propose that it may in turn contribute to the regulation of vascular tone via the modulation of H2S production. PMID:26620565

  6. Structural insights into the loss of catalytic competence in pectate lyase activity at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Salyha; Søndergaard, Chresten Rauff; Teixeira, Susana;

    2015-01-01

    Pectate lyase, a family 1 polysaccharide lyase, catalyses cleavage of the α-1,4 linkage of the polysaccharide homogalacturonan via an anti β-elimination reaction. In the Michaelis complex two calcium ions bind between the C6 carboxylate of the d-galacturonate residue and enzyme aspartates at the...... organise the Michaelis complex....

  7. Gene deletion strategy to examine the involvement of the two chondroitin lyases in Flavobacterium columnare virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Zhang, Xiao Lin; Huang, Bei; Liu, Zhi Xin; Xie, Hai Xia; Zhang, Jin; McBride, Mark J; Nie, Pin

    2015-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is an important bacterial pathogen of freshwater fish that causes high mortality of infected fish and heavy economic losses in aquaculture. The pathogenesis of this bacterium is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of efficient methods for genetic manipulation. In this study, a gene deletion strategy was developed and used to determine the relationship between the production of chondroitin lyases and virulence. The F. johnsoniae ompA promoter (PompA) was fused to sacB to construct a counterselectable marker for F. columnare. F. columnare carrying PompA-sacB failed to grow on media containing 10% sucrose. A suicide vector carrying PompA-sacB was constructed, and a gene deletion strategy was developed. Using this approach, the chondroitin lyase-encoding genes, cslA and cslB, were deleted. The ΔcslA and ΔcslB mutants were both partially deficient in digestion of chondroitin sulfate A, whereas a double mutant (ΔcslA ΔcslB) was completely deficient in chondroitin lyase activity. Cells of F. columnare wild-type strain G4 and of the chondroitin lyase-deficient ΔcslA ΔcslB mutant exhibited similar levels of virulence toward grass carp in single-strain infections. Coinfections, however, revealed a competitive advantage for the wild type over the chondroitin lyase mutant. The results indicate that chondroitin lyases are not essential virulence factors of F. columnare but may contribute to the ability of the pathogen to compete and cause disease in natural infections. The gene deletion method developed in this study may be employed to investigate the virulence factors of this bacterium and may have wide application in many other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes.

  8. TPR domain of NrfG mediates complex formation between heme lyase and formate-dependent nitrite reductase in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dohyun; Kim, Kyunggon; Oh, Jongkil; Park, Jungeun; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-02-15

    Escherichia coli synthesize C-type cytochromes only during anaerobic growth in media supplemented with nitrate and nitrite. The reduction of nitrate to ammonium in the periplasm of Escherichia coli involves two separate periplasmic enzymes, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. The nitrite reductase involved, NrfA, contains cytochrome C and is synthesized coordinately with a membrane-associated cytochrome C, NrfB, during growth in the presence of nitrite or in limiting nitrate concentrations. The genes NrfE, NrfF, and NrfG are required for the formate-dependent nitrite reduction pathway, which involves at least two C-type cytochrome proteins, NrfA and NrfB. The NrfE, NrfF, and NrfG genes (heme lyase complex) are involved in the maturation of a special C-type cytochrome, apocytochrome C (apoNrfA), to cytochrome C (NrfA) by transferring a heme to the unusual heme binding motif of the Cys-Trp-Ser-Cys-Lys sequence in apoNrfA protein. Thus, in order to further investigate the roles of NrfG in the formation of heme lyase complex (NrfEFG) and in the interaction between heme lyase complex and formate-dependent nitrite reductase (NrfA), we determined the crystal structure of NrfG at 2.05 A. The structure of NrfG showed that the contact between heme lyase complex (NrfEFG) and NrfA is accomplished via a TPR domain in NrfG which serves as a binding site for the C-terminal motif of NrfA. The portion of NrfA that binds to TPR domain of NrfG has a unique secondary motif, a helix followed by about a six-residue C-terminal loop (the so called "hook conformation"). This study allows us to better understand the mechanism of special C-type cytochrome assembly during the maturation of formate-dependent nitrite reductase, and also adds a new TPR binding conformation to the list of TPR-mediated protein-protein interactions.

  9. Isocitrate lyase and the glyoxylate cycle. Progress report, July 1, 1988--February 15, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, B.A.

    1989-12-31

    Studies on the structure, regulation and catalytic function of isocitrate lyase are reported. This catalyzes the first unique step i the glyoxylate cycle. In this cycle, lipids are converted to carbohydrates in a process which contributes to microbial growth on fatty aids and to the growth of oil-rich seedlings and animal embryos. These studies will provide basic information about isocitrate lyase. The function of this enzyme is vital to microbial growth (on fatty acids) and to the growth of varied plant seedlings and their subsequent utilization of solar energy.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Alginate Lyase from Marine Vibrio sp. YWA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Hong WANG; Guang-Li YU; Xin-Min WANG; Zhi-Hua LV; Xia ZHAO; Zhi-Hong WU; Wei-Shang JI

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular alginate lyase secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YWA, isolated from decayed Laminaria japonica, was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl that the molecular mass of alginate lyase was approximately 62.5 kDa, with an optimal pH and temperature at pH 7.0 and 25 ℃C, respectively. Km was e enzyme was enhanced by EDTA and Zn2+, but inhibited by Ba2+.The substrates specificity analysis shows that it was specific for hydrolyzing poly-β-D-1,4-mannuronate in alginate

  11. Xanthan Lyase of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1 Liberates Pyruvylated Mannose from Xanthan Side Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

    1998-01-01

    When the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 was grown in a medium containing xanthan as the carbon source, the viscosity of the medium decreased in association with growth, showing that the bacterium had xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes. One of the xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes (xanthan lyase) was present in the medium and was found to be induced by xanthan. The xanthan lyase purified from the culture fluid was a monomer with a molecular mass of 75 kDa, and was most active at pH 5.5 and 50°C. T...

  12. Correlative light and scanning electron microscopy of the same sections gives new insights into the effects of pectin lyase on bordered pit membranes in Pinus radiata wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mark; Vaidya, Alankar; Singh, Adya P

    2012-08-01

    Bordered pits are structures in the cell walls of softwood tracheids which permit the movement of water between adjacent cells. These structures contain a central pit membrane composed of an outer porous ring (margo) and an inner dense and pectin-rich disc (torus). The membrane is overarched on each side by pit borders. Pits may be aspirated, a condition where the torus seals against the pit border, effectively blocking the pathway between cells. In living trees this maintains overall continuity of water conduction in xylem by sealing off tracheids containing air. Drying of timber results in further pit aspiration, which reduces wood permeability to liquid treatment agents such as antifungal chemicals. One possible way to increase permeability is by treating wood with pectin lyase to modify or remove the torus. The effectiveness of this treatment was initially evaluated using light microscopy (LM) of toluidine blue stained wood. Pectic material is coloured pink-magenta with this stain, and loss of this colour after treatment has been interpreted as indicating destruction of the torus. However, correlative light (LM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopic observations of identical areas of toluidine blue stained sections revealed that many unstained pits had intact but modified tori when viewed with SEM. These observations indicate that LM alone is not sufficient to evaluate the effects of pectin lyase on pit membranes in wood. Combining LM and SEM gives more complete information. PMID:22464884

  13. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  14. Purification and characterization of alginate lyase from locally isolated marine Pseudomonas stutzeri MSEA04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltagy, Ehab A; El-Borai, Aliaa; Lewiz, Marina; ElAssar, Samy A

    2016-09-01

    An alginate lyase with high specific enzyme activity was purified from Pseudomonas stutzeri MSEA04, isolated from marine brown algae. The alginate lyase was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, acetone and ethanol individually. 70% ethanol fraction showed maximum specific activity (133.3 U/mg). This fraction was re-purified by anion exchange chromatography DEAE- Cellulose A-52. The loaded protein was separated into 3 peaks. The second protein peak was the major one which contained 48.2% of the total protein recovered and 79.4% of the total recovered activity. The collected fractions of this peak were subjected to further purification by re-chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Alginate lyase activity was fractionated in the Sephadex column into one major peak, and the specific activity of this fraction reached 116 U/mg. The optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature for alginate lyase activity were 8 mg/ml, pH 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. While, Km and Vmax values were 1.07 mg alginate/ ml and 128.2 U/mg protein, respectively. The enzyme was partially stable below 50 °C, and the activity of the enzyme was strongly enhanced by K(+), and strongly inhibited by Ba(+2), Cd(+2), Fe(+2) and Zn(+2). The purified enzyme yielded a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular weight (40.0 kDa). PMID:27630053

  15. Activity and Enantioselectivity of the Hydroxynitrile Lyase MeHNL in Dry Organic Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanefeld, U.; Paravidino, M.; Sorgedrager, M.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2010-01-01

    Water concentration affects both the enantioselectivity and activity of enzymes in dry organic media. Its influence has been investigated using the hydrocyanation of benzaldehyde catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase cross-linked enzyme aggregate (MeHNL-CLEA) as a model reaction. The enzyme displayed hi

  16. Alteration of the Diastereoselectivity of 3-Methylaspartate Ammonia Lyase by Using Structure-Based Mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, Hans; Weiner, Barbara; Puthan Veetil, Vinod; Reis, Carlos R.; Quax, Wim J.; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.

    2009-01-01

    3-Methylaspartate ammonia-lyase (MAL) catalyzes the reversible amination of mesaconate to give both (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartic acid and (2S,3R)-3-methylaspartic acid as products. The deamination mechanism of MAL is likely to involve general base catalysis, in which a catalytic base abstracts the C3 pr

  17. Biocatalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of N-Substituted Aspartic Acids by Aspartate Ammonia Lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Barbara; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    The gene encoding aspartate ammonia lyase (aspB) from Bacillus sp. YM55-1 has been cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant enzyme containing a C-terminal His6 tag has been purified to homogeneity and subjected to kinetic characterization. Kinetic studies have shown that the His6 tag does not a

  18. Structural Insights into Substrate Specificity and the anti beta-Elimination Mechanism of Pectate Lyase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedarabi, A.; To, T.T.; Ali, S.;

    2010-01-01

    Pectate lyases harness anti beta-elimination chemistry to cleave the alpha-1,4 linkage in the homogalacturonan region of plant cell Wall pectin. We have studied the binding of five pectic oligosaccharides to Bacillus subtilis pectate Iyase in crystals of the inactive enzyme in which the catalytic...

  19. Cloning and characterization of a novel oligoalginate lyase from a newly isolated bacterium Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan Hee; Kam, Natania; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Hee Sook

    2012-04-01

    A bacterium possessing alginate-degrading activity was isolated from marine brown seaweed soup liquefied by salted and fermented anchovy. The isolated strain was designated as Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3 based on the analyses of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequences, biochemical characteristics, and cellular fatty acid composition. A novel alginate lyase gene was cloned from genomic DNA library and then expressed in Escherichia coli. When the deduced amino acid sequence was compared with the sequences on the databases, interestingly, the cloned gene product was predicted to consist of AlgL (alginate lyase L)-like and heparinase-like protein domain. The MJ-3 alginate lyase gene shared below 27.0% sequence identity with exolytic alginate lyase of Sphingomonas sp. A1. The optimal pH and temperature for the recombinant MJ-3 alginate lyase were 6.5 and 50°C, respectively. The final degradation products of alginate oligosaccharides were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and proved to be alginate monosaccharides. Based on the results, the recombinant alginate lyase from Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3 is regarded as an oligoalginate lyase that can degrade oligoalginate and alginate into alginate monosaccharides.

  20. Pectate lyase pollen allergens: sensitization profiles and cross-reactivity pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Pichler

    Full Text Available Pollen released by allergenic members of the botanically unrelated families of Asteraceae and Cupressaceae represent potent elicitors of respiratory allergies in regions where these plants are present. As main allergen sources the Asteraceae species ragweed and mugwort, as well as the Cupressaceae species, cypress, mountain cedar, and Japanese cedar have been identified. The major allergens of all species belong to the pectate lyase enzyme family. Thus, we thought to investigate cross-reactivity pattern as well as sensitization capacities of pectate lyase pollen allergens in cohorts from distinct geographic regions.The clinically relevant pectate lyase pollen allergens Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1, Jun a 1, and Cry j 1 were purified from aqueous pollen extracts, and patients' sensitization pattern of cohorts from Austria, Canada, Italy, and Japan were determined by IgE ELISA and cross-inhibition experiments. Moreover, we performed microarray experiments and established a mouse model of sensitization.In ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments specific sensitization pattern were discovered for each geographic region, which reflected the natural allergen exposure of the patients. We found significant cross-reactivity within Asteraceae and Cupressaceae pectate lyase pollen allergens, which was however limited between the orders. Animal experiments showed that immunization with Asteraceae allergens mainly induced antibodies reactive within the order, the same was observed for the Cupressaceae allergens. Cross-reactivity between orders was minimal. Moreover, Amb a 1, Art v 6, and Cry j 1 showed in general higher immunogenicity.We could cluster pectate lyase allergens in four categories, Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1/Jun a 1, and Cry j 1, respectively, at which each category has the potential to sensitize predisposed individuals. The sensitization pattern of different cohorts correlated with pollen exposure, which should be considered for future allergy

  1. A critical life-supporting role for cystathionine γ-lyase in the absence of dietary cysteine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sarathi; Yang, Guangdong; Wang, Rui

    2011-05-15

    This study examined the important relationship between cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) functionality and cysteine supply for normal growth and life span. Mice with a targeted deletion of the CSE gene (CSE-KO) were fed a cysteine-limited diet and their growth and survival patterns as well as levels of cysteine, homocysteine, glutathione, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured. CSE-KO mice fed a cysteine-limited diet exhibited growth retardation; decreased levels of cysteine, glutathione, and H2S; and increased plasma homocysteine level. However, histological examinations of liver did not reveal any abnormality and plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and albumin were normal in these animals. No CSE-KO mice survived after 12 weeks of feeding with the cysteine-limited diet. Supplementation of H2S to the CSE-KO mice failed to reverse the aforementioned abnormalities. On the other hand, supplementation of cysteine in the drinking water of the CSE-KO mice significantly increased plasma cysteine and glutathione levels. This eventually led to an increase in body weight and rescued the animals from death. In conclusion, CSE is critical for cysteine biosynthesis through the transsulfuration pathway and the combination of CSE deficiency and lack of dietary cysteine supply would threaten life sustainability.

  2. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL, implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  3. A role for glutamate-333 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cystathionine γ-lyase as a determinant of specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Emily M S; Ahmed, Duale; Aitken, Susan M

    2014-02-01

    Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-cystathionine (l-Cth), producing l-cysteine (l-Cys), α-ketobutyrate and ammonia, in the second step of the reverse transsulfuration pathway, which converts l-homocysteine (l-Hcys) to l-Cys. Site-directed variants substituting residues E48 and E333 with alanine, aspartate and glutamine were characterized to probe the roles of these acidic residues, conserved in fungal and mammalian CGL sequences, in the active-site of CGL from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yCGL). The pH optimum of variants containing the alanine or glutamine substitutions of E333 is increased by 0.4-1.2 pH units, likely due to repositioning of the cofactor and modification of the pKa of the pyridinium nitrogen. The pH profile of yCGL-E48A/E333A resembles that of Escherichia coli cystathionine β-lyase. The effect of substituting E48, E333 or both residues is the 1.3-3, 26-58 and 124-568-fold reduction, respectively, of the catalytic efficiency of l-Cth hydrolysis. The Km(l-Cth) of E333 substitution variants is increased ~17-fold, while Km(l-OAS) is within 2.5-fold of the wild-type enzyme, indicating that residue E333 interacts with the distal amine moiety of l-Cth, which is not present in the alternative substrate O-acetyl-l-serine. The catalytic efficiency of yCGL for α,γ-elimination of O-succinyl-l-homoserine (kcat/Km(l-OSHS)=7±2), which possesses a distal carboxylate, but lacks an amino group, is 300-fold lower than that of the physiological l-Cth substrate (kcat/Km(l-Cth)=2100±100) and 260-fold higher than that of l-Hcys (kcat/Km(l-Hcys)=0.027±0.005), which lacks both distal polar moieties. The results of this study suggest that the glutamate residue at position 333 is a determinant of specificity.

  4. Cysteine Conjugate β-Lyase Activity of Rat Erythrocytes and Formation of β-Lyase-Derived Globin Monoadducts and Cross-Links after in Vitro Exposure of Erythrocytes to S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Barshteyn, Nella; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-01-01

    S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), a mutagenic and nephrotoxic metabolite of trichloroethylene can be bioactivated to reactive metabolites, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS) or chlorothioketene and/or 2-chlorothionoacetyl chloride, by cysteine conjugate S-oxidase (S-oxidase) and cysteine conjugate β-lyase (β-lyase), respectively. Previously, we characterized reactivity of DCVCS with Hb upon incubation of erythrocytes with DCVCS and provided evidence for formation of dis...

  5. Site-directed mutagenesis of lysine 193 in Escherichia coli isocitrate lyase by use of unique restriction enzyme site elimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, P; McFadden, B A

    1993-01-01

    By a newly developed double-stranded mutagenesis technique, histidine (H), glutamate (E), arginine (R) and leucine (L) have been substituted for the lysyl 193 residue (K-193) in isocitrate lyase from Escherichia coli. The substitutions for this residue, which is present in a highly conserved, cationic region, significantly affect both the Km for Ds-isocitrate and the apparent kcat of isocitrate lyase. Specifically, the conservative substitutions, K-193-->H (K193H) and K193R, reduce catalytic ...

  6. Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase in cotton seedlings by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiuju; SHI Xueyan; LIANG Pei; GAO Xiwu

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that infestation of plants causes increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes in the phenolic compounds synthesis pathway and the octadecanoid pathway, respectively. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the infestation of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii ) and mechanical wound can cause the induction of PAL and LOX activities in cotton seedlings, and whether the induction occurs in healthy seedlings growing nearby the attacked ones. The specific activities of PAL and LOX were measured using spectrophotometric method after aphid infestation and mechanical wounding. Result indicated that PAL activity and LOX activity were greatly induced by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation in cotton seedlings. The induction of PAL and LOX occurred not only in wounded and infested seedlings but also in intact healthy seedlings growing nearby. After exposed to the aphid infestation-induced volatiles, the specific activity of PAL in cotton seedlings increased by 6 % at 24 h, 80 % at 48 h, 235 % at 72 h compared to the control, and the specific activity of LOX increased by 18 % at 24 h, 34 % at 48 h,24 % at 72 h, respectively. In comparison, the specific activity of PAL in unwounded seedlings exposed to wound-induced volatiles increased by 0.0 at 24 h, 200% at 48 h, 164% at 72 h, respectively and the specific activity of LOX increased by 28% at 24 h, 37% at 48 h, 8 % at 72 h, respectively. It suggests that the induced volatiles are involved in plant-plant communication as airborne transferred signals.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of argininosuccinate lyase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of argininosuccinate lyase from S. mutans were obtained and X-ray data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution in space group R3. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is an important enzyme in arginine synthesis and the urea cycle, which are highly conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. The gene encoding Streptococcus mutans ASL (smASL) was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. The recombinant smASL protein was expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) and purified to homogeneity by two-step column chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 254.5, c = 78.3 Å

  8. The Structure of L-Tyrosine 2,3-Aminomutase frmo the C-1027 Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic Biosynthetic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson,C.; Montavon, T.; Van Lanen, S.; Shen, B.; Bruner, S.

    2007-01-01

    The SgcC4 L-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase (SgTAM) catalyzes the formation of (S)-{beta}-tyrosine in the biosynthetic pathway of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. SgTAM is homologous to the histidine ammonia lyase family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) cofactor. Unlike the lyase enzymes, SgTAM catalyzes additional chemical transformations resulting in an overall stereospecific 1,2-amino shift in the substrate L-tyrosine to generate (S)-{beta}-tyrosine. Previously, we provided kinetic, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data supporting the presence of MIO in the active site of SgTAM [Christenson, S. D.; Wu, W.; Spies, A.; Shen, B.; and Toney, M. D. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 12708-12718]. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of an MIO-containing aminomutase, SgTAM, and confirm the structural homology of SgTAM to ammonia lyases. Comparison of the structure of SgTAM to the L-tyrosine ammonia lyase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides insight into the structural basis for aminomutase activity. The results show that SgTAM has a closed active site well suited to retain ammonia and minimize the formation of lyase elimination products. The amino acid determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis can be predicted from the structure, setting the framework for detailed mechanistic investigations.

  9. The structure of L-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase from the C-1027 enediyne antitumor antibiotic biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Carl V; Montavon, Timothy J; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben; Bruner, Steven D

    2007-06-19

    The SgcC4 l-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase (SgTAM) catalyzes the formation of (S)-beta-tyrosine in the biosynthetic pathway of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. SgTAM is homologous to the histidine ammonia lyase family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) cofactor. Unlike the lyase enzymes, SgTAM catalyzes additional chemical transformations resulting in an overall stereospecific 1,2-amino shift in the substrate l-tyrosine to generate (S)-beta-tyrosine. Previously, we provided kinetic, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data supporting the presence of MIO in the active site of SgTAM [Christenson, S. D.; Wu, W.; Spies, A.; Shen, B.; and Toney, M. D. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 12708-12718]. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of an MIO-containing aminomutase, SgTAM, and confirm the structural homology of SgTAM to ammonia lyases. Comparison of the structure of SgTAM to the l-tyrosine ammonia lyase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides insight into the structural basis for aminomutase activity. The results show that SgTAM has a closed active site well suited to retain ammonia and minimize the formation of lyase elimination products. The amino acid determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis can be predicted from the structure, setting the framework for detailed mechanistic investigations. PMID:17516659

  10. Enzymatic description of the anhydrofructose pathway of glycogen degradation. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Shukun; Refdahl, Charlotte; Lundt, Inge

    2004-01-01

    algae in our laboratory earlier. In the present study, two 1,5AnFru metabolizing enzymes were discovered in the fungus Anthracobia melaloma for the formation of ascopyrone P (APP), a fungal secondary metabolite exhibiting antibacterial and antioxidant activity. These are 1,5AnFru dehydratase (AFDH...... possessed all enzymes needed for conversion of glycogen to APP, an a-1,4-glucan lyase from this fungus was isolated and partially sequenced. Based on this work, a scheme of the enzymatic description of the anhydrofructose pathway in A. melaloma was proposed. Keywords: Anhydrofructose pathway; Anthracobia...

  11. Protein evolution analysis of S-hydroxynitrile lyase by complete sequence design utilizing the INTMSAlign software

    OpenAIRE

    Shogo Nakano; Yasuhisa Asano

    2015-01-01

    Development of software and methods for design of complete sequences of functional proteins could contribute to studies of protein engineering and protein evolution. To this end, we developed the INTMSAlign software, and used it to design functional proteins and evaluate their usefulness. The software could assign both consensus and correlation residues of target proteins. We generated three protein sequences with S-selective hydroxynitrile lyase (S-HNL) activity, which we call designed S-HNL...

  12. Purification and characterization of an extracellular pectate lyase from an Amycolata sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Brühlmann, F

    1995-01-01

    The extracellular pectate lyase (EC 4.2.2.2) of a nonsporulating Amycolata sp. was purified to homogeneity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The enzyme cleaved polygalacturonate but not highly esterified pectin in a random endolytic transeliminative mechanism that led to the formation of a wide range of 4,5-unsaturated oligogalacturonates. As shown by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detecti...

  13. Isocitrate Lyase Activity Is Required for Virulence of the Intracellular Pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Daniel M.; Duffy, Pamela S.; DuPont, Chris; Prescott, John F.; Meijer, Wim G.

    2005-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals, causing severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia. Virulent R. equi strains grow within macrophages, a process which remains poorly characterized. A potential source of carbon for intramacrophage R. equi is membrane lipid-derived fatty acids, which following β oxidation are assimilated via the glyoxylate bypass. To assess the importance of isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate bypass, in virulence of a foal isolate of R. equi, a mutan...

  14. Essential histidine pairs indicate conserved haem binding in epsilonproteobacterial cytochrome c haem lyases

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Melanie; Scheithauer, Juliane; Kranz, Robert G.; Simon, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial cytochrome c maturation occurs at the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane, requires transport of haem b across the membrane, and depends on membrane-bound cytochrome c haem lyase (CCHL), an enzyme that catalyses covalent attachment of haem b to apocytochrome c. Epsilonproteobacteria such as Wolinella succinogenes use the cytochrome c biogenesis system II and contain unusually large CCHL proteins of about 900 amino acid residues that appear to be fusions of the CcsB and CcsA proteins...

  15. Mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase studied via thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates and kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumit; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; McLeish, Michael J; Kenyon, George L; Jordan, Frank

    2008-03-25

    Direct spectroscopic observation of thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates was achieved on the enzyme benzaldehyde lyase, which carries out reversible and highly enantiospecific conversion of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde. The key enamine intermediate could be observed at lambda max 393 nm in the benzoin breakdown direction and in the decarboxylase reaction starting with benzoylformate. With benzaldehyde as substrate, no intermediates could be detected, only formation of benzoin at 314 nm. To probe the rate-limiting step in the direction of ( R)-benzoin synthesis, the (1)H/ (2)H kinetic isotope effect was determined for benzaldehyde labeled at the aldehyde position and found to be small (1.14 +/- 0.03), indicating that ionization of the C2alphaH from C2alpha-hydroxybenzylthiamin diphosphate is not rate limiting. Use of the alternate substrates benzoylformic and phenylpyruvic acids (motivated by the observation that while a carboligase, benzaldehyde lyase could also catalyze the slow decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids) enabled the observation of the substrate-thiamin covalent intermediate via the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomer, characteristic of all intermediates with a tetrahedral C2 substituent on ThDP. The reaction of benzaldehyde lyase with the chromophoric substrate analogue ( E)-2-oxo-4(pyridin-3-yl)-3-butenoic acid and its decarboxylated product ( E)-3-(pyridine-3-yl)acrylaldehyde enabled the detection of covalent adducts with both. Neither adduct underwent further reaction. An important finding of the studies is that all thiamin-related intermediates are in a chiral environment on benzaldehyde lyase as reflected by their circular dichroism signatures.

  16. Stress-dependent regulation of 13-lipoxygenases and 13-hydroperoxide lyase in olive fruit mesocarp

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, María Nieves; Hernández, M. Luisa; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different environmental stresses on the expression and enzyme activity levels of 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOX) and 13-hydroperoxide lyase (13-HPL) and on the volatile compounds synthesized by their sequential action has been studied in the mesocarp tissue of olive fruit from the Picual and Arbequina cultivars. The results showed that temperature, light, wounding and water regime regulate olive 13-LOXs and 13-HPL genes at transcriptional level. Low temperature and wounding brought ab...

  17. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use phosphonate compounds, which require specialized enzymatic machinery to break the stable carbon......-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that probably couple phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C–P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy, and show that it binds...

  18. Effect of cysteine on the inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase by D,L-propargylglycine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awata,Shiro

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase by D,L-propargylglycine, a suicide inhibitor, was found to be less profound in rat kidney than in the liver. We investigated the cause of this difference using rat tissues. We fractionated kidney extract to characterize the substance which protected enzyme, and found that cysteine exhibits protecting action. Addition of 0.3 mM L-cysteine to the incubation mixture containing dialyzed kidney supernatant and 0.5 mM D,L-propargylglycine resulted in the protection of cystathionine gamma-lyase from the inactivation by the inhibitor. The content of cysteine in the kidney was six-fold higher than that in the liver. Thus, we have concluded that one of the reasons why the in vivo inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase in rat kidney was less than that in the liver is the presence of a higher concentration of cysteine in the kidney. S-Carboxymethylcysteine, a cysteine derivative, exhibited a similar, but weaker, protective effect.

  19. Improvement of aromatic thiol release through the selection of yeasts with increased β-lyase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio

    2016-05-16

    The development of a selective medium for the rapid differentiation of yeast species with increased aromatic thiol release activity has been achieved. The selective medium was based on the addition of S-methyl-l-cysteine (SMC) as β-lyase substrate. In this study, a panel of 245 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was tested for their ability to grow on YCB-SMC medium. Yeast strains with an increased β-lyase activity grew rapidly because of their ability to release ammonium from SMC in comparison to others, and allowed for the easy isolation and differentiation of yeasts with promising properties in oenology, or another field, for aromatic thiol release. The selective medium was also helpful for the discrimination between those S. cerevisiae strains, which present a common 38-bp deletion in the IRC7 sequence (present in around 88% of the wild strains tested and are likely to be less functional for 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) production), and those S. cerevisiae strains homozygous for the full-length IRC7 allele. The medium was also helpful for the selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with increased β-lyase activity. Based on the same medium, a highly sensitive, reproducible and non-expensive GC-MS method for the evaluation of the potential volatile thiol release by different yeast isolates was developed.

  20. Expression and properties of the glyoxysomal and cytosolic forms of isocitrate lyase in Amaranthus caudatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, Alexander T; Fedorin, Dmitry N; Salnikov, Alexei V; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2015-06-01

    Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) catalyzes the reversible conversion of d-isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. It is usually associated with the glyoxylate cycle in glyoxysomes, although the non-glyoxysomal form has been reported and its relation to interconversion of organic acids outside the glyoxylate cycle suggested. We investigated the expression of two isocitrate lyase genes and activities of the glyoxysomal (ICL1) and cytosolic (ICL2) forms of isocitrate lyase in amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) seedlings. Both forms were separated and purified. The cytosolic form had a low optimum pH (6.5) and was activated by Mn(2+) ions, while Mg(2+) was ineffective, and had a lower affinity to d, l-isocitrate (Km 63 μM) as compared to the glyoxysomal form (optimum pH 7.5, K(m) 45 μM), which was activated by Mg(2+). The highest ICL1 activity was observed on the 3rd day of germination; then the activity and expression of the corresponding gene decreased, while the activity of ICL2 and gene expression increased to the 7th day of germination and then remained at the same level. It is concluded that the function of ICL1 is related to the glyoxylate cycle while ICL2 functions independently from the glyoxylate cycle and interconverts organic acids in the cytosol. PMID:25955696

  1. Production of Diamino propionic acid ammonia lyase by a new strain of Salmonella typhimurium PU011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar Vasanth V

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeds of the legume plant Lathyrus sativus, which is grown in arid and semi arid tropical regions, contain Diamino Propionic acid (DAP. DAP is a neurotoxin, which, when consumed, causes a disease called Lathyrism. Lathryrism may manifest as Neurolathyrism or Osteolathyrism, in which the nervous system, and bone formation respectively, are affected. DAP ammonia lyase is produced by a few microorganisms such as Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas, and is capable of detoxifying DAP. Results S. typhimurium PU011, a non-virulent bacterial strain isolated in our lab, was found to produce DAP ammonia lyase enzyme when grown in minimal medium containing DAP. There was a direct correlation between biomass yield and enzyme activity, until 16 h post inoculation in minimal medium containing DAP. Following ammonium sulphate precipitation and passing through Sephadex G100, CM-Sephadex and DEAE-Sephacel for crude enzyme extract preparation, about 68-fold enzyme purity was obtained. The purified enzyme gave maximum activity at pH 8.0 and was stable up to 45 degrees C. The Km value for the substrate was found to be 0.685mM, calculated from a Line Weaver Burk plot. Conclusion A new bacterial strain, S.typhimurium PU 011, which is capable of producing DAP ammonia lyase, was isolated.

  2. Hydroxynitrile lyase at the diisopropyl ether/water interface: Evidence for interfacial enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hichel, A.; Radke, C.J.; Blanch, H.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-11-20

    A novel recycle reactor has been designed to determine the interfacial activity of hydroxynitrile lyase in a diisopropyl ether (DIPE)/water two-phase system. The reactor provides a known interfacial area. Enzyme activity toward mandelonitrile cleavage is continuously measured in the reactor by following benzaldehyde product formation in the DIPE organic phase with an optical flow cell. For the first time, the authors establish that this enzymatic reaction is carried out by the hydroxynitrile lyase residing at the organic solvent/water interface and not in the aqueous bulk phase. Hydroxynitrile lyase adsorbs at the interface and exhibits extraordinary stability. Denaturation does not occur over several hours, although the surface pressure increases under the same conditions over this time span. Increases in surface pressure indicate enzyme penetration through the interface although no loss of enzyme activity is observed. Adsorption of p-Hnl at the interface is fit by the Langmuir equilibrium adsorption model with an adsorption equilibrium constant of 0.032 L mg{sup {minus}1}. For the mandelonitrile cleavage reaction at ambient temperature, p-Hnl follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics at the interface with a Michaelis constant of 14.4 mM and a specific activity close that for the bulk aqueous phase.

  3. Identification of Bacterial Cell Wall Lyases via Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hua; Li, Wen-Chao; Wu, Hao; Ding, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the abuse of antibiotics, drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria becomes more and more serious. Therefore, it is interesting to develop a more reasonable way to solve this issue. Because they can destroy the bacterial cell structure and then kill the infectious bacterium, the bacterial cell wall lyases are suitable candidates of antibacteria sources. Thus, it is urgent to develop an accurate and efficient computational method to predict the lyases. Based on the consideration, in this paper, a set of objective and rigorous data was collected by searching through the Universal Protein Resource (the UniProt database), whereafter a feature selection technique based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to acquire optimal feature subset. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform prediction. The jackknife cross-validated results showed that the optimal average accuracy of 84.82% was achieved with the sensitivity of 76.47% and the specificity of 93.16%. For the convenience of other scholars, we built a free online server called Lypred. We believe that Lypred will become a practical tool for the research of cell wall lyases and development of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27437396

  4. Phosphoserine Lyase Deoxyribozymes: DNA-Catalyzed Formation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Jagadeeswaran; Wylder, Adam C; Silverman, Scott K

    2015-08-01

    Dehydroalanine (Dha) is a nonproteinogenic electrophilic amino acid that is a synthetic intermediate or product in the biosynthesis of several bioactive cyclic peptides such as lantibiotics, thiopeptides, and microcystins. Dha also enables labeling of proteins and synthesis of post-translationally modified proteins and their analogues. However, current chemical approaches to introducing Dha into peptides have substantial limitations. Using in vitro selection, here we show that DNA can catalyze Zn(2+) or Zn(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent formation of Dha from phosphoserine (pSer), i.e., exhibit pSer lyase activity, a fundamentally new DNA-catalyzed reaction. Two new pSer lyase deoxyribozymes, named Dha-forming deoxyribozymes 1 and 2 (DhaDz1 and DhaDz2), each function with multiple turnover on the model hexapeptide substrate that was used during selection. Using DhaDz1, we generated Dha from pSer within an unrelated linear 13-mer peptide. Subsequent base-promoted intramolecular cyclization of homocysteine into Dha formed a stable cystathionine (thioether) analogue of the complement inhibitor compstatin. These findings establish the fundamental catalytic ability of DNA to eliminate phosphate from pSer to form Dha and suggest that with further development, pSer lyase deoxyribozymes will have broad practical utility for site-specific enzymatic synthesis of Dha from pSer in peptide substrates.

  5. Identification of Bacterial Cell Wall Lyases via Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Tang, Hua; Li, Wen-Chao; Wu, Hao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the abuse of antibiotics, drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria becomes more and more serious. Therefore, it is interesting to develop a more reasonable way to solve this issue. Because they can destroy the bacterial cell structure and then kill the infectious bacterium, the bacterial cell wall lyases are suitable candidates of antibacteria sources. Thus, it is urgent to develop an accurate and efficient computational method to predict the lyases. Based on the consideration, in this paper, a set of objective and rigorous data was collected by searching through the Universal Protein Resource (the UniProt database), whereafter a feature selection technique based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to acquire optimal feature subset. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform prediction. The jackknife cross-validated results showed that the optimal average accuracy of 84.82% was achieved with the sensitivity of 76.47% and the specificity of 93.16%. For the convenience of other scholars, we built a free online server called Lypred. We believe that Lypred will become a practical tool for the research of cell wall lyases and development of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27437396

  6. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of XometC, a cystathionine γ-lyase-like protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Phuong-Thuy Ho; Kim, Jin-Kwang [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyesoon [Major in Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sangmyung University, 7 Hongji-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-743 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Junho [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yeh-Jin [Major in Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sangmyung University, 7 Hongji-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong-Gu; Lee, Byoung-Moo [Microbial Genetics Division, National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology (NIAB), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee-Wan, E-mail: kanghw2@hknu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Biotechnology and Information, Hankyong National University, Ansung 456-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Lin-Woo, E-mail: kanghw2@hknu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-01

    XometC, a cystathionine γ-lyase-like protein from X. oryzae pv. oryzae and an antibacterial drug-target protein against bacterial blight, was cloned, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of XometC crystals was carried out. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), one of the most devastating diseases of rice in most rice-growing countries. XometC, a cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) like protein that is an antibacterial drug-target protein against Xoo, was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. CGL catalyzes the second step in the reverse-transsulfuration pathway, which is essential for the metabolic interconversion of the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Crystals of two different shapes, plate-shaped and pyramid-shaped, diffracted to 2.9 and 3.2 Å resolution and belonged to the primitive orthogonal space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = 73.0, b = 144.9, c = 152.3 Å and a = b = 78.2, c = 300.7 Å, respectively. For the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} crystals, three or four monomers exist in the asymmetric unit with a corresponding V{sub M} of 3.02 or 2.26 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 59.3 or 45.7%. For the P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}) crystals, four or five monomers exist in the asymmetric unit with a corresponding V{sub M} of 2.59 or 2.09 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 52.5 or 40.6%.

  7. A Catalase-related Hemoprotein in Coral Is Specialized for Synthesis of Short-chain Aldehydes: DISCOVERY OF P450-TYPE HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE ACTIVITY IN A CATALASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tarvi; Lõhelaid, Helike; Boeglin, William E; Calcutt, Wade M; Brash, Alan R; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-08-01

    In corals a catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein transforms arachidonic acid to the allene oxide 8R,9-epoxy-5,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid from which arise cyclopentenones such as the prostanoid-related clavulones. Recently we cloned two catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein genes (a and b) from the coral Capnella imbricata, form a being an allene oxide synthase and form b giving uncharacterized polar products (Lõhelaid, H., Teder, T., Tõldsepp, K., Ekins, M., and Samel, N. (2014) PloS ONE 9, e89215). Here, using HPLC-UV, LC-MS, and NMR methods, we identify a novel activity of fusion protein b, establishing its role in cleaving the lipoxygenase product 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid into the short-chain aldehydes (5Z)-8-oxo-octenoic acid and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienal; these primary products readily isomerize in an aqueous medium to the corresponding 6E- and 2E,6Z derivatives. This type of enzymatic cleavage, splitting the carbon chain within the conjugated diene of the hydroperoxide substrate, is known only in plant cytochrome P450 hydroperoxide lyases. In mechanistic studies using (18)O-labeled substrate and incubations in H2(18)O, we established synthesis of the C8-oxo acid and C12 aldehyde with the retention of the hydroperoxy oxygens, consistent with synthesis of a short-lived hemiacetal intermediate that breaks down spontaneously into the two aldehydes. Taken together with our initial studies indicating differing gene regulation of the allene oxide synthase and the newly identified catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase and given the role of aldehydes in plant defense, this work uncovers a potential pathway in coral stress signaling and a novel enzymatic activity in the animal kingdom.

  8. Characterization of the pelL gene encoding a novel pectate lyase of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojkowska, E; Masclaux, C; Boccara, M; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1995-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pelA, pelB, pelC, pelD and pelE genes. Recently, a new set of pectate lyases was identified in E. chrysanthemi mutants deleted of those pel genes. We cloned the pelL gene, encoding one of these secondary pectate lyases of E. chrysanthemi 3937, from a genomic bank of a strain deleted of the five major pel genes. The nucleotide sequence of the region containing the pelL gene was determined. The pelL reading frame is 1275 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 425 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 25 amino acids. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of PelL and the exo-pectate lyase PelX of E. chrysanthemi EC16 revealed a low homology, limited to 220 residues of the central part of the proteins. No homology was detected with other bacterial pectinolytic enzymes. Regulation of pelL transcription was analysed using gene fusion. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelL is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, temperature, iron starvation, osmolarity, anaerobiosis, nitrogen starvation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelL expression appeared to be independent of the KdgR repressor, which controls all the steps of pectin catabolism. In contrast, the pecS gene, which is involved in regulation of the synthesis of the major pectate lyases and of cellulase, also appeared to be involved in pelL expression. The PelL protein is able to macerate plant tissue. This enzyme has a basic isoelectric point, presents an endo-cleaving activity on polygalacturonate or partially methylated pectin, with a basic pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+. The pelL mutant displayed a reduced virulence on potato tubers and Saintpaulia ionantha plants, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft-rot disease. PMID:8577252

  9. Characterization of the exopolygalacturonate lyase PelX of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Kester, H C; Benen, J A; Visser, J; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1999-03-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes several pectinolytic enzymes, among which eight isoenzymes of pectate lyases with an endo-cleaving mode (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelI, PelL, and PelZ) have been identified. Two exo-cleaving enzymes, the exopolygalacturonate lyase, PelX, and an exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase, PehX, have been previously identified in other E. chrysanthemi strains. Using a genomic bank of a 3937 mutant with the major pel genes deleted, we cloned a pectinase gene identified as pelX, encoding the exopolygalacturonate lyase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 3937 PelX is very similar to the PelX of another E. chrysanthemi strain, EC16, except in the 43 C-terminal amino acids. PelX also has homology to the endo-pectate lyase PelL of E. chrysanthemi but has a N-terminal extension of 324 residues. The transcription of pelX, analyzed by gene fusions, is dependent on several environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelX expression is dependent on the KdgR repressor, which controls almost all the steps of pectin catabolism, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. In contrast, PecS and PecT, two repressors of the transcription of most pectate lyase genes, are not involved in pelX expression. The pelX mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants did not appear to be affected. The purified PelX protein has no maceration activity on plant tissues. Tetragalacturonate is the best substrate of PelX, but PelX also has good activity on longer oligomers. Therefore, the estimated number of binding subsites for PelX is 4, extending from subsites -2 to +2. PelX and PehX were shown to be localized in the periplasm of E. chrysanthemi 3937. PelX catalyzed the formation of unsaturated digalacturonates by

  10. Erastin sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by restraining xCT and cystathionine-γ-lyase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Li, Xinxing; Liu, Libo; Yu, Bo; Xue, Yixue; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common encephalic malignant tumors. Due to a high recurrence rate and a lack of effective treatments, the average survival rate remains low. Temozolomide (TMZ), a class of alkylating agent, is widely used as a first-line therapeutic drug during the adjuvant treatment for GBM patients. However, most patients exhibit a palpable resistance to TMZ treatment. Additionally, the underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. In this study, glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were found to be closely associated with the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ. We also found that TMZ markedly induced xCT, the subunit of glutamate/cystine transporter system xc- expression, which together with the GSH synthesis was increased while the TMZ-inducible ROS level was decreased in GBM cells. In addition, the cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) acivity, a key enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway was enhanced by TMZ, which insured a cysteine supply and GSH synthesis in a compensatory manner when xCT was blocked. Thus, the individual inhibition of xCT by siRNA and a pharmacological inhibitor (sulfasalazine) only partially inhibited GSH synthesis and moderately enhanced the GBM cell sensitivity to TMZ. However, the TMZ‑induced cytotoxicity was markedly increased along with a marked decrease in GSH levels as result of co-treatment with erastin, which inhibited cysteine uptake from xCT transporter and suppressed CTH activity, leading to impaired transformation from methionine to cysteine. In conclusion, to GBM therapy with a drug combination of TMZ and erastin may be beneficial.

  11. Anti-atherogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide by over-expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Ha Cheung

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important gaseous signaling molecule that functions in physiological and pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis. H2S dilates vessels and therefore has been suggested as an anti-atherogenic molecule. Since cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE enzyme is responsible for producing H2S in the cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that up-regulation of CSE expression in vivo with preservation of H2S bioactivity can slow down plaque formation and, can serve as a therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis. In this study, C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT, ApoE knockout mice (KO and transgenic ApoE knockout mice overexpressing CSE (Tg/KO at four weeks of age were weaned. They were then fed with either normal or atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. At week 16, serial plasma lipid levels, body weight, and blood pressure were measured prior to euthanization of the mice and the size of atherosclerotic plaques at their aortic roots was measured. Tg/KO mice showed an increase in endogenous H2S production in aortic tissue, reduced atherosclerotic plaque sizes and attenuation in plasma lipid profiles. We also showed an up-regulation in plasma glutathionine peroxidase that could indicate reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of p-p53 and down regulation of inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in aorta. To conclude, alteration of endogenous H2S by CSE gene activation was associated with reduced atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Up-regulation of CSE/H2S pathway attenuates atherosclerosis and this would be a potential target for therapeutic intervention against its formation.

  12. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Krasnikov, Boris F; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Pinto, John T; Callery, Patrick S; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Bruschi, Sam A

    2011-06-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-containing enzymes that catalyze β-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates that possess a good leaving group in the β-position. The end products are aminoacrylate and a sulfur-containing fragment. The aminoacrylate tautomerizes and hydrolyzes to pyruvate and ammonia. The mammalian cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases thus far identified are enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism that catalyze β-lyase reactions as non-physiological side reactions. Most are aminotransferases. In some cases the lyase is inactivated by reaction products. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are of much interest to toxicologists because they play an important key role in the bioactivation (toxication) of halogenated alkenes, some of which are produced on an industrial scale and are environmental contaminants. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases have been reviewed in this journal previously (Cooper and Pinto in Amino Acids 30:1-15, 2006). Here, we focus on more recent findings regarding: (1) the identification of enzymes associated with high-M(r) cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of rat liver and kidney; (2) the mechanism of syncatalytic inactivation of rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase by the nephrotoxic β-lyase substrate S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of tetrafluoroethylene); (3) toxicant channeling of reactive fragments from the active site of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to susceptible proteins in the mitochondria; (4) the involvement of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism/bioactivation of drugs and natural products; and (5) the role of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism of selenocysteine Se-conjugates. This review emphasizes the fact that the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are biologically more important than hitherto appreciated.

  13. Cloning and characterization of two thermo- and salt-tolerant oligoalginate lyases from marine bacterium Halomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuemei; Li, Shangyong; Wu, Ying; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Two new alginate lyase genes, oalY1 and oalY2, have been cloned from the newly isolated marine bacterium Halomonas sp. QY114 and expressed in Escherichia coli The deduced alginate lyases, OalY1 and OalY2, belonged to polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 17 and showed less than 45% amino acid identity with all of the characterized oligoalginate lyases. OalY1 and OalY2 exhibited the highest activities at 45°C and 50°C, respectively. Both of them showed more than 50% of the highest activity at 60°C, and 20% at 80°C. In addition, they were salt-dependent and salt-tolerant since both of them showed the highest activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and preserved 63% and 68% of activity in the presence of 3 M NaCl. Significantly, OalY1 and OalY2 could degrade both polyM and polyG blocks into alginate monosaccharides in an exo-lytic type, indicating that they are bifunctional alginate lyases. In conclusion, our study indicated that OalY1 and OalY2 are good candidates for alginate saccharification application, and the salt-tolerance may present an exciting new concept for biofuel production from native brown seaweeds. PMID:27030725

  14. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide.

  15. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jendresen, Christian Bille; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji;

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches...

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of alginate lyase, a member of family PL-7, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masayuki; Moriwaki, Satoko; Hashimoto, Wataru; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku

    2003-08-01

    Alginate lyase depolymerizes alginate, a heteropolysaccharide consisting of alpha-L-guluronate and beta-D-mannuronate, through a beta-elimination reaction. A protein PA1167 with a molecular mass of 25 kDa produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an alginate lyase classified into polysaccharide lyase family PL-7. The enzyme was crystallized at 293 K in a drop solution comprising 1.4 M sodium chloride, 0.1 M potassium sodium phosphate and 0.1 M 2-morpholinoethanesulfonate-sodium hydroxide pH 6.5 by means of the vapor-diffusion method. The crystals were monoclinic and belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 43.4, b = 70.3, c = 67.4 A, beta = 94.5 degrees. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 A from a single crystal. PMID:12876365

  17. Pectinolytic bacteria and their secreted pectate lyases: agents for the maceration and solubilization of phytomass for fuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, J.F. III; Rice, J.D.; Chow, M.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research have been to identify the pectinolytic enzymes secreted by bacteria and apply these towards the enhanced maceration and solubilization of plant material, focusing on the pectate lyases secreted by the phytopathogenic strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi, the ruminant resident Lachnospira multiparus, and the wood digestor isolate, Clostridium populeti. An HPLC approach has been developed that permits the kinetic analysis of each enzyme with respect to the formation of individual products during the pectate depolymerization process. This approach has demonstrated that each of these organisms secretes a nonrandom trimer-generating pectate lyase with a combination of endolytic and exolytic depolymerizing mechanisms. Two different strains of E. chrysanthemi secrete a battery of pectate lyases that include random endolytic as well as nonrandom dimer - and nonrandom trimer-generating endolytic/exolytic mechanisms. (author)

  18. Identification, expression, and characterization of a novel bacterial RGI Lyase enzyme for the production of bio-functional fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2011-01-01

    A gene encoding a putative rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) Lyase (EC 4.2.2.-) from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM13) was selected after a homology search and phylogenetic analysis and optimized with respect to codon usage. The designed gene was transformed into Pichia pastoris and the enzyme was produced...... molecular weight of the mature RGI Lyase of 596 amino acids. By use of a statistical design approach, with potato rhamnogalacturonan as the substrate, the optimal reaction conditions for the RGI Lyase were established to be: 61°C, pH 8.1, and 2mM of both Ca2+ and Mn2+ (specific activity 18.4U/mg; KM 1.2mg...... synthesis for identification and production of a thermostable enzyme....

  19. Structural insights into catalysis by βC-S lyase from Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezuka, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nonaka, Takamasa

    2012-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a causative agent of oral malodor and may play an important role in the pathogenicity of oral bacteria such as Streptococcus anginosus. In this microorganism, H(2)S production is associated with βC-S lyase (Lcd) encoded by lcd gene, which is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the α,β-elimination of sulfur-containing amino acids. When Lcd acts on L-cysteine, H(2)S is produced along with pyruvate and ammonia. To understand the H(2)S-producing mechanism of Lcd in detail, we determined the crystal structures of substrate-free Lcd (internal aldimine form) and two reaction intermediate complexes (external aldimine and α-aminoacrylate forms). The formation of intermediates induced little changes in the overall structure of the enzyme and in the active site residues, with the exception of Lys234, a PLP-binding residue. Structural and mutational analyses highlighted the importance of the active site residues Tyr60, Tyr119, and Arg365. In particular, Tyr119 forms a hydrogen bond with the side chain oxygen atom of L-serine, a substrate analog, in the external aldimine form suggesting its role in the recognition of the sulfur atom of the true substrate (L-cysteine). Tyr119 also plays a role in fixing the PLP cofactor at the proper position during catalysis through binding with its side chain. Finally, we partly modified the catalytic mechanism known for cystalysin, a βC-S lyase from Treponema denticola, and proposed an improved mechanism, which seems to be common to the βC-S lyases from oral bacteria.

  20. Structure and Mechanism of the Phycobiliprotein Lyase CpcT*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Ding, Wen-Long; Zeng, Xiao-Li; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Pigmentation of light-harvesting phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria requires covalent attachment of open-chain tetrapyrroles, bilins, to the apoproteins. Thioether formation via addition of a cysteine residue to the 3-ethylidene substituent of bilins is mediated by lyases. T-type lyases are responsible for attachment to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits. We present crystal structures of CpcT (All5339) from Nostoc (Anabaena) sp. PCC 7120 and its complex with phycocyanobilin at 1.95 and 2.50 Å resolution, respectively. CpcT forms a dimer and adopts a calyx-shaped β-barrel fold. Although the overall structure of CpcT is largely retained upon chromophore binding, arginine residues at the opening of the binding pocket undergo major rotameric rearrangements anchoring the propionate groups of phycocyanobilin. Based on the structure and mutational analysis, a reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for chromophore stabilization and regio- and stereospecificity of the addition reaction. At the dimer interface, a loop extending from one subunit partially shields the opening of the phycocyanobilin binding pocket in the other subunit. Deletion of the loop or disruptions of the dimer interface significantly reduce CpcT lyase activity, suggesting functional relevance of the dimer. Dimerization is further enhanced by chromophore binding. The chromophore is largely buried in the dimer, but in the monomer, the 3-ethylidene group is accessible for the apophycobiliprotein, preferentially from the chromophore α-side. Asp-163 and Tyr-65 at the β- and α-face near the E-configured ethylidene group, respectively, support the acid-catalyzed nucleophilic Michael addition of cysteine 155 of the apoprotein to an N-acylimmonium intermediate proposed by Grubmayr and Wagner (Grubmayr, K., and Wagner, U. G. (1988) Monatsh. Chem. 119, 965–983). PMID:25074932

  1. Effect of cysteine on the inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase by D,L-propargylglycine.

    OpenAIRE

    Awata,Shiro; Nakayama,Kazuko; SUZUKI, Isao; Kodama, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In vivo inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase by D,L-propargylglycine, a suicide inhibitor, was found to be less profound in rat kidney than in the liver. We investigated the cause of this difference using rat tissues. We fractionated kidney extract to characterize the substance which protected enzyme, and found that cysteine exhibits protecting action. Addition of 0.3 mM L-cysteine to the incubation mixture containing dialyzed kidney supernatant and 0.5 mM D,L-propargylglycine resulted i...

  2. Probing Reversible Chemistry in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Ethanolamine Ammonia Lyase with Kinetic Isotope Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rentergent, Julius; Scruton, Nigel S; Hay, Sam; Jones, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes such as ethanolamine ammonia lyase have remarkable catalytic power and some unique properties that enable detailed analysis of the reaction chemistry and associated dynamics. By selectively deuterating the substrate (ethanolamine) and/or the β-carbon of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl moiety of the intrinsic coenzyme B12, it was possible to experimentally probe both the forward and reverse hydrogen atom transfers between the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical and substrate duri...

  3. Strain Improvement of Rhodotorula graminis for Production of a Novel l-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Orndorff, Steve A.; Costantino, Nina; Stewart, David; Durham, Don R.

    1988-01-01

    l-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) from Rhodotorula rubra has been used in the commercial manufacture of l-phenylalanine from trans-cinnamic acid. In this study, R. graminis PAL was investigated. Mutant strain GX6000 was isolated after ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of wild-type R. graminis GX5007 by selecting for resistance to phenylpropiolic acid, an analog of trans-cinnamic acid. Mutant strain GX6000 produced inducible PAL at levels four- to fivefold higher than had wild-t...

  4. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Gene Encoding Methionine-γ-Lyase in Brevibacterium linens

    OpenAIRE

    Amarita, Felix; Yvon, Mireille; Nardi, Michele; Chambellon, Emilie; Delettre, Jerôme; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of l-methionine and subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) is believed to be essential for flavor development in cheese. l-Methionine-γ-lyase (MGL) can convert l-methionine to methanethiol (MTL), α-ketobutyrate, and ammonia. The mgl gene encoding MGL was cloned from the type strain Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9175 known to produce copious amounts of MTL and related VSCs. The disruption of the mgl gene, achieved in strain ATCC 9175, resulted in a 62% ...

  5. Purification and Characterization of l-Methionine γ-Lyase from Brevibacterium linens BL2†

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Benjamin; Weimer, Bart

    1998-01-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11) was purified to homogeneity from Brevibacterium linens BL2, a coryneform bacterium which has been used successfully as an adjunct bacterium to improve the flavor of Cheddar cheese. The enzyme catalyzes the α,γ elimination of methionine to produce methanethiol, α-ketobutyrate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, with a native molecular mass of approximately 170 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 43 kDa each. The purified enzy...

  6. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    OpenAIRE

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  7. Purification and properties of Bacteroides heparinolyticus heparinase (heparin lyase, EC 4.2.2.7).

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Shibata, Y.; Fujimura, S.

    1988-01-01

    Heparinase (heparin lyase, EC 4.2.2.7) was isolated from the cell extract of an oral bacterium, Bacteroides heparinolyticus. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of 9.5. Its molecular weight was 63,000. The enzyme was the most active against heparin among the tested mucopolysaccharides. Catalytic properties may be similar to those of heparinase of Flavobacterium heparinum, since the enzymatic degradation products obtained by using the two enzymes were the same on the basis of pape...

  8. Differential effects of cystathionine-γ-lyase-dependent vasodilatory H2S in periadventitial vasoregulation of rat and mouse aortas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Köhn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a potent vasodilator. However, the complex mechanisms of vasoregulation by H(2S are not fully understood. We tested the hypotheses that (1 H(2S exerts vasodilatory effects by opening KCNQ-type voltage-dependent (K(v K(+ channels and (2 that H(2S-producing cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in perivascular adipose tissue plays a major role in this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wire myography of rat and mouse aortas was used. NaHS and 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (ADTOH were used as H(2S donors. KCNQ-type K(v channels were blocked by XE991. 4-Propargylglycine (PPG and ß-cyano-l-alanine (BCA, or 2-(aminooxy-acetic acid (AOAA were used as inhibitors of CSE or cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS, respectively. NaHS and ADTOH produced strong vasorelaxation in rat and mouse aortas, which were abolished by KCNQ channel inhibition with XE991. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT exerted an anticontractile effect in these arteries. CSE inhibition by PPG and BCA reduced this effect in aortas from rats but not from mice. CBS inhibition with AOAA did not inhibit the anticontractile effects of PVAT. XE991, however, almost completely suppressed the anticontractile effects of PVAT in both species. Exogenous l-cysteine, substrate for the endogenous production of H(2S, induced vasorelaxation only at concentrations >5 mmol/l, an effect unchanged by CSE inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNFICANCE: Our results demonstrate potent vasorelaxant effects of H(2S donors in large arteries of both rats and mice, in which XE991-sensitive KCNQ-type channel opening play a pivotal role. CSE-H(2S seems to modulate the effect of adipocyte-derived relaxing factor in rat but not in mouse aorta. The present study provides novel insight into the interaction of CSE-H(2S and perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, with additional technical advances, a future clinical approach targeting vascular H(2S/KCNQ pathways to influence states of

  9. Hit-to-lead evaluation of a novel class of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Jurgen; Harris, Christopher M; Wallace, Grier A; Argiriadi, Maria A; Queeney, Kara L; Perron, Denise C; Dominguez, Eric; Kebede, Tegest; Desino, Kelly E; Patel, Hetal; Vasudevan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase has recently been proposed as a potential treatment option for inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this report we describe our hit-to-lead evaluation of the isoxazolecarboxamide 6, a high-throughput screening hit (in vitro IC50=1.0 μM, cell IC50=1.8 μM), as a novel S1P lyase inhibitor. We were able to establish basic structure-activity relationships around 6 and succeeded in obtaining X-ray structural information which enabled structure-based design. With the discovery of 28, enzyme activity was quickly improved to IC50=120 nM and cell potency to IC50=230 nM. The main liability in the established isoxazolecarboxamide hit series was determined to be metabolic stability. In particular we identified that future lead-optimization efforts to overcome this problem should focus on blocking the N-dealkylation on the secondary amine. PMID:27020302

  10. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  11. Expression, purification and crystallization of l-methionine γ-lyase 2 from Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Dan [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamagata, Wataru; Kamei, Kaeko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nozaki, Tomoyoshi [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu, E-mail: harada@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 2 from E. histolytica, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation in this protozoan parasite, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  12. Expression, purification and crystallization of l-methionine γ-lyase 2 from Entamoeba histolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 2 from E. histolytica, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation in this protozoan parasite, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 Å3 Da−1. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress

  13. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Bedia, Carmen; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-02-16

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen's Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis. PMID:26831115

  14. Structural and biochemical characterization of the bilin lyase CpcS from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfel, Christina M; Kuzin, Alexandre P; Forouhar, Farhad; Biswas, Avijit; Su, Min; Lew, Scott; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K; Ma, Li-Chung; Acton, Thomas B; Montelione, Gaetano T; Hunt, John F; Paul, Corry E C; Dragomani, Tierna M; Boutaghou, M Nazim; Cole, Richard B; Riml, Christian; Alvey, Richard M; Bryant, Donald A; Schluchter, Wendy M

    2013-12-01

    Cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins have evolved to capture light energy over most of the visible spectrum due to their bilin chromophores, which are linear tetrapyrroles that have been covalently attached by enzymes called bilin lyases. We report here the crystal structure of a bilin lyase of the CpcS family from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeCpcS-III). TeCpcS-III is a 10-stranded β barrel with two alpha helices and belongs to the lipocalin structural family. TeCpcS-III catalyzes both cognate as well as noncognate bilin attachment to a variety of phycobiliprotein subunits. TeCpcS-III ligates phycocyanobilin, phycoerythrobilin, and phytochromobilin to the alpha and beta subunits of allophycocyanin and to the beta subunit of phycocyanin at the Cys82-equivalent position in all cases. The active form of TeCpcS-III is a dimer, which is consistent with the structure observed in the crystal. With the use of the UnaG protein and its association with bilirubin as a guide, a model for the association between the native substrate, phycocyanobilin, and TeCpcS was produced. PMID:24215428

  15. Structural Basis for Streptogramin B Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Virginiamycin B Lyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korczynska,M.; Mukhtar, T.; Wright, G.; Berghuis, A.

    2007-01-01

    The streptogramin combination therapy of quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid) is used to treat infections caused by bacterial pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. However, the effectiveness of this therapy is being compromised because of an increased incidence of streptogramin resistance. One of the clinically observed mechanisms of resistance is enzymatic inactivation of the type B streptogramins, such as quinupristin, by a streptogramin B lyase, i.e., virginiamycin B lyase (Vgb). The enzyme catalyzes the linearization of the cyclic antibiotic via a cleavage that requires a divalent metal ion. Here, we present crystal structures of Vgb from S. aureus in its apoenzyme form and in complex with quinupristin and Mg{sup 2+} at 1.65- and 2.8-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The fold of the enzyme is that of a seven-bladed {beta}-propeller, although the sequence reveals no similarity to other known members of this structural family. Quinupristin binds to a large depression on the surface of the enzyme, where it predominantly forms van der Waals interactions. Validated by site-directed mutagenesis studies, a reaction mechanism is proposed in which the initial abstraction of a proton is facilitated by a Mg{sup 2+}-linked conjugated system. Analysis of the Vgb-quinupristin structure and comparison with the complex between quinupristin and its natural target, the 50S ribosomal subunit, reveals features that can be exploited for developing streptogramins that are impervious to Vgb-mediated resistance.

  16. Molecular and Functional Analyses of the metC Gene of Lactococcus lactis, Encoding Cystathionine β-Lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, María; Doesburg, Wim van; Rutten, Ger A.M.; Marugg, Joey D.; Alting, Arno C.; Kranenburg, Richard van; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2000-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of amino acids in cheese is believed to generate aroma compounds and therefore to be essential for flavor development. Cystathionine β-lyase (CBL) can convert cystathionine to homocysteine but is also able to catalyze an α,γ elimination. With methionine as a substrate, it p

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2014-01-01

    A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb(2+) and was not significantly affected by Hg(2+). Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca(2+). The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking.

  18. Site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic and inhibition studies of aspartate ammonia lyase from Bacillus sp YM55-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veetil, Vinod Puthan; Raj, Hans; Quax, Wim J.; Janssen, Dick B.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.

    2009-01-01

    Aspartate ammonia lyases (also referred to as aspartases) catalyze the reversible deamination of l-aspartate to yield fumarate and ammonia. In the proposed mechanism for these enzymes, an active site base abstracts a proton from C3 of l-aspartate to form an enzyme-stabilized enediolate intermediate.

  19. Improvement of enantioselectivity of the B-type halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yu, Fujio; Ohtaki, Akashi; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    Halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase (H-Lyase) is a bacterial enzyme involved in the degradation of halohydrins. This enzyme catalyzes the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a vicinal hydroxyl group in halohydrins, producing the corresponding epoxides. The H-Lyases have been classified into A, B and C subtypes based on amino acid sequence similarities. These enzymes have attracted much attention as industrial catalysts in the synthesis of chiral chemicals from prochiral halohydrins. In the present study, we constructed mutants of B-type H-Lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074 (HheB) displaying higher enantioselectivity by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis and random mutagenesis. A triple mutant of HheB exhibited 98.5% enantioselectivity, the highest ever reported, toward (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-butyronitrile production, with the yield reaching approximately two-fold that of the wild-type enzyme. We discuss the structural basis of the high enantioselectivity and productivity of the mutant by comparing the crystal structures of the mutant HheB and the wild-type enzyme in complex with or without the substrate analogue. PMID:27215832

  20. Improvement of enantioselectivity of the B-type halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yu, Fujio; Ohtaki, Akashi; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    Halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase (H-Lyase) is a bacterial enzyme involved in the degradation of halohydrins. This enzyme catalyzes the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a vicinal hydroxyl group in halohydrins, producing the corresponding epoxides. The H-Lyases have been classified into A, B and C subtypes based on amino acid sequence similarities. These enzymes have attracted much attention as industrial catalysts in the synthesis of chiral chemicals from prochiral halohydrins. In the present study, we constructed mutants of B-type H-Lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074 (HheB) displaying higher enantioselectivity by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis and random mutagenesis. A triple mutant of HheB exhibited 98.5% enantioselectivity, the highest ever reported, toward (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-butyronitrile production, with the yield reaching approximately two-fold that of the wild-type enzyme. We discuss the structural basis of the high enantioselectivity and productivity of the mutant by comparing the crystal structures of the mutant HheB and the wild-type enzyme in complex with or without the substrate analogue.

  1. Possible regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the production of anthocyanins in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, F.B.; Oosterhaven, J.; Martinez-Madrid, M.C.; Romojaro, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins in the epidermis of asparagus spears has been analysed. A correlation between the stimulation of PAL activity and the rise in total anthocyanin content has been observed. Light radiation induce

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Biscaro Pedrolli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb2+ and was not significantly affected by Hg2+. Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca2+. The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking.

  3. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    KAUST Repository

    La, Honggui

    2011-09-06

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  4. Probing the active center of benzaldehyde lyase with substitutions and the pseudosubstrate analogue benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gabriel S; Nemeria, Natalia; Chakraborty, Sumit; McLeish, Michael J; Yep, Alejandra; Kenyon, George L; Petsko, Gregory A; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2008-07-22

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde utilizing thiamin diphosphate and Mg (2+) as cofactors. The enzyme is important for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of compounds via its carboligation reaction mechanism. In addition to its principal functions, BAL can slowly decarboxylate aromatic amino acids such as benzoylformic acid. It is also intriguing mechanistically due to the paucity of acid-base residues at the active center that can participate in proton transfer steps thought to be necessary for these types of reactions. Here methyl benzoylphosphonate, an excellent electrostatic analogue of benzoylformic acid, is used to probe the mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase. The structure of benzaldehyde lyase in its covalent complex with methyl benzoylphosphonate was determined to 2.49 A (Protein Data Bank entry 3D7K ) and represents the first structure of this enzyme with a compound bound in the active site. No large structural reorganization was detected compared to the complex of the enzyme with thiamin diphosphate. The configuration of the predecarboxylation thiamin-bound intermediate was clarified by the structure. Both spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies are consistent with inhibition resulting from the binding of MBP to the thiamin diphosphate in the active centers. We also delineated the role of His29 (the sole potential acid-base catalyst in the active site other than the highly conserved Glu50) and Trp163 in cofactor activation and catalysis by benzaldehyde lyase.

  5. Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available M A Khan,1 Madeline M López-Muñoz,2 Charles W Kaspar,3 Kai F Hung1 1Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; 3Bacteriology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Biogeochemical processes on exposed pyrite ores result in extremely high levels of sulfuric acid at these locations. Acidophiles that thrive in these conditions must overcome significant challenges, including an environment with proton concentrations at pH 3 or below. The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. Two putative sequences for methionine-γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11, an enzyme known to carry out α, γ-elimination on L-methionine to produce methanethiol, were identified in fer1. Bioinformatic analyses identified a conserved pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP binding domain and a partially conserved catalytic domain in both putative sequences. Detection of PLP-dependent and L-methionine-dependent production of α-keto compounds and thiol groups in fer1 confirmed the presence of methionine-γ-lyase activity. Further, fer1 lysate was capable of processing related substrates, including D-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystathionine, and L/D-homocysteine. When the two putative fer1 methionine-γ-lyase gene-coded proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, one sequence demonstrated an ability to carry out α, γ-elimination activity, while the other exhibited γ-replacement activity. These fer1 methionine-γ-lyases also exhibited optimum pH, substrate specificity, and catalytic preferences that are different from methionine-γ-lyases from other organisms. These differences are discussed in the context of molecular phylogeny constructed using a maximum

  6. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway.

  7. Biochemical, Kinetic, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Ruegeria pomeroyi DddW--A Mononuclear Iron-Dependent DMSP Lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Brummett

    Full Text Available The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP is a key nutrient in marine environments and its catabolism by bacteria through enzymes known as DMSP lyases generates dimethylsulfide (DMS, a gas of importance in climate regulation, the sulfur cycle, and signaling to higher organisms. Despite the environmental significance of DMSP lyases, little is known about how they function at the mechanistic level. In this study we biochemically characterize DddW, a DMSP lyase from the model roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DddW is a 16.9 kDa enzyme that contains a C-terminal cupin domain and liberates acrylate, a proton, and DMS from the DMSP substrate. Our studies show that as-purified DddW is a metalloenzyme, like the DddQ and DddP DMSP lyases, but contains an iron cofactor. The metal cofactor is essential for DddW DMSP lyase activity since addition of the metal chelator EDTA abolishes its enzymatic activity, as do substitution mutations of key metal-binding residues in the cupin motif (His81, His83, Glu87, and His121. Measurements of metal binding affinity and catalytic activity indicate that Fe(II is most likely the preferred catalytic metal ion with a nanomolar binding affinity. Stoichiometry studies suggest DddW requires one Fe(II per monomer. Electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR studies show an interaction between NO and Fe(II-DddW, with NO binding to the EPR silent Fe(II site giving rise to an EPR active species (g = 4.29, 3.95, 2.00. The change in the rhombicity of the EPR signal is observed in the presence of DMSP, indicating that substrate binds to the iron site without displacing bound NO. This work provides insight into the mechanism of DMSP cleavage catalyzed by DddW.

  8. Cystathionine-Gamma-Lyase Gene Deletion Protects Mice against Inflammation and Liver Sieve Injury following Polymicrobial Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Ravinder Reddy; Fraser, Robin; Badiei, Alireza; Chambers, Stephen; Cogger, Victoria C; Le Couteur, David G; Ishii, Isao; Bhatia, Madhav

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by the activity of cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE), is a key mediator of inflammation in sepsis. The liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are important target and mediator of sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CSE-derived H2S on inflammation and LSECs fenestrae in caecal-ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using CSE KO mice. Methods Sepsis was induced by CLP, and mice (C57BL/6J, male) were sacrificed after 8 hours. Liver, lung, and blood were collected and processed to measure CSE expression, H2S synthesis, MPO activity, NF-κB p65, ERK1/2, and cytokines/chemokines levels. Diameter, frequency, porosity and gap area of the liver sieve were calculated from scanning electron micrographs of the LSECs. Results An increased CSE expression and H2S synthesizing activity in the liver and lung of wild-type mice following CLP-induced sepsis. This was associated with an increased liver and lung MPO activity, and increased liver and lung and plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and the chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-2α. Conversely, CSE KO mice had less liver and lung injury and reduced inflammation following CLP-induced sepsis as evidenced by decreased levels of H2S synthesizing activity, MPO activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines production. Extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB) became significantly activated after the CLP in WT mice but not in CSE KO mice. In addition, CLP-induced damage to the LSECs, as indicated by increased defenestration and gaps formation in the LSECs compared to WT sham control. CSE KO mice showed decreased defenestration and gaps formation following sepsis. Conclusions Mice with CSE (an H2S synthesising enzyme) gene deletion are less susceptible to CLP-induced sepsis and associated inflammatory response through ERK1/2-NF-κB p65 pathway as evidenced by reduced inflammation, tissue damage

  9. Prognostic Value of Malic Enzyme and ATP-Citrate Lyase in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer of the Young and the Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Csanadi

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignancies worldwide. Understanding its biology is therefore of pivotal importance to improve patient's prognosis. In contrast to non-neoplastic tissues, cancer cells utilize glucose mainly for production of basic cellular modules '(i.e. nucleotides, aminoacids, fatty acids. In cancer, Malic enzyme (ME and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY are key enzymes linking aerobic glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis and may therefore be of biological and prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.ME and ACLY expression was analyzed in 258 NSCLC in correlation with clinico-pathological parameters including patient's survival.Though, overall expression of both enzymes correlated positively, ACLY was associated with local tumor stage, whereas ME correlated with occurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases. Young patients overexpressing ACLY and/or ME had a significantly longer overall survival. This proved to be an independent prognostic factor. This contrasts older NSCLC patients, in whom overexpression of ACLY and/or ME appears to predict the opposite.In NSCLC, ME and ACLY show different enzyme expressions relating to local and mediastinal spread. Most important, we detected an inverse prognostic impact of ACLY and/or ME overexpression in young and elderly patients. It can therefore be expected, that treatment of NSCLC especially, if targeting metabolic pathways, requires different strategies in different age groups.

  10. Identification, cloning and characterization of cysK, the gene encoding O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase from Azospirillum brasilense, which is involved in tellurite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alberto; Castañeda, Miguel; Xiqui, María L; Sosa, Araceli; Baca, Beatriz E

    2006-08-01

    O-Acetylserine (thiol)-lyase (cysteine synthase) was purified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. After hydrolysis of the purified protein, amino acid sequences of five peptides were obtained, which permitted the cloning and sequencing of the cysK gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of cysteine synthase exhibited homology with several putative proteins from Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 cysK exhibited 58% identity (72% similarity) with Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cysteine synthase proteins. An E. coli auxotroph lacking cysteine synthase loci could be complemented with A. brasilense Sp7 cysK. The 3.0-kb HindIII-EcoRI fragment bearing cysK contained two additional ORFs encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and dUTPase. Insertional disruption of the cysK gene did not produce a cysteine auxotroph, indicating that gene redundancy in the cysteine biosynthetic or other biosynthetic pathways exists in Azospirillum, as already described in other bacteria. Nitrogen fixation was not altered in the mutant strain as determined by acetylene reduction. However, this strain showed an eight-fold reduction in tellurite resistance as compared to the wild-type strain, which was only observed during growth in minimal medium. These data confirm earlier observations regarding the importance of cysteine metabolism in tellurite resistance.

  11. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol-Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulphide (H2S is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR.There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05 in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05 in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05 plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II and noradrenaline (NA but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress

  12. Study of RNA interference inhibiting rat ovarian androgen biosynthesis by depressing 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase activity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xing

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase encoded by CYP17 is the key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis pathway. Previous studies demonstrated the accentuation of the enzyme in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS was the most important mechanism of androgen excess. We chose CYP17 as the therapeutic target, trying to suppress the activity of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase and inhibit androgen biosynthesis by silencing the expression of CYP17 in the rat ovary. Methods Three CYP17-targeting and one negative control oligonucleotides were designed and used in the present study. The silence efficiency of lentivirus shRNA was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and hormone assay. After subcapsular injection of lentivirus shRNA in rat ovary, the delivery efficiency was evaluated by GFP fluorescence and qPCR. Total RNA was extracted from rat ovary for CYP17 mRNA determination and rat serum was collected for hormone measurement. Results In total, three CYP17-targeting lentivirus shRNAs were synthesized. The results showed that all of them had a silencing effect on CYP17 mRNA and protein. Moreover, androstenedione secreted by rat theca interstitial cells (TIC in the RNAi group declined significantly compared with that in the control group. Two weeks after rat ovarian subcapsular injection of chosen CYP17 shRNA, the GFP fluorescence of frozen ovarian sections could be seen clearly under fluorescence microscope. It also showed that the GFP DNA level increased significantly, and its relative expression level was 7.42 times higher than that in the control group. Simultaneously, shRNA treatment significantly decreased CYP17 mRNA and protein levels at 61% and 54%, respectively. Hormone assay showed that all the levels of androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone declined to a certain degree, but progesterone levels declined significantly. Conclusion The present study proves for the first time that ovarian androgen

  13. Paraffin as oxygen vector modulates tyrosine phenol lyase production by Citrobacter freundii MTCC 2424.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Wamik; Kumar, Ajay; Dev, Varun

    2013-06-01

    The efficiency of three oxygen-vectors liquid paraffin, silicone oil and n-dodecane in the production of tyrosine phenol lyase (TPL) by Citrobacter freundii MTCC 2424 was evaluated at 4% (v/v) concentration. The liquid paraffin as oxygenvectors was found to exhibit a stimulatory effect on TPL synthesis. The liquid paraffin at 6% (v/v) resulted in 34% increase in the TPL synthesis accompanied by a 13% increase in the production of cell mass at a 10 L scale. This improvement in TPL and cell mass production in the presence of liquid paraffin can be related to the fact that liquid paraffin was capable of maintaining dissolved O2 concentration above 28% throughout the course of the fermentation. Maintenance of the dissolved O2 concentration above 28% could be viewed in terms of an adequate oxygen supply to the rapidly dividing cells of the bacterium, which in turn resulted in enhanced synthesis of TPL and cell mass.

  14. Protein packing interactions and polymorphy of chorismate lyase from E. Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Travis

    2001-11-01

    The enzyme chorismate lyase from E. coli crystallizes into three well characterized polymorphs in identical conditions. The Wild-type enzyme tends to aggregate, even in the presence of a reducing agent, and yields monoclinic crystals that grow in intricate clusters. Protein aggregation was largely eliminated by mutating the protein's two cysteines to serines. The double mutant retains full enzymatic activity and grows singly in two new forms: triclinic and orthorhombic. The triclinic crystals diffract to 0.9 Å resolution. A single-cysteine mutant that crystallizes in the orthorhombic form was used to determine the structure, enabling examination of the packing interactions at 2.0 Å resolution or better in all three forms. A novel system for labeling contacts is proposed, and relations between packing patterns and crystal properties are discussed. Diffraction resolution is found to correlate with coordination number and with the root-mean-square deviation from mean extent of the contacts. Implications for contact energies are considered.

  15. Synthesis of D- and L-phenylalanine derivatives by phenylalanine ammonia lyases: a multienzymatic cascade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Lovelock, Sarah L; Weise, Nicholas J; Ahmed, Syed T; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of substituted D-phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one-pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high-throughput solid-phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non-natural D-phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the D-configured product. Furthermore, the system was extended to the preparation of those L-phenylalanines which are obtained with a low ee value using PAL amination.

  16. Determining the extent of heparan sulfate depolymerisation following heparin lyase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Sims, Ian M; Smith, Raymond A A; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2016-11-01

    The depolymerisation of porcine mucosal heparan sulfate under the action of heparin lyases and analysis by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is described. Heparan sulfate treated to enzymic bond scission producing a Δ4,5 double-bond and quantified by SEC with ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopic detection (230nm) indicated that the majority of the biopolymer (>85%) was reduced to disaccharides (degree of polymerisation (DP)=2). However, analysis of the SEC eluant using refractive index (RI), which reflects the mass contribution of the oligosaccharides rather than the molar response of a UV chromophore, indicated that a considerable proportion of the digested HS, up to 43%, was present with DP >2. This was supported by a mass balance analysis. These results contradict the accepted literature where "complete digestion" is routinely reported. Herein we report on the composition and methodology utilised to ascertain the extent of depolymerization and disaccharide composition of this important biopolymer. PMID:27516308

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of argininosuccinate lyase from Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan-Li; Li, Gui-Lan; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Zhang, Hong-Yin; Li, Lan-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is an important enzyme in arginine synthesis and the urea cycle, which are highly conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. The gene encoding Streptococcus mutans ASL (smASL) was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. The recombinant smASL protein was expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) and purified to homogeneity by two-step column chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 254.5, c = 78.3 Å. PMID:21636911

  18. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

  19. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume.

  20. Effect of Alginate Lyase on Biofilm-Grown Helicobacter pylori Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Maiorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a microorganism with a pronounced capability of adaptation under environmental stress solicitations. Its persistence and antimicrobial resistance to the drugs commonly used in the anti-H. pylori therapy are associated with the development of a biofilm mainly composed of DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. A fundamental step to increase the success of clinical treatments is the development of new strategies and molecules able to interfere with the biofilm architecture and thus able to enhance the effects of antibiotics. By using Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy we analyzed the effects of the alginate lyase (AlgL, an enzyme able to degrade a wide class of polysaccharides, on the H. pylori shape, surface morphology, and biofilm adhesion properties. We demonstrated that AlgL generates a noticeable loss of H. pylori coccoid form in favor of the bacillary form and reduces the H. pylori extracellular polymeric substances (EPS.

  1. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth;

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  2. Stress-dependent regulation of 13-lipoxygenases and 13-hydroperoxide lyase in olive fruit mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, María N; Hernández, M Luisa; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2014-06-01

    The effect of different environmental stresses on the expression and enzyme activity levels of 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOX) and 13-hydroperoxide lyase (13-HPL) and on the volatile compounds synthesized by their sequential action has been studied in the mesocarp tissue of olive fruit from the Picual and Arbequina cultivars. The results showed that temperature, light, wounding and water regime regulate olive 13-LOXs and 13-HPL genes at transcriptional level. Low temperature and wounding brought about an increase in LOX and HPL enzyme activities. A very slight increase in the total content of six straight-chain carbons (C6) volatile compounds was also observed in the case of low temperature and wounding treatments. The physiological roles of 13-LOXs and 13-HPL in the olive fruit stress response are discussed. PMID:24629805

  3. Relationship between cystathionine γ-lyase gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Northern Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun; ZHAO Qi; LIU Xiao-li; WANG Lai-yuan; LU Xiang-feng; LI Hong-fang; CHEN Shu-feng; HUANG Jian-feng; GU Dong-feng

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide(H2S)plays an important role in the smooth muscle cell relaxation and thereby participates in the development of hypertension. Cystathionine γ-lyase is the key enzyme in the endogenous production of H2S. Up to now, the reports on the relationship between the polymorphisms of cystathionine γ-lyase gene (CTH) and essential hypertension(EH)are limited. This study was designed to assess their underlying relationship. Methods A total of 503 hypertensive patients and 490 age-, gender-and area-matched normotensive controls were enrolled in this study. Based on the FASTSNP, a web server to identify putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes, we selected two SNPs, rs482843 and rs1021737, in the CTH gene for genotyping. Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes between cases and controls were compared by the chi-square test. The program Haplo. stats was used to investigate the relationship between the haplotypes and EH. Results These two SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in both cases and controls. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of them did not significantly differ between cases and controls(all P>0.05). In the stepwise logistic regression analysis we failed to observe their association with hypertension. In addition, none of the four estimated haplotypes or diplotypes significantly increased or decreased the risk of hypertension before or after adjustment for several known risk factors. Conclusions The present study suggests that the SNPs rs482843 and rs1021737 of the CTH gene were not associated with essential hypertension in the Northern Chinese Han population. However, replications in other populations and further functional studies are still necessary to clarify the role of the CTH gene in the pathogenesis of EH.

  4. Modular Optimization of Heterologous Pathways for De Novo Synthesis of (2S)-Naringenin in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Junjun Wu; Tiantian Zhou; Guocheng Du; Jingwen Zhou; Jian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns about food safety and environmental issues, bio-based production of flavonoids from safe, inexpensive, and renewable substrates is increasingly attracting attention. Here, the complete biosynthetic pathway, consisting of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), malonate synthetase, and...

  5. Mechanistic deductions from kinetic isotope effects and pH studies of pyridoxal phosphate dependent carbon-carbon lyases: Erwinia herbicola and Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and primary deuterium isotope effects have been determined for tyrosine phenol-lyase from both Erwinia herbicola and Citrobacter freundii. The primary deuterium isotope effects indicate that proton abstraction from the 2-position of the substrate is partially rate-limiting for both enzymes. The C. freundii enzyme primary deuterium isotope effects [DV = 3.5 and D(V/Ktyr) = 2.5] are pH independent, indicating that tyrosine is not sticky (i.e., does not dissociate slower than it reacts to give products). Since Vmax for both tyrosine and the alternate substrate S-methyl-L-cysteine is also pH independent, substrate binds only to the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. For the E. herbicola enzyme, both Vmax and V/K for tyrosine or S-methyl-L-cysteine are pH dependent, as well as both DV and D(V/Ktyr). Thus, while both the protonated and unprotonated enzyme can bind substrate, and may be interconverted directly, only the unprotonated Michaelis complex is catalytically competent. At pH 9.5, DV = 2.5 and D(V/Ktyr) = 1.5. However, at pH 6.4 the isotope effect on both parameters is equal to 4.1. From these data, the forward commitment factor (cf = 5.2) and catalytic ratio (cvf = 1.1) for tyrosine and S-methyl-L-cysteine (cf = 2.2, cvf = 24) are calculated. Also, the Michaelis complex partition ratio (cf/cvf) for substrate and products is calculated to be 4.7 for tyrosine and 0.1 for S-methyl-L-cysteine

  6. Mechanistic deductions from kinetic isotope effects and pH studies of pyridoxal phosphate dependent carbon-carbon lyases: Erwinia herbicola and Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiick, D.M.; Phillips, R.S.

    1988-09-20

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and primary deuterium isotope effects have been determined for tyrosine phenol-lyase from both Erwinia herbicola and Citrobacter freundii. The primary deuterium isotope effects indicate that proton abstraction from the 2-position of the substrate is partially rate-limiting for both enzymes. The C. freundii enzyme primary deuterium isotope effects (DV = 3.5 and D(V/Ktyr) = 2.5) are pH independent, indicating that tyrosine is not sticky (i.e., does not dissociate slower than it reacts to give products). Since Vmax for both tyrosine and the alternate substrate S-methyl-L-cysteine is also pH independent, substrate binds only to the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. For the E. herbicola enzyme, both Vmax and V/K for tyrosine or S-methyl-L-cysteine are pH dependent, as well as both DV and D(V/Ktyr). Thus, while both the protonated and unprotonated enzyme can bind substrate, and may be interconverted directly, only the unprotonated Michaelis complex is catalytically competent. At pH 9.5, DV = 2.5 and D(V/Ktyr) = 1.5. However, at pH 6.4 the isotope effect on both parameters is equal to 4.1. From these data, the forward commitment factor (cf = 5.2) and catalytic ratio (cvf = 1.1) for tyrosine and S-methyl-L-cysteine (cf = 2.2, cvf = 24) are calculated. Also, the Michaelis complex partition ratio (cf/cvf) for substrate and products is calculated to be 4.7 for tyrosine and 0.1 for S-methyl-L-cysteine.

  7. Identification of amino acid residues essential to the activity of lyase CpcT1 from Nostoc sp. PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Ya Fang; Zhao, Kai Hong; Zhou, Ming

    2012-12-10

    The phycocyanin lyase CpcT1 (encoded by gene all5339) and lyase CpcS1 (encoded by gene alr0617) are capable of catalyzing the phycocyanobilin (PCB) covalently bound to the different sites of phycocyanin's and phycoerythrocyanin's β subunits, respectively. Lyase CpcS1, whose catalytic mechanism had been researched clearly, participates in the covalent coupling of phycobilin and apoprotein in the form of chaperone, and its important amino acids have been confirmed. In order to identify the functional amino acid residues of CpcT1, chemical modification was conducted to arginine, histidine, tryptophan, lysine and amino acid carboxyl of CpcT1. The results indicated that the catalytic activity of the CpcT1 was changed. After the modification of arginine, tryptophan and histidine, site-directed mutations were performed to those highly conserved amino acids which were selected by means of homologous comparison. The mutated lyase, apoprotein and the enzymes that synthesize the phycobilins were recombined in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and in vitro, yielding chromoproteins, which were detected by fluorescence and UV absorption spectrometry. The spectra were compared with that of the chromoprotein catalyzed by wild type lyase CpcT1, achieving relative specific activities of the various mutants. Meanwhile, the mutants were expressed in E. coli, and then circular dichroism structure of near-UV region was determined. The results demonstrated that H33F, W175S, R97A, C137S and C116S influence the catalytic activity of CpcT1. Being different from wild CpcT1, a great deal of α helix was involved in the structure of circular dichroism of R97A and W13S. CpcT1 or its mutants and the enzymes that synthesize the phycobilins, were reconstituted in E. coli and detected by spectra to check the bounding of lyases and PCB. The results of spectra and SDS-PAGE confirm that CpcT1 and its mutants cannot bind phycobilin, differing from the catalytic mechanism of CpcS1. PMID:22982227

  8. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  9. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanolamine ammonia-lyase from E. coli has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) catalyzes the adenosylcobalamin-dependent conversion of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde and ammonia. The wild-type enzyme shows a very low solubility. N-terminal truncation of the Escherichia coli EAL β-subunit dramatically increases the solubility of the enzyme without altering its catalytic properties. Two deletion mutants of the enzyme [EAL(βΔ4–30) and EAL(βΔ4–43)] have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of EAL(βΔ4–30) and EAL(βΔ4–43) diffracted to approximately 8.0 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively

  10. Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2013-06-01

    Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

  11. Heterologous production of methionine-γ-lyase from brevibacterium linens in lactococcus lactis and formation of volatile sulfur compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hanniffy, Sean; Philo, Mark; Peláez, Carmen; Gasson, M. J.; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of methionine to volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) is of great importance in flavor formation during cheese ripening and is the focus of biotechnological approaches toward flavor improvement. A synthetic mgl gene encoding methionine-γ-lyase (MGL) from Brevibacterium linens BL2 was cloned into a Lactococcus lactis expression plasmid under the control of the nisin-inducible promoter PnisA. When expressed in L. lactis and purified as a recombinant protein, MGL was shown to degrade ...

  12. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed ...

  13. Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango

    OpenAIRE

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2011-01-01

    The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexp...

  14. Molecular and Functional Analyses of the metC Gene of Lactococcus lactis, Encoding Cystathionine β-Lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, María; Doesburg, Wim van; Rutten, Ger A.M.; Marugg, Joey D.; Alting, Arno C.; van Kranenburg, Richard; Oscar P. Kuipers

    2000-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of amino acids in cheese is believed to generate aroma compounds and therefore to be essential for flavor development. Cystathionine β-lyase (CBL) can convert cystathionine to homocysteine but is also able to catalyze an α,γ elimination. With methionine as a substrate, it produces volatile sulfur compounds which are important for flavor formation in Gouda cheese. The metC gene, which encodes CBL, was cloned from the Lactococcus lactis model strain MG1363 and from str...

  15. Production of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine in Escherichia coli with the tyrosine phenol-lyase gene cloned from Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Foor, F; Morin, N.; Bostian, K A

    1993-01-01

    The gene (tutA) encoding tyrosine phenol-lyase from Erwinia herbicola was cloned into Escherichia coli, and fusions to the lac and tac promoters were constructed. The enzyme was expressed at high levels in E. coli in the presence of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside or lactose as an inducer. L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine was synthesized in high yield from catechol, pyruvate, and ammonia by induced cells.

  16. The 3-hydroxy-2-butanone pathway is required for Pectobacterium carotovorum pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Marquez-Villavicencio

    Full Text Available Pectobacterium species are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that cause soft rot diseases in potatoes and several other crops worldwide. Gene expression data identified Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB, which encodes the α-acetolactate synthase enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway, as more highly expressed in potato tubers than potato stems. This pathway is of interest because volatiles produced by the 2,3-butanediol pathway have been shown to act as plant growth promoting molecules, insect attractants, and, in other bacterial species, affect virulence and fitness. Disruption of the 2,3-butanediol pathway reduced virulence of P. c. subsp. carotovorum WPP14 on potato tubers and impaired alkalinization of growth medium and potato tubers under anaerobic conditions. Alkalinization of the milieu via this pathway may aid in plant cell maceration since Pectobacterium pectate lyases are most active at alkaline pH.

  17. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Heng; Hu, Wen; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Her, Ampon Sae; Wang, Shu; Desai, Rushil; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thio-derivative isolated in 1909. In ergothioneine biosynthesis, the combination of a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation reaction and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction results in a net sulfur transfer from cysteine to histidine side-chain. This demonstrates a new sulfur transfer strategy in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing natural products. Due to difficulties associated with the overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EgtE protein, the proposed EgtE functionality remained to be verified biochemically. In this study, we have successfully overexpressed and purified M. smegmatis EgtE enzyme and evaluated its activities under different in vitro conditions: C-S lyase reaction using either thioether or sulfoxide as a substrate in the presence or absence of reductants. Results from our biochemical characterizations support the assignment of sulfoxide 4 as the native EgtE substrate and the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate in the ergothioneine C-S lyase reaction.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a pectin lyase gene from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and comparative phylogenetic/structural analyses with genes from phytopathogenic and saprophytic/opportunistic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Márquez Alicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms produce cell-wall-degrading enzymes as part of their strategies for plant invasion/nutrition. Among these, pectin lyases (PNLs catalyze the depolymerization of esterified pectin by a β-elimination mechanism. PNLs are grouped together with pectate lyases (PL in Family 1 of the polysaccharide lyases, as they share a conserved structure in a parallel β-helix. The best-characterized fungal pectin lyases are obtained from saprophytic/opportunistic fungi in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and from some pathogens such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The organism used in the present study, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is a phytopathogenic fungus that can be subdivided into different physiological races with different capacities to infect its host, Phaseolus vulgaris. These include the non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains known as races 0 and 1472, respectively. Results Here we report the isolation and sequence analysis of the Clpnl2 gene, which encodes the pectin lyase 2 of C. lindemuthianum, and its expression in pathogenic and non-pathogenic races of C. lindemuthianum grown on different carbon sources. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of Clpnl2 based on reported sequences of PNLs from other sources and compared the three-dimensional structure of Clpnl2, as predicted by homology modeling, with those of other organisms. Both analyses revealed an early separation of bacterial pectin lyases from those found in fungi and oomycetes. Furthermore, two groups could be distinguished among the enzymes from fungi and oomycetes: one comprising enzymes from mostly saprophytic/opportunistic fungi and the other formed mainly by enzymes from pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Clpnl2 was found in the latter group and was grouped together with the pectin lyase from C. gloeosporioides. Conclusions The Clpnl2 gene of C. lindemuthianum shares the characteristic elements of

  19. Kynurenine aminotransferase III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes that have cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity and can transaminate L-selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, John T; Krasnikov, Boris F; Alcutt, Steven; Jones, Melanie E; Dorai, Thambi; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Li, Jianyong; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-11-01

    Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity, as does mouse KAT II. Thus, depending on the nature of the substrate, all four KATs possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. These present studies show that KAT III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes. This report also shows that KAT I, II, and III differ in their ability to transaminate methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) and L-selenomethionine (SM) to β-methylselenopyruvate (MSP) and α-ketomethylselenobutyrate, respectively. Previous studies have identified these seleno-α-keto acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors. Methylselenol (CH3SeH), also purported to have chemopreventive properties, is the γ-elimination product of SM and the β-elimination product of MSC catalyzed by cystathionine γ-lyase (γ-cystathionase). KAT I, II, and III, in part, can catalyze β-elimination reactions with MSC generating CH3SeH. Thus, the anticancer efficacy of MSC and SM will depend, in part, on the endogenous expression of various KAT enzymes and cystathionine γ-lyase present in target tissue coupled with the ability of cells to synthesize in situ either CH3SeH and/or seleno-keto acid metabolites.

  20. Potential Inhibitors for Isocitrate Lyase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Non-M. tuberculosis: A Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yie-Vern Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isocitrate lyase (ICL is the first enzyme involved in glyoxylate cycle. Many plants and microorganisms are relying on glyoxylate cycle enzymes to survive upon downregulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. In fact, ICL is a potential drug target for MTB in dormancy. With the urge for new antitubercular drug to overcome tuberculosis treat such as multidrug resistant strain and HIV-coinfection, the pace of drug discovery has to be increased. There are many approaches to discovering potential inhibitor for MTB ICL and we hereby review the updated list of them. The potential inhibitors can be either a natural compound or synthetic compound. Moreover, these compounds are not necessary to be discovered only from MTB ICL, as it can also be discovered by a non-MTB ICL. Our review is categorized into four sections, namely, (a MTB ICL with natural compounds; (b MTB ICL with synthetic compounds; (c non-MTB ICL with natural compounds; and (d non-MTB ICL with synthetic compounds. Each of the approaches is capable of overcoming different challenges of inhibitor discovery. We hope that this paper will benefit the discovery of better inhibitor for ICL.

  1. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from dendrobium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jin

    Full Text Available In this study, a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene was cloned from Dendrobium candidum using homology cloning and RACE. The full-length sequence and catalytic active sites that appear in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum are also found: PAL cDNA of D. candidum (designated Dc-PAL1, GenBank No. JQ765748 has 2,458 bps and contains a complete open reading frame (ORF of 2,142 bps, which encodes 713 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of DcPAL1 has more than 80% sequence identity with the PAL genes of other plants, as indicated by multiple alignments. The dominant sites and catalytic active sites, which are similar to that showing in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, are also found in DcPAL1. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DcPAL is more closely related to PALs from orchidaceae plants than to those of other plants. The differential expression patterns of PAL in protocorm-like body, leaf, stem, and root, suggest that the PAL gene performs multiple physiological functions in Dendrobium candidum.

  2. Diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency by metabolomic profiling in plasma reveals a phenotypic spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka R. Donti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder that presents with a broad-spectrum of neurological and physiological symptoms. The ADSL gene produces an enzyme with binary molecular roles in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. The biochemical phenotype of ADSL deficiency, accumulation of SAICAr and succinyladenosine (S-Ado in biofluids of affected individuals, serves as the traditional target for diagnosis with targeted quantitative urine purine analysis employed as the predominate method of detection. In this study, we report the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency using an alternative method, untargeted metabolomic profiling, an analytical scheme capable of generating semi-quantitative z-score values for over 1000 unique compounds in a single analysis of a specimen. Using this method to analyze plasma, we diagnosed ADSL deficiency in four patients and confirmed these findings with targeted quantitative biochemical analysis and molecular genetic testing. ADSL deficiency is part of a large a group of neurometabolic disorders, with a wide range of severity and sharing a broad differential diagnosis. This phenotypic similarity among these many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs has classically stood as a hurdle in their initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The findings presented here demonstrate the clinical utility of metabolomic profiling in the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency and highlights the potential of this technology in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with neurologic phenotypes.

  3. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) and infantile autism: Absence of previously reported point mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fon, E.A.; Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Autism is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome of unknown etiology. There is evidence that a deficiency in the enzyme adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL), essential for de novo purine biosynthesis, could be involved in the pathogenesis of certain cases. A point mutation in the ADSL gene, resulting in a predicted serine-to-proline substitution and conferring structural instability to the mutant enzyme, has been reported previously in 3 affected siblings. In order to determine the prevalence of the mutation, we PCR-amplified the exon spanning the site of this mutation from the genomic DNA of patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for autistic disorder. None of the 119 patients tested were found to have this mutation. Furthermore, on preliminary screening using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), no novel mutations were detected in the coding sequence of four ADSL exons, spanning approximately 50% of the cDNA. In light of these findings, it appears that mutations in the ADSL gene represent a distinctly uncommon cause of autism. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Engineered Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase effectively produces antimicrobial thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Elena A; Kulikova, Vitalia V; Rodionov, Alexei N; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of thiosulfinates in situ produced by mixtures of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase (MGL) with new substrates, l-methionine and S-(alkyl/allyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxides has been recently demonstrated (Anufrieva et al., 2015). This opens a way to the rational design of a new biotechnologically relevant antimicrobial drug producer. To increase the efficiency of the enzyme toward sulfoxides, the mutant forms of MGL, with the replacements of active site cysteine 115 with alanine (C115A MGL) and histidine (C115H MGL) were obtained. The replacement of cysteine 115 by histidine results in the loss of activity of the mutant enzyme in the γ-elimination reaction of physiological substrate, whereas the activity in the β-elimination reaction of characteristic substrates persists. However, the catalytic efficiency of C115H MGL in the β-elimination reaction of S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides is increased by about an order of magnitude compared to the wild type MGL. The antibacterial activity of C115H MGL mixtures with a number of sulfoxides was assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriostatic effect was more pronounced against Gram-positive than against Gram-negative bacteria, while antibacterial potential proved to be quite similar. Thus, the mutant enzyme C115H MGL is an effective catalyst, in particular, for decomposition of sulfoxides and the pharmacological couples of the mutant form with sulfoxides might be new antimicrobial agents.

  5. Decreased Warburg effect induced by ATP citrate lyase suppression inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Haifeng; Zhang, Yang; You, Yong; Cai, Tiantian; Wang, Yehuang

    2015-03-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is responsible for the conversion of cytosolic citrate into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, and the first rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of elevated ACLY results in growth arrest and apoptosis in a subset of cancers; however, the expression pattern and underlying biological function of ACLY in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In the current study, overexpressed ACLY was more commonly observed in PDAC compared to normal pancreatic tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high expression level of ACLY resulted in a poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Silencing of endogenous ACLY expression by siRNA in PANC-1 cells led to reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, significant decrease in glucose uptake and lactate production was observed after ACLY was knocked down, and this effect was blocked by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, indicating that ACLY functions in the Warburg effect affect PDAC cell growth. Collectively, this study reveals that suppression of ACLY plays an anti-tumor role through decreased Warburg effect, and ACLY-related inhibitors might be potential therapeutic approaches for PDAC. PMID:25701462

  6. Screening Peptide Inhibitors Using Phage Peptide Library with Isocitrate Lyase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yu-he; NIU Xue; SUN Bo; TENG Guo-sheng; ZHAO Yun-hui; WU Cong-mei

    2011-01-01

    When devoured by macrophages,Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains persistent in macrophages and gains energy through the glyoxylate bypass to maintain its long-term existence in host cells.Therefore it is possible to stop persistent infections by interdicting the glyoxylate bypass in which the isocitrate lyase(ICL) is the key rate-limiting enzyme and a persistence factor.ICL is the target of anti-TB(TB:tubercular) drugs,which could screen ICL out and effectively inhibit the activity of ICL in Mycobacterium tuberculosis,and because of this,anti-TB drugs can be used to kill persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis.In this study,the ICL gene of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned successfully and recombinant protein with bioactivity was obtained through the enzyme characteristic appraisal.The specific activity of the recombined ICL is 24 μmol·mg-1 -min-1.The recombined ICL protein was used as the target,and phages which can specifically combine to ICL were screened in the phage 7 peptide library.According to the results of the ELISA and DNA sequence detection,eventually three 7-peptide chains were synthesized.Then the peptide chains were reacted with ICL,respectively,to detect their inhibitory effects on ICL.The results show that all the three 7-peptide chains possessed varying inhibitory effects on the activity of ICL.This study provided lead compounds for the research and development of new peptide anti-TB drugs.

  7. Production of endo-pectate lyase by two stage cultivation of Erwinia carotovora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuoka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki

    1987-02-26

    The productivity of endo-pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora GIR 1044 was found to be greatly improved by two stage cultivation: in the first stage the bacterium was grown with an inducing carbon source, e.g., pectin, and in the second stage it was cultivated with glycerol, xylose, or fructose with the addition of monosodium L-glutamate as nitrogen source. In the two stage cultivation using pectin or glycerol as the carbon source the enzyme activity reached 400 units/ml, almost 3 times as much as that of one stage cultivation in a 10 liter fermentor. Using two stage cultivation in the 200 liter fermentor improved enzyme productivity over that in the 10 liter fermentor, with 500 units/ml of activity. Compared with the cultivation in Erlenmeyer flasks, fermentor cultivation improved enzyme productivity. The optimum cultivating conditions were agitation of 480 rpm with aeration of 0.5 vvm at 28 /sup 0/C. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 14 refs)

  8. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Christina

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ΔspvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.

  9. Production and characterization of a plant alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J; Lakey, J H; Hughes, M A

    1997-02-01

    The coding sequence of the cyanogenic alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase gene of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) was cloned in the plasmid vector pMal-c2 and expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM105. DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid contained the same sequence as the cDNA clone pHNL10. Peptide sequencing of the recombinant protein showed that the N-terminus was heterogeneous, with either four or six additional amino acid residues compared with the native protein. Circular dichroism spectra indicated similar secondary structure contents for both proteins. Enzyme assays showed that specific activity of native and recombinant proteins were 0.24 and 0.26 mmol CN(-)/mg/min, respectively; that both proteins had optimal activity at 40 degrees C and pH 5.5; and that both proteins were inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane sulfonyl flouride (PMSF). Isoelectric focusing of native and recombinant protein revealed multiple isoforms for both proteins; the recombinant protein had a more basic mean isoelectric point (pl) (5.1) than the native protein (4.5).

  10. Purification and properties of S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase from seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelis, M; Creveling, R K

    1975-06-01

    1. An S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.6) was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of acetone-dried powders of the hypocotyls of etiolated 5-day-old seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd. 2. The enzyme catalyses a beta-elimination reaction and will utilize both the thioether and sulphoxide form of the substrate. 3. There is a braod specificity with regard to the alkyl substituent, but cystathionine is utilized very poorly. 4. The pH optimum is 7.8 and the Km value for the probable natural substrate L-djenkolate is 0.3 mM. 5. Both sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and ultracentirfugal analysis give a molecular weight of about 144000. 6. One mol of pyridoxal phosphate is bound/mol of enzyme. 7. The energy of activation with L-djenkolate as the substrate is 53.1 kJ/mol. 8. The enzyme has a partial specific volume of 0.56 and S20,w 7.26S. PMID:241329

  11. Inhibition of Escherichia coli tryptophan indole-lyase by tryptophan homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Quang T; Nguyen, Giang T; Celis, Victor; Phillips, Robert S

    2014-10-15

    We have designed, synthesized and evaluated homotryptophan analogues as possible mechanism-based inhibitors for Escherichia coli tryptophan indole-lyase (tryptophanase, TIL, E.C. 4.1.99.1). As a quinonoid structure is an intermediate in the reaction mechanism of TIL, we anticipated that homologation of the physiological substrate, L-Trp would provide analogues resembling the transition state for β-elimination, and potentially inhibit TIL. Our results demonstrate that L-homotryptophan (1a) is a moderate competitive inhibitor of TIL, with Ki=67 μM, whereas L-bishomotryptophan (1b) displays more potent inhibition, with Ki=4.7 μM. Pre-steady-state kinetics indicated the formation of an external aldimine and quinonoid with 1a, but only the formation of an external aldimine for 1b, suggesting differences in the inhibition mechanism. These results demonstrate that formation of a quinonoid complex is not required for strong inhibition. In addition, the Trp analogues were evaluated as inhibitors of Salmonella typhimurium Trp synthase. Our results indicate that compound 1b is at least 25-fold more selective toward TIL than Trp synthase. We report that compound 1b is comparable to the most potent inhibitor previously reported, while displaying high selectivity for TIL. Thus, 1b is a potential lead for the development of novel antibacterials.

  12. Crystal structure and mechanism of the Staphylococcus cohnii virginiamycin B lyase (Vgb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Magdalena; Filipek, Renata; Bochtler, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    The semisynthetic streptogramin antibiotic quinupristin/dalfopristin (trade name Synercid, Aventis Pharma) is a mixture of the A-type streptogramin dalfopristin and the B-type streptogramin quinupristin, a capped hexapeptide macrolactone. Quinupristin/dalfopristin was developed to combat multidrug resistant pathogens, but suffers from its own problems with drug resistance. Virginiamycin B lyase (Vgb) inactivates the quinupristin component of Synercid by lactone ring opening. Remarkably, the enzyme promotes this reaction by intramolecular beta-elimination without the involvement of a water molecule. Recently, structures of S. aureus Vgb in the presence and absence of substrate were reported and used together with detailed mutagenesis data to suggest a catalytic mechanism. Here, we report an independent determination of the S. cohnii Vgb crystal structure and a biochemical characterization of the enzyme. As expected, the S. cohnii and S. aureus Vgb structures and active sites are very similar. Moreover, both enzymes catalyze quinupristin lactone ring opening with similar rate constants, albeit perhaps with different dependencies on divalent metal ions. Replacement of the conserved active site residues His228, Glu268, or His270 with alanine reduces or abolishes S. cohnii Vgb activity. Residue Lys285 in S. cohnii Vgb is spatially equivalent to the S. aureus Vgb active site residue Glu284. A glutamate but not an alanine residue can substitute for the lysine without significant loss of activity. PMID:18341294

  13. Design of benzimidazole- and benzoxazole-2-thione derivatives as inhibitors of bacterial hyaluronan lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephan; Botzki, Alexander; Salmen, Sunnhild; Textor, Christian; Bernhardt, Günther; Dove, Stefan; Buschauer, Armin

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial hyaluronan lyases (Hyal) degrade hyaluronan, an important component of the extracellular matrix, and are involved in microbial spread. Hyal inhibitors may serve as tools to study the role of the enzyme, its substrates and products in the course of bacterial infections. Moreover, such enzyme inhibitors are potential candidates for antibacterial combination therapy. Based on crystal structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Hyal in complex with a hexasaccharide substrate and with different inhibitors, 1-acylated benzimidazole-2-thiones and benzoxazole-2-thiones were derived as new leads for the inhibition of Streptococcus agalactiae strain 4755 Hyal. Structure-based optimization led to N-(3-phenylpropionyl)benzoxazole-2-thione, one of the most potent compounds known to date (IC(50) values: 24 μM at pH 7.4, 15 μM at pH 5). Among the 27 new derivatives, other N-acylated benzimidazoles and benzoxazoles are just as active at pH 7.4, but not at pH 5. The results support a binding mode characterized by interactions with residues in the catalytic site and with a hydrophobic patch.

  14. Purification and characterization of selenocysteine beta-lyase from Citrobacter freundii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification and characterization of bacterial selenocysteine beta-lyase, an enzyme which specifically catalyzes the cleavage of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and Se0, are presented. The enzyme, purified to near homogeneity from Citrobacter freundii, is monomeric with a molecular weight of ca. 64,000 and contains 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor per mol of enzyme. L-Selenocysteine is the sole substrate. L-Cysteine is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The enzyme also catalyzes the alpha, beta elimination of beta-chloro-L-alanine to form NH3, pyruvate, and Cl- and is irreversibly inactivated during the reaction. The physicochemical properties, e.g., amino acid composition and subunit structure, of the bacterial enzyme are fairly different from those of the pig liver enzyme. However, the catalytic properties of both enzymes, e.g., substrate specificity and inactivation by the substrate or a mechanism-based inactivator, beta-chloro-L-alanine, are very similar

  15. Purification and characterization of selenocysteine beta-lyase from Citrobacter freundii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocat, P.; Esaki, N.; Tanizawa, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1985-08-01

    The purification and characterization of bacterial selenocysteine beta-lyase, an enzyme which specifically catalyzes the cleavage of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and Se0, are presented. The enzyme, purified to near homogeneity from Citrobacter freundii, is monomeric with a molecular weight of ca. 64,000 and contains 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor per mol of enzyme. L-Selenocysteine is the sole substrate. L-Cysteine is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The enzyme also catalyzes the alpha, beta elimination of beta-chloro-L-alanine to form NH3, pyruvate, and Cl- and is irreversibly inactivated during the reaction. The physicochemical properties, e.g., amino acid composition and subunit structure, of the bacterial enzyme are fairly different from those of the pig liver enzyme. However, the catalytic properties of both enzymes, e.g., substrate specificity and inactivation by the substrate or a mechanism-based inactivator, beta-chloro-L-alanine, are very similar.

  16. Control of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene promoters from pea by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gene fusion system was used to study UV light-control of PS PAL1 and PS PAL2 genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of pea. The induction of pea PAL promoters was analysed in transgenic tobacco plants. Binary plasmids (derivatives of pBI101.2 vector) containing 5' regulatory fragments of PS PAL1 and PS PAL2 linked to reporter genes (GUS, LUC) were constructed. The analyses were performed with the use of single constructs (containing one variant of PS PAL promoter and one reporter gene) and dual constructs (containing both PS PAL1 and PS PAL2 promoters connected with different reporter genes). The use of dual constructs enabled the evaluation of both PS PAL promoters activity in the same plant. The analyses of in vitro grown plants have shown that both PAL promoters are strongly induced in leaves subjected to UV radiation. In some cases, the UV-stimulated expression exceeded the exposed areas. This phenomenon was observed more often in the leaves of plants containing the PS PAL1::GUS than PS PAL2::GUS construct. Removal of boxes 2, 4, 5 from PS PAL1 promoter and deletion of its 5' end region (-339 to -1394) decreases the level of gene expression but does not eliminate its responsiveness to UV

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants. PMID:26886573

  18. Diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency by metabolomic profiling in plasma reveals a phenotypic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Taraka R; Cappuccio, Gerarda; Hubert, Leroy; Neira, Juanita; Atwal, Paldeep S; Miller, Marcus J; Cardon, Aaron L; Sutton, V Reid; Porter, Brenda E; Baumer, Fiona M; Wangler, Michael F; Sun, Qin; Emrick, Lisa T; Elsea, Sarah H

    2016-09-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder that presents with a broad-spectrum of neurological and physiological symptoms. The ADSL gene produces an enzyme with binary molecular roles in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. The biochemical phenotype of ADSL deficiency, accumulation of SAICAr and succinyladenosine (S-Ado) in biofluids of affected individuals, serves as the traditional target for diagnosis with targeted quantitative urine purine analysis employed as the predominate method of detection. In this study, we report the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency using an alternative method, untargeted metabolomic profiling, an analytical scheme capable of generating semi-quantitative z-score values for over 1000 unique compounds in a single analysis of a specimen. Using this method to analyze plasma, we diagnosed ADSL deficiency in four patients and confirmed these findings with targeted quantitative biochemical analysis and molecular genetic testing. ADSL deficiency is part of a large a group of neurometabolic disorders, with a wide range of severity and sharing a broad differential diagnosis. This phenotypic similarity among these many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) has classically stood as a hurdle in their initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The findings presented here demonstrate the clinical utility of metabolomic profiling in the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency and highlights the potential of this technology in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with neurologic phenotypes. PMID:27504266

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alginate to Produce Oligosaccharides by a New Purified Endo-Type Alginate Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benwei; Chen, Meijuan; Yin, Heng; Du, Yuguang; Ning, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium alginate to produce alginate oligosaccharides has drawn increasing attention due to its advantages of containing a wild reaction condition, excellent gel properties and specific products easy for purification. However, the efficient commercial enzyme tools are rarely available. A new alginate lyase with high activity (24,038 U/mg) has been purified from a newly isolated marine strain, Cellulophaga sp. NJ-1. The enzyme was most active at 50 °C and pH 8.0 and maintained stability at a broad pH range (6.0–10.0) and temperature below 40 °C. It had broad substrate specificity toward sodium alginate, heteropolymeric MG blocks (polyMG), homopolymeric M blocks (polyM) and homopolymeric G blocks (polyG), and possessed higher affinity toward polyG (15.63 mM) as well as polyMG (23.90 mM) than polyM (53.61 mM) and sodium alginate (27.21 mM). The TLC and MS spectroscopy analysis of degradation products suggested that it completely hydrolyzed sodium alginate into oligosaccharides of low degrees of polymerization (DPs). The excellent properties would make it a promising tool for full use of sodium alginate to produce oligosaccharides. PMID:27275826

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Plasmodium based on the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Lukasz; Escalante, Ananias A; Isea, Raul; Black, Casilda G; Barnwell, John W; Coppel, Ross L

    2002-07-01

    Phylogenetic studies of the genus Plasmodium have been performed using sequences of the nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid genes. Here we have analyzed the adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the salvage of host purines needed by malaria parasites for DNA synthesis. The ASL gene is present in several eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic organisms and does not have repeat regions, which facilitates the accuracy of the alignment. Furthermore, it has been shown that ASL is not subject to positive natural selection. We have sequenced the ASL gene of several different Plasmodium species infecting humans, rodents, monkeys and birds and used the obtained sequences along with the previously known P. falciparum ASL sequence, for structural and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Plasmodium. The genetic divergence of ASL is comparable with that observed in other nuclear genes such as cysteine proteinase, although ASL cannot be considered conserved when compared to aldolase or superoxide dismutase, which exhibit a slower rate of evolution. Nevertheless, a protein like ASL has a rate of evolution that provides enough information for elucidating evolutionary relationships. We modeled 3D structures of the ASL protein based on sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis and obtained a consistent structure for four different species despite the divergence observed. Such models would facilitate alignment in further studies with a greater number of plasmodial species or other Apicomplexa. PMID:12798008

  1. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Homolog from Higher Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Niu; Kunling Chen; Jizhou Wang; Xin Liu; Huanju Qin; Aimin Zhang; Daowen Wang

    2007-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL) is involved in degrading the conserved sphingolipid signaling molecule sphingoaine-1-phosphate. However, molecular studies on plant SPL have not been reported to date. Here, we present bloinformatic, molecular and functional analyses of putative SPL proteins from Arabldopsis thaliana and rice (designated as AtSPL and OsSPL, respectively). Amino acid sequence comparison revealed that plant SPL contained the pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain and the conserved residue that may be involved in substrate catalysis. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AtSPL and OsSPL corrected the hypersensitive phenotype of the yeast dpl1 deletion strain, which is deficient in endogenous SPL activity, to exogenous supplied sphingolipid long chain bases (LCBs), suggesting that plant SPL protein is functional in vivo in degrading phosphorylated LCBs. In Arabidopsis, AtSPL transcripts were detected in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and siliques. In pAtSPL-AtSPL::GUS transgenlc lines, the AtSPL::GUS fusion protein was found in a variety of vegetative and reproductive tissues. AtSPL expression level was dynamically regulated during leaf development and senescence, and was steadily and significantly increased in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with the cell death-inducing fungal toxin fumonisin B1. The potential function of SPL in Arabidopsis is discussed.

  2. Exploration of structure-function relationships in Escherichia coli cystathionine γ-synthase and cystathionine β-lyase via chimeric constructs and site-specific substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Adrienne L; Jaworski, Allison F; Ahmed, Mohammed; Aitken, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) and cystathionine β-lyase (CBL) share a common structure and several active-site residues, but catalyze distinct side-chain rearrangements in the two-step transsulfuration pathway that converts cysteine to homocysteine, the precursor of methionine. A series of 12 chimeric variants of Escherichia coli CGS (eCGS) and CBL (eCBL) was constructed to probe the roles of two structurally distinct, ~25-residue segments situated in proximity to the amino and carboxy termini and located at the entrance of the active-site. In vivo complementation of methionine-auxotrophic E. coli strains, lacking the genes encoding eCGS and eCBL, demonstrated that exchange of the targeted regions impairs the activity of the resulting enzymes, but does not produce a corresponding interchange of reaction specificity. In keeping with the in vivo results, the catalytic efficiency of the native reactions is reduced by at least 95-fold, and α,β versus α,γ-elimination specificity is not modified. The midpoint of thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism, ranges between 59 and 80°C, compared to 66°C for the two wild-type enzymes, indicating that the chimeric enzymes adopt a stable folded structure and that the observed reductions in catalytic efficiency are due to reorganization of the active site. Alanine-substitution variants of residues S32 and S33, as well as K42 of eCBL, situated in proximity to and within, respectively, the targeted amino-terminal region were also investigated to explore their role as determinants of reaction specificity via positioning of key active-site residues. The catalytic efficiency of the S32A, S33A and the K42A site-directed variants of eCBL is reduced by less than 10-fold, demonstrating that, while these residues may participate in positioning S339, which tethers the catalytic base, their role is minor.

  3. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene (SsPAL1 from Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL is the first enzyme involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway and plays important roles in the secondary metabolisms, development and defense of plants. To study the molecular function of PAL in anthocyanin synthesis of Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd, a Coleus PAL gene designated as SsPAL1 was cloned and characterized using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR and RACE method. The full-length SsPAL1 was 2450 bp in size and consisted of one intron and two exons encoding a polypeptide of 711 amino acids. The deduced SsPAL1 protein showed high identities and structural similarities with other functional plant PAL proteins. A series of putative cis-acting elements involved in transcriptional regulation, light and stress responsiveness were found in the upstream regulatory sequence of SsPAL1. Transcription pattern analysis indicated that SsPAL1 was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined and was enhanced by light and different abiotic factors. The recombinant SsPAL1 protein exhibited high PAL activity, at optimal conditions of 60 °C and pH 8.2. Although the levels of total PAL activity and total anthocyanin concentration have a similar variation trend in different Coleus cultivars, there was no significant correlation between them (r = 0.7529, p > 0.1, suggesting that PAL was not the rate-limiting enzyme for the downstream anthocyanin biosynthetic branch in Coleus. This study enables us to further understand the role of SsPAL1 in the phenylpropanoid (flavonoids, anthocyanins biosynthesis in Coleus at the molecular level.

  4. Cystathionine γ-lyase, a H2S-generating enzyme, is a GPBAR1-regulated gene and contributes to vasodilation caused by secondary bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Barbara; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cipriani, Sabrina; Carino, Adriana; Monti, Maria Chiara; Zampella, Angela; Gargiulo, Antonella; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    GPBAR1 is a bile acid-activated receptor (BAR) for secondary bile acids, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), expressed in the enterohepatic tissues and in the vasculature by endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Despite that bile acids cause vasodilation, it is unclear why these effects involve GPBAR1, and the vascular phenotype of GPBAR1 deficient mice remains poorly defined. Previous studies have suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) in regulatory activity exerted by GPBAR1 in liver endothelial cells. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a vasodilatory agent generated in endothelial cells by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Here we demonstrate that GPBAR1 null mice had increased levels of primary and secondary bile acids and impaired vasoconstriction to phenylephrine. In aortic ring preparations, vasodilation caused by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a weak GPBAR1 ligand and farnesoid-x-receptor agonist (FXR), was iberiotoxin-dependent and GPBAR1-independent. In contrast, vasodilation caused by LCA was GPBAR1 dependent and abrogated by propargyl-glycine, a CSE inhibitor, and by 5β-cholanic acid, a GPBAR1 antagonist, but not by N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine (l-NIO), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, or iberiotoxin, a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels antagonist. In venular and aortic endothelial (HUVEC and HAEC) cells GPBAR1 activation increases CSE expression/activity and H2S production. Two cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) sites (CREs) were identified in the CSE promoter. In addition, TLCA stimulates CSE phosphorylation on serine residues. In conclusion we demonstrate that GPBAR1 mediates the vasodilatory activity of LCA and regulates the expression/activity of CSE. Vasodilation caused by CDCA involves BKCa channels. The GPBAR1/CSE pathway might contribute to endothelial dysfunction and hyperdynamic circulation in liver cirrhosis. PMID:25934094

  5. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol−1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha−1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

  6. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolicpathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using gaschromatography-mass spectrometry and fourier transform-ion cyclotronresonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan,Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-07-11

    It has been proposed that during growth under anaerobic oroxygen-limited conditions Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses theserine-isocitrate lyase pathway common to many methylotrophic anaerobes,in which formaldehyde produced from pyruvate is condensed with glycine toform serine. The serine is then transformed through hydroxypyruvate andglycerate to enter central metabolism at phosphoglycerate. To examine itsuse of the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway under anaerobic conditions, wegrew S. oneidensis MR-1 on [1-13C]lactate as the sole carbon source witheither trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) or fumarate as an electron acceptor.Analysis of cellular metabolites indicates that a large percentage(>75 percent) of lactate was partially oxidized to either acetate orpyruvate. The 13C isotope distributions in amino acids and other keymetabolites indicate that, under anaerobic conditions, a complete serinepathway is not present, and lactate is oxidized via a highly reversibleserine degradation pathway. The labeling data also suggest significantactivity in the anaplerotic (malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxylase) and glyoxylate shunt (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase)reactions. Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often observedto be incomplete in many other anaerobes (absence of 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase activity), isotopic labeling supports the existence of acomplete TCA cycle in S. oneidensis MR-1 under TMAO reductioncondition.

  7. Vacuole import and degradation pathway:Insights into a specialized autophagy pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas; A; Alibhoy; Hui-Ling; Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Glucose deprivation induces the synthesis of pivotagluconeogenic enzymes such as fructose-1,6-bisphos-phatase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase and isocitrate lyase in Saccharomycescerevisiae. However, following glucose replenishment,these gluconeogenic enzymes are inactivated and de-graded. Studies have characterized the mechanismsby which these enzymes are inactivated in response toglucose. The site of degradation of these proteins hasalso been ascertained to be dependent on the dura-tion of starvation. Glucose replenishment of short-termstarved cells results in these proteins being degradedin the proteasome. In contrast, addition of glucose tocells starved for a prolonged period results in theseproteins being degraded in the vacuole. In the vacuoledependent pathway, these proteins are sequestered inspecialized vesicles termed vacuole import and degra-dation (Vid). These vesicles converge with the endo-cytic pathway and deliver their cargo to the vacuolefor degradation. Recent studies have identified thatinternalization, as mediated by actin polymerization, isessential for delivery of cargo proteins to the vacuolefor degradation. In addition, components of the targetof rapamycin complex 1 interact with cargo proteins during glucose starvation. Furthermore, Tor1p dissoci-ates from cargo proteins following glucose replenish-ment. Future studies will be needed to elaborate on the importance of internalization at the plasma membrane and the subsequent import of cargo proteins into Vid vesicles in the vacuole dependent degradation pathway.

  8. Cloning and characterization of alfalfa hydroperoxide lyase : a biocatalyst for the production of green note flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Noordermeer, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Plants continuously have to defend themselves against life threatening events such as drought, mechanical damage, temperature stress and potential pathogens. A main component of the plant defense mechanism is the lipoxygenase pathway. Products of this pathway are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, signaling, or have antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The first step in the lipoxygenase pathway is the reaction of linoleic or linolenic acids with molecular oxygen, catalyzed by the e...

  9. Mechanism of Hg-C Protonolysis in the Organomercurial Lyase MerB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Guo, Hong [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Miller, Susan M [ORNL; Summers, Anne O [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Demethylation is a key reaction in global mercury cycling. The bacterial organomercurial lyase, MerB, catalyzes the demethylation of a wide range of organomercurials via Hg-C protonolysis. Two strictly conserved cysteine residues in the active site are required for catalysis, but the source of the catalytic proton and the detailed reaction mechanism have not been determined. Here, the two major proposed reaction mechanisms of MerB are investigated and compared using hybrid density functional theory calculations. A model of the active site was constructed from an X-ray crystal structure of the Hg(II)-bound MerB product complex. Stationary point structures and energies characterized for the Hg-C protonolysis of methylmercury rule out the direct protonation mechanism in which a cysteine residue delivers the catalytic proton directly to the organic leaving group. Instead, the calculations support a two-step mechanism in which Cys96 or Cys159 first donates a proton to Asp99, enabling coordination of two thiolates with R-Hg(II). At the rate-limiting transition state, Asp99 protonates the nascent carbanion in a trigonal planar, bis thiol-ligated R-Hg(II) species to cleave the Hg-C bond and release the hydrocarbon product. Reactions with two other substrates, vinylmercury and cis-2-butenyl-2-mercury, were also modeled, and the computed activation barriers for all three organomercurial substrates reproduce the trend in the experimentally observed enzymatic reaction rates. Analysis of atomic charges in the rate-limiting transition state structure using Natural Population Analysis shows that MerB lowers the activation free energy in the Hg-C protonolysis reaction by redistributing electron density into the leaving group and away from the catalytic proton.

  10. A continuous spectrophotometric assay and nonlinear kinetic analysis of methionine γ-lyase catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Timothy C; Terentis, Andrew C; Venkatachalam, Kallidaikurichi V

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we present a new, easy-to-implement assay for methionine γ-lyase (MGL)-catalyzed γ-elimination reactions of l-methionine and its analogues that produce α-ketobutyrate (α-KB) as product. The assay employs ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry to continuously monitor the rate of formation of α-KB by its absorbance at 315 nm. We also employ a nonlinear data analysis method that obviates the need for an "initial slope" determination, which can introduce errors when the progress curves are nonlinear. The spectrophotometric assay is validated through product analysis by (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), which showed that under the conditions of study l-methionine (l-met) and l-methionine sulfone (l-met sulfone) substrates were converted to α-KB product with greater than 99% yield. Using this assay method, we determined for the first time the Michaelis-Menten parameters for a recombinant form of MGL from Porphyromonas gingivalis, obtaining respective kcat and Km values of 328 ± 8 min(-1) and 1.2 ± 0.1 mM for l-met γ-elimination and 2048 ± 59 min(-1) and 38 ± 2 mM for l-met sulfone γ-elimination reactions. We envisage that this assay method will be useful for determining the activity of MGL γ-elimination reactions that produce α-KB as the end product. PMID:27235171

  11. Simultaneous determination of the lipoxygenase and hydroperxide lyase specificity in olive fruit pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Joaquín J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive pulp lipoxygenase regiospecificity and hydroperoxide lyase substrate specificity are important parameters in order to justify the volatile composition of olive oil. A new radiolabelling method to determine simultaneously these properties using only thin layer chromatography steps is described in the present work. The method involves incubation of an enzyme preparation from olive pulp with radiolabelled linoleate, followed by the fractionation of the resulting lipid products, previously treated with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine, on thin layer chromatography plates coated with polyethylenglycol 400. The results obtained are in agreement with previous studies carried out by other methods.La regioespecificidad de la lipoxigenasa y la especificidad del sustrato hidroperóxido liasa de pulpa de aceituna son parámetros importantes en la justificación de la composición en volátiles del aceite de oliva. En este trabajo se describe un nuevo método de marcaje radioactivo para determinar simultáneamente estas propiedades, usando solo etapas de cromatografía en capa fina. El método implica la incubación de una preparación enzimática de pulpa de aceituna con linoleato marcado, seguido del fraccionamiento de los productos lipídicos resultantes, previamente tratados con 2,4-dinitrofenil hidrazina, sobre placas de cromatografía en capa fina soportadas con polietilenglicol 400. Los resultados obtenidos están de acuerdo con estudios previos llevados a cabo con otros métodos.

  12. The role of active site tyrosine 58 in Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrieva, Natalya V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Morozova, Elena A; Bazhulina, Natalia P; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Timofeev, Vladimir P; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2015-09-01

    In the spatial structure of methionine γ-lyase (MGL, EC 4.4.1.11) from Citrobacter freundii, Tyr58 is located at H-bonding distance to the oxygen atom of the phosphate "handle" of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). It was replaced for phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The X-ray structure of the mutant enzyme was determined at 1.96Å resolution. Comparison of spatial structures and absorption spectra of wild-type and mutant holoenzymes demonstrated that the replacement did not result in essential changes of the conformation of the active site Tyr58Phe MGL. The Kd value of PLP for Tyr58Phe MGL proved to be comparable to the Kd value for the wild-type enzyme. The replacement led to a decrease of catalytic efficiencies in both γ- and β-elimination reactions of about two orders of magnitude as compared to those for the wild-type enzyme. The rates of exchange of C-α- and C-β- protons of inhibitors in D2O catalyzed by the mutant form are comparable with those for the wild-type enzyme. Spectral data on the complexes of the mutant form with the substrates and inhibitors showed that the replacement led to a change of rate the limiting step of the physiological reaction. The results allowed us to conclude that Tyr58 is involved in an optimal positioning of the active site Lys210 at some stages of γ- and β-elimination reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications.

  13. Arsenic Demethylation by a C·As Lyase in Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Ye, Jun; Xue, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Arsenic, a ubiquitous toxic substance, exists mainly as inorganic forms in the environment. It is perceived that organoarsenicals can be demethylated and degraded into inorganic arsenic by microorganisms. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic demethylation in bacteria. Here, we investigated arsenic demethylation in a typical freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. This bacterium was able to demethylate monomethylarsenite [MAs(III)] rapidly to arsenite [As(III)] and also had the ability to demethylate monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] to As(III). The NsarsI encoding a C·As lyase responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was cloned from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and heterologously expressed in an As-hypersensitive strain Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC). Expression of NsarsI was shown to confer MAs(III) resistance through arsenic demethylation. The purified NsArsI was further identified and functionally characterized in vitro. NsArsI existed mainly as the trimeric state, and the kinetic data were well-fit to the Hill equation with K0.5 = 7.55 ± 0.33 μM for MAs(III), Vmax = 0.79 ± 0.02 μM min(-1), and h = 2.7. Both of the NsArsI truncated derivatives lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (ArsI10) or 23 residues (ArsI23) had a reduced ability of MAs(III) demethylation. These results provide new insights for understanding the important role of cyanobacteria in arsenic biogeochemical cycling in the environment.

  14. Partial deficiency of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase confers protection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Billich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P regulates the egress of T cells from lymphoid organs; levels of S1P in the tissues are controlled by S1P lyase (Sgpl1. Hence, Sgpl1 offers a target to block T cell-dependent inflammatory processes. However, the involvement of Sgpl1 in models of disease has not been fully elucidated yet, since Sgpl1 KO mice have a short life-span. METHODOLOGY: We generated inducible Sgpl1 KO mice featuring partial reduction of Sgpl1 activity and analyzed them with respect to sphingolipid levels, T-cell distribution, and response in models of inflammation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The partially Sgpl1 deficient mice are viable but feature profound reduction of peripheral T cells, similar to the constitutive KO mice. While thymic T cell development in these mice appears normal, mature T cells are retained in thymus and lymph nodes, leading to reduced T cell numbers in spleen and blood, with a skewing towards increased proportions of memory T cells and T regulatory cells. The therapeutic relevance of Sgpl1 is demonstrated by the fact that the inducible KO mice are protected in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. T cell immigration into the CNS was found to be profoundly reduced. Since S1P levels in the brain of the animals are unchanged, we conclude that protection in EAE is due to the peripheral effect on T cells, leading to reduced CNS immigration, rather than on local effects in the CNS. SIGNIFICANCE: The data suggest Sgpl1 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  15. Molecular analysis of human argininosuccinate lyase: Mutant characterization and alternative splicing of the coding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argininosuccinic acid lyase (ASAL) deficiency is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder. The authors previously established by complementation analysis that 29 ASAL-deficient patients have heterogeneous mutations in a single gene. To prove that the ASAL structural gene is the affected locus, they sequenced polymerase chain reaction-amplified ASAL cDNA of a representative mutant from the single complementation group. Fibroblast strain 944 from a late-onset patient who was the product of a consanguineous mating, had only a single base-pair change in the coding region, a C-283→ T transition at a CpG dinucleotide in exon 3. This substitution converts Arg-95 to Cys (R95C), occurs in a stretch of 13 residues that is identical in yeast and human ASAL, and was present in both of the patient's alleles but not in 14 other mutant or 10 normal alleles. They observed that amplified cDNA from mutant 944 and normal cells (liver, keratinocytes, lymphoblasts, and fibroblasts) contained, in addition to the expected 5' 513-base-pair band, a prominent 318-base-pair ASAL band formed by the splicing of exon 2 from the transcript. The short transcript maintains the ASAL reading frame but removes Lys-51, a residue that may be essential for catalysis, since it binds the argininosuccinate substrate. They conclude (i) that the identification of the R95C mutation in strain 944 demonstrates that virtually all ASAL deficiency results from defects in the ASAL structural gene and (ii) that minor alternative splicing of the coding region occurs at the ASAL locus

  16. The variability in DMSP content and DMSP lyase activity in marine dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Amandine M. N.; Malin, Gill

    2014-01-01

    More than 20 years ago Maureen Keller and co-workers published a study that identified dinoflagellates as an important marine phytoplankton group with respect to the production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Here, we present a synthesis and analysis of all the DMSP and DMSP lyase activity (DLA) measurements currently available for dinoflagellates. The data cover 110 species and strains and reveal over 6 orders of magnitude variability in intracellular DMSP concentrations and substantial variations in DLA in 23 strains. Inter-specific variability was explored with reference to a range of biological characteristics. The presence of a theca did not appear to be related to DMSP concentration but there was a potential relationship with toxicity (P = 0.06) and bioluminescent species produced significantly lower concentrations (P plastid types (P plastids contained lower amounts of DMSP than those with peridinin plastids (P plastids tended to have higher DMSP concentrations. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were also considered given their importance in the natural environment. They are the only heterotrophs known to synthesise DMSP and this ability may support the theory that they are of photosynthetic origin. However, the heterotrophic species investigated so far suggest wide variability in DMSP content and the species Oxyrrhis marina had no detectable DMSP. The oceanic province of origin significantly affected the DMSP concentrations (P < 0.05) with higher DMSP content observed in dinoflagellates from the Mediterranean province, the Kuroshio Current province and the East Coastal Australian province. Overall this study supports the concept that DMSP-containing dinoflagellates are an important potential source of DMS to the global atmosphere and highlights current gaps in knowledge.

  17. Role of cystathionine gamma-lyase in immediate renal impairment and inflammatory response in acute ischemic kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lajos Markó; Szijártó, István A.; Filipovic, Milos R.; Mario Kaßmann; András Balogh; Joon-Keun Park; Lukasz Przybyl; Gabriele N’diaye; Stephanie Krämer; Juliane Anders; Isao Ishii; Müller, Dominik N.; Maik Gollasch

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to act protectively during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the role of the endogenous H2S in acute kidney injury (AKI) is largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the role of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) in acute renal IRI using CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice whose renal H2S levels were approximately 50% of control (wild-type) mice. Although levels of serum creatinine and renal expression of AKI marker proteins were equivalent between Cth(-/-) and...

  18. Purification and properties of alpha-pinene oxide lyase from Nocardia sp. strain P18.3.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, E T; Harries, P C; Jeffcoat, R; Trudgill, P W

    1987-01-01

    alpha-Pinene oxide is an intermediate in the degradation of alpha-pinene by Nocardia sp. strain P18.3 and some Pseudomonas strains. The epoxide is cleaved by a lyase which catalyzes a concerted reaction in which both rings of the bicyclic structure are cleaved with the formation of cis-2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienal. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from Nocardia sp. strain P18.3. It was induced by growth with alpha-pinene and constituted 6 to 7% of the soluble protein of cell...

  19. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection of...... fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  20. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens ssp. montanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae DRAGOŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoenoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent than in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  1. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens var. montanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DRUGĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoeonoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent that in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of l-methionine γ-lyase 1 from Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Dan [Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 246-2 Mizukami, Kakuganji, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan); Center for Integrated Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Karaki, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Kamei, Kaeko; Harada, Shigeharu, E-mail: harada@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nozaki, Tomoyoshi [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 246-2 Mizukami, Kakuganji, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan)

    2008-08-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 1, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation, from the protozoan parasite E. histolytica was crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that is involved in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids. MGL is an attractive drug target against amoebiasis because the mammalian host of its causative agent Entamoeba histolytica lacks MGL. For the development of anti-amoebic agents based on the structure of MGL, one of two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL1) was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.12, b = 85.38, c = 115.37 Å, β = 101.82°. The crystals diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 42.4 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.8 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 56%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of l-methionine γ-lyase 1 from Entamoeba histolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 1, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation, from the protozoan parasite E. histolytica was crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that is involved in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids. MGL is an attractive drug target against amoebiasis because the mammalian host of its causative agent Entamoeba histolytica lacks MGL. For the development of anti-amoebic agents based on the structure of MGL, one of two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL1) was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.12, b = 85.38, c = 115.37 Å, β = 101.82°. The crystals diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 42.4 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.8 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 56%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress

  4. Comparison of expression, purification and characterization of a new pectate lyase from Phytophthora capsici using two different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuguo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pectate lyases (PELs play an important role in the infection process of plant pathogens and also have a commercial significance in industrial applications. Most of the PELs were expressed as soluble recombinant proteins, while a few recombinant proteins were insoluble. The production of a large-scale soluble recombinant PEL would allow not only a more detailed structural and functional characterization of this enzyme but also may have important applications in the food industry. Results We cloned a new pectate lyase gene (Pcpel2 from Phytophthora capsici. Pcpel2 was constructed by pET system and pMAL system, and both constructs were used to express the PCPEL2 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The expressed products were purified using affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purity, specific activity and pathogenicity of the purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pMAL system were higher than the purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pET system. In addition, some other characteristics of the purified PCPEL2 differed from the two systems, such as crystallographic features. Purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pMAL system was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K, and initial crystals were grown. Conclusion The two different methods and comparison presented here would be highly valuable in obtaining an ideal enzyme for the downstream experiments, and supply an useful alternative to purify some insoluble recombinant proteins.

  5. Structural and Functional Studies on Salmonella Typhimurium Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, Adonis

    Ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL), a coenzyme-B12 (AdoCbl) dependent bacterial enzyme, catalyzes the deamination of select amino-alcohols by using a radical mechanism. Extensive high-resolution spectroscopic determinations of reactant intermediate-state structures and detailed kinetic and thermodynamic studies have been conducted for the Salmonella typhimurium enzyme. A statistically robust homology model for the full [(EutB-EutC) 2]3 oligomer of S. typhimurium EAL is constructed from the Escherichia coli crystal structure. This structure establishes a platform for detailed, microscopic interpretation of the molecular mechanism of EAL catalysis. The model is used to describe the hierarchy of EutB and EutC subunit interactions in the native oligomer and to guide a genetic and biochemical approach to the long-standing challenge of functional oligomer reconstitution from isolated subunits. The model is used to direct site-directed mutagenesis of EAL, leading to the creation of the EutB-F258W mutant, whose fluorescence is sensitive to the binding of AdoCbl. The AdoCbl-EAL dissociation constant is determined to be 1.2 microM, which places limits on the timescale of cofactor exchange kinetics. A series of cysteine-replaced mutants of EAL was created, and progress was made towards the goal of a mutant EAL for site-directed spin labeling studies. The primary cysteine attachment site in wild-type EAL for the 4-maleimido-TEMPO spin label was identified as EutC-C37. The localization of spin labels on EAL enables the interpretation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies that probe distal effects on protein structure caused by cofactor binding. Previously determined rate constants for decay of the cryotrapped substrate radical, and kcat values at ambient temperature, for 1H- and 2H-labelled substrate, are united in a single model that describes the sequential radical rearrangement and hydrogen atom transfer steps, from 190 to 295 K. The model indicates that hydrogen

  6. Mechanistic studies of the spore photoproduct lyase via a single cysteine mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linlin; Lin, Gengjie; Nelson, Renae S; Jian, Yajun; Telser, Joshua; Li, Lei

    2012-09-11

    5-Thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine (also called spore photoproduct or SP) is the exclusive DNA photodamage product in bacterial endospores. It is repaired by a radical SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) enzyme, the spore photoproduct lyase (SPL), at the bacterial early germination phase. Our previous studies proved that SPL utilizes the 5'-dA• generated by the SAM cleavage reaction to abstract the H(6proR) atom to initiate the SP repair process. The resulting thymine allylic radical was suggested to take an H atom from an unknown protein source, most likely cysteine 141. Here we show that C141 can be readily alkylated in the native SPL by an iodoacetamide treatment, suggesting that it is accessible to the TpT radical. SP repair by the SPL C141A mutant yields TpTSO(2)(-) and TpT simultaneously from the very beginning of the reaction; no lag phase is observed for TpTSO(2)(-) formation. Should any other protein residue serve as the H donor, its presence would result in TpT being the major product at least for the first enzyme turnover. These observations provide strong evidence to support C141 as the direct H atom donor. Moreover, because of the lack of this intrinsic H donor, the C141A mutant produces TpT via an unprecedented thymine cation radical reduction (proton-coupled electron transfer) process, contrasting to the H atom transfer mechanism in the wild-type (WT) SPL reaction. The C141A mutant repairs SP at a rate that is ~3-fold slower than that of the WT enzyme. Formation of TpTSO(2)(-) and TpT exhibits a V(max) deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 1.7 ± 0.2, which is smaller than the (D)V(max) KIE of 2.8 ± 0.3 determined for the WT SPL reaction. These findings suggest that removing the intrinsic H atom donor disturbs the rate-limiting process during enzyme catalysis. As expected, the prereduced C141A mutant supports only ~0.4 turnover, which is in sharp contrast to the >5 turnovers exhibited by the WT SPL reaction, suggesting that the enzyme catalytic cycle (SAM

  7. Essential histidine pairs indicate conserved haem binding in epsilonproteobacterial cytochrome c haem lyases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Melanie; Scheithauer, Juliane; Kranz, Robert G.; Simon, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial cytochrome c maturation occurs at the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane, requires transport of haem b across the membrane, and depends on membrane-bound cytochrome c haem lyase (CCHL), an enzyme that catalyses covalent attachment of haem b to apocytochrome c. Epsilonproteobacteria such as Wolinella succinogenes use the cytochrome c biogenesis system II and contain unusually large CCHL proteins of about 900 amino acid residues that appear to be fusions of the CcsB and CcsA proteins found in other bacteria. CcsBA-type CCHLs have been proposed to act as haem transporters that contain two haem b coordination sites located at different sides of the membrane and formed by histidine pairs. W. succinogenes cells contain three CcsBA-type CCHL isoenzymes (NrfI, CcsA1 and CcsA2) that are known to differ in their specificity for apocytochromes and apparently recognize different haem c binding motifs such as CX2CH (by CcsA2), CX2CK (by NrfI) and CX15CH (by CcsA1). In this study, conserved histidine residues were individually replaced by alanine in each of the W. succinogenes CCHLs. Characterization of NrfI and CcsA1 variants in W. succinogenes demonstrated that a set of four histidines is essential for maturing the dedicated multihaem cytochromes c NrfA and MccA, respectively. The function of W. succinogenes CcsA2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was also found to depend on each of these four conserved histidine residues. The presence of imidazole in the growth medium of both W. succinogenes and E. coli rescued the cytochrome c biogenesis activity of most histidine variants, albeit to different extents, thereby implying the presence of two functionally distinct histidine pairs in each CCHL. The data support a model in which two conserved haem b binding sites are involved in haem transport catalysed by CcsBA-type CCHLs. PMID:20705660

  8. Structural And Biochemical Characterization of the Therapeutic A. Variabilis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Gamez, A.; Archer, H.; Abola, E.E.; Sarkissian, C.N.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Wendt, D.; Zhang, Y.; Vellard, M.; Bliesath, J.; Bell, S.; Lemont, J.; Scriver, C.R.; Stevens, R.C.

    2009-05-26

    We have recently observed promising success in a mouse model for treating the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides and Anabaena variabilis. Both molecules, however, required further optimization in order to overcome problems with protease susceptibility, thermal stability, and aggregation. Previously, we optimized PAL from R. toruloides, and in this case we reduced aggregation of the A. variabilis PAL by mutating two surface cysteine residues (C503 and C565) to serines. Additionally, we report the structural and biochemical characterization of the A. variabilis PAL C503S/C565S double mutant and carefully compare this molecule with the R. toruloides engineered PAL molecule. Unlike previously published PAL structures, significant electron density is observed for the two active-site loops in the A. variabilis C503S/C565S double mutant, yielding a complete view of the active site. Docking studies and N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin binding studies support a proposed mechanism in which the amino group of the phenylalanine substrate is attacked directly by the 4-methylidene-imidazole-5-one prosthetic group. We propose a helix-to-loop conformational switch in the helices flanking the inner active-site loop that regulates accessibility of the active site. Differences in loop stability among PAL homologs may explain the observed variation in enzyme efficiency, despite the highly conserved structure of the active site. A. variabilis C503S/C565S PAL is shown to be both more thermally stable and more resistant to proteolytic cleavage than R. toruloides PAL. Additional increases in thermal stability and protease resistance upon ligand binding may be due to enhanced interactions among the residues of the active site, possibly locking the active-site structure in place and stabilizing the tetramer. Examination of the A. variabilis C503S/C565S PAL structure, combined with analysis of its physical properties, provides

  9. Fatty acid hydroperoxides pathways in plants. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauconnier, M. L.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focusses on the fatty acid hydroperoxides pathways, mainly hydroperoxide lyase and hydroperoxide dehydrase. For each enzyme, the definition, occurrence and subcellular localization is presented. Particular attention is given to reaction mecanisms and to substrate specificity. Physiological roles of reaction products are also discussed.

    El presente artículo se centra en las rutas de los hidroperóxidos de ácidos grasos, principalmente la hidroperóxido liasa y la hidroperóxido dehidrasa. Se presenta para cada enzima, la definición, distribución y localización subcelular. Se da atención particular a los mecanismos de reacción y a la especificidad de sustrato. También se discuten los papeles fisiológicos de los productos de reacción.

  10. A mutation in the cytosolic O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase induces a genome-dependent early leaf death phenotype in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirzadian-Khorramabad, Reza; Jing, Hai-Chun; Everts, Gerja E.; Schippers, Jos H. M.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cysteine is a component in organic compounds including glutathione that have been implicated in the adaptation of plants to stresses. O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) catalyses the final step of cysteine biosynthesis. OAS-TL enzyme isoforms are localised in the cytoplasm, the plasti

  11. Correlation of Rutin Accumulation with 3-O-Glucosyl Transferase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activities During the Ripening of Tomato Fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, J.; Matros, A.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Mock, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the polysaccharide lyase RB5312 from the marine planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica

    OpenAIRE

    Dabin, Jérôme; Jam, Murielle; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the family PL1 polysaccharide lyase RB5312 from the marine bacterium R. baltica. Purified recombinant protein was crystallized; the crystals belonged to space group P212121 and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.8 Å.

  13. The structure of RdDddP from Roseobacter denitrificans reveals that DMSP lyases in the DddP-family are metalloenzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Hendrik Hehemann

    Full Text Available Marine microbes degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, which is produced in large quantities by marine algae and plants, with DMSP lyases into acrylate and the gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS. Approximately 10% of the DMS vents from the sea into the atmosphere and this emission returns sulfur, which arrives in the sea through rivers and runoff, back to terrestrial systems via clouds and rain. Despite their key role in this sulfur cycle DMSP lyases are poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of the putative DMSP lyase RdDddP from Roseobacter denitrificans, which belongs to the abundant DddP family. This structure, determined to 2.15 Å resolution, shows that RdDddP is a homodimeric metalloprotein with a binuclear center of two metal ions located 2.7 Å apart in the active site of the enzyme. Consistent with the crystallographic data, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF revealed the bound metal species to be primarily iron. A 3D structure guided analysis of environmental DddP lyase sequences elucidated the critical residues for metal binding are invariant, suggesting all proteins in the DddP family are metalloenzymes.

  14. Modification of potato cell wall pectin by the introduction of rhamnogalacturonan lyase and β-galactosidase transgenes and their side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jie Hong; Kortstee, Anne; Dees, Dianka C.T.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding pectic enzymes were introduced to wild-type potato Karnico. Cell wall materials were extracted from Karnico and transgenic lines expressing β-galactosidase (β-Gal-14 mutant) or rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RGL-18 mutant). After sequential extraction, β-Gal-14 hot buffer-soluble solids

  15. 蛋氨酸酶肿瘤治疗的研究进展%Research Development of Tumor Treatment with Methionine γ-lyase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付崴

    2011-01-01

    Methionine-dependent increase in tumor cells is a specific metabolic defect. This metabolic defect is also a target for selective treatment of cancer. Studies found that the methionine y-lyase (methioninase,L-methionine y-lyase) can specificly split the methionine of extracellular and intracellular, so it can strongly inhibit the growth of tumor cells and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, no effect on normal cells has been found, so the methionine y-lyase may play the anti-tumor role. We also explored in the present study another effect of methionine y-lyase as a single agent on DNA methylation levels and DNA synthesis, which may change as a result of deprivation of methionine, and thus may enhance anti-tumor effects. Animal studies and clinical trials showed that a variety of methionine dependent methionine y-lyase can eliminate the tumor cells. Therefore, methionine restriction is an effective an-ticancer strategy. Methionine y-lyase has shown great prospects as a new type of gene therapy. This article made a review of it.%肿瘤细胞蛋氨酸依赖性的增高是一种特异性的代谢缺陷,这种代谢缺陷也是选择性治疗肿瘤的一个靶点.研究发现,蛋氨酸γ一裂解酶(蛋氨酸酶、L-Methionineγ-Lyase)可以特异地裂解细胞内外的蛋氨酸,从而强烈地抑制肿瘤细胞的生长,并诱发其凋亡,但对正常细胞无影响,从而发挥抗肿瘤的作用.现在还发现,蛋氨酸酶消除体内的蛋氨酸,能够导致基因的甲基化作用和DNA合成发生改变,以增强抗肿瘤效果.动物研究和临床试验表明,蛋氨酸酶可以消除多种依赖蛋氨酸的肿瘤细胞,因此是一种蛋氨酸限制抗癌策略.蛋氨酸酶显示出作为一种新型的基因治疗方法的巨大前景.本文特对此做一综述.

  16. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase and isocitrate lyase in both tomato fruits and leaves, and in the flesh of peach and some other fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Paoletti, Andrea; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    In this study the occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis was investigated in both tomato fruits and leaves during their development and senescence and in some other fruits. The enzymes studied were phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) and glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase (ICL). PPDK was detected in the ripe flesh of tomato, and much smaller amounts were detected in the flesh of both peach and pepper, whereas it was not detected (not present or at very low abundance) in the other fruits which were investigated (apricot, aubergine, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, grape, plum, raspberry and red current). By contrast PEPCK was present in the flesh of all the fruits investigated. Very small amounts of ICL were detected in ripe tomato flesh. PEPCK was present in the skin, flesh, locular gel and columella of tomato fruit, and in these its abundance increased greatly during ripening. PPDK showed a similar distribution, however, its abundance did not increase during ripening. PEPCK was not detected in tomato leaves at any stage of their development or senescence. The content of PPDK g(-1) fresh weight (FW) increased in tomato leaves as they matured, however, it declined during their senescence. In tomato leaves the content of ICL g(-1) FW increased until the mid-stage of development, then decreased as the leaf matured, and then increased during the latter stages of senescence. In the flesh of tomato fruits the contents of PPDK and PEPCK g(-1) FW decreased during senescence. The results suggest that in fruits other than tomato the bulk of any gluconeogenic flux proceeds via PEPCK, whereas in tomato both PEPCK and PPDK could potentially be utilised. Further, the results indicate that the conversion of pyruvate/acetyl-CoA to malate by the glyoxylate cycle, for which ICL is necessary, is not a major pathway utilised by gluconeogenesis in fruits under normal conditions of growth. Finally, the results contribute to

  17. Exposure of E. coli to DNA-methylating agents impairs biofilm formation and invasion of eukaryotic cells via down regulation of the N-acetylneuraminate lyase NanA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eDi Pasquale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation damage can be induced by endogenous and exogenous chemical agents, which has led every living organism to develop suitable response strategies. We investigated protein expression profiles of Escherichia coli upon exposure to the alkylating agent methyl-methane sulfonate (MMS by differential proteomics. Quantitative proteomic data showed a massive downregulation of enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and fatty acids degradation, strongly suggesting a decrease of energy production. A strong reduction in the expression of the N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NanA involved in the sialic acid metabolism was also observed. Using a null NanA mutant and DANA, a substrate analogue acting as competitive inhibitor, we demonstrated that down regulation of NanA affects biofilm formation and adhesion properties of E. coli MV1161. Exposure to alkylating agents also decreased biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 eukaryotic cell line by the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC strain LF82. Our data showed that methylation stress impairs E. coli adhesion properties and suggest a possible role of NanA in biofilm formation and bacteria host interactions.

  18. 紫苏苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因片段克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Gene Fragment in Perilla frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓玲; 孙雪梅; 王芳; 郝磊; 孙晶磊

    2011-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), responsible for catalyzing the conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamic acid to finish the first step of phenylalanine pathway, was the key enzyme during the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. The cDNA fragment of PAL gene was successfully cloned by homology cloning method (Accession No. HQ388347.1), 399 bp and encoded 133 amino acids. It was designated as PerPAL-1. The results of amino acid sequence analysis showed that the identity of the sequence of PerPAL-1 amino acid with that of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Agastache rugosa was 96f and 95%, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that PerPAL-1 had closer relationship with PALs from Lamiaceac plants than those of other plants.The expression of PerPAL-1 gene was the strongest in young leaves and the weakest in stems.%苯丙氨酸解氨酶(Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase,PAL)是迷迭香酸合成途径中苯丙氨酸支路的关键酶,它催化苯丙氨酸生成肉桂酸,完成该支路第一步反应.本实验利用同源克隆方法成功克隆了紫苏PAL基因cDNA片段,命名为PerPAL-1(GenBank登录号:HQ388347.1),该片段长399bp,编码133个氨基酸.通过氨基酸序列比对分析,发现其氨基酸序列与丹参和藿香PAL该片段的同源性分别高达96%和95%.PAL系统进化树表明PerPAL-1与唇形科植物的PAL亲缘关系最近.PerPAL-1基因在叶中表达最强,根中次之,而在茎中表达最弱.

  19. Polyphenol Oxidase, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonium Lyase Induced in Postharvest Peach Fruits by Inoculation with Pichia membranefaciens or Rhizopus stolonifer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Guo-zheng; TIAN Shi-ping; LIU Hai-bo; XU Yong

    2002-01-01

    Rhizopus rot of peach fruits could be significantly suppressed by Pichia membranefaciens.Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonium-lyase (PAL) activities inducedby inoculation with P. membranefaciens or R. stolonifer were studied in postharvest peach fruits. The activ-ities of PPO and PAL in peaches increased significantly after being inoculated with P. membranefaciens + R.stolonifer by 24 h, the activities maintained at a high level throughout the experiment. Under the condition ofinfected with R. stolonifer alone, activity of PPO and PAL could also increased, but the levels were lowerthan those treated with P. membranefaciens+ R. stolonifer. However, fruits inoculaed with P. membrane-faciens+ R. stolonifer or R. stolonifer alone did not stimulated POD activity. The results suggest that theactivation of these defense enzymes is involved in the action of P. membranefaciens against R. stolonifer.

  20. Preliminary structural investigations of the Eut-L shell protein of the ethanolamine ammonia-lyase metabolosome of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of the bacterial microcompartment shell protein Eut-L from Escherichia coli is reported. The ethanolamine ammonia-lyase microcompartment is composed of five different shell proteins that have been proposed to assemble into symmetrically shaped polyhedral particles of varying sizes. Here, preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of the bacterial microcompartment shell protein Eut-L from Escherichia coli is reported. Cloning, overexpression and purification resulted in highly pure protein that crystallized readily under many different conditions. In all cases the protein forms thin hexagonal plate-shaped crystals belonging to space group P3 that are of unusually high stability against different solvent conditions. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å using synchrotron radiation but proved to be radiation-sensitive. Preparations of heavy-atom-derivatized crystals for use in determining the three-dimensional structure are under way

  1. Pre-steady-state kinetic and structural analysis of interaction of methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii with inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Faleev, Nicolai G; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Morozova, Elena A; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Fedorova, Olga S; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2015-01-01

    Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the γ-elimination of l-methionine and its derivatives as well as the β-elimination of l-cysteine and its analogs. These reactions yield α-keto acids and thiols. The mechanism of chemical conversion of amino acids includes numerous reaction intermediates. The detailed analysis of MGL interaction with glycine, l-alanine, l-norvaline, and l-cycloserine was performed by pre-steady-state stopped-flow kinetics. The structure of side chains of the amino acids is important both for their binding with enzyme and for the stability of the external aldimine and ketimine intermediates. X-ray structure of the MGL·l-cycloserine complex has been solved at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure models the ketimine intermediate of physiological reaction. The results elucidate the mechanisms of the intermediate interconversion at the stages of external aldimine and ketimine formation.

  2. Enhancement of cell viability and alkaline polygalacturonate lyase production by sorbitol co-feeding with methanol in Pichia pastoris fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Jianghua; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-02-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL) production by Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as a model to study the mechanism and strategy for enhancing heterologous protein production. In order to enhance cell viability and volumetric recombinant protein productivity, sorbitol, which had been confirmed to be a non-repressive carbon source, was added together with methanol during the induction phase. The resultant PGL activity was up to 1593 U mL(-1), which was enhanced 1.85-fold compared to the control (863 U mL(-1)) cultured with sorbitol added at a constant rate of 3.6 g h(-1)L(-1) after an induction period of 100 h. Further results revealed that an appropriate sorbitol co-feeding strategy not only decreased the cell mortality to 8.8% (the control is about 23.1%) in the end of fermentation, but also reduced the proteolytic degradation of PGL.

  3. Establishment of chondroitin B lyase-based analytical methods for sensitive and quantitative detection of dermatan sulfate in heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjun; Ji, Yang; Su, Nan; Li, Ye; Liu, Xinxin; Mei, Xiang; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-hui

    2016-06-25

    Dermatan sulfate (DS) is one of the hardest impurities to remove from heparin products due to their high structural similarity. The development of a sensitive and feasible method for quantitative detection of DS in heparin is essential to ensure the clinical safety of heparin pharmaceuticals. In the current study, based on the substrate specificity of chondroitin B lyase, ultraviolet spectrophotometric and strong anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatographic methods were established for detection of DS in heparin. The former method facilitated analysis in heparin with DS concentrations greater than 0.1mgmL(-1) at 232nm, with good linearity, precision and recovery. The latter method allowed sensitive and accurate detection of DS at concentrations lower than 0.1mgmL(-1), exhibiting good linearity, precision and recovery. The linear range of DS detection using the latter method was between 0.01 and 0.5mgmL(-1).

  4. Structural dynamics of a methionine γ-lyase for calicheamicin biosynthesis: Rotation of the conserved tyrosine stacking with pyridoxal phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongnan Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CalE6 from Micromonospora echinospora is a (pyridoxal 5′ phosphate PLP-dependent methionine γ-lyase involved in the biosynthesis of calicheamicins. We report the crystal structure of a CalE6 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid complex showing ligand-induced rotation of Tyr100, which stacks with PLP, resembling the corresponding tyrosine rotation of true catalytic intermediates of CalE6 homologs. Elastic network modeling and crystallographic ensemble refinement reveal mobility of the N-terminal loop, which involves both tetrameric assembly and PLP binding. Modeling and comparative structural analysis of PLP-dependent enzymes involved in Cys/Met metabolism shine light on the functional implications of the intrinsic dynamic properties of CalE6 in catalysis and holoenzyme maturation.

  5. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; C. Guttridge D, Denis; Amer, Amal O.

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  6. Bacterial conversion of hydroxylamino aromatic compounds by both lyase and mutase enzymes involves intramolecular transfer of hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Lloyd J; He, Zhongqi; Spain, Jim C

    2003-05-01

    Hydroxylamino aromatic compounds are converted to either the corresponding aminophenols or protocatechuate during the bacterial degradation of nitroaromatic compounds. The origin of the hydroxyl group of the products could be the substrate itself (intramolecular transfer mechanism) or the solvent water (intermolecular transfer mechanism). The conversion of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol catalyzed by a mutase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45 proceeds by an intramolecular hydroxyl transfer. The conversions of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2- and 4-aminophenol by a mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 and to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to protocatechuate by a lyase from Comamonas acidovorans NBA-10 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 4NT were proposed, but not experimentally proved, to proceed by the intermolecular transfer mechanism. GC-MS analysis of the reaction products formed in H(2)(18)O did not indicate any (18)O-label incorporation during the conversion of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2- and 4-aminophenols catalyzed by the mutase from R. eutropha JMP134. During the conversion of 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate catalyzed by the hydroxylaminolyase from Pseudomonas sp. strain 4NT, only one of the two hydroxyl groups in the product, protocatechuate, was (18)O labeled. The other hydroxyl group in the product must have come from the substrate. The mutase in strain JS45 converted 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoate, and the lyase in Pseudomonas strain 4NT converted hydroxylaminobenzene to aniline and 2-aminophenol but not to catechol. The results indicate that all three types of enzyme-catalyzed rearrangements of hydroxylamino aromatic compounds proceed via intramolecular transfer of hydroxyl groups.

  7. De novo engineering of a human cystathionine-γ-lyase for systemic (L)-Methionine depletion cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Everett; Paley, Olga; Hu, Jian; Ekerdt, Barbara; Cheung, Nai-Kong; Georgiou, George

    2012-11-16

    It has been known for nearly a half century that human tumors, including those derived from the nervous system such as glioblastomas, medulloblastoma, and neuroblastomas are much more sensitive than normal tissues to l-methionine (l-Met) starvation. More recently, systemic l-Met depletion by administration of Pseudomonas putida methionine-γ-lyase (MGL) could effectively inhibit human tumors xenografted in mice. However, bacterial-derived MGLs are unstable in serum (t(1/2) = 1.9 ± 0.2 h) and highly immunogenic in primates. Since the human genome does not encode a human MGL enzyme, we created de novo a methionine degrading enzyme by reengineering the structurally homologous pyridoxal phosphate-dependent human enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (hCGL). hCGL degrades l-cystathionine but displays no promiscuous activity toward l-Met. Rational design and scanning saturation mutagenesis led to the generation of a variant containing three amino acid substitutions (hCGL-NLV) that degraded l-Met with a k(cat)/K(M) of 5.6 × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1) and displayed a serum deactivation t(1/2) = 78 ± 5 h (non-PEGylated). In vitro, the cytotoxicity of hCGL-NLV toward 14 neuroblastoma cell lines was essentially indistinguishable from that of the P. putida MGL. Intravenous administration of PEGylated hCGL-NLV in mice reduced serum l-Met from 123 μM to <5 μM for over 30 h. Importantly, treatment of neuroblastoma mouse xenografts with PEGylated hCGL-NLV resulted in near complete cessation of tumor growth. Since the mode of action of hCGL-NLV does not require breaching the blood-brain barrier, this enzyme may have potential application for sensitive tumors that arise from or metastasize to the central nervous system.

  8. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; Guttridge D, Denis C; Amer, Amal O

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  9. Structural Insights into an Oxalate-producing Serine Hydrolase with an Unusual Oxyanion Hole and Additional Lyase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juntaek; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2016-07-15

    In Burkholderia species, the production of oxalate, an acidic molecule, is a key event for bacterial growth in the stationary phase. Oxalate plays a central role in maintaining environmental pH, which counteracts inevitable population-collapsing alkaline toxicity in amino acid-based culture medium. In the phytopathogen Burkholderia glumae, two enzymes are responsible for oxalate production. First, the enzyme oxalate biosynthetic component A (ObcA) catalyzes the formation of a tetrahedral C6-CoA adduct from the substrates acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. Then the ObcB enzyme liberates three products from the C6-CoA adduct: oxalate, acetoacetate, and CoA. Interestingly, these two stepwise reactions are catalyzed by a single bifunctional enzyme, Obc1, from Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Obc1 has an ObcA-like N-terminal domain and shows ObcB activity in its C-terminal domain despite no sequence homology with ObcB. We report the crystal structure of Obc1 in its apo and glycerol-bound form at 2.5 Å and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. The Obc1 N-terminal domain is essentially identical both in structure and function to that of ObcA. Its C-terminal domain has an α/β hydrolase fold that has a catalytic triad for oxalate production and a novel oxyanion hole distinct from the canonical HGGG motif in other α/β hydrolases. Functional analyses through mutagenesis studies suggested that His-934 is an additional catalytic acid/base for its lyase activity and liberates two additional products, acetoacetate and CoA. These results provide structural and functional insights into bacterial oxalogenesis and an example of divergent evolution of the α/β hydrolase fold, which has both hydrolase and lyase activity. PMID:27226606

  10. Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Foulon, V; Croes, K; Waelkens, E

    1999-01-01

    Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

  11. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon.

  12. Residues C123 and D58 of the 2-methylisocitrate lyase (PrpB) enzyme of Salmonella enterica are essential for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimek, T L; Holden, H; Rayment, I; Escalante-Semerena, J C

    2003-08-01

    The prpB gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encodes a protein with 2-methylisocitrate (2-MIC) lyase activity, which cleaves 2-MIC into pyruvate and succinate during the conversion of propionate to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitric acid cycle. This paper reports the isolation and kinetic characterization of wild-type and five mutant PrpB proteins. Wild-type PrpB protein had a molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa per subunit, and the biologically active enzyme was comprised of four subunits. Optimal 2-MIC lyase activity was measured at pH 7.5 and 50 degrees C, and the reaction required Mg(2+) ions; equimolar concentrations of Mn(2+) ions were a poor substitute for Mg(2+) (28% specific activity). Dithiothreitol (DTT) or reduced glutathione (GSH) was required for optimal activity; the role of DTT or GSH was apparently not to reduce disulfide bonds, since the disulfide-specific reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride failed to substitute for DTT or GSH. The K(m) of PrpB for 2-MIC was measured at 19 micro M, with a k(cat) of 105 s(-1). Mutations in the prpB gene were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis based on the active-site residues deemed important for catalysis in the closely related phosphoenolpyruvate mutase and isocitrate lyase enzymes. Residues D58, K121, C123, and H125 of PrpB were changed to alanine, and residue R122 was changed to lysine. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that all mutant PrpB proteins retained the same oligomeric state of the wild-type enzyme, which is known to form tetramers. The PrpB(K121A), PrpB(H125A), and PrpB(R122K) mutant proteins formed enzymes that had 1,050-, 750-, and 2-fold decreases in k(cat) for 2-MIC lyase activity, respectively. The PrpB(D58A) and PrpB(C123A) proteins formed tetramers that displayed no detectable 2-MIC lyase activity indicating that both of these residues are essential for catalysis. Based on the proposed mechanism of the closely related

  13. Discovery of a Novel Alginate Lyase from Nitratiruptor sp. SB155-2 Thriving at Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents and Identification of the Residues Responsible for Its Heat Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akira; Anraku, Moe; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Ojima, Takao

    2016-07-22

    Extremophiles are expected to represent a source of enzymes having unique functional properties. The hypothetical protein NIS_0185, termed NitAly in this study, was identified as an alginate lyase-homolog protein in the genomic database of ϵ-Proteobacteria Nitratiruptor sp. SB155-2, which was isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents at a water depth of 1,000 m. Among the characterized alginate lyases in the polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL-7), the amino acid sequence of NitAly showed the highest identity (39%) with that of red alga Pyropia yezoensis alginate lyase PyAly. Recombinant NitAly (rNitAly) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli Purified rNitAly degraded alginate in an endolytic manner. Among alginate block types, polyM was preferable to polyG and polyMG as a substrate, and its end degradation products were mainly tri-, tetra-, and penta-saccharides. The optimum temperature and pH values were 70 °C and around 6, respectively. A high concentration of NaCl (0.8-1.4 m) was required for maximum activity. In addition, a 50% loss of activity was observed after incubation at 67 °C for 30 min. Heat stability was decreased in the presence of 5 mm DTT, and Cys-80 and Cys-232 were identified as the residues responsible for heat stability but not lyase activity. Introducing two cysteines into PyAly based on homology modeling using Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate lyase PA1167 as the template enhanced its heat stability. Thus, NitAly is a functional alginate lyase, with its unique optimum conditions adapted to its environment. These insights into the heat stability of NitAly could be applied to improve that of other PL-7 alginate lyases. PMID:27231344

  14. Integration of Apo-α-Phycocyanin into Phycobilisomes and Its Association with FNRL in the Absence of the Phycocyanin α-Subunit Lyase (CpcF) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Frankel, Laurie K.; Terry M Bricker

    2014-01-01

    Phycocyanin is an important component of the phycobilisome, which is the principal light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria. The covalent attachment of the phycocyanobilin chromophore to phycocyanin is catalyzed by the enzyme phycocyanin lyase. The photosynthetic properties and phycobilisome assembly state were characterized in wild type and two mutants which lack holo-α-phycocyanin. Insertional inactivation of the phycocyanin α-subunit lyase (ΔcpcF mutant) prevents the ligation of phycocyan...

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the polysaccharide lyase RB5312 from the marine planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabin, Jérôme; Jam, Murielle; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2008-03-01

    Polysaccharide lyases belonging to family PL1 act on pectins. These anionic polymers are usually produced by terrestrial plants and therefore pectinolytic enzymes are not frequently observed in marine microorganisms. The protein RB5312 from the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica is distantly related to family PL1 pectate lyases, but its exact function is unclear. In this study, the expression and purification of a recombinant form of RB5312 are described. This protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 39.05, b = 144.05, c = 153.97 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. A complete data set was collected to 1.8 A resolution from a native crystal. PMID:18323615

  16. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for...

  17. Hydroxynitrile Lyases with α/β-Hydrolase Fold: Two Enzymes with Almost Identical 3D Structures but Opposite Enantioselectivities and Different Reaction Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Andexer, Jennifer N; Staunig, Nicole; Eggert, Thorsten; Kratky, Christoph; Pohl, Martina; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze the cleavage of cyanohydrins to yield hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and the respective carbonyl compound and are key enzymes in the process of cyanogenesis in plants. In organic syntheses, HNLs are used as biocatalysts for the formation of enantiopure cyanohydrins. We determined the structure of the recently identified, R-selective HNL from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHNL) at a crystallographic resolution of 2.5 Å. The structure exhibits an α/β-hydrolase fold, very ...

  18. Diversity of function in the isocitrate lyase enzyme superfamily: the Dianthus caryophyllus petal death protein cleaves alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhibing; Feng, Xiaohua; Song, Ling; Han, Ying; Kim, Alexander; Herzberg, Osnat; Woodson, William R; Martin, Brian M; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2005-12-20

    The work described in this paper was carried out to define the chemical function a new member of the isocitrate lyase enzyme family derived from the flowering plant Dianthus caryophyllus. This protein (Swiss-Prot entry Q05957) is synthesized in the senescent flower petals and is named the "petal death protein" or "PDP". On the basis of an analysis of the structural contexts of sequence markers common to the C-C bond lyases of the isocitrate lyase/phosphoenolpyruvate mutase superfamily, a substrate screen that employed a (2R)-malate core structure was designed. Accordingly, stereochemically defined C(2)- and C(3)-substituted malates were synthesized and tested as substrates for PDP-catalyzed cleavage of the C(2)-C(3) bond. The screen identified (2R)-ethyl, (3S)-methylmalate, and oxaloacetate [likely to bind as the hydrate, C(2)(OH)(2) gem-diol] as the most active substrates (for each, k(cat)/K(m) = 2 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). In contrast to the stringent substrate specificities previously observed for the Escherichia coli isocitrate and 2-methylisocitrate lyases, the PDP tolerated hydrogen, methyl, and to a much lesser extent acetate substituents at the C(3) position (S configuration only) and hydoxyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and to a much lesser extent isobutyl substituents at C(2) (R configuration only). It is hypothesized that PDP functions in oxalate production in Ca(2+) sequestering and/or in carbon scavenging from alpha-hydroxycarboxylate catabolites during the biochemical transition accompanying petal senescence.

  19. Uncovering divergent evolution of α/β-hydrolases: a surprising residue substitution needed to convert Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase into an esterase

    OpenAIRE

    Nedrud, David M.; Lin, Hui; Lopez, Gilsinia; Padhi, Santosh K.; Legatt, Graig A.; Kaz-lauskas, Romas J.

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase (HbHNL) and salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2, an esterase) share 45% amino acid sequence identity, the same protein fold, and even the same catalytic triad of Ser-His-Asp. However, they catalyze different reactions: cleavage of hydroxynitriles and hydrolysis of esters, respectively. To understand how other active site differences in the two enzymes enable the same catalytic triad to catalyze different reactions, we substituted amino acid residues...

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the polysaccharide lyase RB5312 from the marine planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabin, Jérôme; Jam, Murielle; Czjzek, Mirjam, E-mail: czjzek@sb-roscoff.fr; Michel, Gurvan [UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7139, Marine Plants and Biomolecules, Station Biologique de Roscoff, F-29682 Roscoff, Bretagne (France); CNRS, UMR 7139, Marine Plants and Biomolecules, Station Biologique de Roscoff, F-29682 Roscoff, Bretagne (France)

    2008-03-01

    This study describes the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the family PL1 polysaccharide lyase RB5312 from the marine bacterium R. baltica. Purified recombinant protein was crystallized; the crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Polysaccharide lyases belonging to family PL1 act on pectins. These anionic polymers are usually produced by terrestrial plants and therefore pectinolytic enzymes are not frequently observed in marine microorganisms. The protein RB5312 from the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica is distantly related to family PL1 pectate lyases, but its exact function is unclear. In this study, the expression and purification of a recombinant form of RB5312 are described. This protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.05, b = 144.05, c = 153.97 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. A complete data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution from a native crystal.

  1. Bioinformatics Analysis of pectin lyases in Aspergillus niger%黑曲霉果胶裂解酶的生物信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯崇榕; 杨欣伟; 林晓华; 吴毕莎; 陈荣珠; 黄建忠

    2011-01-01

    用生物信息方法对果胶裂解酶(PNL)基因的核酸序列及其推导氨基酸序列的组成、亚细胞定位、疏水性/亲水性以及二、三级结构等进行分析.结果表明,黑曲霉的PNL为具有一定亲水性的稳定酸性分泌蛋白,具有明显的信号肤,无跨膜结构区,保守功能结构域为Pee_lyase_C.二级结构主要构成是不规则卷曲,具有以β片层结构为基础的相似三维空间结构.%Analyzed and predicted the nucleotide and amino acids composition、sub -cell location,signal peptides and tran -membrane regions、hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity ..secondary and tertiary structure of pectin lyases including Aspergillus niger from NCBI database. Results shows that A. Niger PNLs are stability of hydrophilic secreted protein, with a clear signal peptide, non - transmembrane area. The structures of PNL include a characteristic functional domain of Pec_lyase_C. Random coil is the main components of its secondary structure and has similar tertiary structures with the β sheet structure.

  2. In vitro and in vivo models for the evaluation of potent inhibitors of male rat 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, I; Bonnet, P; Duranti, V; Cardinali, S; Rivière, A; De Giovanni, A; Shields-Botella, J; Barcelo, G; Adje, N; Carniato, D; Lafay, J; Pascal, J C; Delansorne, R

    2003-04-01

    The C(17,20)-lyase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of androgens by both the testes and adrenals. A complete inhibition of this enzyme would provide an alternative means of androgen suppression for the treatment of prostatic cancers. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of new non-steroidal compounds were tested in vitro on rat C(17,20)-lyase versus abiraterone, a reference steroidal inhibitor. Their activities were also evaluated in vivo on plasma testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and on testes, adrenals, seminal vesicles (SV) and ventral prostate (VP) weights after 3 days of oral treatment to adult male rats (50mg/kg per day p.o.). Inhibition in the nanomolar range was obtained with TX 977, the lead racemate product in this series, and optimization is ongoing based on a slight dissociation observed between its two diastereoisomers, TX 1196-11 (S) and TX 1197-11 (R). These non-steroidal compounds (including YM 55208, a reference competitor) proved to be more active in vivo than abiraterone acetate in this model, but the observed impact on adrenal weight suggests that the specificity of lyase inhibition versus corticosteroid biosynthesis deserves further investigations with this new class of potentially useful agents for the treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer.

  3. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  4. Regulation of polyphenols accumulation by combined overexpression/silencing key enzymes of phyenylpropanoid pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junli Chang; Jie Luo; Guangyuan He

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the metabolic engineering of plant with increased desirable polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid (CGA) and rutin. In this study, the effects of overexpression of both phenylalanine ammonia lyase (AtPAL2), the first enzyme of the phe-nylpropanoid pathway, and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate:hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (NtHQT), the last enzyme of CGA biosynthesis, and the overexpres-sion of AtPAL2 together with silencing of NtHQT were investigated in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing AtPAL2 showed two and five times increases of CGA and rutin levels than the wild-type (WT) plants, respectively. Overexpression of NtHQT further increases the accumulation of CGA in the AtPAL2 plants to about three times than that of the WT level, while silencing of NtHQT in AtPAL2 plants results in ~12 times increase in rutin level than that of the WT plants. Simultaneous overexpression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and overexpression/silencing HQT could be used for the production of functional food with increased polyphenols.

  5. Uncovering divergent evolution of α/β-hydrolases: a surprising residue substitution needed to convert Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase into an esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrud, David M; Lin, Hui; Lopez, Gilsinia; Padhi, Santosh K; Legatt, Graig A; Kaz-Lauskas, Romas J

    2014-11-01

    Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase (HbHNL) and salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2, an esterase) share 45% amino acid sequence identity, the same protein fold, and even the same catalytic triad of Ser-His-Asp. However, they catalyze different reactions: cleavage of hydroxynitriles and hydrolysis of esters, respectively. To understand how other active site differences in the two enzymes enable the same catalytic triad to catalyze different reactions, we substituted amino acid residues in HbHNL with the corresponding residues from SABP2, expecting hydroxynitrile lyase activity to decrease and esterase activity to increase. Previous mechanistic studies and x-ray crystallography suggested that esterase activity requires removal of an active site lysine and threonine from the hydroxynitrile lyase. The Thr11Gly Lys236Gly substitutions in HbHNL reduced hydroxynitrile lyase activity for cleavage of mandelonitrile 100-fold, but increased esterase activity only threefold to kcat ~ 0.1 min(-1) for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Adding a third substitution - Glu79His - increased esterase activity more than tenfold to kcat ~ 1.6 min(-1). The specificity constant (kcat/KM) for this triple substitution variant versus wild type HbHNL shifted more than one million-fold from hydroxynitrile lyase activity (acetone cyanohydrin substrate) to esterase activity (p-nitrophenyl acetate substrate). The contribution of Glu79His to esterase activity was surprising since esterases and lipases contain many different amino acids at this position, including glutamate. Saturation mutagenesis at position 79 showed that 13 of 19 possible amino acid substitutions increased esterase activity, suggesting that removal of glutamate, not addition of histidine, increased esterase activity. Molecular modeling indicates that Glu79 disrupts esterase activity in HbHNL when its negatively charged side chain distorts the orientation of the catalytic histidine. Naturally occurring glutamate at the

  6. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 μM sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 μM cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as β-substituted alanine synthases.

  7. The role of amino acid residues in the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase from Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Mitsuki; Kudou, Daizou; Murano, Shouko; Shiba, Tomoo; Sato, Dan; Tamura, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Inagaki, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* (asterisks indicate residues from the second subunit of the active dimer) at the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase of Pseudomonas putida (MGL_Pp) are highly conserved among heterologous MGLs. In a previous study, we found that substitution of Cys116 for His led to a drastic increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. In this study, we examined some properties of the C116H mutant by kinetic analysis and 3D structural analysis. We assumed that substitution of Cys116 for His broke the original hydrogen-bond network and that this induced a significant effect of Tyr114 as a general acid catalyst, possibly due to the narrow space in the active site. The C116H mutant acquired a novel β-elimination activity and lead a drastic conformation change in the histidine residue at position 116 by binding the substrate, suggesting that this His residue affects the reaction specificity of C116H. Furthermore, we suggest that Lys240* is important for substrate recognition and structural stability and that Asp241* is also involved in substrate specificity in the elimination reaction. Based on this, we suggest that the hydrogen-bond network among Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* contributes to substrate specificity that is, to L-methionine recognition at the active site in MGL_Pp.

  8. Biochemical discrimination between selenium and sulfur 2: mechanistic investigation of the selenium specificity of human selenocysteine lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Johansson

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine. Selenocysteine (Sec lyases (SCLs and cysteine (Cys desulfurases (CDs catalyze the removal of selenium or sulfur from Sec or Cys, respectively, and generally accept both substrates. Intriguingly, human SCL (hSCL is specific for Sec even though the only difference between Sec and Cys is a single chalcogen atom.The crystal structure of hSCL was recently determined and gain-of-function protein variants that also could accept Cys as substrate were identified. To obtain mechanistic insight into the chemical basis for its substrate discrimination, we here report time-resolved spectroscopic studies comparing the reactions of the Sec-specific wild-type hSCL and the gain-of-function D146K/H389T variant, when given Cys as a substrate. The data are interpreted in light of other studies of SCL/CD enzymes and offer mechanistic insight into the function of the wild-type enzyme. Based on these results and previously available data we propose a reaction mechanism whereby the Sec over Cys specificity is achieved using a combination of chemical and physico-mechanical control mechanisms.

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Human Adenylosuccinate Lyase (ADSL) and the R303C ADSL Deficiency-Associated Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Stephen P.; Deaton, Michelle K.; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Calkins, Lauren A.F.; Sawle, Lucas; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Patterson, David; Pegan, Scott D. (Denver)

    2014-10-02

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which causes a defect in purine metabolism resulting in neurological and physiological symptoms. ADSL executes two nonsequential steps in the de novo synthesis of AMP: the conversion of phosphoribosylsuccinyl-aminoimidazole carboxamide (SAICAR) to phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxamide, which occurs in the de novo synthesis of IMP, and the conversion of adenylosuccinate to AMP, which occurs in the de novo synthesis of AMP and also in the purine nucleotide cycle, using the same active site. Mutation of ADSL's arginine 303 to a cysteine is known to lead to ADSL deficiency. Interestingly, unlike other mutations leading to ADSL deficiency, the R303C mutation has been suggested to more significantly affect the enzyme's ability to catalyze the conversion of succinyladenosine monophosphate than that of SAICAR to their respective products. To better understand the causation of disease due to the R303C mutation, as well as to gain insights into why the R303C mutation potentially has a disproportional decrease in activity toward its substrates, the wild type (WT) and the R303C mutant of ADSL were investigated enzymatically and thermodynamically. Additionally, the X-ray structures of ADSL in its apo form as well as with the R303C mutation were elucidated, providing insight into ADSL's cooperativity. By utilizing this information, a model for the interaction between ADSL and SAICAR is proposed.

  10. Biochemical discrimination between selenium and sulfur 2: mechanistic investigation of the selenium specificity of human selenocysteine lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Louise; Collins, Ruairi; Arnér, Elias S J; Brzezinski, Peter; Högbom, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine. Selenocysteine (Sec) lyases (SCLs) and cysteine (Cys) desulfurases (CDs) catalyze the removal of selenium or sulfur from Sec or Cys, respectively, and generally accept both substrates. Intriguingly, human SCL (hSCL) is specific for Sec even though the only difference between Sec and Cys is a single chalcogen atom.The crystal structure of hSCL was recently determined and gain-of-function protein variants that also could accept Cys as substrate were identified. To obtain mechanistic insight into the chemical basis for its substrate discrimination, we here report time-resolved spectroscopic studies comparing the reactions of the Sec-specific wild-type hSCL and the gain-of-function D146K/H389T variant, when given Cys as a substrate. The data are interpreted in light of other studies of SCL/CD enzymes and offer mechanistic insight into the function of the wild-type enzyme. Based on these results and previously available data we propose a reaction mechanism whereby the Sec over Cys specificity is achieved using a combination of chemical and physico-mechanical control mechanisms.

  11. Reduction of L-phenylalanine in protein hydrolysates using L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, María Teresita; Adachi, Osao; Hours, Roque Alberto

    2015-10-01

    L-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.25) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was utilized to remove L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) from different commercial protein hydrolysates. A casein acid hydrolysate (CAH, L-Phe ~2.28 %) was employed as a model substrate. t-Cinnamic acid resulting from deamination of L-Phe was extracted, analyzed at λ = 290 nm, and used for PAL activity determination. Optimum reaction conditions, optimized using successive Doehlert design, were 35 mg mL(-1) of CAH and 800 mU mL(-1) of PAL, while temperature and pH were 42 °C and 8.7, respectively. Reaction kinetics of PAL with CAH was determined under optimized conditions. Then, removal of L-Phe from CAH was tested. Results showed that more than 92 % of initial L-Phe was eliminated. Similar results were obtained with other protein hydrolysates. These findings demonstrate that PAL is a useful biocatalyst for L-Phe removal from protein hydrolysates, which can be evaluated as potential ingredients in foodstuffs for PKU patients.

  12. Enhancement of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Polyphenoloxidase, and Peroxidase in Cucumber Seedlings by Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) were assayed in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after they were infested by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) using spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicated that herbivore infestation increased the activities of PAL, PPO, and POD. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The PAL activity reached the first high peak by 23.1% at 6 h and the highest peak by 29.1% at 48 h compared to the control. The PPO activity reached the first high peak by 22.7% at 6 h and the highest peak by 52.6% at 24 h, and the POD activity reached the highest peak by 213.2% at 6 h and another higher peak value by 135.2% at 96 h. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of cucumber plants against B. Tabaci infestation.

  13. cDNA cloning, Phylogenic Analysis and Gene Expression Pattern of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hashemitabar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clone and characterize a full length cDNA of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (SoPAL. Differential tissue expression pattern of the SoPAL transcript and its enzyme activity was also analyzed during the tillering stage of growth. The full-length of SoPAL cDNA was 2118 bp long and contained a protein with 706 amino acids, determined by encoding technique. The amino acid sequence and phylogenic analysis of the cloned SoPAL showed high similarity to PAL from other monocotyledonous such as sorghum (96%, maize (93% and Bamboos (87.12%. The highest levels of SoPAL transcript were observed in the root and stem, while its minimal gene expression levels were in the leaves and sheath, respectively. The highest level of SoPAL enzyme activity was in the leaves. These results helped to understanding the characteristics of PAL biosynthesis and its regulation at the molecular level in sugarcane. This information could be critical for the manipulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in the plant using biotechnological processes.

  14. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive. PMID:19430937

  15. Characterization of smart auto-degradative hydrogel matrix containing alginate lyase to enhance levofloxacin delivery against bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islan, German A; Dini, Cecilia; Bartel, Laura C; Bolzán, Alejandro D; Castro, Guillermo R

    2015-12-30

    The aim of the present work is the characterization of smart auto-degradable microspheres composed of calcium alginate/high methoxylated pectin containing an alginate lyase (AL) from Sphingobacterium multivorum and levofloxacin. Microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation containing AL in its inactive form at pH 4.0. Incubation of microspheres in Tris-HCl and PBS buffers at pH 7.40 allowed to establish the effect of ion-chelating phosphate on matrix erodability and suggested an intrinsically activation of AL by turning the pH close to neutrality. Scanning electron and optical microscopies revealed the presence of holes and surface changes in AL containing microspheres. Furthermore, texturometric parameters, DSC profiles and swelling properties were showing strong changes in microspheres properties. Encapsulation of levofloxacin into microspheres containing AL showed 70% efficiency and 35% enhancement of antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Levofloxacin release from microspheres was not changed at acidic pH, but was modified at neutral pH in presence of AL. Advantageously, only gel matrix debris were detectable after overnight incubation, indicating an autodegradative gel process activated by the pH. Absence of matrix cytotoxicity and a reduction of the levofloxacin toxicity after encapsulation were observed in mammalian CHO-K1 cell cultures. These properties make the system a potent and versatile tool for antibiotic oral delivery targeted to intestine, enhancing the drug bioavailability to eradicate bacterial biofilm and avoiding possible intestinal obstructions.

  16. Alliin is a suicide substrate of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase: structural bases of inactivation of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Elena A; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Kulikova, Vitalia V; Nikulin, Alexey D; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase (MGL) and the mutant form in which Cys115 is replaced by Ala (MGL C115A) with the nonprotein amino acid (2R)-2-amino-3-[(S)-prop-2-enylsulfinyl]propanoic acid (alliin) was investigated. It was found that MGL catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of alliin to form 2-propenethiosulfinate (allicin), pyruvate and ammonia. The β-elimination reaction of alliin is followed by the inactivation and modification of SH groups of the wild-type and mutant enzymes. Three-dimensional structures of inactivated wild-type MGL (iMGL wild type) and a C115A mutant form (iMGL C115A) were determined at 1.85 and 1.45 Å resolution and allowed the identification of the SH groups that were oxidized by allicin. On this basis, the mechanism of the inactivation of MGL by alliin, a new suicide substrate of MGL, is proposed.

  17. Bacterial versus human sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) in the design of potential S1PL inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanllehí, Pol; Abad, José-Luis; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-09-15

    A series of potential active-site sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) inhibitors have been designed from scaffolds 1 and 2, arising from virtual screening using the X-ray structures of the bacterial (StS1PL) and the human (hS1PL) enzymes. Both enzymes are very similar at the active site, as confirmed by the similar experimental kinetic constants shown by the fluorogenic substrate RBM13 in both cases. However, the docking scoring functions used probably overestimated the weight of electrostatic interactions between the ligands and key active-site residues in the protein environment, which may account for the modest activity found for the designed inhibitors. In addition, the possibility that the inhibitors do not reach the enzyme active site should not be overlooked. Finally, since both enzymes show remarkable structural differences at the access channel and in the proximity to the active site cavity, caution should be taken when designing inhibitors acting around that area, as evidenced by the much lower activity found in StS1PL for the potent hS1PL inhibitor D. PMID:27475537

  18. Electrochemical sensing platform amplified with a nanobiocomposite of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme for the detection of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabela, Myalowenkosi I; Mpanza, Thabani; Kanchi, Suvardhan; Sharma, Deepali; Bisetty, Krishna

    2016-09-15

    The present study involves the development of a sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the determination of capsaicin extracted from chilli fruits, based on a novel signal amplification strategy using enzyme technology. For the first time, platinum electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes where phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme was immobilized using nafion was characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, transmittance electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis supported by computational methods. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry measurements were performed to better understand the redox mechanism of capsaicin. The performance of the developed electrochemical biosensor was tested using spiked samples with recoveries ranging from 98.9 to 99.6%. The comparison of the results obtained from bare and modified platinum electrodes revealed the sensitivity of the developed biosensor, having a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.1863µgmL(-1) and electron transfer rate constant (ks) of 3.02s(-1). Furthermore, adsorption and ligand-enzyme docking studies were carried out to better understand the redox mechanisms supported by density functional theory calculations. These results revealed that capsaicin forms hydrogen bonds with GLU355, GLU541, GLU586, ARG and other amino acids of the hydrophobic channel of the binding sites thereby facilitating the redox reaction for the detection of capsaicin. PMID:27104584

  19. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  20. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  1. Biochemical discrimination between selenium and sulfur 1: a single residue provides selenium specificity to human selenocysteine lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairi Collins

    Full Text Available Selenium and sulfur are two closely related basic elements utilized in nature for a vast array of biochemical reactions. While toxic at higher concentrations, selenium is an essential trace element incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec, the selenium analogue of cysteine (Cys. Sec lyases (SCLs and Cys desulfurases (CDs catalyze the removal of selenium or sulfur from Sec or Cys and generally act on both substrates. In contrast, human SCL (hSCL is specific for Sec although the only difference between Sec and Cys is the identity of a single atom. The chemical basis of this selenium-over-sulfur discrimination is not understood. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of hSCL and identify Asp146 as the key residue that provides the Sec specificity. A D146K variant resulted in loss of Sec specificity and appearance of CD activity. A dynamic active site segment also provides the structural prerequisites for direct product delivery of selenide produced by Sec cleavage, thus avoiding release of reactive selenide species into the cell. We thus here define a molecular determinant for enzymatic specificity discrimination between a single selenium versus sulfur atom, elements with very similar chemical properties. Our findings thus provide molecular insights into a key level of control in human selenium and selenoprotein turnover and metabolism.

  2. Purification and simultaneous immobilization of Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxynitrile lyase using a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Benita; Diener, Martin; Wirtz, Astrid; Pohl, Martina; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Tedious, time- and labor-intensive protein purification and immobilization procedures still represent a major bottleneck limiting the widespread application of enzymes in synthetic chemistry and industry. We here exemplify a simple strategy for the direct site-specific immobilization of proteins from crude cell extracts by fusion of a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) derived from the exoglucanase/xylanase Cex from Cellulomonas fimi to a target enzyme. By employing a tripartite fusion protein consisting of the CBM, a flavin-based fluorescent protein (FbFP), and the Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxynitrile lyase (AtHNL), binding to cellulosic carrier materials can easily be monitored via FbFP fluorescence. Adsorption properties (kinetics and quantities) were studied for commercially available Avicel PH-101 and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) derived from Avicel. The resulting immobilizates showed similar activities as the wild-type enzyme but displayed increased stability in the weakly acidic pH range. Finally, Avicel, RAC and cellulose acetate (CA) preparations were used for the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile in micro-aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) demonstrating the applicability and stability of the immobilizates for biotransformations in both aqueous and organic reaction systems. PMID:25755120

  3. Role of Cystathionine Gamma-Lyase in Immediate Renal Impairment and Inflammatory Response in Acute Ischemic Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Lajos; Szijártó, István A; Filipovic, Milos R; Kaßmann, Mario; Balogh, András; Park, Joon-Keun; Przybyl, Lukasz; N'diaye, Gabriele; Krämer, Stephanie; Anders, Juliane; Ishii, Isao; Müller, Dominik N; Gollasch, Maik

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to act protectively during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the role of the endogenous H2S in acute kidney injury (AKI) is largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the role of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) in acute renal IRI using CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice whose renal H2S levels were approximately 50% of control (wild-type) mice. Although levels of serum creatinine and renal expression of AKI marker proteins were equivalent between Cth(-/-) and control mice, histological analysis revealed that IRI caused less renal tubular damage in Cth(-/-) mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that renal population of infiltrated granulocytes/macrophages was equivalent in these mice. However, renal expression levels of certain inflammatory cytokines/adhesion molecules believed to play a role in IRI were found to be lower after IRI only in Cth(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that the systemic CTH loss does not deteriorate but rather ameliorates the immediate AKI outcome probably due to reduced inflammatory responses in the kidney. The renal expression of CTH and other H2S-producing enzymes was markedly suppressed after IRI, which could be an integrated adaptive response for renal cell protection. PMID:27273292

  4. Efficient induction of formate hydrogen lyase of aerobically grown Escherichia coli in a three-step biohydrogen production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihito; Nishimura, Taku; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2007-03-01

    A three-step biohydrogen production process characterized by efficient anaerobic induction of the formate hydrogen lyase (FHL) of aerobically grown Escherichia coli was established. Using E. coli strain SR13 (fhlA (++), DeltahycA) at a cell density of 8.2 g/l medium in this process, a specific hydrogen productivity (28.0 +/- 5.0 mmol h(-1) g(-1) dry cell) of one order of magnitude lower than we previously reported was realized after 8 h of anaerobic incubation. The reduced productivity was attributed partly to the inhibitory effects of accumulated metabolites on FHL induction. To avoid this inhibition, strain SR14 (SR13 DeltaldhA DeltafrdBC) was constructed and used to the effect that specific hydrogen productivity increased 1.3-fold to 37.4 +/- 6.9 mmol h(-1) g(-1). Furthermore, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 144.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) was realized when a metabolite excretion system that achieved a dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1) was implemented. These results demonstrate that by avoiding anaerobic cultivation altogether, more economical harvesting of hydrogen-producing cells for use in our biohydrogen process was made possible.

  5. CYP74B24 is the 13-hydroperoxide lyase involved in biosynthesis of green leaf volatiles in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Eiichiro; Handa, Taiki; Koeduka, Takao; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Tawfik, Moataz M; Shiraishi, Akira; Murata, Jun; Matsui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are C6-aliphatic aldehydes/alcohols/acetates, and biosynthesized from the central precursor fatty acid 13-hydroperoxides by 13-hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) in various plant species. While GLVs have been implicated as defense compounds in plants, GLVs give characteristic grassy note to a bouquet of aroma in green tea, which is manufactured from young leaves of Camellia sinensis. Here we identify three HPL-related genes from C. sinensis via RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) in silico, and functionally characterized a candidate gene, CYP74B24, as a gene encoding tea HPL. Recombinant CYP74B24 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli specifically produced (Z)-3-hexenal from 13-HPOT with the optimal pH 6.0 in vitro. CYP74B24 gene was expressed throughout the aerial organs in a rather constitutive manner and further induced by mechanical wounding. Constitutive expression of CYP74B24 gene in intact tea leaves might account for low but substantial and constitutive formation of a subset of GLVs, some of which are stored as glycosides. Our results not only provide novel insights into the biological roles that GLVs play in tea plants, but also serve as basis for the improvement of aroma quality in tea manufacturing processes.

  6. Physiological Role of phnP-specified Phosphoribosyl Cyclic Phosphodiesterase in Catabolism of Organophosphonic Acids by the Carbon−Phosphorus Lyase Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; McSorley, Fern R.; Zechel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli , internalization and catabolism of organophosphonicacids are governed by the 14-cistron phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP operon. The phnP gene product was previously shown to encode a phosphodiesterase with unusual specificity toward ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates. Furthermore, phnP...

  7. Purine Salvage Pathways among Borrelia Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jonas; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Guyard, Cyril; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2007-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects on two relapsing fever spirochetes, Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia turicatae, revealed differences in genes involved in purine metabolism and salvage compared to those in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The relapsing fever spirochetes contained six open reading frames that are absent from the B. burgdorferi genome. These genes included those for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hpt), adenylosuccinate synthase (purA), adenylosuccinate lyase (purB), auxiliary protein (nrdI), the ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase alpha subunit (nrdE), and the ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase beta subunit (nrdF). Southern blot assays with multiple Borrelia species and isolates confirmed the presence of these genes in the relapsing fever group of spirochetes but not in B. burgdorferi and related species. TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the chromosomal genes (hpt, purA, and purB) were transcribed in vitro and in mice. Phosphoribosyltransferase assays revealed that, in general, B. hermsii exhibited significantly higher activity than did the B. burgdorferi cell lysate, and enzymatic activity was observed with adenine, hypoxanthine, and guanine as substrates. B. burgdorferi showed low but detectable phosphoribosyltransferase activity with hypoxanthine even though the genome lacks a discernible ortholog to the hpt gene in the relapsing fever spirochetes. B. hermsii incorporated radiolabeled hypoxanthine into RNA and DNA to a much greater extent than did B. burgdorferi. This complete pathway for purine salvage in the relapsing fever spirochetes may contribute, in part, to these spirochetes achieving high cell densities in blood. PMID:17502392

  8. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL.

  9. Dissimilation of cysteate via 3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase and a sulfate exporter in Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Ulrike; Gueta, Ronnie; Denger, Karin; Ruff, Jürgen; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M

    2005-03-01

    Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA utilizes (R)-cysteate (2-amino-3-sulfopropionate) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth, with either nitrate or molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor, and the specific utilization rate of cysteate is about 2 mkat (kg protein)(-1). The initial degradative reaction is catalysed by an (R)-cysteate : 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, which yields 3-sulfopyruvate. The latter was reduced to 3-sulfolactate by an NAD-linked sulfolactate dehydrogenase [3.3 mkat (kg protein)(-1)]. The inducible desulfonation reaction was not detected initially in cell extracts. However, a strongly induced protein with subunits of 8 kDa (alpha) and 42 kDa (beta) was found and purified. The corresponding genes had similarities to those encoding altronate dehydratases, which often require iron for activity. The purified enzyme could then be shown to convert 3-sulfolactate to sulfite and pyruvate and it was termed sulfolactate sulfo-lyase (Suy). A high level of sulfite dehydrogenase was also induced during growth with cysteate, and the organism excreted sulfate. A putative regulator, OrfR, was encoded upstream of suyAB on the reverse strand. Downstream of suyAB was suyZ, which was cotranscribed with suyB. The gene, an allele of tauZ, encoded a putative membrane protein with transmembrane helices (COG2855), and is a candidate to encode the sulfate exporter needed to maintain homeostasis during desulfonation. suyAB-like genes are widespread in sequenced genomes and environmental samples where, in contrast to the current annotation, several presumably encode the desulfonation of 3-sulfolactate, a component of bacterial spores. PMID:15758220

  10. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  11. Modeling and Re-Engineering of Azotobacter vinelandii Alginate Lyase to Enhance Its Catalytic Efficiency for Accelerating Biofilm Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Ho Jang

    Full Text Available Alginate is known to prevent elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Alginate lyase (AlgL might therefore facilitate treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cystic fibrosis patients. However, the catalytic activity of wild-type AlgL is not sufficiently high. Therefore, molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of AlgL might assist in enzyme engineering for therapeutic development. AlgL, isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, catalyzes depolymerization of alginate via a β-elimination reaction. AlgL was modeled based on the crystal structure template of Sphingomonas AlgL species A1-III. Based on this computational analysis, AlgL was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to improve its catalytic activity. The kcat/Km of the K194E mutant showed a nearly 5-fold increase against the acetylated alginate substrate, as compared to the wild-type. Double and triple mutants (K194E/K245D, K245D/K319A, K194E/K245D/E312D, and K194E/K245D/K319A were also prepared. The most potent mutant was observed to be K194E/K245D/K319A, which has a 10-fold improved kcat value (against acetylated alginate compared to the wild-type enzyme. The antibiofilm effect of both AlgL forms was identified in combination with piperacillin/tazobactam (PT and the disruption effect was significantly higher in mutant AlgL combined with PT than wild-type AlgL. However, for both the wild-type and K194E/K245D/K319A mutant, the use of the AlgL enzyme alone did not show significant antibiofilm effect.

  12. Action spectrum for induction of promoter activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene by UV in carrot suspension cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full-length promoter (-2335) of the carrot (Daucus carota) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPALLI) fused to the luciferase reporter gene was transiently transformed to carrot protoplasts by electroporation, and the promoter activity induced by monochromatic UV light of various wavelengths was examined. The action spectrum constructed from the fluence-response curves showed a single peak at around 280 nm, suggesting that the activation of the gDcPALI promoter is categorizable as one of the UVB light responses. The same assay system was applied to variously truncated gDcPALI promoters and to CaMV35S promoter fusion with various parts 5' - upstream of the gDcPALI promoter. The region from -396 to -190 (relative to the transcription start site) fused to the CaMV35S core (-90) promoter showed a 280 nm-dominant responses. However, gDCPALI promoters truncated above -570 and -396, although they contain the region between -396 and -190, did not show such a typical UVB response, i.e. they responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. The promoter truncated to below -190 also responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. Therefore we assumed that the gDcPALI promoter is composed of three functionally different parts: the upstream above -570 (modulator), the region from -396 to -190 (UVB responsive) and the downstream below -190 (UVB and C responsive). The overall UVB response of the gDcPALI full-length promoter is explained as the result of interaction of these three components. (Author)

  13. Modeling and Re-Engineering of Azotobacter vinelandii Alginate Lyase to Enhance Its Catalytic Efficiency for Accelerating Biofilm Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chul Ho; Piao, Yu Lan; Huang, Xiaoqin; Yoon, Eun Jeong; Park, So Hee; Lee, Kyoung; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Cho, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is known to prevent elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Alginate lyase (AlgL) might therefore facilitate treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cystic fibrosis patients. However, the catalytic activity of wild-type AlgL is not sufficiently high. Therefore, molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of AlgL might assist in enzyme engineering for therapeutic development. AlgL, isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, catalyzes depolymerization of alginate via a β-elimination reaction. AlgL was modeled based on the crystal structure template of Sphingomonas AlgL species A1-III. Based on this computational analysis, AlgL was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to improve its catalytic activity. The kcat/Km of the K194E mutant showed a nearly 5-fold increase against the acetylated alginate substrate, as compared to the wild-type. Double and triple mutants (K194E/K245D, K245D/K319A, K194E/K245D/E312D, and K194E/K245D/K319A) were also prepared. The most potent mutant was observed to be K194E/K245D/K319A, which has a 10-fold improved kcat value (against acetylated alginate) compared to the wild-type enzyme. The antibiofilm effect of both AlgL forms was identified in combination with piperacillin/tazobactam (PT) and the disruption effect was significantly higher in mutant AlgL combined with PT than wild-type AlgL. However, for both the wild-type and K194E/K245D/K319A mutant, the use of the AlgL enzyme alone did not show significant antibiofilm effect. PMID:27253324

  14. Molecular Cloning of cpcU and Heterodimeric Bilin Lyase Activity Analysis of CpcU and CpcS for Attachment of Phycocyanobilin to Cys-82 on the β-Subunit of Phycocyanin in Arthrospira platensis FACHB314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Ran; Huang, Xiaoyun; Hou, Lulu; Jiang, Minjie; Liu, Chang; Pang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing genes (hoxI and pcyA), while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB) and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S) were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the β-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314. PMID:26999083

  15. Molecular Cloning of cpcU and Heterodimeric Bilin Lyase Activity Analysis of CpcU and CpcS for Attachment of Phycocyanobilin to Cys-82 on the β-Subunit of Phycocyanin in Arthrospira platensis FACHB314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB producing genes (hoxI and pcyA, while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the β-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314.

  16. Biochemical characteristics of an alkaline pectate lyase PelA from Volvariella volvacea: roles of the highly conserved N-glycosylation site in its secretion and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiqin; Hu, Hang; Zheng, Fei; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    Alkaline pectate lyases have great application potential in the bioscouring of textiles. They are isolated predominantly from bacteria and a few fungi. Here, we report the biochemical characteristics of a novel alkaline pectate lyase PelA from the basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea. The full-length pelA encodes a 321-amino-acid polypeptide containing a putative 18-residue signal peptide and a pectate lyase family 1 catalytic domain. It contains one conserved and one non-conserved potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) at the residues N95 and N198, respectively. The enzyme showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 10, although it was stable between pH 4 and pH 11. Additional Ca(2+) was not required to measure PelA activity in vitro, but it could significantly enhance its activity and thermal stability. The V max values using polygalacturonic acid as substrate were increased from 50.71 to 89.96 IU mg(-1) by the addition of 0.1 mM Ca(2+), whereas the K m values were decreased from 0.681 to 0.514 mg ml(-1). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed PelA has only one N-glycan attached to the residue N95. This N-glycan is crucial to its efficient secretion and activity possibly due to its role in maintaining the secondary structure of PelA. Amino acid substitution at the residue N198 had no effect on PelA secretion, but resulted in a slight (5.16 %) to modest (27.37 %) decrease in specific activity and less thermal stability, indicating the amino acid itself is also important for activity due to it being highly conserved and because of its proximity to the catalytic site. PMID:25341402

  17. Host-pathogen interactions. XXIX. Oligogalacturonides released from sodium polypectate by endopolygalacturonic acid lyase are elicitors of phytoalexins in soybean. [Glycine max L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K.R.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.; Dell, A.

    1986-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that an apparently homogeneous preparation of an ..cap alpha..-1,4-D-endopolygalacturonic acid lyase (EC 4.2,2.2) isolated from the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora induced phytoalexin accumulation in cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wayne) and that this pectin-degrading enzyme released heat-stable elicitors of phytoalexins from soybean cell walls, citrus pectin, and sodium polypectate. The present paper reports the purification, by anion-exchange chromatography on QAE-Sephadex columns followed by gel-permeation chromatography on a Bio-Gel P-6 column, of the two fractions with highest specific elicitor activity present in a crude elicitor-preparation obtained by lyase treatment of sodium polypectate. Structural analysis of the fraction with highest specific elicitor activity indicated that the major, if not only, component was a decasaccharide of ..cap alpha..-1,4-D-galactosyluronic acid that contained the expected product of lyase cleavage, 4-deoxy-..beta..-L-5-threo-hexopyranos-4-enyluronic acid (4,5-unsaturated galactosyluronic acid), at the nonreducing terminus. This modified decagalacturonide fraction exhibited half-maximum and maximum elicitor activity at 1 microgram/cotyledon (6 micromolar) and 5 micrograms/cotyledon (32 micromolar) galactosyluronic acid equivalents, respectively. Reducing 90 to 95% of the carboxyl groups of the galactosyluronic acid residues abolished the elicitor activity of the decagalacturonide fraction. The second most elicitor-active fraction contained mostly undeca-..cap alpha..-1,4-D-galactosyluronic acid that contained 4,5-unsaturated galactosyluronic acid at the nonreducing termini. This fraction exhibited half-maximum and maximum elicitor activity at approximately 3 micrograms/cotyledon (17 micromolar) and 6 micrograms/cotyledon (34 micromolar) galactosyluronic acid equivalents, respectively.

  18. 植物苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因的研究进展%Research Advances on Plant Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳珍

    2006-01-01

    苯丙氨酸解氨酶(phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, PAL)是连接植物初级代谢和苯丙烷类代谢、催化苯丙烷类代谢第一步反应的酶.综述植物PAL基因的研究进展,主要包括PAL基因的结构特点、表达特点和PAL基因表达的调控机制,并指出今后对PAL基因的研究方向.

  19. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2) and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1) fo...

  20. Cloning and Random Mutagenesis of the Erwinia herbicola tyrR Gene for High-Level Expression of Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Koyanagi, Takashi; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2000-01-01

    Tyrosine phenol-lyase (Tpl), which can synthesize 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine from pyruvate, ammonia, and catechol, is a tyrosine-inducible enzyme. Previous studies demonstrated that the tpl promoter of Erwinia herbicola is activated by the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli. In an attempt to create a high-Tpl-expressing strain, we cloned the tyrR gene of E. herbicola and then randomly mutagenized it. Mutant TyrR proteins with enhanced ability to activate tpl were screened for by use of the lac ...

  1. Analysis of different de-esterification mechanisms for pectin by enzymatic fingerprinting using endopectin lyase and endopolygalacturonase II from A. niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limberg, G; Körner, R; Buchholt, H C;

    2000-01-01

    with either endopectin lyase (PL) or endopolygalacturonase II (PG II) from Aspergillus niger were analysed using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDIMS) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric or UV detection (HPAEC-PAD/UV). Time...... course analysis using MALDIMS was used to identify the most preferred substrate for each enzyme. For PL, this was shown to be fully methyl esterified HG whereas for PG II, long regions of HG without any methyl esterification, as produced by p-PME was the optimal substrate. The blockwise de...... ester groups by f-PME is the most reasonable explanation for the detected differences....

  2. Engineering and comparison of non-natural pathways for microbial phenol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R

    2016-08-01

    The non-renewable petrochemical phenol is used as a precursor to produce numerous fine and commodity chemicals, including various pharmaceuticals and phenolic resins. Microbial phenol biosynthesis has previously been established, stemming from endogenous tyrosine via tyrosine phenol lyase (TPL). TPL, however, suffers from feedback inhibition and equilibrium limitations, both of which contribute to reduced flux through the overall pathway. To address these limitations, two novel and non-natural phenol biosynthesis pathways, both stemming instead from chorismate, were constructed and comparatively evaluated. The first proceeds to phenol in one heterologous step via the intermediate p-hydroxybenzoic acid, while the second involves two heterologous steps and the associated intermediates isochorismate and salicylate. Maximum phenol titers achieved via these two alternative pathways reached as high as 377 ± 14 and 259 ± 31 mg/L in batch shake flask cultures, respectively. In contrast, under analogous conditions, phenol production via the established TPL-dependent route reached 377 ± 23 mg/L, which approaches the maximum achievable output reported to date under batch conditions. Additional strain development and optimization of relevant culture conditions with respect to each individual pathway is ultimately expected to result in further improved phenol production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1745-1754. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804162

  3. The strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) fruit-specific rhamnogalacturonate lyase 1 (FaRGLyase1) gene encodes an enzyme involved in the degradation of cell-wall middle lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Franco, Antonio R; Villatoro, Carmen; Medina-Puche, Laura; Mercado, José A; Hidalgo, Miguel A; Monfort, Amparo; Caballero, José Luis; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2013-04-01

    Pectins are essential components of primary plant cell walls and middle lamellae, and are related to the consistency of the fruit and its textural changes during ripening. In fact, strawberries become soft as the middle lamellae of cortical parenchyma cells are extensively degraded during ripening, leading to the observed short post-harvest shelf life. Using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform, a putative rhamnogalacturonate lyase gene (FaRGlyase1) was identified. Bioinformatic analysis of the FaRGlyase1 sequence allowed the identification of a conserved rhamnogalacturonate lyase domain, which was also present in other putative RGlyase sequences deposited in the databases. Expression of FaRGlyase1 occurred mainly in the receptacle, concurrently with ripening, and it was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively by auxins. FaRGLyase1 gene expression was transiently silenced by injecting live Agrobacterium cells harbouring RNA interference constructs into fruit receptacles. Light and electron microscopy analyses of these transiently silenced fruits revealed that this gene is involved in the degradation of pectins present in the middle lamella region between parenchymatic cells. In addition, genetic linkage association analyses in a strawberry-segregating population showed that FaRGLyase1 is linked to a quantitative trait loci linkage group related to fruit hardness and firmness. The results showed that FaRGlyase1 could play an important role in the fruit ripening-related softening process that reduces strawberry firmness and post-harvest life.

  4. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Zea mays Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (ZmPAL2) and Its Application in trans-Cinnamic Acid Production from L-Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Ying; Jiang, Ting; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes with its crucial role in secondary phenylpropanoid metabolism of plants. Recently, its demand has been increased for aromatic chemical production, but its applications in trans-cinnamic acid production were not much explored. In the present study, a putative PAL gene from Zea mays designated as ZmPAL2 was expressed and characterized in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant ZmPAL2 exhibited a high PAL activity (7.14 U/mg) and a weak tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity. The optimal temperature of ZmPAL2 was 55 °C, and the thermal stability results showed that about 50 % of enzyme activity remained after a treatment at 60 °C for 6 h. The recombinant ZmPAL2 is a good candidate for the production of trans-cinnamic acid. The vitro conversion indicated that the recombinant ZmPAL2 could effectively catalyze the L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, and the trans-cinnamic acid concentration can reach up to 5 g/l.

  5. Purification and characterization of alkaline pectin lyase from a newly isolated Bacillus clausii and its application in elicitation of plant disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuming; Bai, Zhihui; Zhang, Baoguo; Li, Baojv; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Michael; Lin, Francis; Zhang, Hongxun

    2012-08-01

    Alkaline pectin lyase (PNL) shows potential as a biological control agent against several plant diseases. We isolated and characterized a new Bacillus clausii strain that can produce 4,180 U/g of PNL using sugar beet pulp as a carbon source and inducer. The PNL was purified to apparent homogeneity using ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow, and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purified PNL was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 35 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It demonstrated optimal activity with K(m) of 0.87 mg/ml at pH 10.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme is stable in the pH range of 8.0-10.0 and temperature ≤40 °C. Ca(2+) was found to stimulate the enzymatic activity of the PNL by up to 410 %. Mass spectrometric results gave 38 % match coverage with pectate lyase from B. clausii KSM-K16 (gi|56961845). The PNL was found to elicit disease resistance in cucumber seedlings, suggesting that it may have applications in biocontrol and sustainable agriculture.

  6. Lyase activities of heterologous CpcS and CpcT for phycocyanin holo-β-subunit from Arthrospira platensis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Junjie; Xu, Di; Zang, Xiaonan; Yuan, Dingyang; Zhao, Bingran; Tang, Li; Tan, Yanning; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2014-06-01

    Arthrospira platensis is an economically important cyanobacterium; and it has been used widely in food and pharmaceutical industries. The phycocyanin (PC) from A. platensis is extremely valuable in medicine and molecular biology due to its antioxidation and anti-tumoring activity and applicability as fluorescence protein tag. In present study, two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB)-producing genes ( hox1 and pcyA) while the other contained the phycobiliprotein gene ( cpcB) and the lyase gene (either cpcS/U or cpcT), were constructed and synchronically transferred into E. coli in order to test the the activities of relevant lyases for catalysing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent PC holo-β-subunit (β-PC) of A. platensis. As was evidenced by the fluorescence emitted at a peak specific for PC, CpcB was successfully synthesized in E. coli, to which co-expressed PCBs attached though at a relatively low efficiency. The results showed that the attachment of PCBs to CpcB were carried out mainly by co-expressed CpcS/U but CpcB also showed some autocatalytic activity. Currently, no CpcT activity was detected in this E. coli expression system. Further studies will be conducted to improve the efficiency of fluorescent PC synthesis in E. coli.

  7. Lyase Activities of Heterologous CpcS and CpcT for Phycocyanin Holo-β-subunit from Arthrospira platensis in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Junjie; XU Di; ZANG Xiaonan; YUAN Dingyang; ZHAO Bingran; TANG Li; TAN Yanning; ZHANG Xuecheng

    2014-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is an economically important cyanobacterium;and it has been used widely in food and pharmaceu-tical industries. The phycocyanin (PC) from A. platensis is extremely valuable in medicine and molecular biology due to its anti-oxidation and anti-tumoring activity and applicability as fluorescence protein tag. In present study, two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB)-producing genes (hox1 and pcyA) while the other contained the phycobiliprotein gene (cpcB) and the lyase gene (either cpcS/U or cpcT), were constructed and synchronically transferred into E. coli in order to test the the activi-ties of relevant lyases for catalysing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent PC holo-β-subunit (β-PC) of A. platensis. As was evidenced by the fluorescence emitted at a peak specific for PC, CpcB was successfully synthesized in E. coli, to which co-expressed PCBs attached though at a relatively low efficiency. The results showed that the attachment of PCBs to CpcB were carried out mainly by co-expressed CpcS/U but CpcB also showed some autocatalytic activity. Currently, no CpcT activity was de-tected in this E. coli expression system. Further studies will be conducted to improve the efficiency of fluorescent PC synthesis in E. coli.

  8. Stress enhances the gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the endogenous content of salicylic acid to induce flowering in pharbitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kaede C; Mizuuchi, Kaori; Koshio, Aya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2014-07-01

    The involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in the regulation of stress-induced flowering in the short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory) Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil) was studied. Pharbitis cv. Violet was induced to flower when grown in 1/100-strength mineral nutrient solution under non-inductive long-day conditions. All fully expanded true leaves were removed from seedlings, leaving only the cotyledons, and flowering was induced under poor-nutrition stress conditions. This indicates that cotyledons can play a role in the regulation of poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering. The expression of the pharbitis homolog of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; E.C. 4.3.1.5) and the content of SA in the cotyledons were all up-regulated by the stress treatment. The Violet was also induced to flower by low-temperature stress, DNA demethylation and short-day treatment. Low-temperature stress enhanced PAL activity, whereas non-stress factors such as DNA demethylation and short-day treatment decreased the activity. The PAL enzyme activity was also examined in another cultivar, Tendan, obtaining similar results to Violet. The exogenously applied SA did not induce flowering under non-stress conditions but did promote flowering under weak stress conditions in both cultivars. These results suggest that stress-induced flowering in pharbitis is induced, at least partly, by SA, and the synthesis of SA is promoted by PAL.

  9. Biochemical stability and molecular dynamic characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus cystathionine γ-lyase in response to various reaction effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S A; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Ibrahim, Hend M; Yassin, Marwa A; Abdel-Ghany, Salah E; Esener, Sadik; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-12-01

    Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is a key enzyme in the methionine-cysteine cycle in all living organisms forming cysteine, α-ketobutyrate and ammonia via homocysteine and cystathionine intermediates. Although, human and plant CGLs have been extensively studied at the molecular and mechanistic levels, there has been little work on the molecular and catalytic properties of fungal CGL. Herein, we studied in detail for the first time the molecular and catalytic stability of Aspergillus fumigatus CGL, since conformational instability, inactivation and structural antigenicity are the main limitations of the PLP-dependent enzymes on various therapeutic uses. We examined these properties in response to buffer compositions, stabilizing and destabilizing agents using Differential Scanning Fluorometery (DSF), steady state and gel-based fluorescence of the intrinsic hydrophobic core, stability of internal aldimine linkage and catalytic properties. The activity of the recombinant A. fumigatus CGL was 13.8U/mg. The melting temperature (Tm) of CGL in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0-8.0) was 73.3°C, with ∼3°C upshifting in MES and sodium phosphate buffers (pH 7.0). The conformational thermal stability was increased in potassium phosphate, sodium phosphate and MES buffers, in contrast to Tris-HCl, HEPES (pH 7.0) and CAPS (pH 9.0-10.0). The thermal stability and activity of CGL was slightly increased in the presence of trehalose and glycerol that might be due to hydration of the enzyme backbone, unlike the denaturing effect of GdmCl and urea. Modification of surface CGL glutamic and aspartic acids had no significant effect on the enzyme conformational and catalytic stability. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulations unveil the high conformational stability of the overall scaffold of CGL with high flexibility at the non-structural regions. CGL structure has eight buried Trp residues, which are reoriented to the enzyme surface and get exposed to the solvent under perturbation

  10. Characterization of homocysteine γ-lyase from submerged and solid cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus ASH (JX006238).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S; Khalaf, Salwa A; Aziz, Hani A

    2013-04-01

    Among 25 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus ASH (JX006238) was identified as a potent producer of homocysteine gamma- lyase. The nutritional requirements to maximize the enzyme yield were optimized under submerged (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, resulting in a 5.2- and 2.3-fold increase, respectively, after the last purification step. The enzyme exhibited a single homogenous band of 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE, along with an optimum pH of 7.8 and pH stability range of 6.5 to 7.8. It also showed a pI of 5.0, as detected by pH precipitation with no glycosyl residues. The highest enzyme activity was obtained at 37-40 degrees C, with a Tm value of 70.1 degrees C. The enzyme showed clear catalytic and thermal stability below 40 degrees C, with T1/2 values of 18.1, 9.9, 5.9, 3.3, and 1.9 h at 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Additionally, the enzyme Kr values were 0.002, 0.054, 0.097, 0.184, and 0.341 S-1 at 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme displayed a strong affinity to homocysteine, followed by methionine and cysteine when compared with non-S amino acids, confirming its potency against homocysteinuriarelated diseases, and as an anti-cardiovascular agent and a specific biosensor for homocysteinuria. The enzyme showed its maximum affinity for homocysteine (Km 2.46 mM, Kcat 1.39 × 10(-3) s(-1)), methionine (Km 4.1 mM, Kcat 0.97 × 10(-3) s(-1)), and cysteine (Km 4.9 m M, Kcat 0.77 × 10(-3) s(-1)). The enzyme was also strongly inhibited by hydroxylamine and DDT, confirming its pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) identity, yet not inhibited by EDTA. In vivo, using Swiss Albino mice, the enzyme showed no detectable negative effects on platelet aggregation, the RBC number, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or creatinine titer when compared with negative controls.

  11. Quantum mechanical study of the β- and δ-lyase reactions during the base excision repair process: application to FPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlati-Hashjin, Shahin; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-10-14

    Bacterial FPG (or MutM) is a bifunctional DNA glycosylase that is primarily responsible for excising 8-oxoguanine (OG) from the genome by cleaving the glycosidic bond and the DNA backbone at the 3'- and 5'-phosphates of the damaged nucleoside. In the present work, quantum mechanical methods (SMD-M06-2X/6-311+G(2df,2p)//IEF-PCM-B3LYP/6-31G(d)) and a ring-opened Schiff base model that includes both the 3'- and 5'-phosphate groups are used to investigate the β- and δ-elimination reactions facilitated by FPG. Both the β- and δ-elimination reactions are shown to proceed through an E1cB mechanism that involves proton abstraction prior to the phosphate-ribose bond cleavage. Since transition states for the phosphate elimination reactions could not be characterized in the absence of leaving group protonation, our work confirms that the phosphate elimination reactions require protonation by a residue in the FPG active site, and can likely be further activated by additional active-site interactions. Furthermore, our model suggests that 5'-PO4 activation may proceed through a nearly isoenergetic direct (intramolecular) proton transfer involving the O4' proton of the deoxyribose of the damaged nucleoside. Regardless, our model predicts that both 3'- and 5'-phosphate protonation and elimination steps occur in a concerted reaction. Most importantly, our calculated barriers for the phosphate cleavage reactions reveal inherent differences between the β- and δ-elimination steps. Indeed, our calculations provide a plausible explanation for why the δ-elimination rather than the β-elimination is the rate-determining step in the BER facilitated by FPG, and why some bifunctional glycosylases (including the human counterpart, hOgg1) lack δ-lyase activity. Together, the new mechanistic features revealed by our work can be used in future large-scale modeling of the DNA-protein system to unveil the roles of key active sites residues in these relatively unexplored BER steps.

  12. Biochemical Stability and Molecular Dynamic Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Cystathionine γ-Lyase in Response to Various Reaction Effectors

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S.A.

    2015-08-11

    Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is a key enzyme in the methionine-cysteine cycle in all living organisms forming cysteine, α-ketobutyrate and ammonia via homocysteine and cystathionine intermediates. Although, human and plant CGLs have been extensively studied at the molecular and mechanistic levels, there has been little work on the molecular and catalytic properties of fungal CGL. Herein, we studied in detail for the first time the molecular and catalytic stability of Aspergillus fumigatus CGL, since conformational instability, inactivation and structural antigenicity are the main limitations of the PLP-dependent enzymes on various therapeutic uses. We examined these properties in response to buffer compositions, stabilizing and destabilizing agents using Differential Scanning Fluorometery (DSF), steady state and gel-based fluorescence of the intrinsic hydrophobic core, stability of internal aldimine linkage and catalytic properties. The activity of the recombinant A. fumigatus CGL was 13.8 U/mg. The melting temperature (Tm) of CGL in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0-8.0) was 73.3 °C, with ∼3 °C upshifting in MES and sodium phosphate buffers (pH 7.0). The conformational thermal stability was increased in potassium phosphate, sodium phosphate and MES buffers, in contrast to Tris-HCl, HEPES (pH 7.0) and CAPS (pH 9.0-10.0). The thermal stability and activity of CGL was slightly increased in the presence of trehalose and glycerol that might be due to hydration of the enzyme backbone, unlike the denaturing effect of GdmCl and urea. Modification of surface CGL glutamic and aspartic acids had no significant effect on the enzyme conformational and catalytic stability. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulations unveil the high conformational stability of the overall scaffold of CGL with high flexibility at the non-structural regions. CGL structure has eight buried Trp residues, which are reoriented to the enzyme surface and get exposed to the solvent under

  13. Cysteine and cysteine-related signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luis C; Aroca, M Ángeles; Laureano-Marín, Ana M; Moreno, Inmaculada; García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    Cysteine occupies a central position in plant metabolism because it is a reduced sulfur donor molecule involved in the synthesis of essential biomolecules and defense compounds. Moreover, cysteine per se and its derivative molecules play roles in the redox signaling of processes occurring in various cellular compartments. Cysteine is synthesized during the sulfate assimilation pathway via the incorporation of sulfide to O-acetylserine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL). Plant cells contain OASTLs in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and cytosol, resulting in a complex array of isoforms and subcellular cysteine pools. In recent years, significant progress has been made in Arabidopsis, in determining the specific roles of the OASTLs and the metabolites produced by them. Thus, the discovery of novel enzymatic activities of the less-abundant, like DES1 with L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity and SCS with S-sulfocysteine synthase activity, has provided new perspectives on their roles, besides their metabolic functions. Thereby, the research has been demonstrated that cytosolic sulfide and chloroplastic S-sulfocysteine act as signaling molecules regulating autophagy and protecting the photosystems, respectively. In the cytosol, cysteine plays an essential role in plant immunity; in the mitochondria, this molecule plays a central role in the detoxification of cyanide, which is essential for root hair development and plant responses to pathogens.

  14. Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase : a plant cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in wound healing and pest resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vliegenthart, J. F. G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Plants continuously have to defend themselves against life-threatening events such as drought, mechanical damage, temperature stress, and potential pathogens. Nowadays, more and more similarities between the defense mechanism of plants and that of animals are being discovered. In both cases, the lipoxygenase pathway plays an important role. In plants, products of this pathway are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, and signaling, or they have antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The...

  15. Atmospheric H2S as sulfur source for Brassica oleracea : kinetics of H2S uptake and activity of O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase as affected by sulfur nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, CEE; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea) showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The kinetics are largely determined by the rate of metabolism of the absorbed H,S into cysteine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase, and ca

  16. 出芽短梗霉积累聚苹果酸途径及调控研究%Investigation of poly(β-malic acid) synthesis pathways and regulation by strains of Aureobasidium pulluans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程若东; 王浩; 周华; 程媛媛; 何若平; 韦萍

    2012-01-01

    The possible biosynthesis pathways of poly(β-malic acid) (PMLA) and the feasible approaches to regulating PMLA production in A. Pullulans BS24 were studied. To investigate the effects of the metabolic inhibitors of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle on PMLA fermentation, supplementation of the inhibitors to the medium was implemented. The results demonstrated that trifluoroacetic acid inhibited PMLA production, but malonic acid and maleic acid promoted PMLA production and isocitrate lyase activity. It could be concluded that PMLA synthesis was related to the TCA cycle and glyoxylate pathway in A. Pullulans. Based on this result, the method of facilitating the accumulation of PMLA via metabolic intermediates was further designed. The medium containing 3. 0 g · L-1 fumaric acid or 1. 5 g · L-1 L-malic acid was used. Isocitrate lyase activity was increased by 18. 39% and 25. 30%, respectively. And the two added intermediates also increased the activity of L-malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, while reduced the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutaric acid dehydrogenanse, and the final PMLA yield was increased by 46.58% and 43.70%, respectively. The metabolic intermediates could modify the redistribution of metabolic flux between TCA cycle and glyoxylate pathway, therefore, carbon source could be efficiently used to synthesize PMLA.

  17. Cis-and Trans-Cinnamic Acids Have Different Effects on the Catalytic Properties of Arabidopsis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases PAL1, PAL2, PAL4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jie CHEN; Veerappan VIJAYKUMAR; Bing-Wen LU; Bing XIA; Ning LI

    2005-01-01

    Cis-cinnamic acid (CA) is a naturally occurring compound, presumably converted from transCA in higher plants. To investigate the effect of cis-CA on the activity of Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), AtPAL1, AtPAL2, and AtPAL4 genes were isolated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These genes were fused to a glutathione S-transferase gene and overexpressed in a heterologous prokaryotic system of Escherichia coli. The purified PAL1, PAL2 and PAL4 enzymes were characterized biochemically to determine the effects of cis-CA on the kinetic parameter Km. The results showed that cis-CA is a competitive inhibitor for PAL1, but not PAL2 and PAL4, whereas trans-CA acts as a competitive inhibitor for all three PAL isomers, suggesting that cis- and trans-CA have different effects on the catalytic activity of PAL.

  18. [Change in the content of salicylic acid and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the influence of Azospirilium lectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alen'kina, S A; Trutneva, K A; Nikitina, V E

    2013-01-01

    The time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum (A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3) is investigated. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains are established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model is proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in the accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and formation of induced resistance. PMID:25518563

  19. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits enzymatic browning of cut lettuce by repressing the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase without promotion of microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eriko; Okumura, Saya; Takamiya, Rikako; Hosaka, Hitomi; Shimamura, Yuko; Murata, Masatsune

    2011-06-22

    Cinnamaldehyde treatment inhibited the browning of cut lettuce during cold storage. In this study, to clarify the mechanism of inhibitory action of cinnamaldehyde against the browning and to show its microbiological merit, its effect on the browning of cut lettuce was compared to that of mild heat treatment. Both cinnamaldehyde and mild heat treatments inhibited the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity because of cutting. As a result, the biosynthesis of polyphenols, which are substrates of polyphenol oxidase, was inhibited. This reduction of polyphenol synthesis caused the inhibition of the browning. Cinnamaldehyde treatment repressed the induction of PAL mRNA, while mild heat treatment did not repress its induction. The increase in microbes in cut lettuce treated with cinnamaldehyde was less than that treated with mild heat after 12 days.

  20. Multiple rewards from a treasure trove of novel glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide lyase structures: new folds, mechanistic details, and evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushinobu, Shinya; Alves, Victor D; Coutinho, Pedro M

    2013-10-01

    Recent progress in three-dimensional structure analyses of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs), the historically relevant enzyme classes involved in the cleavage of glycosidic bonds of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, is reviewed. To date, about 80% and 95% of the GH and PL families, respectively, have a representative crystal structure. New structures have been determined for enzymes acting on plant cell wall polysaccharides, sphingolipids, blood group antigens, milk oligosaccharides, N-glycans, oral biofilms and dietary seaweeds. Some GH enzymes have very unique catalytic residues such as the Asp-His dyad. New methods such as high-speed atomic force microscopy and computational simulation have opened up a path to investigate both the dynamics and the detailed molecular interactions displayed by these enzymes. PMID:23816329

  1. INFLUENCE OF BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS SUBSP. PLANTARUM IMV B-7404 STRAIN EXOMETABOLITES ON PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE ACTIVITY IN WINTER WHEAT SEEDLINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovoz, I V; Korzh, Yu V; Leonova, N O; Iliash, V M; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Influence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum IMV B-7404 strain exometabolites on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.24) activity in winter wheat seedlings has been studied. A significant increase of PAL activity at 4-6 hours after treatment of plant roots with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum IMVB-7404 strain exometabolites and in case of leaves infection with Bipolaris sorokiniana plant pathogen has been shown. It was established that PAL activity changed along with a decrease of the infected surface area of the leaves evidenced for the induction of response in winter wheat seedlings induced by IMV B-7404 strain exometabolites. It was concluded that the studied exponents could be used as model systems in the research of phytoimmunity induction mechanisms.

  2. Change in the Content of Salicylic Acid and in the Activities of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Catalase in Wheat Seedling Roots Under the Effect of Azospirillum Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen'kina S.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of the lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum: A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains were established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model was proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and to formation of induced resistance.

  3. Anaerobic Induction of Isocitrate Lyase and Malate Synthase in Submerged Rice Seedlings Indicates the Important Metabolic Role of the Glyoxylate Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying LU; Yong-Rui WU; Bin HAN

    2005-01-01

    The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that converts C2compounds into C4 dicarboxylic acids at plant developmental stages. By studying submerged rice seedlings,we revealed the activation of the glyoxylate cycle by identifying the increased transcripts of mRNAs of the genes of isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), two characteristic enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle. Northern blot analysis showed that ICL and MS were activated in the prolonged anaerobic environment.The activity assay of pyruvate decarboxylase and ICL in the submerged seedlings indicated an 8.8-fold and 3.5-fold increase over that in the unsubmerged seedlings, respectively. The activity assay of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase in the submerged seedlings indicated a 3-fold increase over that in the unsubmerged seedlings, which is important for initiating acetate metabolism. Consequently, we concluded that the glyoxylate cycle was involved in acetate metabolism under anaerobic conditions.

  4. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  5. DMPD: Regulatory pathways in inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17967718 Regulatory pathways in inflammation. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Locati M, Ro....html) (.csml) Show Regulatory pathways in inflammation. PubmedID 17967718 Title Regulatory pathways in infl

  6. Modular optimization of heterologous pathways for de novo synthesis of (2S-naringenin in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Wu

    Full Text Available Due to increasing concerns about food safety and environmental issues, bio-based production of flavonoids from safe, inexpensive, and renewable substrates is increasingly attracting attention. Here, the complete biosynthetic pathway, consisting of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH, tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, malonate synthetase, and malonate carrier protein, was constructed using pre-made modules to overproduce (2S-naringenin from D-glucose. Modular pathway engineering strategies were applied to the production of the flavonoid precursor (2S-naringenin from L-tyrosine to investigate the metabolic space for efficient conversion. Modular expression was combinatorially tuned by modifying plasmid gene copy numbers and promoter strengths to identify an optimally balanced pathway. Furthermore, a new modular pathway from D-glucose to L-tyrosine was assembled and re-optimized with the identified optimal modules to enable de novo synthesis of (2S-naringenin. Once this metabolic balance was achieved, the optimum strain was capable of producing 100.64 mg/L (2S-naringenin directly from D-glucose, which is the highest production titer from D-glucose in Escherichia coli. The fermentation system described here paves the way for the development of an economical process for microbial production of flavonoids.

  7. Physiological roles of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase and pyruvate formate-lyase in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jilai; Olson, Daniel G.; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Tian, Liang; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; Lo,Jonathan; Lynd, Lee R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thermoanaerobacter saccharolyticum is a thermophilic microorganism that has been engineered to produce ethanol at high titer (30–70 g/L) and greater than 90 % theoretical yield. However, few genes involved in pyruvate to ethanol production pathway have been unambiguously identified. In T. saccharolyticum, the products of six putative pfor gene clusters and one pfl gene may be responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. To gain insights into the physiological roles of ...

  8. The R46Q, R131Q and R154H Polymorphs of Human DNA Glycosylase/β-Lyase hOgg1 Severely Distort the Active Site and DNA Recognition Site but do not Cause Unfolding†

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Peter C.; Daggett, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species can cause widespread cellular damage, including base alterations and strand breaks in DNA. An array of DNA-repair enzymes constitutes an essential part of the line of defense that cells use against oxidative damage to the genome. A DNA glycosylase/β-lyase enzyme, Ogg1, scavenges the genome for 8-oxoguanine, a major mutagenic DNA adduct induced by reactive oxygen species, and catalyzes its excision and subsequent cleavage of the DNA phosphate backbone. Several polymorph...

  9. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%...

  10. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  11. Identification of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway leading to odd-numbered fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuki; Ohno, Yusuke; Yamagata, Maki; Obara, Takashi; Seki, Naoya; Kitamura, Takuya; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain base phytosphingosine is a component of sphingolipids and exists in yeast, plants and some mammalian tissues. Phytosphingosine is unique in that it possesses an additional hydroxyl group compared with other long-chain bases. However, its metabolism is unknown. Here we show that phytosphingosine is metabolized to odd-numbered fatty acids and is incorporated into glycerophospholipids both in yeast and mammalian cells. Disruption of the yeast gene encoding long-chain base 1-phosphate lyase, which catalyzes the committed step in the metabolism of phytosphingosine to glycerophospholipids, causes an ~40% reduction in the level of phosphatidylcholines that contain a C15 fatty acid. We also find that 2-hydroxypalmitic acid is an intermediate of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we show that the yeast MPO1 gene, whose product belongs to a large, conserved protein family of unknown function, is involved in phytosphingosine metabolism. Our findings provide insights into fatty acid diversity and identify a pathway by which hydroxyl group-containing lipids are metabolized. PMID:25345524

  12. NMDA Receptors and Oxidative Stress Induced by the Major Metabolites Accumulating in HMG Lyase Deficiency Mediate Hypophosphorylation of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Brain From Adolescent Rats: Potential Mechanisms Contributing to the Neuropathology of This Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Pierozan, Paula; Soares, Gilberto Machado; Ferreira, Fernanda; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Wajner, Moacir; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-10-01

    Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG lyase) deficiency, which is biochemically characterized by predominant tissue accumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (HMG), 3-methylglutaric (MGA), and 3-methylglutaconic (MGT) acids. Since the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly known, the present study evaluated the effects of these compounds on the cytoskeleton phosphorylating system in rat brain. HMG, MGA, and MGT caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and of the neurofilament subunits NFL, NFM, and NFH. HMG-induced hypophosphorylation was mediated by inhibiting the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on Ser55 residue of NFL and c-Jun kinase (JNK) by acting on KSP repeats of NFM and NFH subunits. We also evidenced that the subunit NR2B of NMDA receptor and Ca(2+) was involved in HMG-elicited hypophosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins. Furthermore, the antioxidants L-NAME and TROLOX fully prevented both the hypophosphorylation and the inhibition of PKA and JNK caused by HMG, suggesting that oxidative damage may underlie these effects. These findings indicate that the main metabolites accumulating in HMG lyase deficiency provoke hypophosphorylation of cytoskeleton neural proteins with the involvement of NMDA receptors, Ca(2+), and reactive species. It is presumed that these alterations may contribute to the neuropathology of this disease. PMID:26174040

  13. 3- and 4-pyridylalkyl adamantanecarboxylates: inhibitors of human cytochrome P450(17 alpha) (17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase). Potential nonsteroidal agents for the treatment of prostatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, F C; Potter, G A; Barrie, S E; Haynes, B P; Rowlands, M G; Houghton, J; Jarman, M

    1996-08-16

    Various 3- and 4-pyridylalkyl 1-adamantanecarboxylates have been synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity toward the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17,20-lyase activities of human testicular cytochrome P450(17 alpha). The 4-pyridylalkyl esters were much more inhibitory than their 3-pyridylalkyl counterparts. The most potent was (S)-1-(4-pyridyl)ethyl 1-adamantanecarboxylate (3b; IC50 for lyase, 1.8 nM), whereas the (R)-enantiomer 3a was much less inhibitory (IC50 74 nM). Nearly as potent as 3b was the dimethylated counterpart, the 2-(4-pyridylpropan-2-yl) ester 5 (IC50 2.7 nM), which was also more resistant to degradation by esterases. In contrast to their 4-pyridyl analogs, the enantiomers of the 1-(3-pyridyl)ethyl ester were similarly inhibitory (IC50 for lyase; (R)-isomer 8a 150 nM, (S)-isomer 8b 230 nM). Amides corresponding to the 4-pyridylmethyl ester 1 and the (S)-1-(4-pyridyl)ethyl ester 3b, respectively 11 and 15b, were much less inhibitory than their ester counterparts. On the basis of a combination of inhibitory potency and resistance to esterases, the ester 5 was the best candidate for further development as a potential nonsteroidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450(17 alpha) for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:8765515

  14. Orally active 7-substituted (4-benzylphthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]nicotinonitriles as active-site inhibitors of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Sven; Braendlin, Nadine; Beerli, Christian; Bergsdorf, Christian; Schubart, Anna; Srinivas, Honnappa; Oberhauser, Berndt; Billich, Andreas

    2014-06-26

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) lyase has recently been implicated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), based on studies in a genetic mouse model. Potent active site directed inhibitors of the enzyme are not known so far. Here we describe the discovery of (4-benzylphthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]nicotinonitrile 5 in a high-throughput screen using a biochemical assay, and its further optimization. This class of compounds was found to inhibit catalytic activity of S1PL by binding to the active site of the enzyme, as seen in the cocrystal structure of derivative 31 with the homodimeric human S1P lyase. 31 induces profound reduction of peripheral T cell numbers after oral dosage and confers pronounced protection in a rat model of multiple sclerosis. In conclusion, this novel class of direct S1P lyase inhibitors provides excellent tools to further explore the therapeutic potential of T cell-targeted therapies in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  15. Study on Molecular Cloning and Enzyme Kinetics of Anabaena α-Phycocyanin Lyase%藻蓝蛋白α亚基裂合酶的分子克隆和酶动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏平; 周明

    2012-01-01

    To comparatively study the differences on structures and functions of phycocyanin lyase CpcE/F from different cyanobacteria, CpcE/F from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were cloned and expressed greatly. The reconstitution of PCB and CpcA from Mastigocladus laminosus PCC 7603 in vitro using the overexpressed lyase Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 CpcE/F showed that CpcE/F from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is the specific enzyme for biosynthesis of α-PC, furthermore, the enzyme kinetics of PcE/F lyase were studied preliminarily.%为了比较研究不同藻种中藻蓝蛋白裂合酶CpcE/F的结构与功能的差异,对Anabaena sp.PCC 7120中的CpcE/F进行克隆,并进行大量表达,将表达的裂合酶CpcE/F用于藻蓝胆素(PCB)与Mastigocladus laminosus PCC 7603藻蓝蛋白α-亚基(α-PC)脱辅基蛋白(CpcA)的体外重组,得到天然活性的α-PC,从而表明CpcE/F所编码的蛋白质是α-PC生物合成的裂合酶,并对CpcE/F的酶动力学进行了初步研究.

  16. Structural and molecular basis for the novel catalytic mechanism and evolution of DddP, an abundant peptidase-like bacterial Dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase: a new enzyme from an old fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Li, Chun-Yang; Gao, Xiang; Zhu, De-yu; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Su, Hai-Nan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Xun, Lu-ying; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    The microbial cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) generates volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and is an important step in global sulfur and carbon cycles. DddP is a DMSP lyase in marine bacteria, and the deduced dddP gene product is abundant in marine metagenomic data sets. However, DddP belongs to the M24 peptidase family according to sequence alignment. Peptidases hydrolyze C-N bonds, but DddP is deduced to cleave C-S bonds. Mechanisms responsible for this striking functional shift are currently unknown. We determined the structures of DMSP lyase RlDddP (the DddP from Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI_1157) bound to inhibitory 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid or PO4 (3-) and of two mutants of RlDddP bound to acrylate. Based on structural, mutational and biochemical analyses, we characterized a new ion-shift catalytic mechanism of RlDddP for DMSP cleavage. Furthermore, we suggested the structural mechanism leading to the loss of peptidase activity and the subsequent development of DMSP lyase activity in DddP. This study sheds light on the catalytic mechanism and the divergent evolution of DddP, leading to a better understanding of marine bacterial DMSP catabolism and global DMS production. PMID:26154071

  17. Clinical Pathway for Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar del Moral, Jesús María; Soria Aledo, Víctor; Colina Alonso, Alberto; Flores Pastor, Benito; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Teresa; Ortega Serrano, Joaquín; Parra Hidalgo, Pedro; Ros López, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Clinical pathways are care plans applicable to patient care procedures that present variations in practice and a predictable clinical course. They are designed not as a substitute for clinical judgment, but rather as a means to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the procedures. This clinical pathway is the result of a collaborative work of the Sections of Endocrine Surgery and Quality Management of the Spanish Association of Surgeons. It attempts to provide a framework for standardizing the performance of thyroidectomy, the most frequently performed operation in endocrine surgery. Along with the usual documents of clinical pathways (temporary matrix, variance tracking and information sheets, assessment indicators and a satisfaction questionnaire) it includes a review of the scientific evidence around different aspects of pre, intra and postoperative management. Among others, antibiotic and antithrombotic prophylaxis, preoperative preparation in hyperthyroidism, intraoperative neuromonitoring and systems for obtaining hemostasis are included, along with management of postoperative hypocalcemia.

  18. Policies built upon pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musterd; Z. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    After the general introductions, the first substantive part of this volume (Part II) provides concise research-based discussions of policies developed in recognition of the important role played by the pathways along which city-regions have travelled. Our research has shown that it is highly importa

  19. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  20. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways. PMID:27382185

  1. Downregulation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Pathway Is Involved in Mitochondrion-Related Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by High Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Zong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to investigate whether endogenous H2S pathway was involved in high-salt-stimulated mitochondria-related vascular endothelial cell (VEC apoptosis. Methods. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were used in the study. H2S content in the supernatant was detected. Western blot was used to detect expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE, cleaved-caspase-3, and mitochondrial and cytosolic cytochrome c (cytc. Fluorescent probes were used to quantitatively detect superoxide anion generation and measure the in situ superoxide anion generation in HUVEC. Mitochondrial membrane pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-9 activities were measured. The cell apoptosis was detected by cell death ELISA and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL methods. Results. High-salt treatment downregulated the endogenous VEC H2S/CSE pathway, in association with increased generation of oxygen free radicals, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and leakage of mitochondrial cytc, activated cytoplasmic caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induced VEC apoptosis. However, supplementation of H2S donor markedly inhibited VEC oxidative stress and mitochondria-related VEC apoptosis induced by high salt. Conclusion. H2S/CSE pathway is an important endogenous defensive system in endothelial cells antagonizing high-salt insult. The protective mechanisms for VEC damage might involve inhibiting oxidative stress and protecting mitochondrial injury.

  2. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  3. Mutant form C115H of Clostridium sporogenes methionine γ-lyase efficiently cleaves S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to antibacterial thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Vitalia V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Chernov, Alexander S; Telegin, Georgii B; Morozova, Elena A; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2016-10-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to thiosulfinates, which possess antimicrobial activity. Partial inactivation of the enzyme in the course of the reaction occurs due to oxidation of active site cysteine 115 conserved in bacterial MGLs. In this work, the C115H mutant form of Clostridium sporogenes MGL was prepared and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The substitution results in an increase in the catalytic efficiency of the mutant form towards S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides compared to the wild type enzyme. We used a sulfoxide/enzyme system to generate antibacterial activity in situ. Two-component systems composed of the mutant enzyme and three S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides were demonstrated to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three clinical isolates from mice. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):830-835, 2016.

  4. Potentiation of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction by Hydrogen Sulfide Precursors 3-Mercaptopyruvate and D-Cysteine Is Blocked by the Cystathionine γ Lyase Inhibitor Propargylglycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Aaronson, Philip I

    2015-01-01

    Although the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) generally dilates systemic arteries in mammals, it causes constriction of pulmonary arteries. In isolated rat pulmonary arteries, we have shown that the H(2)S precursor cysteine enhances both hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and tension development caused by the agonist prostaglandin F(2α) under normoxic conditions. These effects were blocked by propargylglycine (PAG), a blocker of the enzyme cystathionine γ lyase which metabolises cysteine to sulfide. In the present study, we evaluated whether 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), a sulfide precursor which is thought to give rise to sulfide when it is metabolised by the enzyme mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, also enhanced contraction. Application of 3-MP prior to hypoxic challenge caused a marked enhancement of HPV which was completely blocked by both L- and D,L-PAG (both 1 mM). Cumulative application of 3-1,000 μM 3-MP during an ongoing contraction to PGF(2α) under normoxic conditions also caused a marked increase in tension. Application of D-cysteine (1 mM) also enhanced HPV, and this effect was prevented by both the D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor sodium benzoate (500 μM) and 1 mM L-PAG.

  5. Efficient preparation of enantiopure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1 in a recirculating packed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longbao; Zhou, Li; Huang, Nan; Cui, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongmei; Xiao, Ke; Zhou, Zhemin

    2014-01-01

    An efficient enzymatic process was developed to produce optically pure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution of the racemic DL-phenylalanine using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (RgPAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1. RgPAL was immobilized on a modified mesoporous silica support (MCM-41-NH-GA). The resulting MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL showed high activity and stability. The resolution efficiency using MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL in a recirculating packed-bed reactor (RPBR) was higher than that in a stirred-tank reactor. Under optimal operational conditions, the volumetric conversion rate of L-phenylalanine and the productivity of D-phenylalanine reached 96.7 mM h⁻¹ and 0.32 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹, respectively. The optical purity (eeD) of D-phenylalanine exceeded 99%. The RPBR ran continuously for 16 batches, the conversion ratio did not decrease. The reactor was scaled up 25-fold, and the productivity of D-phenylalanine (eeD>99%) in the scaled-up reactor reached 7.2 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹. These results suggest that the resolution process is an alternative method to produce highly pure D-phenylalanine.

  6. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase-Catalyzed Deamination of an Acyclic Amino Acid: Enzyme Mechanistic Studies Aided by a Novel Microreactor Filled with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Diána; Bencze, László Csaba; Bánóczi, Gergely; Ender, Ferenc; Kiss, Róbert; Kókai, Eszter; Szilágyi, András; Vértessy, Beáta G; Farkas, Ödön; Paizs, Csaba; Poppe, László

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), found in many organisms, catalyzes the deamination of l-phenylalanine (Phe) to (E)-cinnamate by the aid of its MIO prosthetic group. By using PAL immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and fixed in a microfluidic reactor with an in-line UV detector, we demonstrated that PAL can catalyze ammonia elimination from the acyclic propargylglycine (PG) to yield (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate. This highlights new opportunities to extend MIO enzymes towards acyclic substrates. As PG is acyclic, its deamination cannot involve a Friedel-Crafts-type attack at an aromatic ring. The reversibility of the PAL reaction, demonstrated by the ammonia addition to (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate yielding enantiopure l-PG, contradicts the proposed highly exothermic single-step mechanism. Computations with the QM/MM models of the N-MIO intermediates from L-PG and L-Phe in PAL show similar arrangements within the active site, thus supporting a mechanism via the N-MIO intermediate.

  7. A simple technique of preparing stable CLEAs of phenylalanine ammonia lyase using co-aggregation with starch and bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian Dong; Sun, Li Mei; Li, Lian Lian

    2013-08-01

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have been recently proposed as an alternative to conventional immobilization methods on solid carriers. However, the low cross-linking efficiency causes the major activity loss and instability in the conventional protocol for CLEA preparation. Herein, the effects of bovine serum albumin and starch addition on the cross-linking efficiency of CLEAs of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis were evaluated. A co-aggregation strategy was developed to improve cross-linking efficiency by adding starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA). CLEAs of PAL prepared in the presence of BSA and starch (PSB-CLEAs) retained 36 % activity, whereas CLEAs prepared without BSA and starch (PAL-CLEAs) retained only 8 % activity of the starting enzyme preparation. Compared with PAL-CLEAs, the thermal stability of PSB-CLEAs has improved considerably, maintaining 30 % residual activity after 4 h of incubation at 70 °C, whereas the PAL-CLEAs have only 13 % residual activity. PSB-CLEAs also exhibited the expected increased stability of PAL against hydrophilic organic solvents, superior operability, and higher storage stability. The proposed technique of preparing CLEAs using co-aggregation with starch and BSA would rank among the potential strategies for efficiently preparing robust and highly stable enzyme aggregates.

  8. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase-Catalyzed Deamination of an Acyclic Amino Acid: Enzyme Mechanistic Studies Aided by a Novel Microreactor Filled with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Diána; Bencze, László Csaba; Bánóczi, Gergely; Ender, Ferenc; Kiss, Róbert; Kókai, Eszter; Szilágyi, András; Vértessy, Beáta G; Farkas, Ödön; Paizs, Csaba; Poppe, László

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), found in many organisms, catalyzes the deamination of l-phenylalanine (Phe) to (E)-cinnamate by the aid of its MIO prosthetic group. By using PAL immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and fixed in a microfluidic reactor with an in-line UV detector, we demonstrated that PAL can catalyze ammonia elimination from the acyclic propargylglycine (PG) to yield (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate. This highlights new opportunities to extend MIO enzymes towards acyclic substrates. As PG is acyclic, its deamination cannot involve a Friedel-Crafts-type attack at an aromatic ring. The reversibility of the PAL reaction, demonstrated by the ammonia addition to (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate yielding enantiopure l-PG, contradicts the proposed highly exothermic single-step mechanism. Computations with the QM/MM models of the N-MIO intermediates from L-PG and L-Phe in PAL show similar arrangements within the active site, thus supporting a mechanism via the N-MIO intermediate. PMID:26345352

  9. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics.

  10. Efficient preparation of enantiopure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1 in a recirculating packed-bed reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbao Zhu

    Full Text Available An efficient enzymatic process was developed to produce optically pure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution of the racemic DL-phenylalanine using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (RgPAL from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1. RgPAL was immobilized on a modified mesoporous silica support (MCM-41-NH-GA. The resulting MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL showed high activity and stability. The resolution efficiency using MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL in a recirculating packed-bed reactor (RPBR was higher than that in a stirred-tank reactor. Under optimal operational conditions, the volumetric conversion rate of L-phenylalanine and the productivity of D-phenylalanine reached 96.7 mM h⁻¹ and 0.32 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹, respectively. The optical purity (eeD of D-phenylalanine exceeded 99%. The RPBR ran continuously for 16 batches, the conversion ratio did not decrease. The reactor was scaled up 25-fold, and the productivity of D-phenylalanine (eeD>99% in the scaled-up reactor reached 7.2 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹. These results suggest that the resolution process is an alternative method to produce highly pure D-phenylalanine.

  11. Structural Basis for the Inhibition Mechanism of Human Cystathionine gamma-Lyase, an Enzyme Responsible for the Productin of H2S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Collins, R; Huang, S; Holmberg-Schiavone, L; Anand, G; Tan, C; van-den-Berg, S; Deng, L; Moore, P; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Impairment of the formation or action of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenous gasotransmitter, is associated with various diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, septic and hemorrhagic shock, and pancreatitis. Cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) are two pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes largely responsible for the production of H(2)S in mammals. Inhibition of CSE by DL-propargylglycine (PAG) has been shown to alleviate disease symptoms. Here we report crystal structures of human CSE (hCSE), in apo form, and in complex with PLP and PLP.PAG. Structural characterization, combined with biophysical and biochemical studies, provides new insights into the inhibition mechanism of hCSE-mediated production of H(2)S. Transition from the open form of apo-hCSE to the closed PLP-bound form reveals large conformational changes hitherto not reported. In addition, PAG binds hCSE via a unique binding mode, not observed in PAG-enzyme complexes previously. The interaction of PAG-hCSE was not predicted based on existing information from known PAG complexes. The structure of hCSE.PLP.PAG complex highlights the particular importance of Tyr(114) in hCSE and the mechanism of PAG-dependent inhibition of hCSE. These results provide significant insights, which will facilitate the structure-based design of novel inhibitors of hCSE to aid in the development of therapies for diseases involving disorders of sulfur metabolism.

  12. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Marybeth C.; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E.; MacInnis, Judith A.; D’Cunha, Godwin B.

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications. PMID:27014206

  13. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  14. Flavodoxin cofactor binding induces structural changes that are required for protein-protein interactions with NADP(+) oxidoreductase and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Adam V; Broderick, Joan B

    2013-12-01

    Flavodoxin (Fld) conformational changes, thermal stability, and cofactor binding were studied using circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and limited proteolysis. Thermodynamics of apo and holo-Fld folding were examined to discern the features of this important electron transfer protein and to provide data on apo-Fld. With the exception of fluorescence and UV-vis binding experiments with its cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN), apo-Fld is almost completely uncharacterized in Escherichia coli. Fld is more structured when the FMN cofactor is bound; the association is tight and driven by enthalpy of binding. Surface plasmon resonance binding experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions for both apo- and holo-Fld and demonstrate the importance of structure and conformation for the interaction with binding partners. Holo-Fld is capable of associating with NADP(+)-dependent flavodoxin oxidoreductase (FNR) and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) whereas there is no detectable interaction between apo-Fld and either protein. Limited proteolysis experiments were analyzed by LC-MS to identify the regions in Fld that are involved in conformation changes upon cofactor binding. Docking software was used to model the Fld/PFL-AE complex to understand the interactions between these two proteins and gain insight into electron transfer reactions from Fld to PFL-AE.

  15. Steroidal 5α-reductase and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) inhibitors useful in the treatment of prostatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Jorge A R; Pinto, Rui M A; Silvestre, Samuel M

    2013-09-01

    The role of steroidal inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis as potential weapons in the treatment of prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer will be reviewed. Two enzymes have been targeted in the development of inhibitors that potentially could be useful in the management of such conditions. 5α-Reductase is primarily of interest in benign prostatic disease, though some role in the chemoprevention of prostatic carcinoma have been considered, whereas the 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) enzyme is of interest in the treatment of malignant disease. An overview of the main achievements obtained during the past years will be presented, however special focus will be made on steroidal molecules that reached clinical trials or have been commercially launched. Relevant examples of such drugs are finasteride, dutasteride, abiraterone acetate and galeterone (TOK-001, formerly known as VN/124-1). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Synthesis and biological testing of steroid derivatives as inhibitors". PMID:23688836

  16. Modification of potato cell wall pectin by the introduction of rhamnogalacturonan lyase and β-galactosidase transgenes and their side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Hong; Kortstee, Anne; Dees, Dianka C T; Trindade, Luisa M; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-06-25

    Genes encoding pectic enzymes were introduced to wild-type potato Karnico. Cell wall materials were extracted from Karnico and transgenic lines expressing β-galactosidase (β-Gal-14 mutant) or rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RGL-18 mutant). After sequential extraction, β-Gal-14 hot buffer-soluble solids (HBSS) of pectin contained 54% less galactose than Karnico HBSS, representing shorter galactan side chains. The individual pectin populations of β-Gal-14 HBSS showed different modifications extended to the two sub-populations as obtained by ion-exchange chromatography. Compared to wild-type, RGL-18 HBSS contained 27% more galacturonic acid and 55% less Gal on fresh potato weight basis, which was due to the removal of galactan-rich rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) segments. All pectin populations of RGL-18 showed consistently low levels of RG-I segments. Transgenic modification showed side effects on the methyl-esterification and acetyl substitution of RGL-18 HBSS (DM=53, DA=21), but not of the β-Gal-14 HBSS in comparison to wild-type (DM=29, DA=54). PMID:27083787

  17. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL APPROACH REVEALS LOCALIZATION OF CYSTATHIONINE-?-LYASE AND CYSTATHIONINE-ß-SYNTHETASE IN ETHANOL-INDUCED GASTRIC MUCOSA DAMAGE IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jand-Venes Rolim MEDEIROS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Hydrogen sulphide (H2S has been proved to be a neuromodulator and contributes to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity in damage caused by anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal drugs. Previously, we demonstrated that H2S synthesis is essential to gastric protection against ethanol. Objective To better understanding the role of H2S and the detailed localization of its production in both normal and injured stomach due to ethanol injection, we studied the expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS isoforms in gastric mucosa of mice treated with saline or 50% ethanol. Methods Mice were treated by gavage with saline or 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g. After 1 hour, mice were sacrificed, and gastric tissue was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis specific for CSE and CBS. Results We have demonstrated a non-specific expression of CBS in the normal gastric mucosa and expression of CSE occurring mainly in the parietal cells of the animals treated with ethanol. Conclusion Thus, we demonstrated that the expression of CBS appears to be constitutive and diffuse across the gastric epithelium, while the expression of CSE appears to be induced in parietal cells by damage agents such as ethanol.

  18. Overexpression of Rice Sphingosine-1-Phoshpate Lyase Gene OsSPL1 in Transgenic Tobacco Reduces Salt and Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Zhang; Jing Zhai; Jibo Mo; Dayong Li; Fengming Song

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids,including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P),have been shown to function as signaling mediators to regulate diverse aspects of plant growth,development,and stress response.In this study,we performed functional analysis of a rice (Oryza sativa) S1P lyase gene OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco plants and explored its possible involvement in abiotic stress response.Overexpression of OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in enhanced sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA),and decreased tolerance to salt and oxidative stress,when compared with the wild type.Furthermore,the expression levels of some selected stress-related genes in OsSPL1-overexpressing plants were reduced after application of salt or oxidative stress,indicating that the altered responsiveness of stress-related genes may be responsible for the reduced tolerance in OsSPL1-overexpressing tobacco plants under salt and oxidative stress.Our results suggest that rice OsSPL1 plays an important role in abiotic stress responses.

  19. Cystathionine-γ-lyase gene silencing with siRNA in monocytes/ macrophages attenuates inflammation in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Badiei; ST Chambers; RR Gaddam; M Bhatia

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in macrophages. To determine the role of H2S and macrophages in sepsis, we used small interference RNA (siRNA) to target the CSE gene and investigated its effect in a mouse model of sepsis. Cecal ligation puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is characterized by increased levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, morphological changes in liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver and lung. SiRNA treatment attenuated inflammation in the liver and lungs of mice following CLP-induced sepsis. Liver MPO activity increased in CLP-induced sepsis and treatment with siRNA significantly reduced this. Similarly, lung MPO activity increased following induction of sepsis with CLP while siRNA treatment significantly reduced MPO activity. Liver and lung cytokine and chemokine levels in CLP-induced sepsis reduced following treatment with siRNA. These findings show a crucial pro-inflammatory role for H2S synthesized by CSE in macrophages in sepsis and suggest CSE gene silencing with siRNA as a potential therapeutic approach for this condition.

  20. Rhodotorulaglutinis phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase enzyme catalyzed synthesis of the methyl ester of para-hydroxycinnamic acid and its potential antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybeth C MacDonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26 enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5, temperature (37 C, speed of agitation (50 rpm, enzyme concentration (0.080 µM, and substrate concentration (0.50 mM. Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ~15% in 1 h incubation period and ~63% after an overnight (~18 h incubation period. The product (p-HCAM of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications.

  1. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Marybeth C; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E; MacInnis, Judith A; D'Cunha, Godwin B

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Phenylalanne Ammonial-lyase Gene from Prunella vulgaris%夏枯草苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锋; 曹腾; 宁迎晶; 蒋丽阳; 张威威; 程水源

    2012-01-01

    苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)是迷迭香酸合成途径中的关键酶之一,根据其他植物PAL基因的保守区域设计特异引物,利用3′-RACE-PCR技术,本研究首次从夏枯草中克隆得到了PAL基因的cDNA片段序列,命名为PvPAL,GenBank登录号为JN65446.PvPAL基因cDNA片段长1 306 bp,其中编码区域为1 047 bp,编码349个氨基酸.蛋白质序列多重比较结果显示,PvPAL蛋白质序列与丹参、地黄、黄芩、藿香等植物的PAL蛋白质高度同源.PAL系统进化树分析结果表明,PvPAL与唇形科植物的PAL基因亲缘关系最近.组织表达分析结果显示,PvPAL基因在根、茎、叶中均表达,其中根中表达量最高.PvPAL基因的克隆为进一步研究夏枯草迷迭香酸合成的分子机制奠定了基础.%Phenylalanne ammonial-lyase( PAL) is one of the key enzymes involved in rosmarinic acid biosyn-thetic pathway. In this study,a PAL gene,named PvPAL,was cloned from Prunella vulgaris at the first time by 3'-RACE-PCR and using the specific primer,which was designed according to the homologus sequences of PAL genes from other plants. The GenBank accession number of PvPAL is JN65446. The length of PvPAL cDNA fragment is 1 306 bp,including a 1 047 bp-length coding sequence,which encoded a 349-amino-acid protein. Sequence multiple-alignment revealed that PvPAL protein had extensive homology with those of other plants as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis and Agastache rugosa. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PvPAL had closest relationship with PALs from Lamiaceae plants than from other plants. Tissue expression analysis indicated that PvPAL expressed in all tissues examined,but highest in roots. The isolation of PvPAL provided basis for further studying the molecular mechanism of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in P. vulgaris.

  3. Molecular Pathways: Estrogen Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, Afsaneh; Lenz, Annika Medea; Labonte, Melissa J.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide colorectal cancer (CRC) has a higher incidence rate in men than in women, suggesting a protective role for sex hormones in the development of the disease. Preclinical data supports a role for estrogen and its receptors in the initiation and progression of CRC and establishes that protective effects of estrogen are exerted through ERβ. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women as well as consumption of soy reduces the incidence of CRC. In the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial use of HRT in postmenopausal women reduced the risk of colon cancer by 56% (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.81; P=0.003). A recent meta-analysis showed that in females, consumption of soy reduced the risk of colon cancer by 21% (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35; P=0.026). In this review, utilizing the preclinical data, we translate the findings in the clinical trials and observational studies to define the role of estrogen in the prevention of CRC. We hypothesize that sometime during the tumorigenesis process ERβ expression in colonocytes is lost and the estrogen ligand, HRT or soy products, exerts its effects through preventing this loss. Thus in the adenoma to carcinoma continuum, timing of HRT is a significant determinant of the observed benefit from this intervention. We further argue that the protective effects of estrogen are limited to certain molecular subtypes. Successful development of estrogen modulators for prevention of CRC depends on identification of susceptible CRC population(s). Thus research to better understand the estrogen pathway is fundamental for clinical delivery of these agents. PMID:23965904

  4. Pathway analysis of IMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced into the......We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced...... into the syntax of IMC in order to make our analysis feasible. Finally we describe the analysis itself together with several theoretical results that we have proved for it....

  5. Pathways of tau fibrillization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuret, Jeff; Chirita, Carmen N; Congdon, Erin E; Kannanayakal, Theresa; Li, Guibin; Necula, Mihaela; Yin, Haishan; Zhong, Qi

    2005-01-01

    New methods for analyzing tau fibrillization have yielded insights into the biochemical transitions involved in the process. Here we review the parallels between the sequential progression of tau fibrillization observed macroscopically in Alzheimer's disease (AD) lesions and the pathway of tau aggregation observed in vitro with purified tau preparations. In addition, pharmacological agents for further dissection of fibrillization mechanism and lesion formation are discussed. PMID:15615636

  6. DMPD: Antiviral innate immunity pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16474426 Antiviral innate immunity pathways. Seth RB, Sun L, Chen ZJ. Cell Res. 200...6 Feb;16(2):141-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Antiviral innate immunity pathways. PubmedID 16474426 ...Title Antiviral innate immunity pathways. Authors Seth RB, Sun L, Chen ZJ. Publication Cell Res. 2006 Feb;16

  7. A novel mechanism of sulfur transfer catalyzed by O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase in the methionine-biosynthetic pathway of Wolinella succinogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States); Krishnamoorthy, Kalyanaraman; Begley, Tadhg P., E-mail: begley@tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77842 (United States); Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: begley@tamu.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    MetY is the first reported structure of an O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase that utilizes a protein thiocarboxylate intermediate as the sulfur source in a novel methionine-biosynthetic pathway instead of catalyzing a direct sulfhydrylation reaction. O-Acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAHS) is a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) dependent sulfide-utilizing enzyme in the l-cysteine and l-methionine biosynthetic pathways of various enteric bacteria and fungi. OAHS catalyzes the conversion of O-acetylhomoserine to homocysteine using sulfide in a process known as direct sulfhydrylation. However, the source of the sulfur has not been identified and no structures of OAHS have been reported in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of Wolinella succinogenes OAHS (MetY) determined at 2.2 Å resolution is reported. MetY crystallized in space group C2 with two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering and crystal packing indicate that the biological unit is a tetramer in solution. This is further supported by the crystal structure, in which a tetramer is formed using a combination of noncrystallographic and crystallographic twofold axes. A search for structurally homologous proteins revealed that MetY has the same fold as cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine γ-lyase. The active sites of these enzymes, which are also PLP-dependent, share a high degree of structural similarity, suggesting that MetY belongs to the γ-elimination subclass of the Cys/Met metabolism PLP-dependent family of enzymes. The structure of MetY, together with biochemical data, provides insight into the mechanism of sulfur transfer to a small molecule via a protein thiocarboxylate intermediate.

  8. Aquatic pathway 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first part of the study discusses problems of exposure due to the emission of radioactive substances into the environment via the water pathway. Discussion is started with a paper on the fundamentals of calculation and another paper on the results of preliminary radiological model calculations. The colloquium will assess the present state of knowledge, helps to find an agreement between divergent opinions and determine open questions and possible solutions. Ten main problems have been raised, most of which pertain to site conditions. They are trated as sub-investigations by individual participants or working groups. The findings will be discussed in further colloquia. (orig.)

  9. High-Level Expression, Purification and Large-Scale Production of l-Methionine γ-Lyase from Idiomarina as a Novel Anti-Leukemic Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Ying Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL, a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme, possesses anti-tumor activity. However, the low activity of MGL blocks the anti-tumor effect. This study describes an efficient production process for the recombinant MGL (rMGL from Idiomarina constructed using the overexpression plasmid in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, purification, and large-scale production. The enzyme produced by the transformants accounted for 53% of the total proteins and accumulated at 1.95 mg/mL using a 500 L fermentor. The enzyme was purified to approximately 99% purity using a high-pressure mechanical homogenizer and nickel (Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow (FF chromatography. Then, the enzyme was polished by gel filtration, the endotoxins were removed using diethyl-aminoethanol (DEAE Sepharose FF, and the final product was lyophilized with a vacuum freeze dryer at −35 °C. The specific activity of rMGL in the lyophilized powder was up to 108 U/mg. Compared to the control, the enzyme significantly inhibited cellular proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner as tested using the MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium assay and induced cellular apoptosis as analyzed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS in leukemia cells. This paper demonstrated the cloning, overexpression, and large-scale production protocols for rMGL, which enabled rMGL to be used as a novel anti-leukemic drug.

  10. Successful fertilization requires the presence of at least one major O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase for cysteine synthesis in pollen of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Hannah; Heeg, Corinna; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of cysteine (Cys) is a master control switch of plant primary metabolism that coordinates the flux of sulfur with carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), nine genes encode for O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OAS-TL)-like proteins, of which the major isoforms, OAS-TL A, OAS-TL B, and OAS-TL C, catalyze the formation of Cys by combining O-acetylserine and sulfide in the cytosol, the plastids, and the mitochondria, respectively. So far, the significance of individual OAS-TL-like enzymes is unresolved. Generation of all major OAS-TL double loss-of-function mutants in combination with radiolabeled tracer studies revealed that subcellular localization of OAS-TL proteins is more important for efficient Cys synthesis than total cellular OAS-TL activity in leaves. The absence of oastl triple embryos after targeted crosses indicated the exclusiveness of Cys synthesis by the three major OAS-TLs and ruled out alternative sulfur fixation by other OAS-TL-like proteins. Analyses of oastlABC pollen demonstrated that the presence of at least one functional OAS-TL isoform is essential for the proper function of the male gametophyte, although the synthesis of histidine, lysine, and tryptophan is dispensable in pollen. Comparisons of oastlABC pollen derived from genetically different parent plant combinations allowed us to separate distinct functions of Cys and glutathione in pollen and revealed an additional role of glutathione for pollen germination. In contrast, female gametogenesis was not affected by the absence of major OAS-TLs, indicating significant transport of Cys into the developing ovule from the mother plant.

  11. Structure of the ArsI C-As Lyase: Insights into the Mechanism of Degradation of Organoarsenical Herbicides and Growth Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Pawitwar, Shashank S; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous and carcinogenic environmental element that enters the biosphere primarily from geochemical sources, but also through anthropogenic activities. Microorganisms play an important role in the arsenic biogeochemical cycle by biotransformation of inorganic arsenic into organic arsenicals and vice versa. ArsI is a microbial non-heme, ferrous-dependent dioxygenase that transforms toxic methylarsenite [MAs(III)] to less toxic and carcinogenic inorganic arsenite [As(III)] by C-As bond cleavage. An ArsI ortholog, TcArsI, from the thermophilic bacterium Thermomonospora curvata was expressed, purified, and crystallized. The structure was solved in both the apo form and with Ni(II), Co(II), or Fe(III). The MAs(III) binding site is a vicinal cysteine pair in a flexible loop. A structure with the loop occupied with β-mercaptoethanol mimics binding of MAs(III). The structure of a mutant protein (Y100H/V102F) was solved in two different crystal forms with two other orientations of the flexible loop. These results suggest that a loop-gating mechanism controls the catalytic reaction. In the ligand-free open state, the loop is exposed to solvent, where it can bind MAs(III). The loop moves toward the active site, where it forms a closed state that orients the C-As bond for dioxygen addition and cleavage. Elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism of this unprecedented C-As lyase reaction will enhance our understanding of recycling of environmental organoarsenicals.

  12. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Hurt, K Joseph; Breen, Kelsey; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Orlicky, David J; Maclean, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap.

  13. Identification of an L-methionine γ-lyase involved in the production of hydrogen sulfide from L-cysteine in Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwabe, Kyosuke; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2011-10-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum produces an abundance of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the oral cavity that is mediated by several enzymes. The identification and characterization of three distinct enzymes (Fn0625, Fn1055 and Fn1220) in F. nucleatum that catalyse the production of H(2)S from l-cysteine have been reported. In the current study, a novel enzyme involved in the production of H(2)S in F. nucleatum ATCC 25586, whose molecular mass had been estimated to be approximately 130 kDa, was identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS. The enzyme, Fn1419, has previously been characterized as an l-methionine γ-lyase. SDS-PAGE and gel-filtration chromatography indicated that Fn1419 has a molecular mass of 43 kDa and forms tetramers in solution. Unlike other enzymes associated with H(2)S production in F. nucleatum, the quaternary structure of Fn1419 was not completely disrupted by exposure to SDS. The purified recombinant enzyme exhibited a K(m) of 0.32±0.02 mM and a k(cat) of 0.69±0.01 s(-1). Based on current and published data, the enzymic activity for H(2)S production from l-cysteine in F. nucleatum is ranked as follows: Fn1220>Fn1055>Fn1419>Fn0625. Based on kinetic values and relative mRNA levels of the respective genes, as determined by real-time quantitative PCR, the amount of H(2)S produced by Fn1419 was estimated to be 1.9 % of the total H(2)S produced from l-cysteine in F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. In comparison, Fn1220 appeared to contribute significantly to H(2)S production (87.6 %).

  14. Expression of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase in human pregnant myometrium and their roles in the control of uterine contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Ji You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human uterus undergoes distinct molecular and functional changes during pregnancy and parturition. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has recently been shown to play a key role in the control of smooth muscle tension. The role of endogenous H(2S produced locally in the control of uterine contractility during labour is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human myometrium biopsies were obtained from pregnant women undergoing cesarean section at term. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS, the principle enzymes responsible for H(2S generation, were mainly localized to smooth muscle cells of human pregnant myometrium. The mRNA and protein expression of CBS as well as H(2S production rate were down-regulated in labouring tissues compared to nonlabouring tissues. Cumulative administration of L-cysteine (10(-7-10(-2 mol/L, a precursor of H(2S, caused a dose-dependent decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in nonlabouring and labouring myometrium strips. L-cysteine at high concentration (10(-3 mol/L increased the frequency of spontaneous contractions and induced tonic contraction. These effects of L-cysteine were blocked by the inhibitors of CBS and CSE. Pre-treatment of myometrium strips with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of L-cysteine on spontaneous contraction amplitude. The effects of L-cysteine on the amplitude of spontaneous contractions and baseline muscle tone were less potent in labouring tissues than that in nonlabouring strips. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: H(2S generated by CSE and CBS locally exerts dual effects on the contractility of pregnant myometrium. Expression of H(2S synthetic enzymes is down-regulated during labour, suggesting that H(2S is one of the factors involved in the transition of pregnant uterus from quiescence to contractile state after onset of parturition.

  15. Redox homeostasis is compromised in vivo by the metabolites accumulating in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency in rat cerebral cortex and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, M S; Seminotti, B; Amaral, A U; Fernandes, C G; Gasparotto, J; Moreira, J C F; Gelain, D P; Wajner, M; Leipnitz, G

    2013-12-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficiency is a disorder biochemically characterized by the predominant accumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate (HMG), 3-methylglutarate (MGA), 3-methylglutaconate and 3-hydroxyisovalerate in tissues and biological fluids of the affected patients. Neurological symptoms and hepatopathy are commonly found in HL deficiency, especially during metabolic crises. Since the mechanisms of tissue damage in this disorder are not well understood, in the present study we evaluated the ex vivo effects of acute administration of HMG and MGA on important parameters of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and liver from young rats. In vivo administration of HMG and MGA provoked an increase of carbonyl and carboxy-methyl-lysine formation in cerebral cortex, but not in liver, indicating that these metabolites induce protein oxidative damage in the brain. We also verified that HMG and MGA significantly decreased glutathione concentrations in both cerebral cortex and liver, implying a reduction of antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, HMG and MGA increased 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation, but did not alter nitrate and nitrite content in cerebral cortex and liver, indicating that HMG and MGA effects are mainly mediated by reactive oxygen species. HMG and MGA also increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in cerebral cortex and liver, whereas MGA decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex. Our present data showing a disruption of redox homeostasis in cerebral cortex and liver caused by in vivo administration of HMG and MGA suggest that this pathomechanism may possibly contribute to the brain and liver abnormalities observed in HL-deficient patients. PMID:24127998

  16. INCREASED NUTRIENT SOLUTION CONCENTRATION DURING EARLY FRUIT DEVELOPMENT STAGES ENHANCES PUNGENCY AND PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE ACTIVITY IN HOT CHILI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichat Dittakit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increased nutrient concentration during different fruit development stages on the yield, pun-gency and PAL enzyme activity in hot chili cv. ‘Super hot’ was studied during August 2009-January 2010. The seedlings were planted in plastic containers containing 20 L of coconut-coir-dust substrate placed inside a plastic-roofed net house and received Resh’s Tropical Dry Summer nutrient solution at a constant concentration (measured by Electrical Conductivity, EC of 1.2 mS cm-1 during the vegetative stage and 2.4 mS cm-1 during the first week of blooming. Then, they were divided into treatments: Treatment 1 (control, plants continuously received nutrient solution at a constant concentration of 2.4 mS cm-1 until end of harvest, while treatments 2-6 received nutrient solution with a change in concentration from EC 2.4 to 3.6 mS cm-1 at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after the week of first bloom, respectively. The results showed that the increase in nutrient concentration at different fruit development stages did not significantly influence chili fruit characteristics and yield. However, the oleoresin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and capsaicinoid contents increased significantly when hot chili plants received the nutrient concentration increase at the 1st and 2nd week after first bloom. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in the full-ripening fruits increased significantly when the nutrient solution concentration increase occurred at 1st and 2nd weeks after first bloom. The highest PAL activity of 827.48 mmole mg-1 protein was recorded in full-ripened fruits, when the nutrient concentration increase occurred at the 2nd week after bloom."

  17. Structure of the ArsI C-As Lyase: Insights into the Mechanism of Degradation of Organoarsenical Herbicides and Growth Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Pawitwar, Shashank S; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous and carcinogenic environmental element that enters the biosphere primarily from geochemical sources, but also through anthropogenic activities. Microorganisms play an important role in the arsenic biogeochemical cycle by biotransformation of inorganic arsenic into organic arsenicals and vice versa. ArsI is a microbial non-heme, ferrous-dependent dioxygenase that transforms toxic methylarsenite [MAs(III)] to less toxic and carcinogenic inorganic arsenite [As(III)] by C-As bond cleavage. An ArsI ortholog, TcArsI, from the thermophilic bacterium Thermomonospora curvata was expressed, purified, and crystallized. The structure was solved in both the apo form and with Ni(II), Co(II), or Fe(III). The MAs(III) binding site is a vicinal cysteine pair in a flexible loop. A structure with the loop occupied with β-mercaptoethanol mimics binding of MAs(III). The structure of a mutant protein (Y100H/V102F) was solved in two different crystal forms with two other orientations of the flexible loop. These results suggest that a loop-gating mechanism controls the catalytic reaction. In the ligand-free open state, the loop is exposed to solvent, where it can bind MAs(III). The loop moves toward the active site, where it forms a closed state that orients the C-As bond for dioxygen addition and cleavage. Elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism of this unprecedented C-As lyase reaction will enhance our understanding of recycling of environmental organoarsenicals. PMID:27107642

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase: spatial conservation of an active site tyrosine and classification of two types of enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E F O'Rourke

    Full Text Available 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (PabC catalyzes the formation of 4-aminobenzoate, and release of pyruvate, during folate biosynthesis. This is an essential activity for the growth of gram-negative bacteria, including important pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A high-resolution (1.75 Å crystal structure of PabC from P. aeruginosa has been determined, and sequence-structure comparisons with orthologous structures are reported. Residues around the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor are highly conserved adding support to aspects of a mechanism generic for enzymes carrying that cofactor. However, we suggest that PabC can be classified into two groups depending upon whether an active site and structurally conserved tyrosine is provided from the polypeptide that mainly forms an active site or from the partner subunit in the dimeric assembly. We considered that the conserved tyrosine might indicate a direct role in catalysis: that of providing a proton to reduce the olefin moiety of substrate as pyruvate is released. A threonine had previously been suggested to fulfill such a role prior to our observation of the structurally conserved tyrosine. We have been unable to elucidate an experimentally determined structure of PabC in complex with ligands to inform on mechanism and substrate specificity. Therefore we constructed a computational model of the catalytic intermediate docked into the enzyme active site. The model suggests that the conserved tyrosine helps to create a hydrophobic wall on one side of the active site that provides important interactions to bind the catalytic intermediate. However, this residue does not appear to participate in interactions with the C atom that undergoes an sp(2 to sp(3 conversion as pyruvate is produced. The model and our comparisons rather support the hypothesis that an active site threonine hydroxyl contributes a proton used in the reduction of the substrate methylene to pyruvate methyl in the final stage of

  19. A Prokaryotic S1P Lyase Degrades Extracellular S1P In Vitro and In Vivo: Implication for Treating Hyperproliferative Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwiler, Andrea; Bourquin, Florence; Kotelevets, Nataliya; Pastukhov, Oleksandr; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G.; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL) degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF expression in carcinoma cells, and proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Upon intravenous injection of StSPL in mice, plasma S1P levels rapidly declined by 70% within 1 h and then recovered to normal 6 h after injection. Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model we further demonstrate that also under in vivo conditions StSPL, but not the inactive mutant, inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis as an S1P-dependent process. Our data demonstrate that recombinant StSPL is active under extracellular conditions and holds promise as a new enzyme therapeutic for diseases associated with increased levels of S1P and S1P receptor signaling. PMID:21829623

  20. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  1. Comparative studies on the properties of tryptophanase and tyrosine phenol-lyase immobilized directly on Sepharose or by use of Sepharose-bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, S; Ikeda, S; Fujimura, M; Yamada, H; Kumagai, H

    1975-02-01

    Tryptophanase from Escherichia coli B/qt 7-A and tyrosine phenol-lyase (beta-tyrosinase) from Escherichia intermedia were immobilized on Sepharose 4B by several direct coupling reactions or through pyridoxal 5'-phosphate previously bound to Sepharose. The most active preparation of immobilized tryptophanase was obtained by coupling tetrameric apoenzyme to pyridoxal-P bound on Sepharose at the 6-position through a diazo linkage. This immobilization procedure involves the formation to Schiff base linkage between 4-formyl group of Sepharose-bound pyridoxal-P and the epsilon-amino group of the lysine residue at the active center of one subunit of tetrameric apo-tryptophanase, followed by the fixation of the Schiff base linkage by reduction with NaBH4. In the case of beta-tyrosinase having two catalytic centers, however, this method was not so suitable as the case of tryptophanase. Direct coupling of the apoenzyme to CNBr-activated Sepharose or to a bromoacetyl derivative of Sepharose gave better results. In each case, the affinity for substrate or coenzyme was scarcely influenced by the immobilization. When used repeatedly in a batch system or continuously in a flow system in the absence of added pyridoxal-P, immobilized holo-tryptophanase of holo-beta-tyrosinase gradually lost its original activity; however, supplement of pyridoxal-P to the reaction system restored its initial activity. From the kinetic analyses of these phenomena, the rate constants of coenzyme dissociation from immobilized tryptophanase and beta-tyrosinase were calculated. Upon immobilization, the pH optima of both enzymes shifted 0.5 to 1.0 pH unit to the alkaline side. Both immobilized enzymes showed higher thermal stability and resistance to a denaturing agent such as guinidine-HCl than their free counterpart. Furthermore, the reactivity of sulfhydryl group of beta-tyrosinase, in connection with its coenzyme-binding property, was conveniently studied by use of the immobilized enzyme.

  2. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap.

  3. Cloning and random mutagenesis of the Erwinia herbicola tyrR gene for high-level expression of tyrosine phenol-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, T; Suzuki, H; Koyanagi, T; Kumagai, H

    2000-11-01

    Tyrosine phenol-lyase (Tpl), which can synthesize 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine from pyruvate, ammonia, and catechol, is a tyrosine-inducible enzyme. Previous studies demonstrated that the tpl promoter of Erwinia herbicola is activated by the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli. In an attempt to create a high-Tpl-expressing strain, we cloned the tyrR gene of E. herbicola and then randomly mutagenized it. Mutant TyrR proteins with enhanced ability to activate tpl were screened for by use of the lac reporter system in E. coli. The most increased transcription of tpl was observed for the strain with the mutant tyrR allele involving amino acid substitutions of alanine, cysteine, and glycine for valine-67, tyrosine-72, and glutamate-201, respectively. A tyrR-deficient derivative of E. herbicola was constructed and transformed with a plasmid carrying the mutant tyrR allele (V67A Y72C E201G substitutions). The resultant strain expressed Tpl without the addition of tyrosine to the medium and produced as much of it as was produced by the wild-type strain grown under tyrosine-induced conditions. The regulatory properties of the mutant TyrR(V67A), TyrR(Y72C), TyrR(E201G), and TyrR(V67A Y72C E201G) proteins were examined in vivo. Interestingly, as opposed to the wild-type TyrR protein, the mutant TyrR(V67A) protein had a repressive effect on the tyrP promoter in the presence of phenylalanine as the coeffector. PMID:11055921

  4. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  5. A prokaryotic S1P lyase degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in vivo: implication for treating hyperproliferative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Huwiler

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7 and colon (HCT 116 carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF expression in carcinoma cells, and proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Upon intravenous injection of StSPL in mice, plasma S1P levels rapidly declined by 70% within 1 h and then recovered to normal 6 h after injection. Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model we further demonstrate that also under in vivo conditions StSPL, but not the inactive mutant, inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis as an S1P-dependent process. Our data demonstrate that recombinant StSPL is active under extracellular conditions and holds promise as a new enzyme therapeutic for diseases associated with increased levels of S1P and S1P receptor signaling.

  6. WikiPathways: capturing the full diversity of pathway knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutmon, Martina; Riutta, Anders; Nunes, Nuno; Hanspers, Kristina; Willighagen, Egon L; Bohler, Anwesha; Mélius, Jonathan; Waagmeester, Andra; Sinha, Sravanthi R; Miller, Ryan; Coort, Susan L; Cirillo, Elisa; Smeets, Bart; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    WikiPathways (http://www.wikipathways.org) is an open, collaborative platform for capturing and disseminating models of biological pathways for data visualization and analysis. Since our last NAR update, 4 years ago, WikiPathways has experienced massive growth in content, which continues to be contributed by hundreds of individuals each year. New aspects of the diversity and depth of the collected pathways are described from the perspective of researchers interested in using pathway information in their studies. We provide updates on extensions and services to support pathway analysis and visualization via popular standalone tools, i.e. PathVisio and Cytoscape, web applications and common programming environments. We introduce the Quick Edit feature for pathway authors and curators, in addition to new means of publishing pathways and maintaining custom pathway collections to serve specific research topics and communities. In addition to the latest milestones in our pathway collection and curation effort, we also highlight the latest means to access the content as publishable figures, as standard data files, and as linked data, including bulk and programmatic access. PMID:26481357

  7. Cysteine and Cysteine-Related SignalingPathways in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine occupies a central position in plant metabolism because it is a reduced sulfur donor moleculeinvolved in the synthesis of essential biomolecules and defense compounds. Moreover, cysteine per se and its deriva-tive molecules play roles in the redox signaling of processes occurring in various cellular compartments. Cysteine issynthesized during the sulfate assimilation pathway via the incorporation of sulfide to O-acetylserine, catalyzed byO-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL). Plant cells contain OASTLs in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and cytosol, resultingin a complex array of isoforms and subcellular cysteine pools, in recent years, significant progress has been made inArabidopsis, in determining the specific roles of the OASTLs and the metabolites produced by them. Thus, the dis-covery of novel enzymatic activities of the less-abundant, like DES1 with L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity and SCSwith S-sulfocysteine synthase activity, has provided new perspectives on their roles, besides their metabolic functions.Thereby, the research has been demonstrated that cytosolic sulfide and chloroplastic S-sulfocysteine act as signalingmolecules regulating autophagy and protecting the photosystems, respectively. In the cytosol, cysteine plays an essentialrole in plant immunity; in the mitochondria, this molecule plays a central role in the detoxification of cyanide, which isessential for root hair development and plant responses to pathogens.

  8. Reaction pathway of tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2011-11-01

    Tryptophanase, L-tryptophan indole-lyase with extremely absolute stereospecificity, can change the stereospecificity in concentrated diammonium hydrogenphosphate solution. While tryptophanase is not inert to D-serine in the absence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate, it can undergo L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine along with indole in the presence of it. It has been well known that tryptophanase synthesizes L-tryptophan from L-serine through a β-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type. However, a metabolic pathway of L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine has remained unclear. The present study aims to elucidate it. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate plays a role in the emergence of catalytic activity on D-serine. The salt gives tryptophanase a small conformational change, which makes it possible to catalyze D-serine. Tryptophanase-bound D-serine produces L-tryptophan synthesis by β-replacement reaction via the enzyme-bound aminoacrylate intermediate. Our result will be valuable in studying the origin of homochirality.

  9. The lipoxygenase metabolic pathway in plants: potential for industrial production of natural green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigot, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway is a widely studied mechanism in the plant kingdom. Combined actions of three enzymes: lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL convert lipidic substrates such as C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids into short chain volatiles. These reactions, triggered by cell membrane disruptions, produce compounds known as Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs which are C6 or C9-aldehydes and alcohols. These GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to food products. Therefore, competitive biocatalytic productions have been developed to meet the high demand in these natural flavors. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipidic acid profile, are converted by soybean LOX and plant HPL into natural GLVs. However this second step of the bioconversion presents low yield due to the HPL instability and the inhibition by its substrate. This paper will shortly describe the different enzymes involved in this bioconversion with regards to their chemical and enzymatic properties. Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.

  10. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. N. D’Mello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis.

  11. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Stacey A N; Finlay, Graeme J; Baguley, Bruce C; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E

    2016-01-01

    Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis. PMID:27428965

  12. Crystal Structures of Two Bacterial 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Lyases Suggest a Common Catalytic Mechanism among a Family of TIM Barrel Metalloenzymes Cleaving Carbon-Carbon Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forouhar,F.; Hussain, M.; Farid, R.; Benach, J.; Abashidze, M.; Edstrom, W.; Vorobiev, S.; Montelione, G.; Hunt, J.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase catalyzes the terminal steps in ketone body generation and leucine degradation. Mutations in this enzyme cause a human autosomal recessive disorder called primary metabolic aciduria, which typically kills victims because of an inability to tolerate hypoglycemia. Here we present crystal structures of the HMG-CoA lyases from Bacillus subtilis and Brucella melitensis at 2.7 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. These enzymes share greater than 45% sequence identity with the human orthologue. Although the enzyme has the anticipated triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold, the catalytic center contains a divalent cation-binding site formed by a cluster of invariant residues that cap the core of the barrel, contrary to the predictions of homology models. Surprisingly, the residues forming this cation-binding site and most of their interaction partners are shared with three other TIM barrel enzymes that catalyze diverse carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions believed to proceed through enolate intermediates (4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase, 2-isopropylmalate synthase, and transcarboxylase 5S). We propose the name 'DRE-TIM metallolyases' for this newly identified enzyme family likely to employ a common catalytic reaction mechanism involving an invariant Asp-Arg-Glu (DRE) triplet. The Asp ligates the divalent cation, while the Arg probably stabilizes charge accumulation in the enolate intermediate, and the Glu maintains the precise structural alignment of the Asp and Arg. We propose a detailed model for the catalytic reaction mechanism of HMG-CoA lyase based on the examination of previously reported product complexes of other DRE-TIM metallolyases and induced fit substrate docking studies conducted using the crystal structure of human HMG-CoA lyase (reported in the accompanying paper by Fu, et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 7526-7532). Our model is consistent with extensive mutagenesis

  13. Substrate specificity of three cytochrome c haem lyase isoenzymes from Wolinella succinogenes: unconventional haem c binding motifs are not sufficient for haem c attachment by NrfI and CcsA1

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Melanie; Eisel, Florian; Scheithauer, Juliane; Kranz, Robert G.; Simon, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial c-type cytochrome maturation is dependent on a complex enzymic machinery. The key reaction is catalysed by cytochrome c haem lyase (CCHL) that usually forms two thioether bonds to attach haem b to the cysteine residues of a haem c binding motif (HBM) which is, in most cases, a CX2CH sequence. Here, the HBM specificity of three distinct CCHL isoenzymes (NrfI, CcsA1 and CcsA2) from the Epsilonproteobacterium Wolinella succinogenes was investigated using either W. succinogenes or Esche...

  14. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  15. Summer 2014 Pathways Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Over the summer I had the exciting opportunity to work for NASA at the Kennedy Space Center as a Mission Assurance Engineering intern. When I was offered a position in mission assurance for the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate's Launch Services Division, I didn't really know what I would be doing, but I knew it would be an excellent opportunity to learn and grow professionally. In this report I will provide some background information on the Launch Services Division, as well as detail my duties and accomplishments during my time as an intern. Additionally, I will relate the significance of my work experience to my current academic work and future career goals. This report contains background information on Mission Assurance Engineering, a description of my duties and accomplishments over the summer of 2014, and relates the significance of my work experience to my school work and future career goals. It is a required document for the Pathways program.

  16. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  17. Combinatorial pathway assembly in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Essani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of synthetic biology and the vast knowledge about individual biocatalytic reactions, the challenge nowadays is to implement whole natural or synthetic pathways into microorganisms. For this purpose balanced enzyme activities throughout the pathway need to be achieved in addition to simple functional gene expression to avoid bottlenecks and to obtain high titers of the desired product. As the optimization of pathways in a specific biological context is often hard to achieve by rational design, combinatorial approaches have been developed to address this issue. Here, current strategies and proof of concepts for combinatorial pathway assembly in yeasts are reviewed. By exploiting its ability to join multiple DNA fragments in a very efficient and easy manner, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not only constitute an attractive host for heterologous pathway expression, but also for assembling pathways by recombination in vivo.

  18. Evidence for cysteine persulfide as reaction product of L-Cyst(e)ine C-S-lyase (C-DES) from Synechocystis. Analyses using cystine analogues and recombinant C-DES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T; Kessler, D

    1999-01-01

    The pyridoxal phosphate-dependent monomeric L-cysteine/cystine C-S-lyase (C-DES), previously isolated from Synechocystis PCC 6714 by its capacity to direct [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly of ferredoxin in vitro (Leibrecht, I., and Kessler, D. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 10442-10447), has now been cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence of C-DES was found to be nearly identical (92% identity) to the open reading frame slr2143 of Synechocystis PCC 6803 and showed a more distant relationship to the NifS family of proteins (about 27% identity). Recombinant C-DES displayed activities equal to the isolate from Synechocystis in terms of the cyst(e)ine lyase reaction and holoferredoxin formation which recommended its use for functional and mechanistic studies. Investigation of the substrate spectrum for beta-elimination found L-cysteine to be a poor substrate (kcat approximately 0.15 s-1) in contrast to L-cystine (kcat = 36 s-1) and several related compounds. Of these compounds, desaminocystine (S-(carboxyethylthio)-L-cysteine) was used for C-DES-mediated persulfide generation. Stabilization of the linear persulfide 3-(disulfanyl)-propionic acid was achieved by cyclization as a novel intramolecular trapping reaction; this yielded 1,2-dithiolan-3-one which was isolated and identified by chemical analyses.

  19. 从苋菜中提取氢过氧化物裂解酶工艺%Extraction Technology of Hydroperoxide Lyase from Amaranth tricolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 刘庆庆; 孔祥珍; 张彩猛; 华欲飞

    2011-01-01

    In higher plant,hydroperoxide lyase(HPL) catalyzed the cleavage of hydroperoxide,which converted from linoleic or linolenc acid by LOX,to give C6 volatile aldehyes together with ω–oxoacids.These volatile aldehydes are important contributors to the distinctive scent of fresh fruits and vegetables,C6 aldehydes are an important flavor additive in food industry and chemical industry.Based on the single-factor tests,combination of the extraction parameters was optimized by using four-factor-three-level orthogonal test.The optimum conditions were determined as follows: speed 12 000r/min,pH =8.0,contained 1mmol / L cysteine and 0.3%(m / v) PVP as a buffer.Under that condition,the total enzyme activity of HPL was high.We also explored the effect of the vacuum the extraction of HPL and found that if the HPL was extracted under the condition of complete oxygen removal,its total enzyme activity would be significantly improved.%在高等植物中,氢过氧化物裂解酶(hydroperoxide lyase,HPL)可将脂肪氧合酶氧化多不饱和脂肪酸产生的氢过氧化物催化裂解,生成的己醛、己烯醛等芳香性物质具有果蔬的新鲜气味,是食品行业和日化工业中的重要芳香风味添加剂。实验以苋菜为研究对象,在单因素[pH、半胱氨酸浓度、匀浆转速、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)浓度]实验基础上,运用4因素3水平的正交实验,对HPL的提取工艺进行了优化,即在12 000 r/min,以pH 8.0的含有1 mmol/L半胱氨酸和0.3%质量浓度的PVP为缓冲液提取HPL,得到的HPL具有很高的酶活。并探索了抽真空对HPL提取的影响,在抽真空完全除去氧的情况下提取HPL,酶活得到显著提高。

  20. Cysteine is the general base that serves in catalysis by isocitrate lyase and in mechanism-based inhibition by 3-nitropropionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Margaret M; Murkin, Andrew S

    2014-01-14

    Isocitrate lyase (ICL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of isocitrate into succinate and glyoxylate. It is the first committed step in the glyoxylate cycle used by some organisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where it has been shown to be essential for cell survival during chronic infection. The pH-rate and pD-rate profiles measured in the direction of isocitrate synthesis revealed solvent kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) of 1.7 ± 0.4 for (D2O)V and 0.56 ± 0.07 for (D2O)(V/Ksuccinate). Whereas the (D2O)V is consistent with partially rate-limiting proton transfer during formation of the hydroxyl group of isocitrate, the large inverse (D2O)(V/Ksuccinate) indicates that substantially different kinetic parameters exist when the enzyme is saturated with succinate. Inhibition by 3-nitropropionate (3-NP), a succinate analogue, was found to proceed through an unusual double slow-onset process featuring formation of a complex with a Ki of 3.3 ± 0.2 μM during the first minute, followed by formation of a final complex with a Ki* of 44 ± 10 nM over the course of several minutes to hours. Stopped-flow measurements during the first minute revealed an apparent solvent KIE of 0.40 ± 0.03 for association and unity for dissociation. In contrast, itaconate, a succinate analogue lacking an acidic α-proton, did not display slow-binding behavior and yielded a (D2O)Ki of 1.0 ± 0.2. These results support a common mechanism for catalysis with succinate and inhibition by 3-NP featuring (1) an unfavorable prebinding isomerization of the active site Cys191-His193 pair to the thiolate-imidazolium form, a process that is favored in D2O, and (2) the transfer of a proton from succinate or 3-NP to Cys191. These findings also indicate that propionate-3-nitronate, which is the conjugate base of 3-NP and the "true inhibitor" of ICL, does not bind directly and must be generated enzymatically.

  1. A mutation in the cytosolic O-acetylserine (thiol lyase induces a genome-dependent early leaf death phenotype in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schippers Jos HM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine is a component in organic compounds including glutathione that have been implicated in the adaptation of plants to stresses. O-acetylserine (thiol lyase (OAS-TL catalyses the final step of cysteine biosynthesis. OAS-TL enzyme isoforms are localised in the cytoplasm, the plastids and mitochondria but the contribution of individual OAS-TL isoforms to plant sulphur metabolism has not yet been fully clarified. Results The seedling lethal phenotype of the Arabidopsis onset of leaf death3-1 (old3-1 mutant is due to a point mutation in the OAS-A1 gene, encoding the cytosolic OAS-TL. The mutation causes a single amino acid substitution from Gly162 to Glu162, abolishing old3-1 OAS-TL activity in vitro. The old3-1 mutation segregates as a monogenic semi-dominant trait when backcrossed to its wild type accession Landsberg erecta (Ler-0 and the Di-2 accession. Consistent with its semi-dominant behaviour, wild type Ler-0 plants transformed with the mutated old3-1 gene, displayed the early leaf death phenotype. However, the old3-1 mutation segregates in an 11:4:1 (wild type: semi-dominant: mutant ratio when backcrossed to the Colombia-0 and Wassilewskija accessions. Thus, the early leaf death phenotype depends on two semi-dominant loci. The second locus that determines the old3-1 early leaf death phenotype is referred to as odd-ler (for old3 determinant in the Ler accession and is located on chromosome 3. The early leaf death phenotype is temperature dependent and is associated with increased expression of defence-response and oxidative-stress marker genes. Independent of the presence of the odd-ler gene, OAS-A1 is involved in maintaining sulphur and thiol levels and is required for resistance against cadmium stress. Conclusions The cytosolic OAS-TL is involved in maintaining organic sulphur levels. The old3-1 mutation causes genome-dependent and independent phenotypes and uncovers a novel function for the mutated OAS-TL in cell

  2. Subcellular localisation of Medicago truncatula 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase reveals a new localisation pattern and activation mechanism for CYP74C enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Richard K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL is a key enzyme in plant oxylipin metabolism that catalyses the cleavage of polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides produced by the action of lipoxygenase (LOX to volatile aldehydes and oxo acids. The synthesis of these volatile aldehydes is rapidly induced in plant tissues upon mechanical wounding and insect or pathogen attack. Together with their direct defence role towards different pathogens, these compounds are believed to play an important role in signalling within and between plants, and in the molecular cross-talk between plants and other organisms surrounding them. We have recently described the targeting of a seed 9-HPL to microsomes and putative lipid bodies and were interested to compare the localisation patterns of both a 13-HPL and a 9/13-HPL from Medicago truncatula, which were known to be expressed in leaves and roots, respectively. Results To study the subcellular localisation of plant 9/13-HPLs, a set of YFP-tagged chimeric constructs were prepared using two M. truncatula HPL cDNAs and the localisation of the corresponding chimeras were verified by confocal microscopy in tobacco protoplasts and leaves. Results reported here indicated a distribution of M.truncatula 9/13-HPL (HPLF between cytosol and lipid droplets (LD whereas, as expected, M.truncatula 13-HPL (HPLE was targeted to plastids. Notably, such endocellular localisation has not yet been reported previously for any 9/13-HPL. To verify a possible physiological significance of such association, purified recombinant HPLF was used in activation experiments with purified seed lipid bodies. Our results showed that lipid bodies can fully activate HPLF. Conclusion We provide evidence for the first CYP74C enzyme, to be targeted to cytosol and LD. We also showed by sedimentation and kinetic analyses that the association with LD or lipid bodies can result in the protein conformational changes required for full activation of the enzyme

  3. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila

  4. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  5. A Myb transcription factor regulates genes of the phenylalanine pathway in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven-Bartle, Blanca; Pascual, M Belen; Cánovas, Francisco M; Avila, Concepción

    2013-06-01

    During the life cycles of conifer trees, such as maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), large quantities of carbon skeletons are irreversibly immobilized in the wood. In energetic terms this is an expensive process, in which carbon from photosynthesis is channelled through the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. This crucial metabolic pathway is finely regulated, primarily through transcriptional control, and because phenylalanine is the precursor for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, the precise regulation of phenylalanine synthesis and use should occur simultaneously. The promoters of three genes encoding the enzymes prephenate aminotransferase (PAT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and glutamine synthetase (GS1b) contain AC elements involved in the transcriptional activation mediated by R2R3-Myb factors. We have examined the capacity of the R2R3-Myb transcription factors Myb1, Myb4 and Myb8 to co-regulate the expression of PAT, PAL and GS1b. Only Myb8 was able to activate the transcription of the three genes. Moreover, the expression of this transcription factor is higher in lignified tissues, in which a high demand for phenylpropanoids exits. In a gain-of-function experiment, we have shown that Myb8 can specifically bind a well-conserved eight-nucleotide-long AC-II element in the promoter regions of PAT, PAL and GS1b, thereby activating their expression. Our results show that Myb8 regulates the expression of these genes involved in phenylalanine metabolism, which is required for channelling photosynthetic carbon to promote wood formation. The co-localization of PAT, PAL, GS1b and MYB8 transcripts in vascular cells further supports this conclusion.

  6. Radioprotective role of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway in Chang liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Yan; Ye Shuang; Yuan Dexiao; Zhang Jianghong; Bai Yang [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shao Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Division of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China)

    2012-10-15

    Radiation-induced liver cell damage may be life-threatening. Here, we investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine {gamma}-lyase (CSE) pathway could serve the protective role toward radiation in normal human liver cells. Our data showed that pretreatment of cells with H{sub 2}S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) significantly attenuated radiation induced micronuclei formation and improved cell viability. However, the use of DL-propargylglycine (PPG), a potent inhibitor of CSE, markedly enhanced the cell-killing effect induced by radiation. Exposure of cells to 2 Gy {gamma}-radiation led to significant increases of the endogenous H{sub 2}S content. The mRNA and protein expressions of CSE also increased after radiation in a time-dependent manner, while the expression of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), another endogenous H{sub 2}S synthetase, did not change significantly. Notably, radiation induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reversed by the pretreatment of NaHS, while blockage of CSE activity resulted in an enhanced ROS production in irradiated cells. Moreover, NaHS markedly suppressed radiation-induced phosphorylation of P53, decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, and activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-{kappa}B). In conclusion, our finding demonstrates that H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway plays a radioprotection role by inhibiting radiation-induced ROS production, P53 phosphorylation, NF-{kappa}B activation and decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, indicating that modulation of H{sub 2}S may be a novel protection strategy for liver radiation injury in radiotherapy.

  7. Secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes as influenced under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in Withania somnifera Dunal, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of supplemental ultraviolet B (3.6 kJ m(-2)day(-1) above ambient) radiation on secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes of Withania somnifera under field conditions at 40, 70, and 100 days after transplantation. Secondary metabolites' (alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, lignin, phytosterols, saponins, and tannins) concentrations were analysed at the end of the treatments. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI), and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) were also determined. In treated plants, secondary metabolite-concentrations generally increased (higher concentrations being recorded in roots compared to leaves). Anomalies were recorded for lycopene in roots and phytosterols in leaves (all sampling ages); β-carotene declined in leaves at third sampling age. s-UV-B-treated plants depicted decrease in withanolide A content with concomitant increase in withaferin A (two major alkaloids analysed by HPLC) compared to their respective controls. Phenylpropanoid pathway enzyme-activities increased in leaves and roots under s-UV-B treatment, the latter showing greater increase. The study concludes that s-UV-B is a potent factor in increasing the concentrations of secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic pathway enzymes in W. somnifera.

  8. Pathways to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radionuclide pathways leading to man generally has the goal of allowing us to predict human exposure from measurements of the radionuclide concentration in some segment of the environment. This modelling process provides a valuable tool in both the regulatory and health protection fields. However, most of the models in the regulatory field and in the health physics profession were designed to maximize exposure estimates. It is preferable to have scientifically defensible estimates and to add suitable safety factors at the end. Thus we are still faced with the development and validation of suitable models for many of the radionuclides of interest. The most useful models will include means of assessing variability and uncertainty. In this case variability might be considered as the differences in behavior due to age, sex or other factors in animals or man and those differences among plant species or animal species that determine their uptake factors. The uncertainty, on the other hand, would be the estimate of possible error in the experimental measurements. Model parameters would always have some variability even for site-specific cases and broad averages for population groups would have to include a factor expressing the possible variabilty and uncertainity. Thus any exposure calculation would have to be expressed with some range and valid assessments of this range are required

  9. Evolution of the TOR Pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.J.P. van; Zwartkruis, F.J.; Bos, J.L.; Snel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and provid

  10. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression......, for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  11. Signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanami, Daiji; Matoba, Keiichiro; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, specific treatment for DN has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying DN to develop cause-related therapeutic strategy. To date, various factors such as hemodynamic changes and metabolic pathways have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Excessive glucose influx activates cellular signaling pathways, including the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, advanced glycation end-products (AGE), polyol pathway, hexosamine pathway and oxidative stress. These factors interact with one another, thereby facilitating inflammatory processes, leading to the development of glomerulosclerosis under diabetic conditions. In addition to metabolic pathways, Rho-kinase, an effector of small-GTPase binding protein Rho, has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of DN. A number of studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase plays key roles in the development of DN by inducing endothelial dysfunction, mesangial excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production, podocyte abnormality, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In this review article, we describe our current understanding of the signaling pathways in DN. PMID:27094540

  12. Metabolic pathway engineering of the toluene degradation pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of how to examine a metabolic pathway and identify what are the key elements, specifically with respect to rate-limitation. The aim is to be able to analyze a pathway, identify the bottlenecks and implement genetic modifications to remove these bottlenecks. This is done by defining the system of interest and developing a predictive model using kinetic data. The model predictions can then be verified using fermentation data and genetic technique...

  13. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  14. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    . Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

  15. Phenylalanin Ammonia-lyase Activity,Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Contents in Flowers,Leaves ,Hulls and Kernels of Three Pistachio(Pistacia vera L.) Cultivars%Phenylalanin Ammonia-lyase Activity,Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Contents in Flowers,Leaves,Hulls and Kernels of Three Pistachio(Pistacia vera L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadernejad Nazi; Ahmadimoghadam Ali; Hosseinifard Javad; Pourseyedi Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanin ammonia-lyase (PAL) plays a pivotal role in the production of phenolic compounds,which are responsible for the success of the defense strategies in harsh environments in response to different stimuli.Measurements of the PAL activity,total phenolics,total flavonoids and anthocyanin contents were performed in flowers,leaves and fruits of three pistachio cultivars "Ahmadaghaii","Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi".The results showed that PAL activity was different in cultivars and in plant organs of pistachio trees (flowers,leaves and fruits).The highest activity rate of their compounds was observed in Ahmadaghaii cultivar.A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity,total phenolics and total flavonoids in leaves,and a negative correlation between PAL activity and anthocyanin contents in leaves and flowers of Ahmadaghaii cultivar.PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began.It is suggested that the hulls of the pistachio fruits,containing high level of phenolic compounds ( especially in Ahmadaghaii cultivar),may function as a protective layer of defense chemicals againstultraviolet radiation and pathogens.The final concentration of phenolic compounds,flavonoids and antocyanins in the kernel depend on PAL activity in the kernel' s cultivar.The results led to the conclusion that increase in PAL activity,phenolic compounds and flavonoids in Ahmadaghaii can help the plant to cope with the stresses better than the other cultivars.Since phenolic compounds are antioxidant and scavenge free oxygen,it is postulated that Ahmadaghaii is the most resistant cultivar to the environmental stresses.

  16. Cloning and RNA interference analysis of a pectate lyase gene of Meloidogyne enterolobii%象耳豆根结线虫果胶酸裂解酶基因的克隆及其RNAi效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓侃; 迟远丽; 扈丽丽; 罗梅; 廖金铃

    2011-01-01

    Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding pectate lyase from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii is described firstly. The full length cDNA (Me-pel-1) containing a 813 bp open reading frame (ORF) that could be translated into a 270 amino acids polypeptide. The deduced protein including four conserved regions possesed characteristic of the class M pectate lyases and showed the highest identity with MI-PEL-1 from Af. Incognita and MJ-PEL-1 from M. Javanica. The phylogenetic tree based on the class M pectate lyases also indicated ME-PEL-1 was the most closest to the two proteins mentioned above. Infection tests of tomato with secondary juveniles (J2s) of Af. Enterolobii incubated in dsRNA against Me-pel-1 resulted in lower infection efficiency, indicating the importance of the gene for plant penetration.%从象耳豆根结线虫中首次克隆了果胶酸裂解酶基因Me-pel-1,该基因cDNA的开放阅读框(ORF)长813 bp,编码270个氨基酸,具有果胶酸裂解酶第3家族的4个保守域特征.ME-PEL-1与南方根结线虫的果胶酸裂解酶MI-PEL-1和爪哇根结线虫的果胶酸裂解酶MJ-PEL-1相似性最高,且系统进化树显示ME-PEL-1也与它们最为接近.利用RNAi技术对象耳豆根结线虫2龄幼虫的Me-pel-1进行沉默,结果发现Me-pel-1基因被干扰后,象耳豆根结线虫2龄幼虫对番茄的侵染率显著降低.该结果表明Me-pel-1基因在象耳豆根结线虫侵染寄主的过程中发挥重要作用.

  17. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  18. Both cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP can act as regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2013-09-01

    Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) are important signaling molecules that control a range of cellular functions and modulate different reactions. It is known that under abiotic or biotic stress plant cells synthesize these nucleotides and that they also enhance the activity of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Wondering what is the relation between these two facts, we investigated how the exogenously applied membrane-permeable derivatives, 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP, which are believed to act as the original cyclic nucleotides, affect the expression of the genes for and the specific activity of three enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We found that the expression of the genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL2), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL1) and chalcone synthase (CHS), and the specific activities of PAL (EC 4.3.1.5), 4CL (EC 6.2.1.12) and CHS (EC 2.3.1.74) were induced in the same way by either of these cyclic nucleotides used at 5 μM concentration. None of the possible cAMP and cGMP degradation products (AMP, GMP, adenosine or guanosine) evoked such effects. Expression of PAL1, 4CL2 and 4CL3 were practically not affected. Although the investigated nucleotides induced rapid expression of the aforementioned enzymes, they did not affect the level of anthocyanins within the same period. We discuss the effects exerted by the exogenously administered cyclic nucleotides, their relation with stress and the role which the phenylpropanoid pathways the cyclic nucleotides may play in plants.

  19. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  20. The Synthesis of Some 17-(2'-Oxazolyl)-androsta-5,16-diene Deriva-tives as 17α-Hydroxylase/C17,20 -Lyase Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuNa; ZhaoNa; LeiXiaoping; LingYangzhi; VenkatechHundratta; AngelaBrodie

    2001-01-01

    Several 4'- and 5'-substituted 17-(2'-oxazolyl)-androsta-5,16-diene derivatives were designed and synthesized as inhibitors of 17α-hydroxylase/C17,20 -Lyase (P45017α) for the treatment of prostatic cancer, the results of the preliminary pharmacological screening showed that compound 6c, i.e. 17-(2'-oxazoly)-androsta-5,16-diene-3-ol was a strong inhibitor, comparable with that of the reference compound VN-85. The introduction ofmethyl or phenyl group at the 4' or 5' position of oxazole ring decreased the activity. The in vitro activities of 3- acetate 5a-c and 8 were lower than their 3-ol counterparts 6a-c and 9 as expected. The further pharmacological study of 6c is in progress.

  1. Construction of Wine Yeast for Improving Cystathionine β-Lyase Activity%具有高胱硫醚β-裂解酶活性的葡萄酒酵母工程菌株的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马捷; 刘延琳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The wine yeast which exhibited higher cystathionine p-Lyase activity was contracted. [Method] Plasmid pAUR123 was used to express the tnaA gene of Escherichia coli in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LFP525 which is a indigenous wine yeast selected from China. Then the cystathionine P-Lyase activity of yeast transformants was detected. After that, model grape juice fermentation and white wine fermentation were carried out to evaluate the tenological properties and thiol-producing characteristics of them. [Result] Two engineering wine yeasts, TH1 and TH2, were obtained in this study. Compared with the host strain, their cystathionine p-Lyase activities were increased by 32.25% to 59.44%. The result of model grape juice fermentation showed that the fermentation duration of engineering yeast strains was one-day longer, the residual sugars and acetic acid were higher than their host strain, while the production of thiols increased obviously, which were 2.8-4.3 folds than that in the host strain. In Sauvignon Blanc wine making test, the technological characteristics of engineering yeast strains showed no significant difference with the host strain, whereas the production of thiols was 1.22 times higher than that of the host strains. [Conclusion] The cystathionine β-Lyase activity of wine yeast was enhanced successfully by using the gene modification method in this study. It will have great interests for improving flavor characteristics of wine in the future.%[目的]构建具有较高胱硫醚β-裂解酶活性的葡萄酒酵母工程菌株,用于提高葡萄酒的香气品质.[方法]利用质粒pAUR123将大肠杆菌tnaA基因在中国本土酿酒酵母菌株LFP525中进行表达,得到的转化子进行酶活测定,并通过模拟汁和干白的发酵,评价其酿酒特性和产生硫醇类物质的能力.[结果]成功获得酵母工程菌株TH1和TH2,其胱硫醚β-裂解酶活性与受体菌比提高了32.25%-59.44%.模拟葡萄汁发酵显示,工

  2. Isolation of the patC gene encoding the cystathionine beta-lyase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and molecular analysis of inter-strain variability in enzyme biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubel, Dominique; Germond, Jacques Edouard; Gilbert, Christophe; Atlan, Danièle

    2002-07-01

    The patC gene encoding the cystathionine beta-lyase (CBL) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDO 1489 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Overexpression of CBL complemented the methionine auxotrophy of an E. coli metC mutant, demonstrating in vivo that this enzyme functions as a CBL. However, PatC is distinguishable from the MetC CBLs by a low identity in amino acid sequence, a sensitivity to iodoacetic acid, greater thermostability and a lower substrate affinity. Homologues of patC were detected in the 13 Lb. delbrueckii strains studied, but only seven of them showed CBL activity. In constrast to CBL(+) strains, all CBL-deficient strains analysed were auxotrophic for methionine. This supports the hypothesis that CBLs from lactobacilli are probably involved in methionine biosynthesis. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms account for the differences in CBL activities observed between strains of Lb. delbrueckii.

  3. Two pectin lyase genes, pnl-1 and pnl-2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae differ in a cellulose-binding domain and in their expression during infection of Malva pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yangdou; Shih, Jenny; Li, Jieran; Goodwin, Paul H

    2002-07-01

    Two pectin lyase genes, designated pnl-1 and pnl-2, were cloned from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a pathogen of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla). pnl-1 was isolated using cDNA from infected plant material; pnl-2 was isolated using cDNA from 3-day-old mycelia grown in mallow-cell-wall extract (MCWE) broth. pnl-1 is the first pectinase gene described thus far to encode a cellulose-binding domain (CBD), which is common in cellulases and xylanases, whereas pnl-2 encodes a pectin lyase that lacks a CBD. In pure culture, pnl-1 expression could be detected when purified pectin or glucose was the sole carbon source, but not when MCWE was the sole carbon source. The lack of pnl-1 expression appeared to be due to gene repression by some unknown factor(s) in the cell-wall extract. In contrast, expression of pnl-2 was detected in cultures when MCWE, but not when purified pectin or glucose, was the sole carbon source. In infected tissue, detection of pnl-1 expression by Northern-blot hybridization and by RT-PCR began with the onset of the necrotrophic phase of infection. Expression ofpnl-2 was not detectable by Northern-blot hybridization, but was observed byRT-PCR in both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The differences between pnl-1 and pnl-2 (i.e. pnl-1 encoding a CBD and differences in the expression patterns of both genes) may be related to the requirements of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae to be able to grow in host tissue under the different conditions present during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection.

  4. OsWRKY03, a rice transcriptional activator that functions in defense signaling pathway upstream of OsNPR1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Qiang LIU; Xian Quan BAI; Qian QIAN; Xiu Jie WANG; Ming Sheng CHEN; Cheng Cai CHU

    2005-01-01

    WRKY family proteins are a class of plant specific transcription factors that involve in many stress response pathways.It has been shown that one Arabidopsis WRKY protein, AtWRKY29/22, is activated by MAP kinase signaling cascade and confers resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens. However, little is known about the biological roles of WRKY proteins in rice. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of rice AtWRKY29/22 homolog, OsWRKY03,under different conditions, and also its possible role involved in plant defense. Our results showed that OsWRKY03 was up-regulated by several defense signaling molecules or different treatments. Further analysis revealed that the expression of OsWRKY03 was light dependent. Transcriptional activation activity of OsWRKY03 was also demonstrated by yeast functional assay. Transient expression of OsWRKY03-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermis cells showed that OsWRKY03 was a nuclear localized protein. OsNPR1 as well as several other pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPR1b, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (ZB8) and peroxidase (POX22.3), were induced in OsWRKY03-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results indicated that OsWRKY03 is located upstream of OsNPR1 as a transcriptional activator in salicylic acid (SA)-dependent or jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent defense signaling cascades.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK397, and -FAK925. Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway.

  6. Metabolic regulation of isocitrate lyase regulator in Escherichia coli based on metabolic flux information%基于代谢流量分布信息理解大肠杆菌中异柠檬酸裂解酶调节因子的代谢调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳志杰; 周利; 花强

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by different transcriptional regulators. The transcriptional regulator isocitrate lyase regulator (IclR) of Escherichia coli represses the expression of the aceBAK operon that codes for the glyoxylate pathway enzymes. In this study, physiological and metabolic responses of the deletion of the iclR gene in E. coli BW25113 were investigated based on the quantification and analysis of intracellular metabolic fluxes. The knockout of the iclR gene resulted in a decrease in the growth rate, glucose uptake rate and the acetate secretion rate, but a slight increase in biomass yield. The latter could be attributed to the lowered metabolic fluxes through several CO2 generating pathways, including the redirection of 33% of isocitrate directly to succtnate and malate without CO2 production as well as the reduced flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore, although the glyoxylate shunt was activated in the iclR mutant, the flux through phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase kept almost unchanged, implying an inactive PEP-glyoxylate cycle and no extra loss of carbon atoms in the mutant strain. Both the reduced glucose uptake rate and the active glyoxylate shunt were responsible for the minor decrease in acetate secretion in the iclR knockout strain compared to that in the wild-type E. coli strain.%基因的表达受不同的转录调节因子调节.大肠杆菌中的异柠檬酸裂解酶调节因子(IclR)能够抑制编码乙醛酸支路酶的aceBAK操纵子的表达.本研究基于代谢物的13C同位体物质分布来定量解析代谢反应,主要研究了iclR基因在大肠杆菌生理和代谢中的作用.大肠杆菌iclR基因缺失突变株的生长速率、糖耗速率和乙酸的产量相对于原始菌株都有所降低,但菌体得率略有增加.通过代谢途径的流量比率分析发现基因缺失株的乙醛酸支路得到了激活,33%的异柠檬酸流经了乙醛酸支路;戊糖磷酸

  7. Stone formation in peach fruit exhibits spatial coordination of the lignin and flavonoid pathways and similarity to Arabidopsis dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piagnani M Claudia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or dehiscence in Arabidopsis. Dehiscence is controlled by a set of transcription factors that define the fruit tissue layers and whether or not they lignify. In contrast, relatively little is known about similar processes in other plants such as stone fruits which contain an extremely hard lignified endocarp or stone surrounding a single seed. Results Here we show that lignin deposition in peach initiates near the blossom end within the endocarp layer and proceeds in a distinct spatial-temporal pattern. Microarray studies using a developmental series from young fruits identified a sharp and transient induction of phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonoid pathway genes concurrent with lignification and subsequent stone hardening. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that specific phenylpropanoid (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and lignin (caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, peroxidase and laccase pathway genes were induced in the endocarp layer over a 10 day time period, while two lignin genes (p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase and cinnamoyl CoA reductase were co-regulated with flavonoid pathway genes (chalcone synthase, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygen-ase and flavanone-3-hydrosylase which were mesocarp and exocarp specific. Analysis of other fruit development expression studies revealed that flavonoid pathway induction is conserved in the related Rosaceae species apple while lignin pathway induction is not. The transcription factor expression of peach genes homologous to known endocarp determinant genes in Arabidopsis including SHATTERPROOF, SEEDSTCK and NAC SECONDARY WALL THICENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 were found to be specifically expressed in the endocarp while the

  8. HealthPathways: creating a pathway for health systems reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Suzanne; Varhol, Richard; Bell, Colin; Quirk, Frances; Durrington, Learne

    2015-02-01

    Inefficiencies in the co-ordination and integration of primary and secondary care services in Australia, have led to increases in waiting times, unnecessary presentations to emergency departments and issues around poor discharge of patients. HealthPathways is a program developed in Canterbury, New Zealand, that builds relationships between General Practitioners and Specialists and uses information technology so that efficiency is maximised and the right patient is given the right care at the right time. Healthpathways is being implemented by a number of Medicare Locals across Australia however, little is known about the impact HealthPathways may have in Australia. This article provides a short description of HealthPathways and considers what it may offer in the Australian context and some of the barriers and facilitators to implementation.

  9. HealthPathways: creating a pathway for health systems reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Suzanne; Varhol, Richard; Bell, Colin; Quirk, Frances; Durrington, Learne

    2015-02-01

    Inefficiencies in the co-ordination and integration of primary and secondary care services in Australia, have led to increases in waiting times, unnecessary presentations to emergency departments and issues around poor discharge of patients. HealthPathways is a program developed in Canterbury, New Zealand, that builds relationships between General Practitioners and Specialists and uses information technology so that efficiency is maximised and the right patient is given the right care at the right time. Healthpathways is being implemented by a number of Medicare Locals across Australia however, little is known about the impact HealthPathways may have in Australia. This article provides a short description of HealthPathways and considers what it may offer in the Australian context and some of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. PMID:25433515

  10. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  11. E-2-hexenal promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae by activating jasmonic acid pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eScala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs are C6-molecules - alcohols, aldehydes and esters - produced by plants upon herbivory or during pathogen infection. Exposure to this blend of volatiles induces defence-related responses in neighboring undamaged plants, thus assigning a role to GLVs in regulating plant defences. Here we compared Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Ler with a hydroperoxide lyase line, hpl1, unable to synthesize GLVs, for susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (DC3000. We found that the growth of DC3000 was significantly reduced in the hpl1 mutant. This phenomenon correlated with lower jasmonic acid (JA levels and higher salicylic acid (SA levels in the hpl1 mutant. Furthermore, upon infection, the JA-responsive genes VSP2 and LEC were only slightly or not induced, respectively, in hpl1. This suggests that the reduced growth of DC3000 in hpl1 plants is due to the constraint of JA-dependent responses. Treatment of hpl1 plants with E-2-hexenal, one of the more reactive GLVs, prior to infection with DC3000, resulted in increased growth of DC3000 in hpl1, thus complementing this mutant. Interestingly, the growth of DC3000 also increased in Ler plants treated with E-2-hexenal. This stronger growth was not dependent on the JA-signaling component MYC2, but on ORA59, an integrator of JA and ethylene signaling pathways, and on the production of coronatine by DC3000. GLVs may have multiple effects on plant-pathogen interactions, in this case reducing resistance to P. syringae via JA and ORA59.

  12. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies

  13. Complementation of a phycocyanin-bilin lyase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with a nucleomorph-encoded open reading frame from the cryptophyte Guillardia theta

    OpenAIRE

    Nyalwidhe Julius; Gruenheit Nicole; Prechtl Julia; Kawach Oliver; Bolte Kathrin; Maier Uwe-G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cryptophytes are highly compartmentalized organisms, expressing a secondary minimized eukaryotic genome in the nucleomorph and its surrounding remnant cytoplasm, in addition to the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion and the plastid. Because the members of the nucleomorph-encoded proteome may contribute to essential cellular pathways, elucidating nucleomorph-encoded functions is of utmost interest. Unfortunately, cryptophytes are inaccessible for genetic transformations thus f...

  14. Rapid prototype extruded conductive pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2016-06-21

    A process of producing electrically conductive pathways within additively manufactured parts and similar parts made by plastic extrusion nozzles. The process allows for a three-dimensional part having both conductive and non-conductive portions and allows for such parts to be manufactured in a single production step.

  15. Diverse Pathways in Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Beverley

    1996-01-01

    Used a Partially Ordered Scaling of Items method to analyze block construction play in a replication of Innes and King-Shaw's 1985 study. Found several developmental pathways for block play, illustrating the web-like nature of conceptual development. Results suggest a contextual developmental approach to better acknowledge individual diversity in…

  16. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  17. The lectin pathway of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie Diederich; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Garred, P;

    2014-01-01

    The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2...

  18. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  19. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique ro...

  20. Widespread occurrence of two carbon fixation pathways in tubeworm endosymbionts: lessons from hydrothermal vent associated tubeworms from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eThiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vestimentiferan tubeworms (siboglinid polychaetes of the genus Lamellibrachia are common members of cold-seep faunal communities and have also been found at sedimented hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific. As they lack a digestive system, they are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts growing in a specialized tissue called the trophosome. Here we present the results of investigations of tubeworms and endosymbionts from a shallow hydrothermal vent field in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tubeworms, which are the first reported vent-associated tubeworms outside the Pacific, are identified as Lamellibrachia anaximandri using mitochondrial ribosomal and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences. They harbor a single gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. Carbon isotopic data, as well as the analysis of genes involved in carbon and sulfur metabolism indicate a sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic endosymbiont. The detection of a hydrogenase gene fragment suggests the potential for hydrogen oxidation as alternative energy source. Surprisingly, the endosymbiont harbors genes for two different carbon fixation pathways, the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle as well as the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA cycle, as has been reported for the endosymbiont of the giant vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila. In addition to RubisCO genes we detected ATP citrate lyase (ACL, the key enzyme of the rTCA cycle type II gene sequences using newly designed primer sets. Comparative investigations with additional tubeworm species (Lamellibrachia luymesi, Lamellibrachia sp. 1, Lamellibrachia sp. 2, Escarpia laminata, Seepiophila jonesi from multiple cold seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico revealed the presence of acl genes in these species as well. Thus, our study suggests that the presence of two different carbon fixation pathways, the CBB cycle and the rTCA cycle, is not restricted to the Riftia endosymbiont, but rather might be common in vestimentiferan tubeworm

  1. Molecular Pathways: Targeting DNA Repair Pathway Defects Enriched in Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Niall M; Clarkson, Michael J; Stuchbery, Ryan; Hovens, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of a pristine genome, free from errors, is necessary to prevent cellular transformation and degeneration. When errors in DNA are detected, DNA damage repair (DDR) genes and their regulators are activated to effect repair. When these DDR pathways are themselves mutated or aberrantly downregulated, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders can ensue. Multiple lines of evidence now indicate, however, that defects in key regulators of DNA repair pathways are highly enriched in human metastasis specimens and hence may be a key step in the acquisition of metastasis and the ability of localized disease to disseminate. Some of the key regulators of checkpoints in the DNA damage response are the TP53 protein and the PARP enzyme family. Targeting of these pathways, especially through PARP inhibition, is now being exploited therapeutically to effect significant clinical responses in subsets of individuals, particularly in patients with ovarian cancer or prostate cancer, including cancers with a marked metastatic burden. Targeting DNA repair-deficient tumors with drugs that take advantage of the fundamental differences between normal repair-proficient cells and repair-deficient tumors offers new avenues for treating advanced disease in the future. Clin Cancer Res; 22(13); 3132-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27169997

  2. DMPD: Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17904888 Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Edwards M...csml) Show Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. PubmedID 17904888 Title Signalling pathways media

  3. Involvement of bacterial TonB-dependent signaling in the generation of an oligogalacturonide damage-associated molecular pattern from plant cell walls exposed to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pectate lyases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhölter Frank-Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient perception of attacking pathogens is essential for plants. Plant defense is evoked by molecules termed elicitors. Endogenous elicitors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs originate from plant materials upon injury or pathogen activity. While there are comparably well-characterized examples for DAMPs, often oligogalacturonides (OGAs, generated by the activity of fungal pathogens, endogenous elicitors evoked by bacterial pathogens have been rarely described. In particular, the signal perception and transduction processes involved in DAMP generation are poorly characterized. Results A mutant strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris deficient in exbD2, which encodes a component of its unusual elaborate TonB system, had impaired pectate lyase activity and caused no visible symptoms for defense on the non-host plant pepper (Capsicum annuum. A co-incubation of X. campestris pv. campestris with isolated cell wall material from C. annuum led to the release of compounds which induced an oxidative burst in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plant. Lipopolysaccharides and proteins were ruled out as elicitors by polymyxin B and heat treatment, respectively. After hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid and subsequent HPAE chromatography, the elicitor preparation contained galacturonic acid, the monosaccharide constituent of pectate. OGAs were isolated from this crude elicitor preparation by HPAEC and tested for their biological activity. While small OGAs were unable to induce an oxidative burst, the elicitor activity in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plants tobacco and pepper increased with the degree of polymerization (DP. Maximal elicitor activity was observed for DPs exceeding 8. In contrast to the X. campestris pv. campestris wild type B100, the exbD2 mutant was unable to generate elicitor activity from plant cell wall material or from pectin. Conclusions To our

  4. Integration of apo-α-phycocyanin into phycobilisomes and its association with FNRL in the absence of the phycocyanin α-subunit lyase (CpcF in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Zhang

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is an important component of the phycobilisome, which is the principal light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria. The covalent attachment of the phycocyanobilin chromophore to phycocyanin is catalyzed by the enzyme phycocyanin lyase. The photosynthetic properties and phycobilisome assembly state were characterized in wild type and two mutants which lack holo-α-phycocyanin. Insertional inactivation of the phycocyanin α-subunit lyase (ΔcpcF mutant prevents the ligation of phycocyanobilin to α-phycocyanin (CpcA, while disruption of the cpcB/A/C2/C1 operon in the CK mutant prevents synthesis of both apo-α-phycocyanin (apo-CpcA and apo-β-phycocyanin (apo-CpcB. Both mutants exhibited similar light saturation curves under white actinic light illumination conditions, indicating the phycobilisomes in the ΔcpcF mutant are not fully functional in excitation energy transfer. Under red actinic light illumination, wild type and both phycocyanin mutant strains exhibited similar light saturation characteristics. This indicates that all three strains contain functional allophycocyanin cores associated with their phycobilisomes. Analysis of the phycobilisome content of these strains indicated that, as expected, wild type exhibited normal phycobilisome assembly and the CK mutant assembled only the allophycocyanin core. However, the ΔcpcF mutant assembled phycobilisomes which, while much larger than the allophycocyanin core observed in the CK mutant, were significantly smaller than phycobilisomes observed in wild type. Interestingly, the phycobilisomes from the ΔcpcF mutant contained holo-CpcB and apo-CpcA. Additionally, we found that the large form of FNR (FNR(L accumulated to normal levels in wild type and the ΔcpcF mutant. In the CK mutant, however, significantly less FNR(L accumulated. FNRL has been reported to associate with the phycocyanin rods in phycobilisomes via its N-terminal domain, which shares sequence homology with a phycocyanin

  5. Integration of apo-α-phycocyanin into phycobilisomes and its association with FNRL in the absence of the phycocyanin α-subunit lyase (CpcF) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2014-01-01

    Phycocyanin is an important component of the phycobilisome, which is the principal light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria. The covalent attachment of the phycocyanobilin chromophore to phycocyanin is catalyzed by the enzyme phycocyanin lyase. The photosynthetic properties and phycobilisome assembly state were characterized in wild type and two mutants which lack holo-α-phycocyanin. Insertional inactivation of the phycocyanin α-subunit lyase (ΔcpcF mutant) prevents the ligation of phycocyanobilin to α-phycocyanin (CpcA), while disruption of the cpcB/A/C2/C1 operon in the CK mutant prevents synthesis of both apo-α-phycocyanin (apo-CpcA) and apo-β-phycocyanin (apo-CpcB). Both mutants exhibited similar light saturation curves under white actinic light illumination conditions, indicating the phycobilisomes in the ΔcpcF mutant are not fully functional in excitation energy transfer. Under red actinic light illumination, wild type and both phycocyanin mutant strains exhibited similar light saturation characteristics. This indicates that all three strains contain functional allophycocyanin cores associated with their phycobilisomes. Analysis of the phycobilisome content of these strains indicated that, as expected, wild type exhibited normal phycobilisome assembly and the CK mutant assembled only the allophycocyanin core. However, the ΔcpcF mutant assembled phycobilisomes which, while much larger than the allophycocyanin core observed in the CK mutant, were significantly smaller than phycobilisomes observed in wild type. Interestingly, the phycobilisomes from the ΔcpcF mutant contained holo-CpcB and apo-CpcA. Additionally, we found that the large form of FNR (FNR(L)) accumulated to normal levels in wild type and the ΔcpcF mutant. In the CK mutant, however, significantly less FNR(L) accumulated. FNRL has been reported to associate with the phycocyanin rods in phycobilisomes via its N-terminal domain, which shares sequence homology with a phycocyanin linker

  6. Fragmentation pathways of polymer ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Solak, Nilüfer; Polce, Michael J; Dabney, David E; Chaicharoen, Kittisak; Katzenmeyer, Bryan C

    2011-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is increasingly applied to synthetic polymers to characterize chain-end or in-chain substituents, distinguish isobaric and isomeric species, and determine macromolecular connectivities and architectures. For confident structural assignments, the fragmentation mechanisms of polymer ions must be understood, as they provide guidelines on how to deduce the desired information from the fragments observed in MS/MS spectra. This article reviews the fragmentation pathways of synthetic polymer ions that have been energized to decompose via collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), the most widely used activation method in polymer analysis. The compounds discussed encompass polystyrenes, poly(2-vinyl pyridine), polyacrylates, poly(vinyl acetate), aliphatic polyester copolymers, polyethers, and poly(dimethylsiloxane). For a number of these polymers, several substitution patterns and architectures are considered, and questions regarding the ionization agent and internal energy of the dissociating precursor ions are also addressed. Competing and consecutive dissociations are evaluated in terms of the structural insight they provide about the macromolecular structure. The fragmentation pathways of the diverse array of polymer ions examined fall into three categories, viz. (1) charge-directed fragmentations, (2) charge-remote rearrangements, and (3) charge-remote fragmentations via radical intermediates. Charge-remote processes predominate. Depending on the ionizing agent and the functional groups in the polymer, the incipient fragments arising by pathways (1)-(3) may form ion-molecule complexes that survive long enough to permit inter-fragment hydrogen atom, proton, or hydride transfers. PMID:20623599

  7. Dual pathways to prospective remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Umanath, Sharda; Einstein, Gilles O.; Waldum, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel and Einstein, 2000), the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM) retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top–down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom–up) spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically, spontaneous retrieval is assumed not to require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom–up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM. PMID:26236213

  8. Dual Pathways to Prospective Remembering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Mcdaniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000, the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top-down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically spontaneous retrieval is assumed to not require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM.

  9. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh eDolatshahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems.

  10. Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Bhat, Maria; Skogh, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22) and those of controls (n = 26) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36). CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.027). In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25288889

  11. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatshahi, Sepideh; Voit, Eberhard O

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE) was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems.

  12. Linking genome content to biofuel production yields: a meta-analysis of major catabolic pathways among select H2 and ethanol-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carere Carlo R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermentative bacteria offer the potential to convert lignocellulosic waste-streams into biofuels such as hydrogen (H2 and ethanol. Current fermentative H2 and ethanol yields, however, are below theoretical maxima, vary greatly among organisms, and depend on the extent of metabolic pathways utilized. For fermentative H2 and/or ethanol production to become practical, biofuel yields must be increased. We performed a comparative meta-analysis of (i reported end-product yields, and (ii genes encoding pyruvate metabolism and end-product synthesis pathways to identify suitable biomarkers for screening a microorganism’s potential of H2 and/or ethanol production, and to identify targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel yields. Our interest in H2 and/or ethanol optimization restricted our meta-analysis to organisms with sequenced genomes and limited branched end-product pathways. These included members of the Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae. Results Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the absence of genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE in Caldicellulosiruptor, Thermococcus, Pyrococcus, and Thermotoga species coincide with high H2 yields and low ethanol production. Organisms containing genes (or activities for both ethanol and H2 synthesis pathways (i.e. Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis, Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Clostridium species had relatively uniform mixed product patterns. The absence of hydrogenases in Geobacillus and Bacillus species did not confer high ethanol production, but rather high lactate production. Only Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus produced relatively high ethanol and low H2 yields. This may be attributed to the presence of genes encoding proteins that promote NADH production. Lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate:formate lyase are not conducive for ethanol and/or H2 production. While the type(s of

  13. Synergy between methylerythritol phosphate pathway and mevalonate pathway for isoprene production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiang; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Bingbing; Gao, Fang; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Isoprene, a key building block of synthetic rubber, is currently produced entirely from petrochemical sources. In this work, we engineered both the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprene production in E. coli. The synergy between the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway was demonstrated by the production experiment, in which overexpression of both pathways improved the isoprene yield about 20-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to overexpression of the MEP pathway or the MVA pathway alone. The (13)C metabolic flux analysis revealed that simultaneous utilization of the two pathways resulted in a 4.8-fold increase in the MEP pathway flux and a 1.5-fold increase in the MVA pathway flux. The synergy of the dual pathway was further verified by quantifying intracellular flux responses of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway to fosmidomycin treatment and mevalonate supplementation. Our results strongly suggest that coupling of the complementary reducing equivalent demand and ATP requirement plays an important role in the synergy of the dual pathway. Fed-batch cultivation of the engineered strain overexpressing the dual pathway resulted in production of 24.0g/L isoprene with a yield of 0.267g/g of glucose. The synergy of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway also successfully increased the lycopene productivity in E. coli, which demonstrates that it can be used to improve the production of a broad range of terpenoids in microorganisms. PMID:27174717

  14. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL): Mouse and human HL gene (HMGCL) cloning and detection of large gene deletions in two unrelated HL-deficient patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.P.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL, EC 4.1.3.4) catalyzes the cleavage of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA to acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA, the final reaction of both ketogenesis and leucine catabolism. Autosomal-recessive HL deficiency in humans results in episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and coma. Using a mouse HL cDNA as a probe, we isolated a clone containing the full-length mouse HL gene that spans about 15 kb of mouse chromosome 4 and contains nine exons. The promoter region of the mouse HL gene contains elements characteristic of a housekeeping gene: a CpG island containing multiple Sp1 binding sites surrounds exon 1, and neither a TATA nor a CAAT box are present. We identified multiple transcription start sites in the mouse HL gene, 35 to 9 bases upstream of the translation start codon. We also isolated two human HL genomic clones that include HL exons 2 to 9 within 18 kb. The mouse and human HL genes (HGMW-approved symbol HMGCL) are highly homologous, with identical locations of intron-exon junctions. By genomic Southern blot analysis and exonic PCR, was found 2 of 33 HL-deficient probands to be homozygous for large deletions in the HL gene. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. RESEARCH PROGRESS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE(E.C.4.3.1.5)%苯丙氨酸解氨酶的分子生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪元颖; 杨顺楷; 刘成君

    2002-01-01

    @@ 苯丙氨酸解氨酶(Phenylalanine ammonia lyase,PAL E.C.4.3.1.5)是一种只存在于植物及微生物细胞内的酶,主要分布于高等植物如小麦﹑大豆﹑玉米﹑土豆及酵母[1]﹑真菌[2]﹑链霉菌[3]中.在pH 8.8时,PAL催化苯丙氨酸脱氨生成肉桂酸和氨,当过量的氨存在,如pH 10时,PAL催化肉桂酸和氨,氨化加成生成L 苯丙氨酸(L phenylalanine).利用PAL这种逆向催化特性转化肉桂酸生产L Phe,已在国内外投入商业规模开发,成为当前生物化工领域研究与开发的热点.

  16. Mutation Breeding of Protoplast of L-phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Producing Strains%L-苯丙氨酸解氨酶产生菌的原生质体诱变育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 熊思驰; 黄飞; 王国盼; 韦春葵; 苏宏飞; 梁智群; 黄时海

    2015-01-01

    原始菌株海洋红酵母M1202产生的L-苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL),能够逆反应催化反式肉桂酸(t-Ca)生成L-苯丙氨酸。对M1202进行原生质体紫外诱变获得一株转化率为原始菌株115%的菌株TM2,经6次传代,仍具有较好的遗传稳定性。%Using Rhodotorula benthica M1202 as the original strain, the L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) of M1202 could transform trans-Cinnamic acid (t-Ca) to L-phenylalanine. The aim of this study was to obtain new Rhodotorula benthica mutants with high conversion rate. UV induced mutagenesis of protoplast was performed on original strain Rhodotorula benthica M1202. A genetically stable mutant strains TM2 was selected from a large amount of the regenerative mutants. The conversion rate of TM2 was 1.15-fold increased compared with its original strain. Further experiment confirmed after six generations successively propagating the conversion rate of TM2 was stable.

  17. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  18. Synthesis of novel 17-(4'-formyl)pyrazolylandrosta-5,16-dienes and their derivatives as potent 17α-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase inhibitors or antiproliferative agents depending on the substitution pattern of the heteroring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Dóra; Wölfling, János; Szabó, Nikoletta; Szécsi, Mihály; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Zupkó, István; Frank, Éva

    2016-09-14

    A series of novel 17-(4'-formyl)pyrazolylandrosta-5,16-dienes were efficiently synthesized in two steps from pregnadienolone acetate with monosubstituted hydrazines via the cyclization/formylation sequence of the primarily formed hydrazones on treatment with the Vilsmeier-Haack reagent. The products were further transformed by deacetylation and subsequent reduction in order to enlarge the compound library available for pharmacological studies. Moreover, 4'-formylpyrazoles containing H or Me on the heteroring-N were subjected to oxime formation and Ac2O-induced dehydration to furnish the corresponding 4'-cyano derivatives in good yields. The antiproliferative activities of the structurally related steroidal 17-exo-pyrazole derivatives were tested in vitro on four human adherent breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361): the microculture tetrazolium assay revealed that seven compounds exerted better cell growth-inhibitory effects on some or all these cell lines than those of the reference cisplatin. With regard to the well-known structural features that a potent C17,20-lyase inhibitor should possess, some relevant derivatives were tested in vitro from the aspects of their inhibitory effects on rat testicular enzyme, and one of them proved to exert noteworthy enzyme-inhibitory action, with an IC50 (26 nM) of the same order of magnitude as that of abiraterone. PMID:27209562

  19. Apoptotic engulfment pathway and schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Xiangning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p = 0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p = 0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p = 0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p = 0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease.

  20. Primary Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Flux Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter introduces the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) or stoichiometry-based MFA, and describes the quantitative basis for MFA. It discusses the catabolic pathways in which free energy is produced to drive the cell-building anabolic pathways. An overview of these primary pathways provides...... the reader who is primarily trained in the engineering sciences with atleast a preliminary introduction to biochemistry and also shows how carbon is drained off the catabolic pathways to provide precursors for cell mass building and sometimes for important industrial products. The primary pathways...