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Sample records for carbon-nanofibre reinforced poly

  1. Rheological, mechanical and tribological properties of carbon-nanofibre reinforced poly (ether ether ketone composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Altstaedt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ether ether ketone nanocomposites containing vapour-grown carbon nanofibres (CNF were produced using standard polymer processing techniques. At high shear rates no significant increase in resin viscosity was observed. Nevertheless, the addition of the CNFs results in a higher melt strength at 360°C. Electron microscopy confirmed the homogeneous dispersion and alignment of nanofibres in the polymer matrix. Evaluation of the mechanical composite properties revealed a linear increase in tensile stiffness and strength with nanofibre loading fractions up to 15 wt% whilst matrix ductility was maintained up to 10 wt%. An interpretation of the composite performance by short-fibre theory resulted in rather low intrinsic stiffness properties of the vapour-grown CNF. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate crystallization kinetics and degree of crystallinity. The CNFs were found not to act as nucleating sites. Furthermore, unidirectional sliding tests against two different counterpart materials (100Cr6 martensitic bearing steel, X5CrNi18-10 austenitic stainless steel were performed. The carbon nanofibres were found to reduce the wear rate of PEEK significantly.

  2. Effect of carbon nanofibre addition on the mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Owing to the good mechanical properties of the carbon nanofibres (CNFs), they ... 8H Satin, T-300 carbon fabric (C-fabric) was used as rein- forcement. ... below. Absolute strength (S) in MPa at a given Vf: S = a + bVf + cV 2 f , where 'a' is the ...

  3. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 3. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery. M KAKUNURI S KAUSHIK A SAINI C S SHARMA. Volume 40 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 435-439 ...

  4. Dielectric properties of carbon nanofibre/alumina composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menéndez, J.L.; Pecharromán, C.; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Kempa, Martin; Petzelt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, JUN (2013), s. 380-387 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA MŠk LD12025 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alumina * carbon nanofibre * dielectric and THz spectroscopy * infrared spectroscopy * percolation threshold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.160, year: 2013

  5. Room and low temperature synthesis of carbon nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskovic, Bojan O.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibres have attracted attention in recent years as new materials with a number of very promising potential applications. Carbon nanotubes are potential candidates for field emitters in flat panel displays. Carbon nanofibres could also be used as a hydrogen storage material and as a filling material in polymer composites. Carbon nanotubes are already used as tips in scanning probe microscopy due to their remarkable mechanical and electrical properties, and could be soon used as nanotweezers. Use of carbon nanotubes in nanoelectronics will open further miniaturisation prospects. Temperatures ranging from 450 to 1000 deg C have been a required for catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres. Researchers have been trying to reduce the growth temperatures for decades. Low temperature growth conditions will allow the growth of carbon nanotubes on different substrates, such glass (below 650 deg C) and as plastics (below 150 deg C) over relatively large areas, which is especially suitable for fiat panel display applications. Room temperature growth conditions could open up the possibility of using different organic substrates and bio-substrates for carbon nanotubes synthesis. Carbon nanofibres have been synthesised at room temperature and low temperatures below 250 deg C using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (r.f. PECVD). Previously, the growth of carbon nanofibres has been via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide at temperatures above 300 deg C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of the growth of carbon nanofibres at temperatures lower than 300 deg C by any method. The use of a transition metal catalyst and r.f.-PECVD system is required for the growth of the carbon nanofibre when a hydrocarbon flows above the catalyst. Within the semiconductor industry r.f.-PECVD is a well established technique which lends itself for the growth of carbon nanofibres for various

  6. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanofibrous/hydroxyapatite sheets for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, A M; El Backly, Rania M; Taha, Nahla A; El-Maghraby, Azza; Kandil, Sherif H

    2017-07-01

    Critical size bone defects are orthopedic defects that will not heal without intervention or that will not completely heal over the natural life time of the animal. Although bone generally has the ability to regenerate completely however, critical defects require some sort of scaffold to do so. In the current study we proposed a method to obtain a carbon nanofibrous/Hydroxyapatite (HA) bioactive scaffold. The carbon nanofibrous (CNF) nonwoven fabrics were obtained by the use of the electrospinning process of the polymeric solution of poly acrylonitrile "PAN" and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The CNFs sheets were functionalized by both hydroxyapatite (HA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The HA was added to the electrospun solution, but in case of (BSA), it was adsorbed after the carbonization process. The changes in the properties taking place in the precursor sheets were investigated using the characterization methods (SEM, FT-IR, TGA and EDX). The prepared materials were tested for biocompatibility via subcutaneous implantation in New Zealand white rabbits. We successfully prepared biocompatible functionalized sheets, which have been modified with HA or HA and BSA. The sheets that were functionalized by both HA and BSA are more biocompatible with fewer inflammatory cells of (neutrophils and lymphocytes) than ones with only HA over the period of 3weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon Nanofibrous Materials from Electrospinning: Preparation and Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Alex

    Carbon nanofibers with diameters that fall into submicron and nanometer range have attracted growing attention in recent years due to their superior chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties in combination with their unique one-dimensional nanostructures. Unlike catalytic synthesis, electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN) followed by stabilization and carbonization has become a straightforward and convenient route to make continuous carbon nanofibers. The overall objective of this research was the design and production fiber based carbon nanomaterials, investigation of their structures and use in functional applications. Specifically, these carbon nanofibrous materials were employed as electrode material for energy storage and conversion devices such as dye sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors Morphology and structure of the carbon nanofibrous materials were investigated and their performance in corresponding applications were evaluated.

  8. A carbon nanofibre scanning probe assembled using an electrothermal microgripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kenneth; Dyvelkov, Karin Nordström; Eicchorn, V.

    2007-01-01

    Functional devices can be directly assembled using microgrippers with an in situ electron microscope. Two simple and compact silicon microgripper designs are investigated here. These are operated by electrothermal actuation, and are used to transfer a catalytically grown multi-walled carbon...... nanofibre from a fixed position on a substrate to the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever, inside a scanning electron microscope. Scanning of high aspect ratio trenches using the nanofibre supertip shows a significantly better performance than that with standard pyramidal silicon tips. Based...... on manipulation experiments as well as a simple analysis, we show that shear pulling (lateral movement of the gripper) is far more effective than tensile pulling (vertical movement of gripper) for the mechanical removal of carbon nanotubes from a substrate....

  9. A carbon nanofibre scanning probe assembled using an electrothermal microgripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K; Andersen, K N; Eichorn, V; Petersen, D H; Moelhave, K; Bu, I Y Y; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I; Fatikow, S; Boeggild, P

    2007-01-01

    Functional devices can be directly assembled using microgrippers with an in situ electron microscope. Two simple and compact silicon microgripper designs are investigated here. These are operated by electrothermal actuation, and are used to transfer a catalytically grown multi-walled carbon nanofibre from a fixed position on a substrate to the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever, inside a scanning electron microscope. Scanning of high aspect ratio trenches using the nanofibre supertip shows a significantly better performance than that with standard pyramidal silicon tips. Based on manipulation experiments as well as a simple analysis, we show that shear pulling (lateral movement of the gripper) is far more effective than tensile pulling (vertical movement of gripper) for the mechanical removal of carbon nanotubes from a substrate

  10. A novel approach for the fabrication of carbon nanofibre/ceramic porous structures

    KAUST Repository

    Walter, Claudia; Barg, Suelen; Ni, Na; Maher, Robert C.; Garcίa-Tuñ ó n, Esther; Zaiviji Ismail, Muhammad Muzzafar; Babot, Flora; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of hybrid ceramic/carbon scaffolds in which carbon nanofibres and multi-walled carbon nanotubes fully cover the internal walls of a microporous ceramic structure that provides mechanical stability. Freeze casting

  11. Amorphous carbon nanofibres inducing high specific capacitance of deposited hydrous ruthenium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Pico, F.; Ibanez, J.; Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A.; Kimura, M.; Oya, A.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Composites consisting of ruthenium oxide particles deposited on amorphous carbon nanofibres are prepared by a repetitive impregnation procedure. The choice of amorphous carbon nanofibres as support of amorphous ruthenium oxide leads to composites in which the deposited oxide consists of aggregates of extremely small primary particles (1-1.5 nm-size) and showing high porosity (specific surface area of 450 m 2 g -1 ). This special deposition of the oxide seems to favour: (i) high oxide capacitance (1000 Fg -1 ) at high oxide loadings (up to 20 wt%) and (ii) high capacitance retention (ca. 80% from the initial oxide capacitance) at high current densities (200 mA cm -2 ). Amorphous carbon nanofibres are suitable supports for amorphous ruthenium oxide and perhaps for other amorphous oxides acting as active electrode materials.

  12. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Groenland, A.W.; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Kumar Chinthaginjala, J.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution

  13. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  14. Topological characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.; Khan, Ihsan Ullah; Ahmad, Faiz; Ayoub, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the morphological and barrier properties of nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites. Nanocrystalline cellulose was isolated from waste oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber using Sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Chemical modifications of nanocrystalline cellulose was performed to allow good compatibilization between fiber and the polymer matrices and also to improve dispersion of fillers. Bionanocomposite materials were produced from these nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) using solvent casting and evaporation techniques. The properties of extracted nanocrystalline cellulose were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, TEM and AFM. Besides that, the properties of bionanocomposites were examined through FESEM and oxygen permeability properties analysis. Better barrier and morphological properties were obtained for nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced bionanocomposites than for neat polymer blend.

  15. Effect of short fiber reinforcement on the properties of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsli, Nevin Gamze; Yesil, Sertan; Aytac, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved to the tensile strength. ► Fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of r-PET/PEN blend. ► CF reinforced composite has the highest storage modulus value. - Abstract: In this study, short carbon (CF), glass (GF) and hybrid carbon/glass fiber reinforced recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends were prepared by melt mixing method. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composites were investigated by using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimeter, dynamic mechanical analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis showed that there is a better interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix for CF reinforced composite. It was found that addition of short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values more than the addition of PEN into r-PET. According to DMA analysis, fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of composites when compared with r-PET/PEN blend and among them storage modulus of CF reinforced composite was the highest. It was concluded that mechanical properties of r-PET can be enhanced with addition of PEN and more efficiently with short fiber reinforcement

  16. A novel approach for the fabrication of carbon nanofibre/ceramic porous structures

    KAUST Repository

    Walter, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of hybrid ceramic/carbon scaffolds in which carbon nanofibres and multi-walled carbon nanotubes fully cover the internal walls of a microporous ceramic structure that provides mechanical stability. Freeze casting is used to fabricate a porous, lamellar ceramic (Al2O3) structure with aligned pores whose width can be controlled between 10 and 90μm. Subsequently, a two step chemical vapour deposition process that uses iron as a catalyst is used to grow the carbon nanostructures inside the scaffold. This catalyst remains in the scaffold after the growth process. The formation of the alumina scaffold and the influence of its structure on the growth of nanofibres and tubes are investigated. A set of growth conditions is determined to produce a dense covering of the internal walls of the porous ceramic with the carbon nanostructures. The limiting pore size for this process is located around 25μm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agiral, Anil; Groenland, Alfons W; Han Gardeniers, J G E; Chinthaginjala, J Kumar; Seshan, K; Lefferts, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W 18 O 49 ) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nanodiffraction methods. Field emission of electrons from those nanostructures supplies free electrons and ions during microplasma production. Reduction in breakdown voltage, higher number of microdischarges and higher energy deposition were observed at the same applied voltage when compared with plane electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air. Rate coefficients of electron impact reaction channels to decompose CO 2 were calculated and it was shown that CO 2 consumption increased using CNFs compared with plane electrode in the microplasma reactor.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, A.B.; Dalila, A.R.; Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N.; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe 3 C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe 3 C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm −1 at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm −2 , respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters

  19. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, A.B., E-mail: absuriani@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Dalila, A.R. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Soga, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe{sub 3}C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe{sub 3}C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm{sup −1} at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm{sup −2}, respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters.

  20. Synthesis of three-dimensional calcium carbonate nanofibrous structure from eggshell using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural biomaterials from bone-like minerals derived from avian eggshells have been considered as promising bone substitutes owing to their biodegradability, abundance, and lower price in comparison with synthetic biomaterials. However, cell adhesion to bulk biomaterials is poor and surface modifications are required to improve biomaterial-cell interaction. Three-dimensional (3D nanostructures are preferred to act as growth support platforms for bone and stem cells. Although there have been several studies on generating nanoparticles from eggshells, no research has been reported on synthesizing 3D nanofibrous structures. Results In this study, we propose a novel technique to synthesize 3D calcium carbonate interwoven nanofibrous platforms from eggshells using high repetition femtosecond laser irradiation. The eggshell waste is value engineered to calcium carbonate nanofibrous layer in a single step under ambient conditions. Our striking results demonstrate that by controlling the laser pulse repetition, nanostructures with different nanofiber density can be achieved. This approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3D interwoven nanofibrous platforms from natural biomaterials. Conclusion The synthesized 3D nanofibrous structures can promote biomaterial interfacial properties to improve cell-platform surface interaction and develop new functional biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications.

  1. The effect of electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic forces on the chaining of carbon nanofibres in liquid epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A; Bakis, C E; Wang, K W

    2010-01-01

    The formation of chains of aligned carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in polymers is a subject of great interest in the field of multifunctional nanocomposites. The mechanism of CNF chain assembly and growth in a low viscosity epoxy is investigated by developing a finite element model of a chain attached to an electrode. The model examines the combined effects of electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic forces on chain morphology. The electrohydrodynamic forces are modelled using the theory of ac electro-osmosis. The predictions of the model are supported by experimental results. The experiments were conducted on a CNF/epoxy/amine mixture by applying an ac field at frequencies ranging from 100 to 100 000 Hz. The predictions of the model qualitatively capture the variations of chain morphology and growth rate as functions of ac frequency. Higher frequencies promote a more uniform and denser network of chains. The rate of growth of chains is highest at an intermediate frequency. A uniform network of chains was observed at frequencies of 1 kHz and greater in the experiments. The rate of growth of chains was maximized at a frequency of 1 kHz for a liquid viscosity of 0.03 Pa s.

  2. Challenges in process integration of catalytic DC plasma synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melechko, Anatoli V; Pearce, Ryan C; Hensley, Dale K; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to synthesize free-standing, individual carbon nanofibres (CNFs) aligned perpendicularly to a substrate has enabled fabrication of a large array of devices with nanoscale functional elements, including electron field emission sources, electrochemical probes, neural interface arrays, scanning probes, gene delivery arrays and many others. This was made possible by development of a catalytic plasma process, with DC bias directing the alignment of nanofibres. Successful implementation of prototypical devices has uncovered numerous challenges in the integration of this synthesis process as one of the steps in device fabrication. This paper is dedicated to these engineering and fundamental difficulties that hinder further device development. Relatively high temperature for catalytic synthesis, electrical conductivity of the substrate to maintain DC discharge and other difficulties place restrictions on substrate material. Balancing non-catalytic carbon film deposition and substrate etching, non-uniformity of plasma due to growth of the high aspect ratio structures, plasma instabilities and other factors lead to challenges in controlling the plasma. Ultimately, controlling the atomistic processes at the catalyst nanoparticle (NP) and the behaviour of the NP is the central challenge of plasma nanosynthesis of vertically aligned CNFs.

  3. Fracture resistance of Kevlar-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) resin: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrong, J M; Weed, R M; Young, J M

    1990-01-01

    The reinforcing effect of Kevlar fibers incorporated in processed poly(methyl methacrylate) resin samples was studied using 0% (controls), 0.5%, 1%, and 2% by weight of the added fibers. The samples were subjected to impact testing to determine fracture resistance, and sample groups were statistically compared using an ANOVA. Each reinforced sample had significantly greater fracture resistance (P less than 0.05) than the control, and no difference was found either within or between control groups. The use of reinforcing Kevlar fibers appears to enhance the fracture resistance of acrylic resin denture base materials.

  4. NANOCOMPOSITES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID REINFORCED WITH CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemo-mechanical method was used to prepare cellulose nanofibrils dispersed uniformly in an organic solvent. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG 1000 was added to the matrix as a compatibilizer to improve the interfacial interaction between the hydrophobic poly(lactic acid (PLA and the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils. The composites obtained by solvent casting methods from N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc were characterized by tensile testing machine, atomic force microscope (AFM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The tensile test results indicated that, by adding PEG to the PLA and the cellulose nanofibrils matrix, the tensile strength and the elongation rate increased by 56.7% and 60%, respectively, compared with the PLA/cellulose nanofibrils composites. The FT-IR analysis successfully showed that PEG improved the intermolecular interaction, which is based on the existence of inter-molecular hydrogen bonding among PLA, PEG, and cellulose nanofibrils.

  5. Ecological approach to graphene oxide reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimune, Seira; Nishino, Takashi; Goto, Takuya

    2012-07-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) possesses the desirable characteristic of aqueous solution processability attributed to the oxygen-containing functional groups on the basal planes and edges of graphene. To provide an alternative to conventional procedures for fabricating poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/GO nanocomposites, which use organic solutions and/or surfactants, we have developed an environmentally friendly technique in which PMMA is polymerized by soap-free emulsion polymerization and incorporated with GO using water as a processing medium. Experimental results showed that the fabricated PMMA/GO nanocomposites had excellent mechanical, thermal, and O2 barrier properties with the nanodispersion of GO.

  6. Mechanical and thermal properties of date palm leaf fiber reinforced recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Alireza; Madadi Ardekani, Sara; Al-Maadeed, Mariam A.; Hassan, Azman; Wahit, Mat Uzir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel natural fiber reinforced recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) composite was prepared. • Mechanical performance and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated. • Composites with improved toughness and strength were achieved. - Abstract: Development of a recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PETr) reinforced with surface treated date palm leaf fiber (DPLF) composites with enhanced mechanical properties have been studied. Surface modified date palm leaf fiber reinforced PETr composites were prepared using twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding and the influence of the DPLF content on the mechanical and thermal behavior of the PETr matrix was evaluated. Upon the addition of fibers, remarkable enhancements in the mechanical properties of the composites were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images taken from DPLF fibers showed significant enhancements in the fiber’s surface topography after the surface treatment process. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the addition of DPLF to PETr matrix increased the composites toughness. The crystallization behavior of the samples, analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated an increase in the onset crystallization temperature and showed a higher degree of crystallinity of the composites as compared to PETr, demonstrating that DPLF particles could act as nucleating agents. The results point to the composite’s potential in wider indoor applications

  7. Physico-mechanical properties of silanized-montmorillonite reinforced chitosan-co-poly(maleic anhydride) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, O. A.; Fajrin, A.; Nauqinida, M.; Suryanti, V.; Pramono, E.

    2017-07-01

    To solve the problems of dependence on petroleum as starting material in the manufacturing of plastics in Indonesia, green plastic from biopolymer like chitosan to be one of promising options and alternative to replace the conventional plastics. However, to overcome the mechanical and physical properties of chitosan, the addition of reinforcement agent was introduced. In this study, silanized-montmorillonite (sMMt) has been prepared as a reinforcement agent in the chitosan-co-poly(maleic anhydride) (referred as Cs-MAH) matrix. Silanizing of montmorillonite is one of strategy to improve the interaction between montmorillonite and chitosan, consequently, the mechanical properties, tensile strength of composites contained 6 phr of sMMt improved 56.5% to chitosan. Moreover, the presence both MAH and sMMt on the comosites also reduced swelling degree and swelling area by 20.6% and 26.7%.

  8. Reinforcement of poly (vinyl alcohol films with alpha-chitin nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lisboa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Composites Films were produced using Poly (Vinyl Alcohol as the soft material and reinforced with Chitin Nanowhiskers(NWCH as the rigid material. The present work studies the reinforcing mechanisms of NWCH in PVA films, made through a solvent casting technique and characterized for their calorimetric, swelling and mechanical properties. DSC tests revealed a sharp increase of 45 °C in glass transition temperatures with only 1.5% NWCH, while melting temperature had a small increases suggesting an anti-plasticizing effect. Swelling tests revealed decreasing hygoscopy when NWCH volume fraction increases. Estimates for elastic tensile modulus using a model that predicts the formation of a percolating network were not consistent with the experimental data of tensile tests suggesting that contrary to the reinforcement with cellulose nanowhiskers the percolating network is not primarily responsible for the reinforcement of the films. By adjusting the Halpin-Tsai equations, modified by Nielsen it was found that the mechanical properties were mainly influenced by the packing of the NWCH.

  9. Synthesis and Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Grafted Silica Nanoarchitecture-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanoarchitecture-reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA nanocomposite was prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids as reinforcements. MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids were synthesized by the generation of silica nanoparticles on the MWCNT surface through the sol-gel technique. This synthetic method involves organo-modified MWCNTs that are dispersed in tetrahydrofuran, which incorporates tetraethoxysilane that undergoes an ultrasonic sol-gel process. Gelation yielded highly dispersed silica on the organo-modified MWCNTs. The structure and properties of the nanohybrids were established using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting MWCNT nanoarchitectures were covalently assembled into silica nanoparticles, which exhibited specific and controllable morphologies and were used to reinforce biodegradable PLA. The tensile strength and the heat deflection temperature (HDT of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites increased when the MWCNT-grafted silica was applied to the PLA matrix; by contrast, the surface resistivity of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites appeared to decline as the amount of MWCNT-grafted silica in the PLA matrix increased. Overall, the reinforcement of PLA using MWCNT-grafted silica nanoarchitectures was efficient and improved its mechanical properties, heat resistance, and electrical resistivity.

  10. Fabrication and mechanical properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites prepared by using a modified film-stacking technique were examined in this study. The starting materials included a high tenacity PET yarn (reinforcement and a low melting temperature biodegradable polyester resin (matrix, both of which differ in their melting temperatures with a value of 56°C. This experiment produced composite sheets at three consolidation temperatures (Tc: 215, 225, and 235°C at a constant holding time (th: 6.5 min, and three holding times (3, 6.5 and 10 min at a constant consolidation temperature of 225°C. This study observed a significant improvement in the mechanical properties obtained in self-reinforced PET composites compared to the pure polyester resin. The results of tensile, flexural, and Izod impact tests proved that optimal conditions are low consolidation temperature and short holding time. The absorbed impact energy of the best self-reinforced PET composite material was 854.0 J/m, which is 63 times that of pure polyester resin.

  11. Interfacial improvements in biocomposites based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastics reinforced and grafted with α-cellulose fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Nicole M. Stark; Armando G. McDonald

    2015-01-01

    In this study, α-cellulose fibers reinforced green biocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were prepared and characterized. The α-cellulose fibers were isolated from at-risk intermountain lodgepole pine wood by successive removal of extractives, lignin and hemicellulose...

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yihe; Yu Chunxiao; Chu, Paul K.; Lv Fengzhu; Zhang Changan; Ji Junhui; Zhang Rui; Wang Heli

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ► The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ► The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ► Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

  13. Cellulose nanocrystals as a reinforcing material for electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fibers: formation, properties and nanomechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Dong; Kenneth E. Strawhecker; James A. Snyder; Joshua A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Uniform fibers composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) reinforced with progressively increasing contents of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), up to 41 wt% CNCs, have been successfully produced by electrospinning. The morphological, thermal and nanomechanical properties of the composite sub-micron fibers were investigated. The CNCs derived from wood pulp by sulfuric...

  14. Fabrication of α-chitin whisker-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite nanofibres by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkasem, Jirawut; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Supaphol, Pitt

    2006-01-01

    The present contribution reports, for the first time, the successful fabrication of α-chitin whisker-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite nanofibres by electrospinning. The α-chitin whiskers were prepared from α-chitin flakes from shrimp shells by acid hydrolysis. The as-prepared chitin whiskers exhibited lengths in the range 231-969 nm and widths in the range 12-65 nm, with the average length and width being about 549 and 31 nm, respectively. Successful incorporation of the chitin whiskers within the as-spun PVA/chitin whisker nanocomposite nanofibres was verified by infrared spectroscopic and thermogravimetric methods. The incorporation of chitin whiskers within the as-spun nanocomposite fibre mats increased the Young's modulus by about 4-8 times over that of the neat as-spun PVA fibre mat

  15. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide): a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, K; Mazurek, P; Daugaard, A E; Skov, A L; Galantini, F; Gallone, G

    2013-01-01

    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of α,ω-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer was reinforced with hexamethylenedisilazane treated fumed silica to improve the mechanical properties of PPO. The mechanical properties of PPO and composites thereof were investigated by shear rheology and stress–strain measurements. It was found that incorporation of silica particles improved the stability of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 10 3 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910. The electromechanical actuation performance of both PPO and its composites showed properties as good as VHB4910 and a lower viscous loss. (paper)

  16. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide)- a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav; Galantini, F.; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of ,!-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer...... was reinforced with hexamethylenedisilazane treated fumed silica to improve the mechanical properties of PPO. The mechanical properties of PPO and composites thereof were investigated by shear rheology and stress–strain measurements. It was found that incorporation of silica particles improved the stability...... of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 103 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910...

  17. N-Doped Carbon Nanofibrous Network Derived from Bacterial Cellulose for the Loading of Pt Nanoparticles for Methanol Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fanshu; Huang, Yang; Fan, Mengmeng; Chen, Chuntao; Qian, Jieshu; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Jiazhi; Sun, Dongping

    2018-02-06

    The large-scale, low-cost preparation of Pt-based catalysts with high activity and durability for the methanol oxidation reaction is still challenging. The key to achieving this aim is finding suitable supporting materials. In this paper, N-doped carbon nanofibrous networks are prepared by annealing a gel containing two inexpensive and ecofriendly precursors, that is, bacterial cellulose and urea, for the loading of Pt nanoparticles. An undoped analogue is also prepared for comparison. Meanwhile, the effect of the annealing temperature on the performance of the catalysts is evaluated. The results show that the N doping and higher annealing temperature can improve the electron conductivity of the catalyst and provide more active sites for the loading of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. The best catalyst exhibits a remarkably high electrocatalytic activity (627 mA mg -1 ), excellent poison tolerance, and high durability. This work demonstrates an ideal Pt supporting material for the methanol oxidation reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. New Textile Sensors for In Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Based on the Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) Polymer Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerkovic, Ivona; Koncar, Vladan; Grancaric, Ana Marija

    2017-10-10

    Many metallic structural and non-structural parts used in the transportation industry can be replaced by textile-reinforced composites. Composites made from a polymeric matrix and fibrous reinforcement have been increasingly studied during the last decade. On the other hand, the fast development of smart textile structures seems to be a very promising solution for in situ structural health monitoring of composite parts. In order to optimize composites' quality and their lifetime all the production steps have to be monitored in real time. Textile sensors embedded in the composite reinforcement and having the same mechanical properties as the yarns used to make the reinforcement exhibit actuating and sensing capabilities. This paper presents a new generation of textile fibrous sensors based on the conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) developed by an original roll to roll coating method. Conductive coating for yarn treatment was defined according to the preliminary study of percolation threshold of this polymer complex. The percolation threshold determination was based on conductive dry films' electrical properties analysis, in order to develop highly sensitive sensors. A novel laboratory equipment was designed and produced for yarn coating to ensure effective and equally distributed coating of electroconductive polymer without distortion of textile properties. The electromechanical properties of the textile fibrous sensors confirmed their suitability for in situ structural damages detection of textile reinforced thermoplastic composites in real time.

  19. New Textile Sensors for In Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Based on the Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate Polymer Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Jerkovic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many metallic structural and non-structural parts used in the transportation industry can be replaced by textile-reinforced composites. Composites made from a polymeric matrix and fibrous reinforcement have been increasingly studied during the last decade. On the other hand, the fast development of smart textile structures seems to be a very promising solution for in situ structural health monitoring of composite parts. In order to optimize composites’ quality and their lifetime all the production steps have to be monitored in real time. Textile sensors embedded in the composite reinforcement and having the same mechanical properties as the yarns used to make the reinforcement exhibit actuating and sensing capabilities. This paper presents a new generation of textile fibrous sensors based on the conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate developed by an original roll to roll coating method. Conductive coating for yarn treatment was defined according to the preliminary study of percolation threshold of this polymer complex. The percolation threshold determination was based on conductive dry films’ electrical properties analysis, in order to develop highly sensitive sensors. A novel laboratory equipment was designed and produced for yarn coating to ensure effective and equally distributed coating of electroconductive polymer without distortion of textile properties. The electromechanical properties of the textile fibrous sensors confirmed their suitability for in situ structural damages detection of textile reinforced thermoplastic composites in real time.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid Sheet Reinforced with Microfibrillated Cellulose from Corn Cobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deejam Prapatsorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cellulose was extracted from corn cobs by successive hot NaOH solution and followed by H2O2 bleaching. XRD pattern show characteristic peak of Cellulose I. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC was successfully prepared by dissolving the extracted cellulose in NaOH/urea solution, shearing in a homogenizer and finally by freezing and thawing. To improve strength of MFC, MFC was physically crosslinked using PVA by freezing and thawing. The crosslinked MFC/PVA was added to poly(lactic acid (PLA to improve its mechanical properties. The non-crosslinked MFC/PVA was also prepared by only stirring the solution without freezing and thawing. MFC/PVA reinforced PLA films with various ratios of PLA and MFC/PVA at100:0, 99:1, 97:3 and 95:5were prepared through a solution casting method. Tensile strength and elongation at breakof PLA films increased with the addition of physically crosslinked MFC/PVA at 1%wt, whereas, the addition of non-crosslinked MFC/PVA decreased elongation at break. Crosslinking of MFC/PVA can improve tensile strength of PLA.It can render better tensile strength than that of non-crosslinked MFC/PVA. However, when MFC/PVA contents increase, tensile strength of PLA fims reinforced with non-crosslinked and crosslinked MFC/PVA decreased. Morphology of fracture surfaces reveals good dispersion and adhesion between 1% crosslinked MFC/PVA and PLA matrix.

  1. Compostability assessment of nano-reinforced poly(lactic acid) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, M P; Aliaga, C; Fito, C; Hortal, M

    2016-02-01

    Nanomaterials can provide plastics with great advantages on mechanical and active properties (i.e. release and capture of specific substances). Therefore, packaging is expected to become one of the leading applications for these substances by 2020. There are some applications already in the market. Nevertheless, there is still some areas under development. A key issue to be analyzed is the end-of-life of these materials once they become waste, and specifically when nanomaterials are used in biodegradable products. The present study evaluated the disintegration, biodegradability, and ecotoxicity of poly(lactic acid) films reinforced with the three following nanomaterials: (1) montmorillonite modified with an ammonium quaternary salt, (2) calcium carbonate and (3) silicon dioxide. Results on disintegration showed that films completely disintegrated into visually indistinguishable residues after 6-7weeks of incubation in composting environment. Moreover, no differences were observed in the evolution of the bioresidue with respect to color, aspect, and odor in comparison with the control. It was also observed that nanomaterials did not significantly reduce the level of biodegradability of PLA (p>0.05). In fact, biodegradation was higher, without finding significant differences (p>0.05), in all the nano-reinforced samples with respect to PLA after 130days in composting (9.4% in PLA+Nano-SiO2; 34.0% in PLA+Clay1; 48.0% in PLA+Nano-CaCO3). Finally, no significant differences (p>0.05) in ecotoxicity in plants were observed as a result of the incorporation of nanoparticles in the PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

  3. The Preparation of Graphene Reinforced Poly(vinyl alcohol Antibacterial Nanocomposite Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Cheng Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylated melamine grafted polyvinyl benzylchloride (mm-g-PvBCl was prepared which was used as additive in poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and graphene nanosheets (GNs were used to reinforce the mechanical strength. Using casting method, antimicrobial nanocomposite films were prepared with the polymeric biocide loading lever of 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA characterization revealed the 2.0 wt% of graphene content in resultant nanocomposites films. XRD showed that the resultant GNs 2 theta was changed from 16.6 degree to 23.3 degree. Using Japanese Industry Standard test methods, the antimicrobial efficiency for the loading lever of 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt% was 92.0%, 95.8%, and 97.1%, respectively, against gram negative bacteria E. coli and 92.3%, 99.6%, and 99.7%, respectively, against the gram positive S. aureus. These results indicate the prepared nanocomposite films are the promising materials for the food and drink package applications.

  4. Studies on the mechanical properties of woven jute fabric reinforced poly(l-lactic acid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of ecofriendly biocomposites to replace non-biodegradable synthetic fiber composites is the main objective of this study. To highlight the biocomposites as a perfect replacement, the plain woven jute fabric (WJF reinforced poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA composites were prepared by the hot press molding method. The influence of woven structure and direction on the mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural and impact properties was investigated. The average tensile strength (TS, tensile modulus (TM, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, and impact strength (IS of untreated woven jute composite (in warp direction were improved about 103%, 211%, 95.2%, 42.4% and 85.9%, respectively and strain at maximum tensile stress for composite samples was enhanced by 11.7%. It was also found that the strengths and modulus of composites in warp direction are higher than those in weft direction. WJF composites in warp and weft directions presented superior mechanical properties than non-woven jute fabric (NWJF composites. Chemical treatment of jute fabric through benzoylation showed a positive effect on the properties of composites. Morphological studies by SEM demonstrated that better adhesion between the treated fabric and PLLA was achieved.

  5. A Review of Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Based Composites: Application and Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Khoon Tan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are fine examples of renewable resources that play an important role in the composites industry, which produces superior strength comparable to synthetic fibers. Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA composites in particular have attracted enormous interest in view of their satisfactory performance, properties and biodegradability. Their performance in many applications such as consumer, biomedical, and agriculture is well defined and promising. This paper reviews the utilization of natural fibers from macro to nanoscale as reinforcement in PVA composites. An overview on the properties, processing methods, biodegradability, and applications of these composites is presented. The advantages arising from chemical and physical modifications of fibers or composites are discussed in terms of improved properties and performance. In addition, proper arrangement of nanocellulose in composites helps to prevent agglomeration and results in a better dispersion. The limitations and challenges of the composites and future works of these bio-composites are also discussed. This review concludes that PVA composites have potential for use in numerous applications. However, issues on technological feasibility, environmental effectiveness, and economic affordability should be considered.

  6. Effect of nanocellulose isolation techniques on the formation of reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three techniques including acid hydrolysis (AH, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO-mediated oxidation (TMO and ultrasonication (US were introduced to isolate nanocellulose from microcrystalline cellulose, in order to reinforce poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films. Important differences were noticed in fiber quality of nanocellulose and film properties of PVA nanocomposite films. The TMO treatment was more efficient in nanocellulose isolation with higher aspect ratio, surface charge (–47 mV and yields (37%. While AH treatment resulted in higher crystallinity index (88.1% and better size dispersion. The fracture surface, thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the PVA nanocomposite films were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and tensile testing. The results showed that both the TMO-derived and AH-derived nanocellulose could be dispersed homogeneously in the PVA matrices. AH/PVA films had higher elongation at break (51.59% at 6 wt% nanocellulose loading as compared with TMO/PVA, while TMO/PVA films shown superior tensile modulus and strength with increments of 21.5% and 10.2% at 6wt% nanocellulose loading. The thermal behavior of the PVA nanocomposite films was higher improved with TMO-derived nanofibrils addition.

  7. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(butylene succinate Films Reinforced with Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangviroon Nanthaporn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, bioplastics have become more popular resulting from the growing concerns on environmental issues and the rising fossil fuel price. However, their applications were limited by its mechanical and thermal properties. The aim of this research is thus to improve mechanical and thermal properties of PBS bioplastic films by reinforcing with silica. Due to the poor interfacial interaction between the PBS matrix and silica, glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(butylene succinate (PBS-g-GMA was used as a compatibilizer in order to improve the interaction between bioplastic films and filler. PBS-g-GMA was prepared in a twin-screw extruder and analyzed by the FTIR spectrometer. PBS and silica were then mixed in a twin-screw extruder and processed into films by a chill-roll cast extruder. The effects of silica loading on thermal and mechanical properties of the prepared bioplastic films were investigated. It was found that the mechanical properties of PBS/silica composite films were improved when 1%wt of silica was added. However, the mechanical properties decreased with increasing silica loading due to the agglomeration of silica particles. The results also show that the silica/PBS films with PBS-g-GMA possessed improved mechanical properties over the films without the compatibilizer.

  8. Characterization of nanocellulose reinforced semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol) & polyacrylamide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arup; Chakrabarty, Debabrata

    2015-12-10

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide was reinforced with various doses of nanocellulose. The different composite films thus prepared were characterized with respect to their mechanical, thermal, morphological and barrier properties. The composite film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose showed the highest tensile strength. The semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide; and its various composites with nanocellulose were almost identical in their thermal stability. Each of the composites however exhibited much superior stability with respect to the linear poly(vinyl alcohol) and crosslinked polyacrylamide. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies exhibited phase separated morphology where agglomerates of nanocellulose were found to be dispersed in the matrix of the semi-IPN. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) was the lowest for the film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of graphene oxide-reinforced poly (acrylic acid)/gelatin composite hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Shahab; Gheysour, Mahsa; Karimi, Alireza; Salarian, Reza

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have found many practical uses in drug release, wound dressing, and tissue engineering. However, their applications are restricted due to their weak mechanical properties. The role of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONS) as reinforcement agent in poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)/Gelatin (Gel) composite hydrogels is investigated. Composite hydrogels are synthesized by thermal initiated redox polymerization method. Samples are then prepared with 20 and 40 wt. % of PAA, an increasing amount of GONS (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt. %), and a constant amount of Gel. Subsequently, cylindrical hydrogel samples are subjected to a series of compression tests in order to measure their elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The results exhibit that the addition of GONS increases the Young's modulus and maximum stress of hydrogels significantly as compared with control (0.0 wt. % GONS). The highest Young's modulus is observed for hydrogel with GO (0.2 wt. %)/PAA (20 wt. %), whereas the highest maximum stress is detected for GO (0.2 wt. %)/PAA (40 wt. %) specimen. The addition of higher amounts of GONS leads to a decrease in the maximum stress of the hydrogel GO (0.3 wt. %)/PAA (40 wt. %). No significant differences are detected for the maximum strain among the hydrogel samples, as the amount of GONS increased. These results suggest that the application of GONS could be used to improve mechanical properties of hydrogel materials. This study may provide an alternative for the fabrication of low-cost graphene/polymer composites with enhanced mechanical properties beneficial for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives for Reinforcement of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Materials: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdulrazzaq Naji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most common material used to fabricate complete and partial dentures. Despite its desirable properties, it cannot fulfill all mechanical requirements of prosthesis. Flexural fatigue due to repeated masticatory and high-impact forces caused by dropping are the main causes of denture fractures. In the past, different reinforcing agents such as rubbers, macro fibers, and fillers have been employed to improve the mechanical properties of denture base resins. Development of Nano dentistry has introduced new approaches for reinforcement of dental materials. Interest in nanostructure materials is driven by their high surface area to volume ratio, which enhances interfacial interaction and specific new biological, physical, and chemical properties. Researchers to reinforce PMMA resins have used Nanoparticles (Nps which were comprised of silver, Titania (TiO2, zirconia (ZrO2, alumina, and ceramic. Although different reports describe the use of nanofiber and nanotubes in dental composites, few studies have evaluated the reinforcement potential of nanofiber and nanotubes in PMMA denture base resins. The current article aims to review the different attempts to enhance the mechanical properties of denture base materials. We also focus on recent advances and potential future developments for reinforcement of the PMMA acrylic resins.

  11. Thermal and Optical Properties of New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposite Reinforced by Layer Silicate Containing Diphenyl Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Faramarzi, Ellahe; Shabanian, Meisam

    2011-04-01

    New poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 4 was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20 mass% silicate particles respectively, were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using Uv-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements.

  12. Preparation of reinforced poly(ethylene oxide) blend hydrogel films containing a drug and assessment of their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanshan; Zhu Nankang; Yang Shuqin

    1999-01-01

    Reinforced poly(ethylene oxide) blend hydrogen films containing mafenide acetate were prepared by using two freezing-thawing cycles and the irradiation crosslinking technique, and their properties and the drug release were assessed. The results showed that the tensile strength of the reinforced PEO blend hydrogel films increased significantly (p < 0.01), the gel fraction and the elongation at break of the films increased slightly as compared with those formed by the irradiation without the freezing-thawing treatment, indicating that the mechanical properties of the PEO blend hydrogel films can be improved by the freezing-thawing cycles. The reinforced films possessed an ideal flexibility, crosslinking density and elasticity as wound dressings. Swelling studies showed that the equilibrium water content of the hydrogel films expressed in the degree of swelling decreased significantly (p < 0.01), suggesting that a significant structural rearrangement of the films occurred during the freezing process. The structural densification resulted in the increase of the mechanical strength of the hydrogel films. The hydrogels formed by the irradiation at doses of 40 kGy were comparatively stronger. Release studies were run on the reinforced hydrogels with mafenide acetate which was incorporated before the freezing-thawing treatment. Release was followed over seven days. The drug transport was controlled by a regular diffusion model

  13. Liquid-liquid electro-organo-synthetic processes in a carbon nanofibre membrane microreactor: Triple phase boundary effects in the absence of intentionally added electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Ahn, Sunyhik D.; Taylor, James E.; Bull, Steven D.; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Amphiphilic carbon nanofiber membrane employed in electro-synthesis. → Triple phase boundary process within a carbon membrane. → Electrochemical deuteration in a liquid|liquid micro-reactor system. → Triple phase boundary reaction zone effects in electro-synthesis. - Abstract: An amphiphilic carbon nanofibre membrane electrode (ca. 50 nm fibre diameter, 50-100 μm membrane thickness) is employed as an active working electrode and separator between an aqueous electrolyte phase (with reference and counter electrode) and an immiscible organic acetonitrile phase (containing only the redox active material). Potential control is achieved with a reference and counter electrode located in the aqueous electrolyte phase, but the electrolysis is conducted in the organic acetonitrile phase in the absence of intentionally added supporting electrolyte. For the one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene coupled to perchlorate anion transfer from aqueous to organic phase effective electrolysis is demonstrated with an apparent mass transfer coefficient of m = 4 x 10 -5 m s -1 and electrolysis of typically 1 mg n-butylferrocene in a 100 μL volume. For the two-electron reduction of tetraethyl-ethylenetetracarboxylate the apparent mass transfer coefficient m = 4 x 10 -6 m s -1 is lower due to a less extended triple phase boundary reaction zone in the carbon nanofibre membrane. Nevertheless, effective electrolysis of up to 6 mg tetraethyl-ethylenetetracarboxylate in a 100 μL volume is demonstrated. Deuterated products are formed in the presence of D 2 O electrolyte media. The triple phase boundary dominated mechanism and future microreactor design improvements are discussed.

  14. Preparation and properties of chitosan nanocomposite films reinforced by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) treated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tongfei; Pan Yongzheng; Bao Hongqian; Li Lin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Chitosan-based nanocomposites prepared from PEDOT-PSS treated MWCNTs. → PEDOT-PSS served as a bridge to improve the dispersion of MWCNTs and interfacial compatibility between MWCNTs and chitosan. → The mechanical properties of chitosan were significantly improved by PEDOT-PSS treated MWCNTs at a small loading. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites of chitosan were successfully prepared by a simple solution-evaporation method. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were treated by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT-PSS) in water before mixed with a chitosan solution to improve the dispersion of MWCNTs and interfacial compatibility between MWCNTs and chitosan. The morphological and mechanical properties of the prepared PEDOT-PSS/MWCNT/chitosan nanocomposites have been characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and tensile tests. MWCNTs were observed to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the chitosan matrix. As compared with the neat chitosan, the tensile strength and modulus of the nanocomposite were greatly improved by about 61% and 34%, respectively, with incorporation of only 0.5 wt.% of MWCNTs into the chitosan matrix. The comparison of mechanical properties for PEDOT-PSS/MWCNT/chitosan and pristine MWCNT/chitosan nanocomposites has been made. The hardness of the nanocomposites was also evaluated by nanoindentation.

  15. Negative Outcomes of Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds in an Ovine Total Meniscus Replacement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Kohn, Joachim; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to test the efficacy of collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds reinforced with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers in an ovine total meniscus replacement model. Scaffolds were implanted into 9 sheep (n = 1 at 8 weeks, n = 2 at 16 weeks, n = 3 at both 24, 32 weeks) following total medial meniscectomy. From 16 weeks on, explants were characterized by confined compression creep, histological, and biochemical analyses. Articular surfaces were observed macroscopically and damage was ranked histologically using the Mankin score. At sacrifice, three of the nine PLLA scaffolds had completely ruptured, and the intact scaffolds experienced progressive shape changes and severe narrowing in the body region at 16, 24, and 32 weeks. Aggregate compressive modulus and permeability did not improve with time. Histological and biochemical analyses showed significantly less extracellular matrix and less matrix organization compared to native tissue. Osteophytes, bone erosion, and cartilage damage were observed, increasing with time postimplantation. A buildup of lactic acid and/or the rapid loss of scaffold mechanical integrity due to PLLA degradation are probable causes for the joint abnormalities observed in this study. These results are in sharp contrast to those of our previous successful total meniscus replacement studies using polyarylate [p(DTD DD)] fiber-reinforced scaffolds. This suggests that PLLA fiber as produced in this study cannot be used as reinforcement for a meniscus replacement scaffold.

  16. Comparison between Cellulose Nanocrystal and Cellulose Nanofibril Reinforced Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofibers and Their Novel Shish-Kebab-Like Crystalline Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuezhu Xu; Haoran Wang; Long Jiang; Xinnan Wang; Scott A. Payne; J.Y. Zhu; Ruipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofiber mats were produced by electrospinning. Biobased cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as reinforcement nanofillers were also added to the polymer to produce composite nanofiber mats. The effects of the two cellulose nanofillers on the rheological properties of the PEO solutions and the microstructure,...

  17. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Silica Nanoparticle-Reinforced Poly(acrylamide) Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Josergio; Babhadiashar, Nasim; O'Brien, Victor; Chang, Andrew; Blanco, Matthew; Zabalegui, Aitor; Lee, Hohyun; Asuri, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Current studies investigating properties of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers have shown that nanocomposites often exhibit improved properties compared to neat polymers. However, over two decades of research, using both experimental studies and modeling analyses, has not fully elucidated the mechanistic underpinnings behind these enhancements. Moreover, few studies have focused on developing an understanding among two or more polymer properties affected by incorporation of nanomaterials. In our study, we investigated the elastic and thermal properties of poly(acrylamide) hydrogels containing silica nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle concentration and size affected hydrogel properties, with similar trends in enhancements observed for elastic modulus and thermal diffusivity. We also observed significantly lower swellability for hydrogel nanocomposites relative to neat hydrogels, consistent with previous work suggesting that nanoparticles can mediate pseudo crosslinking within polymer networks. Collectively, these results indicate the ability to develop next-generation composite materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties by increasing the average crosslinking density using nanoparticles.

  18. Promising Poly(ε-caprolactone Composite Reinforced with Weft-Knitted Polyester for Small-Diameter Vascular Graft Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to improve the mechanical performance of a small-diameter vascular prosthesis made from a flexible membrane of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL. PCL reinforcement was achieved by embedding a tubular fabric knitted from polyethylene terephthalate (PET yarns within the freeze-dried composite structure. The knitting density of PET fabric influenced the mechanical properties of the new vascular graft. Results showed that the composite prototype has good mechanical properties, water permeability, elastic recovery, and suture retention strength. Increases in loop density increased compressive strength and suture retention strength and decreased elastic recovery. The new composite prototype vascular graft has promising potential applications in clinics because of its excellent mechanical properties.

  19. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Szu-Hsien [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Ching-Ting [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Epithelial Biology Laboratory/Transgenic Mice Core-Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Hao [Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fung [Animal Medicine Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Ching-Nan [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hung-Chia [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Kuang, E-mail: ckwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Kuo-Haung, E-mail: khhsieh@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing.

  20. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Szu-Hsien; Tsao, Ching-Ting; Chang, Chih-Hao; Lai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ming-Fung; Chuang, Ching-Nan; Chou, Hung-Chia; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Hsieh, Kuo-Haung

    2013-01-01

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m 2 /day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m 2 /day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing

  1. Influence of fiber content on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of kenaf fibers reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/thermoplastic polyurethane poly-blend composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shekeil, Y.A.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Al-Shuja’a, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing fiber content decreased tensile strength and strain. • Tensile modulus was increasing with increase in fiber content. • SEM showed fiber/matrix poor adhesion. • Impact strength was decreasing with increase in fiber content. • Lower thermal stability with increase in fiber content was observed. - Abstract: Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) bast fiber reinforced poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) poly-blend was prepared by melt mixing method using Haake Polydrive R600 internal mixer. The composites were prepared with different fiber content: 20%, 30% and 40% (by weight), with the processing parameters: 140 °C, 11 min, and 40 rpm for temperature, time and speed, respectively. After mixing, the composite was compressed using compressing molding machine. Mechanical properties (i.e. tensile properties, flexural properties, impact strength) were studied. Morphological properties of tensile fracture surface were studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal properties of the composites were studied using Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA). PVC/TPU/KF composites have shown lower tensile strength and strain with increase in fiber content. Tensile modulus showed an increasing trend with increase in fiber content. Impact strength decreased with increase in fiber content; however, high impact strength was observed even with 40% fiber content (20.2 kJ/m 2 ). Mean while; the 20% and 30% fiber contents showed higher impact strength of 34.9, 27.9 kJ/m 2 ; respectively. SEM showed that there is poor fiber/matrix adhesion. Thermal degradation took place in three steps. In the first step, composites as well as the matrix had a similar stability. At the second step, matrix showed a slightly better stability than the composites. At the last step, composites showed a better stability than the matrix

  2. Wear resistance of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted carbon fiber reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) liners against metal and ceramic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Shihori; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Younger, active patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increasing needs for wider range of motion and improved stability of the joint. Therefore, bearing materials having not only higher wear resistance but also mechanical strength are required. Carbon fiber-reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) (CFR-PEEK) is known as a super engineering plastic that has great mechanical strength. In this study, we focused on poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted CFR-PEEK and investigated the effects of PMPC grafting and the femoral heads materials on the wear properties of CFR-PEEK liners. Compared with untreated CFR-PEEK, the PMPC-grafted CFR-PEEK surface revealed higher wettability and lower friction properties under aqueous circumstances. In the hip simulator wear test, wear particles generated from the PMPC-grafted CFR-PEEK liners were fewer than those of the untreated CFR-PEEK liners. There were no significant differences in the size and the morphology of the wear particles between the differences of PMPC-grafting and the counter femoral heads. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads had significantly smoother surfaces compared to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy femoral heads after the hip simulator test. Thus, we conclude that the bearing combination of the PMPC-grafted CFR-PEEK liner and ZTA head is expected to be a lifelong bearing interface in THA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1028-1037, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Agrofibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites: Effect of moisture on degradation and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Beck, B.; Müssig, J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural fibre reinforced PLA composites are a 100% biobased material with a promising mechanical properties profile. However, natural fibres are hygroscopic whereas PLA is sensitive to hydrolytic degradation under melt processing conditions in the presence of small amounts of water. Here, we

  4. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol) films reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) isolated from corn husk by high intensity ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shaoliang; Gao, Runan; Gao, LiKun; Li, Jian

    2016-01-20

    This work was aimed at fabricating and characterizing poly(vinyl alcohol) films that were reinforced by nanofibrillated corn husk celluloses using a combination of chemical pretreatments and ultrasonication. The obtained nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) possessed a narrow width ranging from 50 to 250 nm and a high aspect ratio (394). The crystalline type of NFC was cellulose I type. Compared with the original corn husks, the NCF crystallinity and thermal stability increased due to the removal of the hemicelluloses and lignin. PVA films containing different NFC concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%, w/w, dry basis) were examined. The 1% PVA/NFC reinforced films exhibited a highly visible light transmittance of 80%, and its tensile strength and the tensile strain at break were increased by 1.47 and 1.80 times compared to that of the pure PVA film, respectively. The NFC with high aspect ratio and high crystallinity is beneficial to the improvement of the mechanical strength and thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Maleic Anhydride-Modified Xylan-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel with Multifunctional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Song, Tao; Chang, Minmin; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang; Ren, Junli

    2018-01-01

    Introducing multifunctional groups and inorganic material imparts xylan-based hydrogels with excellent properties, such as responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, and external magnetic field. In this work, a composite hydrogel was synthesized by introducing acid treated carbon nanotubes (AT-CNTs) into the maleic anhydride modified xylan grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (MAX-g-PNIPAM) hydrogels network. It was found that the addition of AT-CNTs affected the MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel structure, the swelling ratio and mechanical properties, and imparted the hydrogel with new properties of electrical conductivity and near infrared region (NIR) photothermal conversion. AT-CNTs could reinforce the mechanical properties of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogels, being up to 83 kPa for the compressive strength when the amount was 11 wt %, which was eight times than that of PNIPAM hydrogel and four times than that of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel. The electroconductibility was enhanced by the increase of AT-CNTs amounts. Meanwhile, the composite hydrogel also exhibited multiple shape memory and NIR photothermal conversion properties, and water temperature was increased from 26 °C to 56 °C within 8 min under the NIR irradiation. Thus, the AT-CNTs reinforced MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel possessed promising multifunctional properties, which offered many potential applications in the fields of biosensors, thermal-arrest technology, and drug-controlled release. PMID:29495611

  7. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  8. Reinforcement of poly-l-lactic acid electrospun membranes with strontium borosilicate bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João S; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Martins, Margarida; Neves, Nuno M; Miller, Cheryl; Crawford, Aileen; Pires, Ricardo A; Hatton, Paul; Reis, Rui L

    2016-10-15

    Herein, for the first time, we combined poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a strontium borosilicate bioactive glass (BBG-Sr) using electrospinning to fabricate a composite bioactive PLLA membrane loaded with 10% (w/w) of BBG-Sr glass particles (PLLA-BBG-Sr). The composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), and the results showed that we successfully fabricated smooth and uniform fibres (1-3μm in width) with a homogeneous distribution of BBG-Sr microparticles (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) demonstrated that PLLA-BBG-Sr membranes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of the cells as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic gene expression (Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap) in relation to PLLA alone. These results strongly suggest that the composite PLLA membranes reinforced with the BBG-Sr glass particles have potential as an effective biomaterial capable of promoting bone regeneration. PLLA membranes were reinforced with 10% (w/w) of strontium-bioactive borosilicate glass microparticles, and their capacity to induce the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was evaluated. These membranes presented an increased: degradability, water uptake, Young modulus and tensile strength. We also demonstrated that these membranes are non-cytotoxic and promote the attachment of BM-MSCs. The addition of the glass microparticles into the PLLA membranes promoted the increase of ALP activity (under osteogenic conditions), as well as the BM-MSCs osteogenic differentiation as shown by the upregulation of Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap gene expression. Overall, we demonstrated that the reinforcement of PLLA with glass microparticles results in a biomaterial with the appropriate properties for the regeneration of bone tissue. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reinforcement of poly ether sulphones (PES) with exfoliated graphene oxide for aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials have been used for aerospace for some time now and have gained virtually 100% acceptance as the materials of choice. Speciality polymers like poly ether sulphones (PES), poly ether ether ketones(PEEK), poly ether imides (PEI) are highly preferred materials as plastic matrix due to their superior temperature performance, excellent wear and friction resistance, excellent dimensional accuracy, high tensile strength, high modulus, precise machinability and chemical resistance. In recent years nanoadditives like single and multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphenes and graphene oxides(GO) are finding huge market potential in aerospace and automobile industries. But manufacture related factors such as particle/ matrix interphases, surface activation, mixing process, particle agglomeration, particle size and shape may lead to different property effects. In this research GO/PES composites were prepared by high shear melt blending technique. GO monolayers were exfoliated from natural graphite flake and dispersed homogeneously in PES matrix for the GO content ranging between 0.5 to 2.0 volume percentage with a high shear twin screw batch mixer. These melt blended nanocomposites were injection moulded for mechanical property validation of tensile strength, flexural modulus and impact resistance. Addition of 0.5 volume percentage of GO enhanced the tensile strength and flexural modulus by 40% and 90% respectively. The results show that addition of GO to PES increase mechanical properties due to the formation of continuous network, good dispersion and strong interfacial interactions. The strong interfacial interactions were accounted for the increase in glass transition temperature. Also there was a significant improvement in the impact resistance of the PES/ GO nanocomposite. The injection moulded samples were tested for stealth performance by measuring the electromagnetic shielding property.

  10. Extrusion of polysaccharide nanocrystal reinforced polymer nanocomposites through compatibilization with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Mariana; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-06-25

    Polysaccharide nanocrystals with a rodlike shape but with different dimensions and specific surface area were prepared from cotton and capim dourado cellulose, and with a plateletlike morphology from waxy maize starch granules. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with different molecular weights when adding these nanoparticles was investigated evidencing specific interactions between PEO chains and nanocrystals. Because PEO also bears hydrophobic moieties, it was employed as a compatibilizing agent for the melt processing of polymer nanocomposites. The freeze-dried mixtures were used to prepare nanocomposite materials with a low density polyethylene matrix by extrusion. The thermal and mechanical behavior of ensuing nanocomposites was studied.

  11. Effect of montmorillonite clay on flax fabric reinforced poly lactic acid composites with amphiphilic additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 5083263; fax: +27 41 5832325. Composites: Part A xxx (2010) xxx–xxx Contents lists availabl tes ev E-mail address: krrakesh72@gmail.com (R. Kumar). strength and stiffness, dimensional stability, and thermal proper- ties [1]. But finite nature.... Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J Polym Environ 2007;15:25–33. [15] Pothan LA, Thomas S, Groeninckx G. The role of fibre/matrix interactions on the dynamic mechanical properties...

  12. Preparation of robust braid-reinforced poly(vinyl chloride) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane with antifouling surface and application to filtration of activated sludge solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuang; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Fang, Lifeng; Miyoshi, Taro; Kakihana, Yuriko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-08-01

    Braid-reinforced hollow fiber membranes with high mechanical properties and considerable antifouling surface were prepared by blending poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) copolymer via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The tensile strength of the braid-reinforced PVC hollow fiber membranes were significantly larger than those of previously reported various types of PVC hollow fiber membranes. The high interfacial bonding strength indicated the good compatibility between the coating materials and the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-braid. Owing to the surface segregation phenomena, the membrane surface PEGMA coverage increased upon increasing the poly(VC-co-PEGMA)/PVC blending ratio, resulting in higher hydrophilicities and bovine serum albumin (BSA) repulsion. To compare the fouling properties, membranes with similar PWPs were prepared by adjusting the dope solution composition to eliminate the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the membrane fouling performance. The blend membranes surface exhibited considerable fouling resistance to the molecular adsorption from both BSA solution and activated sludge solution. In both cases, the flux recovered to almost 80% of the initial flux using only water backflush. Considering their great mechanical properties and antifouling resistance to activated sludge solution, these novel membranes show good potential for application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Graphene reinforced biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate nano-composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sridhar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate [PHBV]/graphene nanocomposites were prepared by solution casting. The thermal properties, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and fracture morphology of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results show that graphene layers are homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD and dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC studies show that the well dispersed graphene sheets act as nucleating agent for crystallization. Consequently, the mechanical properties of the composites have been substantially improved as evident from dynamic mechanical and static tensile tests. Differential thermal analysis (DTA showed an increase in temperature of maximum degradation. Soil degradation tests of PHBV/graphene nanocomposites showed that presence of graphene doesn’t interfere in its biodegradability.

  14. Characterisation of solution cast cellulose nanofibre – reinforced poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibres, 20 nm in diameter and 300 nm long, were prepared by acid hydrolysis of flax yarns. Composite films containing 2.5 and 5.0 wt% flax cellulose (FC fibres were prepared by solution casting of mixtures of poly(lactic acid (PLA solution and cellulose nanofibre suspension in chloroform. The resulting composite films and solution cast pure PLA film, with thickness of around 160 m, showed good transparency. For composites with 2.5 and 5.0 wt% FC, the tensile strength increased by 25 and 59% and tensile modulus by 42 and 47%, respectively, compared to pure PLA film. The composite film with 2.5 wt% FC combined high strength and ductility with tensile strength of 24.3 MPa and 70% elongation at break. Flax cellulose appeared to facilitate nucleation and subsequent crystallisation of PLA more effectively in the amorphous composites than in the crystalline composites.

  15. Reinforced Mechanical Properties and Tunable Biodegradability in Nanoporous Cellulose Gels: Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Huang, Junchao; Gao, Huichang; Zhong, Yi; Cao, Xiaodong; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Lina; Cai, Jie

    2016-04-11

    Incorporation of nanofillers into aliphatic polyesters is a convenient approach to create new nanomaterials with significantly reinforced mechanical properties compared to the neat polymers or conventional composites. Nanoporous cellulose gels (NCG) prepared from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solutions can act as alternative reinforcement nanomaterials for polymers with improved mechanical properties. We report a simple and versatile process for the fabrication of NCG/poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (NCG/P(LLA-co-CL) nanocomposites through in situ ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide (LLA) and ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) monomers in the NCG. The volume fraction of the NCG in the nanocomposites was tunable and ranged from 4.5% to 37%. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that P(LLA-co-CL) were synthesized within the NCG and partially grafted onto the surface of the cellulose nanofibrils. The glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the NCG/P(LLA-co-CL) nanocomposites could be altered by varying the molar ratio of LLA/ε-CL and was affected by the volume fraction of NCG. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that the interconnected nanofibrillar cellulose network structure of the NCG was finely distributed and preserved in the P(LLA-co-CL) matrix after polymerization. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed remarkable reinforcement of the tensile storage modulus (E') of the P(LLA-co-CL) nanocomposites in the presence of NCG, especially above the Tg of the P(LLA-co-CL). The modified percolation model agreed well with the mechanical properties of the NCG/P(LLA-co-CL) nanocomposites. The introduction of NCG into the P(LLA-co-CL) matrix improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the NCG/P(LLA-co-CL) nanocomposites. Moreover, the NCG/P(LLA-co-CL) nanocomposites have tunable biodegradability and biocompatibility and

  16. Reinforcement of Natural Rubber with Core-Shell Structure Silica-Poly(Methyl Methacrylate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghuang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly performing natural rubber/silica (NR/SiO2 nanocomposite with a SiO2 loading of 2 wt% was prepared by combining similar dissolve mutually theory with latex compounding techniques. Before polymerization, double bonds were introduced onto the surface of the SiO2 particles with the silane-coupling agent. The core-shell structure silica-poly(methyl methacrylate, SiO2-PMMA, nanoparticles were formed by grafting polymerization of MMA on the surface of the modified SiO2 particles via in situ emulsion, and then NR/SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by blending SiO2-PMMA and PMMA-modified NR (NR-PMMA. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results show that PMMA has been successfully introduced onto the surface of SiO2, which can be well dispersed in NR matrix and present good interfacial adhesion with NR phase. Compared with those of pure NR, the thermal resistance and tensile properties of NR/SiO2 nanocomposite are significantly improved.

  17. Biodegradable starch/poly (vinyl alcohol) film reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejri, Zahra; Seifkordi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadpour, Ali; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Maskooki, Abdolmajid

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable starch/poly (vinyl alcohol)/nano-titanium dioxide (ST/PVA/nano-TiO2) nanocomposite films were prepared via a solution casting method. Their biodegradability, mechanical properties, and thermal properties were also studied in this paper. A general full factorial experimental approach was used to determine effective parameters on the mechanical properties of the prepared films. ST/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of mechanical analysis show that ST/PVA films with higher contents of PVA have much better mechanical properties. In thermal analysis, it is found that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improves the thermal stability of the films. SEM micrographs, taken from the fracture surface of samples, illustrate that the addition of PVA makes the film softer and more flexible. The results of soil burial biodegradation indicate that the biodegradability of ST/PVA/TiO2 films strongly depends on the starch proportion in the film matrix. The degradation rate is increased by the addition of starch in the films.

  18. Carbon nanotubes reinforced poly(L-lactide) scaffolds fabricated by thermally induced phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Haiyun; Xue, Li

    2015-01-01

    In tissue engineering, porous nanocomposite scaffolds can potentially mimic aspects of the nanoscale architecture of the extra-cellular matrix, as well as enhance the mechanical properties required for successful weight-bearing implants. In this paper, we demonstrate that highly porous thermoplastic poly(L-lactide) nanocomposite scaffolds containing different types of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanocomposite scaffolds were manufactured by a thermally induced phase separation method. This experiment produced an uniform distribution of CNTs throughout the scaffold without obvious aggregations for funtionalized CNTs filled scaffolds by scanning electron microscope observation. The CNTs were frequently located on the pore surface, forming rough, hairy nano-textures. The pore size was reduced with the increasing of CNT loading. Parts of PLLA matrix was induced into nanofibrous structures from solid-walled state, which reduced the crystallinity of the PLLA characterized by DSC measurement. The CNT incorporation significantly improved the compression modulus of the nanocomposite scaffolds, especially the functionalized CNTs. The capacity of protein adsorption is significantly improved when the concentration of the CNTs was higher than 1.0 wt.% and the cell attachment was also enhanced by the addition of CNTs, especially N-CNT. (paper)

  19. Hydrophobic silica nanoparticles as reinforcing filler for poly (lactic acid polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilić Branka M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of poly (lactic acid (PLA and its nanocomposites, with silica nanoparticles (SiO2, as filler were investigated. Neat PLA films and PLA films with different percentage of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 wt. % were prepared by solution casting method. Several tools were used to characterize the influence of different silica content on crystalline behavior, and thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of PLA/SiO2 nanocomposites. Results from scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the nanocomposite preparation and selection of specific hydrophobic spherical nano filler provide a good dispersion of the silica nanoparticles in the PLA matrix. Addition of silica nanoparticles improved mechanical properties, the most significant improvement being observed for lowest silica content (0.2wt.%. Barrier properties were improved for all measured gases at all loadings of silica nanoparticles. The degree of crystallinity for PLA slightly increased by adding 0.2 and 0.5 wt. % of nano filler. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  20. Preparation and biocompatibility of poly (methyl methacrylate reinforced with bioactive particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Marivalda de Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses have been used in many biomedical applications for more than 30 years due basically to their bioactive behavior. However, ceramics are too brittle for applications that require high levels of toughness and easy processability. In this work, a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP and a bioactive glass composition (BG were combined with polymers to produce composites with tailorable properties and processability. The BCP particles were synthesized by a precipitation technique. The BG particles were produced by sol-gel processing. The BCP particles were treated with a silane agent to improve the compatibility between particles and the polymer matrix. Dense samples were produced by hot pressing (200 °C a mixture of 30 wt.% of particles in poly (methyl methacrylate. The samples produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by a three point bending test. Samples were also submitted to in vitro bioactivity test and in vivo toxicity test. Results showed that the production of the composites was successfully achieved, yielding materials with particles well dispersed within the matrices. Evaluation of the in vivo inflammatory response showed low activity levels for all composites although composites with silane treated BCP particles led to milder inflammatory responses than composites with non-treated particles.

  1. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt% and 20wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Jute Cellulose Crystals-Reinforced Poly(L-lactic acid Biocomposite for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mizanur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline cellulose was extracted from jute by hydrolysis with 40% H2SO4 to get mixture of micro/nanocrystals. Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed the microcrystalline structure of cellulose and XRD indicated the Iβ polymorph of cellulose. Biodegradable composites were prepared using crystalline cellulose (CC of jute as the reinforcement (3–15% and poly(lactic acid (PLA as a matrix by extrusion and hot press method. CC was cellulose derived from mercerized and bleached jute fiber by acid hydrolysis to remove the amorphous regions. FT-IR studies showed hydrogen bonding between the CC and the PLA matrix. The X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC studies showed that the percentage crystallinity of PLA in composites was found to be higher than that of neat PLA as a result of the nucleating ability of the crystalline cellulose. Furthermore, Vicker hardness and yield strength were found to increase with increasing cellulose content in the composite. The SEM images of the fracture surfaces of the composites were indicative of poor adhesion between the CC and the PLA matrix. The composite with 15% CC showed antibacterial effect though pure films but had no antimicrobial effect; on the other hand its cytotoxicity in biological medium was found to be medium which might be suitable for its potential biomedical applications.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  4. Studies on the Electrical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonic Acid) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Kalim; Sankaran, Sowmya; Basheer Ahamed, M.; Khadheer Pasha, S. K.; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Ali Almaadeed, Mariam; Chidambaram, K.

    In the present study, graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend composite films were prepared using colloidal blending technique at various concentrations of GO (0-3wt.%). The morphological investigations of the prepared composites were carried out using polarized optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of composites were evaluated using an impedance analyzer in the frequency range 50Hz to 20MHz and temperature in the range 40-150∘C. Morphological studies infer that GO was homogeneously dispersed in the PSSA/PVA blend matrix. Investigations of electrical property indicate that the incorporation of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix resulted in the enhancement of the impedance (Z) and the quality factor (Q-factor) values. A maximum impedance of about 4.32×106Ω was observed at 50Hz and 90∘C for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. The Q-factor also increased from 8.37 for PSSA/PVA blend to 59.8 for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. These results indicate that PSSA/PVA/GO composites can be used for high-Q capacitor applications.

  5. The Effects of Orientation on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Woven Kenaf-reinforced Poly Vinyl Butyral Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf is one of the important plants cultivated for natural fibres globally and is regarded as an industrial crop in Malaysia for various applications. This study was conducted to determine the effects of orientation on the tensile and flexural strengths, Charpy impact test, and morphological properties of kenaf fibre-reinforced poly vinyl butyral (PVB composites. Laminates of 40% fibre weight fraction were manufactured using the hot press manufacturing technique at 0˚/90˚ and 45˚/−45˚ orientations, and eight specimens were prepared for each test. The mechanical properties of the composites were variably affected by the fibre orientation angle. The results showed that the composites at 0o/90o had the highest tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus, while the elongation at break was almost the same. Additionally, tests were carried out on the composites to determine their impact energy and impact strength. The results revealed that impact properties were affected in markedly different ways by different orientations. The composite at 45˚/−45˚ offered better impact properties than the composites at 0˚/90˚. In addition, scanning electron microscopy for impact specimens was employed to demonstrate the different failures in the fracture surfaces.

  6. Titanate nanotubes for reinforcement of a poly(ethylene oxide)/chitosan polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, R.; Bavykin, D. V.; Zekonyte, J.; Walsh, F. C.; Wood, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Soft polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan mixtures, reinforced with hard titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) by co-precipitation from aqueous solution, have been used to produce compact coatings by the ‘drop-cast’ method, using water soluble PEO polymer and stable, aqueous colloidal solutions of TiNTs. The effects of the nanotube concentration and their length on the hardness and modulus of the prepared composite have been studied using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. The uniformity of TiNT dispersion within the polymer matrix has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A remarkable increase in hardness and reduced Young’s modulus of the composites, compared to pure polymer blends, has been observed at a TiNT concentration of 25 wt %. The short (up to 30 min) ultrasound treatment of aqueous solutions containing polymers and a colloidal TiNT mixture prior to drop casting has resulted in some improvements in both hardness and reduced Young’s modulus of dry composite films, probably due to a better dispersion of ceramic nanotubes within the matrix. However, further (more than 1 h) treatment of the mixture with ultrasound resulted in a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the composite accompanied by a shortening of the nanotubes, as observed by the TEM.

  7. Mesomorphic structure of poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) with oligo(ethylene oxide)sulfonic acid side chains as a model for molecularly reinforced polymer electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosonen, H; Valkama, S; Hartikainen, J; Eerikainen, H; Torkkeli, M; Jokela, K; Serimaa, R; Sundholm, F; ten Brinke, G; Ikkala, O; Eerikäinen, Hannele

    2002-01-01

    We report self-organized polymer electrolytes based on poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-block-P4VP). Liquidlike ethylene oxide (EO) oligomers with sulfonic acid end groups are bonded to the P4VP block, leading to comb-shaped supramolecules with the PS-block-P4VP backbone. Lithium

  8. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuyun, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Su, Shengpei [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  9. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-01-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  10. Reinforcement effect of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-grafted cellulose nanocrystal on toughened PBS/polylactic acid blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong

    2016-04-20

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/polylactic acid (PLA) blends modified with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were reinforced by PBS-g-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) through melt mixing. PBS-g-CNC was prepared through in situ polymerization and its structure was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C NMR, XPS and GPC analysis after saponification. The morphological analysis of PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites before and after etched by CH2Cl2 shows that the addition of DCP and PBS-g-CNC could decrease the size of PBS as a dispersed phase in PLA matrix and improve the dispersion of PBS-g-CNC in both PBS and PLA phases, which could affect the crystallization and mechanical properties of composites. The crystallinity of PLA α'-phase crystal in PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites is increased obviously by the addition of PBS-g-CNC, leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the composites. PBS/PLA blends modified by DCP have high Notched Izod impact strength and moduli, and the values are increased by the addition of PBS-g-CNC. Both storage modulus and glass translation temperature of PBS/PLA blend are increased by DCP and PBS-g-CNC, which is proved by DMA results, showing a weak molecular segment mobility of PBS/PLA matrix. The addition of DCP decreases the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of PBS/PLA composite, but increases the thermal stability of composites, mostly because of the crosslink effect of DCP on PBS/PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chopped basalt fibres: A new perspective in reinforcing poly(lactic acid to produce injection moulded engineering composites from renewable and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reinforcing of Poly(lactic acid with chopped basalt fibres by using silane treated and untreated basalt fibres. Composite materials with 5–10–15–20–30–40 wt% basalt fibre contents were prepared from silane sized basalt fibres using extrusion, and injection moulding, while composites with 5–10–15 wt% basalt fibre contents were also prepared by using untreated basalt fibres as control. The properties of the injection moulded composites were extensively examined by using quasi-static (tensile, three-point bending and dynamic mechanical tests (notched and unnotched Charpy impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, heat deflection temperature (HDT analysis, dimensional stability test, as well as melt flow index (MFI analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations. It was found that silane treated chopped basalt fibres are much more effective in reinforcing Poly(lactic acid than natural fibres; although basalt fibres are not biodegradable but they are still considered as natural (can be found in nature in the form of volcanic rocks and biologically inert. It is demonstrated in this paper that by using basalt fibre reinforcement, a renewable and natural resource based composite can be produced by injection moulding with excellent mechanical properties suitable even for engineering applications. Finally it was shown that by using adequate drying of the materials, composites with higher mechanical properties can be achieved compared to literature data.

  12. Graphene oxide reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid)/polyvinyl alcohol blend composites with enhanced dielectric properties for portable and flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Kalim, E-mail: deshmukh.kalim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 600048, TN (India); Ahamed, M. Basheer [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 600048, TN (India); Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; AlMaadeed, Mariam Al-Ali [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Khadheer Pasha, S.K. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, TN (India); Deshmukh, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, 400019 (India); Chidambaram, K. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, TN (India)

    2017-01-15

    In this work, Graphene Oxide (GO) reinforced novel polymer composites comprising of poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend matrix have been developed using colloidal processing technique. The properties and the structure of prepared composites were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy (UV), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Polarized optical microscopy (POM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicate the strong interfacial interaction between GO and PSSA/PVA blend matrix. The XRD and SEM analysis confirm that GO was fully exfoliated into individual graphene sheets and dispersed homogeneously within the polymer matrix. The effective reinforcement of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix has resulted in the enhancement of dielectric constant. The dielectric constant has increased from 82.67 (50 Hz, 150 °C) for PSSA/PVA (50/50) blend to 297.91 (50 Hz, 150 °C) for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3 wt % GO loading. The dielectric loss (tan δ) has increased from 1.56 (50 KHz, 140 °C) for PSSA/PVA (50/50) blend to 2.64 (50 KHz, 140 °C) for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3 wt % GO loading. These findings provide a new insight to fabricate flexible, high-k dielectric composite as a promising material for energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Graphene Oxide was prepared from natural graphite using modified Hummers method. • Novel PSSA/PVA/GO composites were prepared by reinforcing GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix. • Molecular level dispersion of GO in PSSA/PVA blend matrix was successfully achieved. • Enhancement in the dielectric constant was observed due to effective reinforcement of GO in PSSA/PVA blend matrix. • PSSA/PVA/GO composites with high dielectric performances can be considered for energy storage applications.

  13. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of composites of poly(6-hexanelactam) combining solid tribological additives and reinforcing components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horský, J.; Kolařík, Jan; Fambri, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 4 (2004), s. 5249-5260 ISSN 1438-7492 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/01/0004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : anionic poly merization * composites * mechanical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2004

  15. Effect of Extrusion on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of a Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid): Reprocessing and Recycling of Biobased Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Víctor; Castell, Pere; García, Lidia; Fernández, Ángel

    2015-10-19

    The aim of this research paper is to study the behaviour of a common used biopolymer (Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)) after several reprocesses and how two different types of additives (a melt strength enhancer and a nanoadditive) affect its mechanical and rheological properties. Systematic extraction of extrudate samples from a twin-screw compounder was done in order to study the effect in the properties of the reprocessed material. Detailed rheological tests on a capillary rheometer as well as mechanical studies on a universal tensile machine after preparation of injected specimens were carried out. Results evidenced that PLA and reinforced PLA materials can be reprocessed and recycled without a remarkable loss in their mechanical properties. Several processing restrictions and specific phenomena were identified and are explained in the present manuscript.

  16. Effect of crosslinking functionality on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro cytocompatibility of cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Lee, Yujin; Kim, Doyeon; Rao, Kummara Madhusudana; Kim, Jisoo; Park, Soyoung; Haider, Adnan; Lee, Do Hyun; Han, Sung Soo

    2017-02-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by using freeze casting and freeze drying method. In this study, the effect of crosslinking agents such as calcium chloride, orthophosphoric acid, and borax on morphological, structural, thermal, mechanical, and cytocompatibility (cell adhesion and proliferation) properties was investigated. The results showed that the change in type of crosslinking agent significantly changed the properties of the hybrid scaffolds. Based on this study, borax-crosslinked hybrid scaffold showed good fibrous porous structure with high porosity (95.2%), highest water uptake capacity, good thermal stability, mechanical stability (storage modulus), and in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation with fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells. This primarily research study explores the way for further use of this crosslinking agent to design and fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of pH-Sensitive Semi-IPN Superabsorbent Hydrogels Based on Poly(acrylic acid Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sze Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid (PAA hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content. It was found that the hydrogel reached maximum swelling at pH 7. The potential of the resulting hydrogels to act as drug carriers was then evaluated by means of the drug encapsulation efficiency test using theophylline as a model drug. It was observed that 15% CNC/PAA hydrogel showed the potential to be used as drug carrier system.

  18. Effect of carbon nanotube reinforcement on the properties of the recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends containing functional elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesil, Sertan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical properties of r-PET improved with addition of PEN, elastomers and CNT. • Elastomer size and dispersion played important role in the variation of properties. • Selective localization of CNT affected the mechanical and electrical properties. • E-EA-MAH based samples had higher mechanical properties than E-MA-GMA based ones. - Abstract: In this study, the mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal, electrical properties and the morphology of the composites, based on blends of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (r-PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) that were mixed with functional elastomers and multi walled carbon nanotube (CNT) were investigated. Two types of functional elastomers; terpolymer of ethylene–ethyl acrylate–maleic anhydride (E-EA-MAH) and terpolymer of ethylene–methyl acrylate–glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA), were used to ensure the miscibility between PET and PEN during the preparation of the blends and composites. All composite and blend samples were extruded by using a laboratory scale twin screw microcompounder. Test samples were prepared via laboratory scale injection molding machine. According to the results of the thermomechanical tests, usage of both elastomers enhanced the miscibility between r-PET and PEN. Morphological analyses showed that the blends and composites which contain E-EA-MAH exhibited better elastomer phase dispersion with smaller domain sizes when compared with the samples with E-MA-GMA. Samples prepared with E-EA-MAH had better mechanical properties than the ones containing E-MA-GMA due to the better elastomer phase dispersion. Moreover, addition of CNT also improved the mechanical properties of the samples for both elastomer types. In contrast to mechanical test results, samples prepared with E-MA-GMA had higher electrical conductivity values when compared with those of the ones containing E-EA-MAH due to the differences in the selective distribution of CNT particles between the

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Hybrids Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol/Bioactive Glass Reinforced with Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The functionalization of CNT was performed by introducing carboxylic groups in multiwall nanotubes. This process aimed at enhancing the affinity of CNTs with the water-soluble PVA polymer derived by the hydrogen bonds formed among alcohol (PVA and carboxylic groups (CNT–COOH. In the sequence, the CNT–COOH (0.25 wt% were used as the nanostructure modifier for the hybrid system based on PVA associated with the bioactive glass (BaG. The mechanical properties of the nanostructured hybrids reinforced with CNT–COOH were evaluated by axial compression tests, and they were compared to reference hybrid. The averaged yield stresses of macroporous hybrids were (2.3 ± 0.9 and (4.4 ± 1.0 MPa for the reference and the CNT reinforced materials, respectively. Moreover, yield strain and Young's modulus were significantly enhanced by about 30% for the CNT–COOH hybrids. Hence, as far as the mechanical properties are concerned, the results have clearly showed the feasibility of utilizing these new hybrids reinforced with functionalized CNT in repairing cancellous bone tissues.

  20. Preparation and characterization of new poly(amide–imide reinforced layer silicate nanocomposite containing N,N′-pyrromellitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new samples of poly(amide–imide/montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing N,N′-pyrromellitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide–imide (PAI 3 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N′-pyrromelitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid 1 with 4,4′-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10% and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposite films were investigated by using UV–vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.

  1. Effect of rare earth hypophosphite and melamine cyanurate on fire performance of glass-fiber reinforced poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Yuen, Richard K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesize and characterize two types of rare earth hypophosphite (REHP). ► REHP and melamine cyanurate are used as flame retardants. ► We prepare fire retarded glass-fiber/poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate) composites. ► The flammability of these composites is significantly reduced. - Abstract: This work mainly deals with a novel flame retardant system for glass-fiber reinforced poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate) (GRPBT) composites using trivalent rare earth hypophosphite (REHP) and melamine cyanurate (MC) through melt blending method. Firstly, two types of REHP, lanthanum hypophosphite and cerium hypophosphite, were synthesized and characterized. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal decomposition behavior of REHP and flame retardant treated GRPBT composites. Thermal combustion properties were measured using microscale combustion calorimeter. Fire performance was evaluated by limiting oxygen index, Underwriters Laboratories 94 and cone calorimeter. The results showed that the flammability of GRPBT is significantly reduced by the incorporation of the flame retardant mixture. Mechanism analysis revealed that the addition of MC reduces the condensed phase effect of REHP, but improves the flame inhibition in gas phase.

  2. Preparation of new series of poly(amide-imide) reinforced layer silicate nano composite containing N-trimellitimide-L-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, K.; Soleimani, M.; Shabanian, M.

    2011-01-01

    A new poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite series were generated through solution intercalation technique. Cloisite 20A was used as a modified montmorillonite for ample compatibility with the poly(amide-imide) (PAI) matrix. The PAI 5 chains were synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine (3) with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4) in the presence of tryphenyl phosphites (TPP), CaCl 2 , pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nano composite films 5a-5d with (5-20 Wt%) silicate particles were characterized by Ftir spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nano composites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and water uptake measurements. (Author)

  3. New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposites Reinforced Silicate Nanoparticles Based on N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl Alanine Containing Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Shabanian, Meisam; Dadfar, Ehsan

    2012-02-01

    A series of Poly(amide-imide)/montmorillonite nanocomposites containing N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 5 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 4 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). The resulting nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that organo-modified clay was dispersed homogeneously in PAI matrix. TGA indicated an enhancement of thermal stability of new nanocomposites compared with the pure polymer.

  4. Preparation of new series of poly(amide-imide) reinforced layer silicate nano composite containing N-trimellitimide-L-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, K.; Soleimani, M. [Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabanian, M., E-mail: k-faghihi@araku.ac.ir [Young Researches Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    A new poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite series were generated through solution intercalation technique. Cloisite 20A was used as a modified montmorillonite for ample compatibility with the poly(amide-imide) (PAI) matrix. The PAI 5 chains were synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine (3) with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4) in the presence of tryphenyl phosphites (TPP), CaCl{sub 2}, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nano composite films 5a-5d with (5-20 Wt%) silicate particles were characterized by Ftir spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nano composites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and water uptake measurements. (Author)

  5. Morphology and contact angle studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile modified epoxy resin blends and their glass fibre reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the surface characteristics of blends and composites of epoxy resin were investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acylonitrile (SAN was used to modify diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA type epoxy resin cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS and the modified epoxy resin was used as the matrix for fibre reinforced composites (FRP’s. E-glass fibre was used as the fibre reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the blends and composites were analyzed. Morphological analysis revealed different morphologies such as dispersed, cocontinuous and phase-inverted structures for the blends. Contact angle studies were carried out using water and methylene iodide at room temperature. The solid surface energy was calculated using harmonic mean equations. Blending of epoxy resin increases its contact angle. The surface free energy, work of adhesion, interfacial free energy, spreading coefficient and Girifalco-Good’s interaction parameter were changed significantly in the case of blends and composites. The incorporation of thermoplastic and glass fibre reduces the wetting and hydrophilicity of epoxy resin.

  6. Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of poly (ε-caprolactone) biocomposites reinforced with nano-hydroxyapatite decorated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Keqing; Gao, Rui; Jiang, Saihua

    2017-06-15

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods decorated on graphene nanosheets (HAP-Gs) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the HAP-Gs hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, the hybrids were incorporated into poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) via a solution blending method. Optical images and scanning electron microscopy observation revealed not only a well dispersion of HAP-Gs hybrids but also a strong interfacial interaction between hybrids and PCL matrix. The influence of HAP-Gs hybrids on the crystallization behavior, crystal structure, thermal stability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the PCL nanocomposites was investigated in detail. The results showed that the crystallization temperature of PCL was enhanced obviously, but the crystal structure was not affected by the incorporation of HAP-Gs hybrids. The mechanical properties of PCL bionanocomposites were improved obviously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation preparation of graphene/carbon nanotubes hybrid fillers for mechanical reinforcement of poly(vinyl alcohol) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Youwei; Wang, Shuojue; Sun, Chao; Yu, Hongyan; Zeng, Xinmiao; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/carbon nanotubes (G/CNTs) hybrid fillers were synthesized by γ-ray radiation reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in presence of CNTs. The obtained hybrid fillers with three-dimensional (3D) interconnected network structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite films with enhanced mechanical properties and thermal stability were subsequently prepared by solution blending of G/CNTs with PVA matrix. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of PVA composite films containing 1 wt% G/CNTs were measured to be 81.9 MPa and 3.9 GPa respectively, which were 56% and 33.6% higher than those of pure PVA. These substantial improvements could be attributed to the interconnected 3D structure of G/CNTs, homogeneous dispersion as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between G/CNTs and PVA macromolecular chains.

  8. Improved mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite whisker-reinforced poly(L-lactic acid) scaffold by surface modification of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Feng, Qingling

    2014-02-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of porous hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactic acid) (HA/PLLA) composites, HA whiskers with high crystallinity and high aspect ratio were synthesized. HA whiskers were modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to improve the interface between HA whiskers and PLLA. The composite scaffold consists of a porous PLLA matrix with HA whiskers distributed homogeneously. The morphology and the distributions of pore sizes of PLLA scaffold was not influenced by introducing HA whiskers, while the mechanical properties were improved. Both the compressive strength and compressive modulus were increased with the weight ratio of APTES-modified HA whiskers up to 30 wt.%, but only up to 15 wt.% for non-modified HA whiskers. With more than 15 wt.% HA whiskers, the mechanical properties of HA/PLLA scaffold were better improved with APTES-modified HA whiskers than non-modified. The HA whisker/PLLA scaffold with high porosity and improved mechanical properties is attractive in the application of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Carboxymethyl Cellulose From Kenaf Reinforced Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based 49 % Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)-Grafted Natural Rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serawati Jafirin; Ishak Ahmad; Azizan Ahmad; Ishak Ahmad; Azizan Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes based 49 % poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) incorporating lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) were prepared. The study mainly focuses on the ionic conductivity performances and mechanical properties. Prior to that, carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf fiber. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance (EIS) spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), universal testing machine and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity was found to increase with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 6.5 x 10 -6 Scm -1 upon addition of 6 wt % carboxymethyl cellulose. LSV graph shows the stability of this film was extended to 2.7 V at room temperature. The composition with 6 wt % carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of Young's modulus. The morphology of the electrolytes showed a smooth surface of films after addition of salt and filler indicating amorphous phase in electrolytes system. Excellent mechanical properties and good ionic conductivity are obtained, enlightening that the film is suitable for future applications as thin solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. (author)

  10. Electrospun Poly(lactic acid)-Based Fibrous Nanocomposite Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystals: Impact of Fiber Uniaxial Alignment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Siqi; Liu, Guoxiang; Cheng, Wanli; Han, Guangping; Bai, Long

    2018-03-12

    Uniform poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystal (PLA/CNC) fibrous mats composed of either random or aligned fibers reinforced with up to 20 wt % CNCs were successfully produced by two different electrospinning processes. Various concentrations of CNCs could be stably dispersed in PLA solution prior to fiber manufacture. The microstructure of produced fibrous mats, regardless of random or aligned orientation, was transformed from smooth to nanoporous surface by changing CNC loading levels. Aligning process through secondary stretching during high-speed collection can also affect the porous structure of fibers. With the same CNC loading, fibrous mats produced with aligned fibers had higher degree of crystallinity than that of fibers with random structure. The thermal properties and mechanical performances of PLA/CNC fibrous mats can be enhanced, showing better enhancement effect of aligned fibrous structure. This results from a synergistic effect of the increased crystallinity of fibers, the efficient stress transfer from PLA to CNCs, and the ordered arrangement of electrospun fibers in the mats. This research paves a way for developing an electrospinning system that can manufacture high-performance CNC-enhanced PLA fibrous nanocomposites.

  11. Influence of Thermo-Oxidative Ageing on the Thermal and Dynamical Mechanical Properties of Long Glass Fibre-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Composites Filled with DOPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daohai; He, Min; He, Weidi; Zhou, Ying; Qin, Shuhao; Yu, Jie

    2017-05-04

    In this work, the long glass fibre-reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites filled with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were prepared by melt blending, and the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing on the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behaviours and morphology of composites with different ageing time at 120 °C were investigated and analysed. The results showed that the mechanical properties decreased in the primary stage of ageing, while embrittlement occurs in the later period, and the crystallinity of PBT decreases first, and then recovers to some extent. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos of the samples indicated that the obvious crack appeared on the sample surface and a deeper, broader crack occurred with a longer ageing time. The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) proved the DOPO filler diffused to the sample surface by measuring the content of phosphorus. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves showed that the thermal stabilities of composites increased with longer ageing time, as did the values of the limited oxygen index (LOI). Meanwhile, the results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the glass transition temperature shifted to a higher temperature after ageing due to the effect of crosslinking, and both the crosslinking and degradation of PBT molecular chains act as the main factors in the whole process of thermo-oxidative ageing.

  12. A REVIEW OF THE MEASUREMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINITY AND ITS RELATION TO PROPERTIES IN NEAT POLY(PHENYLENE SULFIDE) AND ITS FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruiell, J.E.

    2005-01-31

    This literature review paper was prepared for the Department of Energy Automotive Lightweighting Program to address materials interest expressed by the Automotive Composites Consortium and it summarizes the measurement and development of crystallinity and its relation to properties in poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and its fiber reinforced composites. The objective of this effort was to broaden the understanding of low-cost, semi-crystalline thermoplastic resins and composites for use in potential future automotive applications. PPS has an excellent combination of attributes including good mechanical properties and thermal stability, high chemical resistance, low moisture absorption, good weathering resistance, high dimensional stability, low flammability, and excellent processability. Specific areas addressed in this report include: Structure of PPS; Techniques for measuring crystallinity; Crystallinity as a function of prior treatment; Crystallization kinetics and morphology; Effect of variation of crystallinity on properties of PPS and its composites; Environmental stability; Unusual effects of cooling rates and degree of crystallinity on mechanical properties of AS4/PPS composites; Recent PPS laminate data (Ten Cate Advanced Composites); and Recommendations for future research.

  13. Influence of Kenaf Core Fiber Incorporation on the Mechanical Performance and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Fiber Reinforced Poly(lactic acid Hybrid Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Umar Birnin-Yauri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the reinforcing potential of kenaf core fiber (KCF to complement and sustain oil palm fiber supply chain in the production of natural fiber-thermoplastic biocomposites. The lignin-rich KCF was incorporated into cellulose-rich oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF- and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF-poly(lactic acid (PLA composites, aimed at achieving synergism. The hybrid biocomposites developed by melt blending and subsequent compression molding were characterized for possible application as an alternative to medium-density fiberboards. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of both single fiber- and hybrid fiber-PLA biocomposites were evaluated and compared. The test results showed a synergistic improvement as a consequence of fiber hybridization. Also, the findings suggested the best material performance with the incorporation of 5% KCF into 55% EFBF or OPMF and 40% PLA matrix. The OPMF-KCF-PLA hybrid biocomposites gave better results than the EFBF-KCF-PLA hybrid biocomposites.

  14. ZnO-reinforced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites with antimicrobial function for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2014-06-25

    Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanoparticles to bacterial polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) via solution casting technique. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, antibacterial, barrier, and migration properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed. The nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed within PHBV without the aid of coupling agents, and acted effectively as nucleating agents, raising the crystallization temperature and the level of crystallinity of the matrix while decreasing its crystallite size. A gradual rise in thermal stability was found with increasing ZnO loading, since the nanofillers hinder the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process. The nanocomposites displayed superior stiffness, strength, toughness, and glass transition temperature, whereas they displayed reduced water uptake and oxygen and water vapor permeability compared to the neat biopolymer, related to the strong matrix-nanofiller interfacial adhesion attained via hydrogen bonding interactions. At an optimal concentration of 4.0 wt % ZnO, the tensile strength and Young's and storage moduli showed a maximum that coincided with the highest crystallinity and the best barrier properties. PHBV/ZnO films showed antibacterial activity against human pathogen bacteria, and the effect on Escherichia coli was stronger than on Staphylococcus aureus. The overall migration levels of the nanocomposites in both nonpolar and polar simulants dropped upon increasing nanoparticle content, and were well below the limits required by the current normative for food packaging materials. These sustainable nanomaterials with antimicrobial function are very promising to be used as containers for beverage and food products as well as for disposable applications like cutlery or overwrap films.

  15. Uniformly-dispersed nanohydroxapatite-reinforced poly(ε-caprolactone) composite films for tendon tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Shi Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Zuyong, E-mail: zuyong.nus@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Lim, Poon Nian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Wilson [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119 074 (Singapore); Thian, Eng San, E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of injuries at tendon-to-bone interface (TBI) remains a challenging issue due to the complex tissue composition involving both soft tendon tissues and relatively hard bone tissues. Tissue engineering using polymeric/ceramic composites has been of great interest to generate scaffolds for tissue's healing at TBI. Herein, we presented a novel method to blend polymers and bioceramics for tendon tissue engineering application. A homogeneous composite comprising of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix was obtained using a combination of solvent and mechanical blending process. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-fabricated PCL/nHA composite film retained phase-pure apatite and semi-crystalline properties of PCL. Infrared spectroscopy spectra confirmed that the PCL/nHA composite film exhibited the characteristics functional groups of PCL and nHA, without alteration to the chemical properties of the composite. The incorporation of nHA resulted in PCL/nHA composite film with improved mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and ultimate tensile stress, which were comparable to that of the native human rotator tendon. Seeding with human tenocytes, cells attached on the PCL/nHA composite film, and after 14 days of culturing, these cells could acquire elongated morphology without induced cytotoxicity. PCL/nHA composite film could also result in increased cell metabolism with prolonged culturing, which was comparable to that of the PCL group and higher than that of the nHA group. All these results demonstrated that the developed technique of combining solvent and mechanical blending could be applied to fabricate composite films with potential for tendon tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • A novel method fabricating polymeric/nanoceramic composite film was proposed. • The method involved solvent and mechanical blending to form a homogeneous film. • The film retained physicochemical

  16. Highly CO2-Selective Gas Separation Membranes Based on Segmented Copolymers of Poly(Ethylene oxide) Reinforced with Pentiptycene-Containing Polyimide Hard Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuangjiang; Stevens, Kevin A; Park, Jae Sung; Moon, Joshua D; Liu, Qiang; Freeman, Benny D; Guo, Ruilan

    2016-01-27

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer membranes are attractive for CO2-related gas separations due to their high selectivity toward CO2. However, the development of PEO-rich membranes is frequently challenged by weak mechanical properties and a high crystallization tendency of PEO that hinders gas transport. Here we report a new series of highly CO2-selective, amorphous PEO-containing segmented copolymers prepared from commercial Jeffamine polyetheramines and pentiptycene-based polyimide. The copolymers are much more mechanically robust than the nonpentiptycene containing counterparts due to the molecular reinforcement mechanism of supramolecular chain threading and interlocking interactions induced by the pentiptycene structures, which also effectively suppresses PEO crystallization leading to a completely amorphous structure even at 60% PEO weight content. Membrane transport properties are sensitively affected by both PEO weight content and PEO chain length. A nonlinear correlation between CO2 permeability with PEO weight content was observed due to the competition between solubility and diffusivity contributions, whereby the copolymers change from being size-selective to solubility-selective when PEO content reaches 40%. CO2 selectivities over H2 and N2 increase monotonically with both PEO content and chain length, indicating strong CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The copolymer film with the longest PEO sequence (PEO2000) and highest PEO weight content (60%) showed a measured CO2 pure gas permeability of 39 Barrer, and ideal CO2/H2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 4.1 and 46, respectively, at 35 °C and 3 atm, making them attractive for hydrogen purification and carbon capture.

  17. Preparation and characterisation of poly p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole fibre-reinforced resin matrix composite for endodontic post material: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chen; Wang, Feng; Yang, Huiyong; Ai, Jun; Wang, Linlin; Jing, Dongdong; Shao, Longquan; Zhou, Xingui

    2014-12-01

    Currently used fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) intracanal posts possess low flexural strength which usually causes post fracture when restoring teeth with extensive loss. To improve the flexural strength of FRC, we aimed to apply a high-performance fibre, poly p-phenylene-2, 6-benzobisoxazole (PBO), to FRCs to develop a new intracanal post material. To improve the interfacial adhesion strength, the PBO fibre was treated with coupling agent (Z-6040), argon plasma, or a combination of above two methods. The effects of the surface modifications on PBO fibre were characterised by determining the single fibre tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS). The mechanical properties of PBO FRCs were characterised by flexural strength and flexural modulus. The cytotoxicity of PBO FRC was evaluated by the MTT assay. Fibres treated with a combination of Z-6040 and argon plasma possessed a significantly higher IFSS than untreated fibres. Fibre treated with the combination of Z-6040-argon-plasma FRC had the best flexural strength (531.51 ± 26.43MPa) among all treated fibre FRCs and had sufficient flexural strength and appropriate flexural moduli to be used as intracanal post material. Furthermore, an in vitro cytotoxicity assay confirmed that PBO FRCs possessed an acceptable level of cytotoxicity. In summary, our study verified the feasibility of using PBO FRC composites as new intracanal post material. Although the mechanical property of PBO FRC still has room for improvement, our study provides a new avenue for intracanal post material development in the future. To our knowledge, this is the first study to verify the feasibility of using PBO FRC composites as new intracanal post material. Our study provided a new option for intracanal post material development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abdominal closure reinforcement by using polypropylene mesh functionalized with poly-Ԑ-caprolactone nanofibers and growth factors for prevention of incisional hernia formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plencner M

    2014-07-01

    architecture mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We tested a biodegradable polyester poly-Ԑ-caprolactone in the form of nanofibers as a scaffold for fascia healing in an abdominal closure-reinforcement model for prevention of incisional hernia formation. Both in vitro tests and an experiment on a rabbit model showed promising results. Keywords: nanofibers, growth factors, surgical mesh, hernia regeneration, in vivo

  19. Studies on single polymer composites of poly(methyl methacrylate) reinforced with electrospun nanofibers with a focus on their dynamic mechanical properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matabola, KP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available by dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA). 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials High molecular weight PMMA (PMMAhigh, Mw = 996 000 g/mol) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Schenelldorf, Germany). N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were obtained...% PMMA in a 1:1 THF:DMF solvent mixture. The electrospun PMMAhigh nanofibers were used as the reinforcing phase and a low molecular weight PMMA (PMMAlow, 90 000 g/mol, Altuglass V825- TL grade) purchased from Advanced Polymers (Altuglass...

  20. Effects of radiation-induced crosslinking on thermal and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) composites reinforced by basalt fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meihua; Zhang Wanxi; Yin Yuan; Wei Wei; Zheng Chunbai; Deng Pengyang; Shen Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Poly (lactic acid)/ basalt fiber (PLA/BF) composites were prepared by melt blending with a cross-linking agent, triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC). The thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated through gel fraction, heat defection temperature (HDT), tensile tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under certain conditions, the HDT of composites was dramatically increased to 140℃ after irradiation. Tensile properties were enhanced as well. Both these improvements were consistent with changes of the fracture morphology. Compatibilization and concomitant enhancement of the interfacial adhesive between the polymer matrix and the inorganic fiber were achieved as seen from SEM photos, as a result of the formation of co-crosslinking and grafting structures at the interface according to the determination of gelation extraction. (authors)

  1. Preparation and properties of poly(vinyl alcohol/chitosan blend bionanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals/ZnO-Ag multifunctional nanosized filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Susan Azizi,1 Mansor Bin Ahmad,1 Mohd Zobir Hussein,1 Nor Azowa Ibrahim,1 Farideh Namvar2,31Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IranAbstract: A series of novel bionanocomposites were cast using different contents of zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNC as multifunctional nanosized fillers in poly(vinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/Cs matrices. The morphological structure, mechanical properties, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their CNC/ZnO-AgNP content and compared with PVA/chitosan/CNC bionanocomposite films. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the CNC/ZnO-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/Cs matrix and the crystallinity increased with increasing nanosized filler content. Compared with pure PVA/Cs, the tensile strength and modulus in the films increased from 0.055 to 0.205 GPa and from 0.395 to 1.20 GPa, respectively. Ultraviolet and visible light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO-AgNPs into a PVA/Cs matrix, suggesting that these bionanocomposite films show good visibility and ultraviolet-shielding effects. The bionanocomposite films had excellent antimicrobial properties, killing both Gram-negative Salmonella choleraesuis and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The enhanced physical properties achieved by incorporating CNC/ZnO-AgNPs could be beneficial in various applications.Keywords: multifunctional nanofiller, bionanocomposite, cellulose nanocrystals, antimicrobial properties, poly(vinyl alcohol/chitosan blend

  2. Preparation and demonstration of poly(dopamine)-triggered attapulgite-anchored polyurethane as a high-performance rod-like elastomer to reinforce soy protein-isolated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujun; Wen, Yingying; Wang, Zhong; Kang, Haijiao; Li, Jianzhang; Zhang, Shifeng; Ji, Yong

    2018-06-01

    Nanophase modification is an effective path to improve composite properties, however, it remains a great challenge to increase the mechanical strength of the modified materials without sacrificing elongation and toughness. This study presents a novel and efficient design for interface anchoring of a waterborne polyurethane (WPU) elastomer with attapulgite (ATP) triggered by poly(dopamine) (PDA) formation due to self-polymerization of the dopamine moieties. The WPU-PDA-ATP (WDA) rod-like elastomer served as an active enhancer for a soy protein isolate (SPI)-based composite to facilitate multiple interactions between SPI and the elastomer. As expected, the PDA layer was coated onto ATP, inducing the nanofiller to successfully anchor onto the WPU elastomer, as confirmed by solid-state 13C NMR, XPS, and ATR-FTIR results. Compared with the control SPI-based film, the tensile strength and toughness increased by 145.6% and 118.3% respectively by introducing WDA rod-like elastomer. The water resistance and thermal stability of the prepared SPI composites were also favorable. The proposed approach represents an efficient way to utilize high-performance elastomer in biobased materials to concurrently enhance strength and toughness.

  3. Reinforcement of poly(amide-imide) containing N-trimellitylimido-L-phenylalanine by using nano α-Al2O3 surface-coupled with bromo-flame retardant under ultrasonic irradiation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Khadem, Elham

    2014-10-01

    By the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles into a polymer matrix, a substantial improvement of physicochemical properties can be attained. In this study, a series of poly(amide-imide)/Al2O3 nanocomposites (PANC)s based on various amounts of modified α-Al2O3 nanoparticles (ANP)s were prepared using the ultrasonic irradiation method. In the process of manufacturing the nanocomposites (NC)s, severe agglomeration of ANPs into the polymer matrix can be reduced using 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamoyl]benzoic acid as novel coupling agent. The effects of modified ANPs on the morphology and properties of the polymer matrix were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results obtained by TGA showed that the thermal stability of the NCs was improved with the addition of the small amounts of ANPs as effective thermal degradation resistant reinforcement.

  4. Self-reinforced bioresorbable poly-L/DL-lactide [SR-P(L/DL)LA] 70/30 miniplates and miniscrews are reliable for fixation of anterior mandibular fractures: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikontiola, Leena; Sundqvuist, Kai; Sàndor, George K B; Törmälä, Pertti; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2004-03-01

    Bioresorbable osteofixation devices are being increasingly used in orthognathic surgery and in cases of trauma to avoid problems associated with conventional metal osteofixation devices. The aim of this clinical study was to assess the reliability and efficacy of bioresorbable self-reinforced poly-L/DL-lactide (SR-P(L/DL)LA 70/30) plates and screws in the fixation of mandibular fractures in adults. Ten patients (20 to 49 years old) with isolated anterior mandibular parasymphyseal fractures were treated by means of open reduction and internal fixation using SR-P(L/DL)LA 70/30 bioresorbable plates and screws. During the minimum of 6 months of follow-up, no problems were encountered except for 1 case where a plate became exposed intraorally and infected. This required debridement and later excision of the exposed part of the plate. Despite this setback the fractured bone healed well. SR-P(L/DL)LA 70/30 plates and screws are reliable for internal fixation of anterior mandibular fractures in adults. Proper soft tissue coverage should be ensured to avoid plate exposure. Should implant exposure occur, it might be necessary to excise the exposed part after fracture healing (6-8 weeks postoperatively).

  5. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  6. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery. M KAKUNURI, S KAUSHIK, A SAINI and C S SHARMA. ∗. Creative and Advanced Research Based On Nanomaterials (CARBON) Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Kandi 502285, India. ∗.

  7. Graphitised Carbon Nanofibres as Catalyst Support for PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Rantala, E.; Pasanen, A.; Kauranen, P.

    2011-01-01

    (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported...

  8. Antiresonance in (Ni,Zn) ferrite-carbon nanofibres nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menéndez, J.L.; Pecharromán, C.; Torrecillas, R.; Peretyagin, P.Y.; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Frait, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 5 (2015), 055003 ISSN 2053-1591 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ceramic composites * ferromagnetic resonance * ferrite devices Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2015

  9. Antiresonance in (Ni,Zn) ferrite-carbon nanofibres nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-García, Lucía; Suárez, Marta; Luis Menéndez, Jose; Torrecillas, Ramón; Pecharromán, Carlos; Peretyagin, Pavel Y; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Frait, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    (NiZn)Fe 2 O 4 carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposites with concentrations up to 5% in volume of CNFs were prepared by traditional ceramic processing and a subsequent spark plasma sintering at 860 °C with a holding time of 1 min. Low-frequency conductivity and magnetic properties were studied, revealing the appearance of a ferromagnetic antiresonance when a certain value of conductivity is reached due to the introduction of a conductive second-phase CNF in the ferromagnetic matrix (ferrite), thereby opening a route to induce magnetically tunable transparency in these composites. (paper)

  10. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  11. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  12. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Putzolu, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  13. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  14. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Luigi; Fiore, Vincenzo; Scalici, Tommaso; Valenza, Antonino;  , Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w) were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID) reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM) reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanica...

  15. Chemically imaging the effects of the addition of nanofibrillated cellulose on the distribution of poly(acrylic acid) in poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons; Julia Sedlmair; Barbara Illman; Rebecca Ibach; Carol Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in model laminates of nanocellulose and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) was investigated by FTIR chemical imaging. The method was effective in spatially discerning the three components of the composite. PAA can potentially improve the performance of nanocellulose reinforced PVOH by not only crosslinking the PVOH matrix but also...

  16. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the thermal degradation behaviour of poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid) microfibrillar composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luyt, A. S.; Kelnar, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, July (2017), s. 166-172 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(lactic acid) * poly(epsilon-caprolactone) * halloysite nanotubes Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  17. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  18. Adapting without reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy

    2012-11-01

    Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.

  19. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin G. Garner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.

  20. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Benjamin E.

    2018-01-01

    Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048

  1. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  2. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-09

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  3. In-plane shear test of fibre reinforced concrete panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe; Stang, Henrik; Goltermann, Per

    2008-01-01

    The present paper concerns the investigation of polymer Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) panels subjected to in-plane shear. The use of fibers as primary reinforcement in panels is a new application of fiber reinforcement, hence test methods, design bases and models are lacking. This paper...... contributes to the investigation of fibers as reinforcement in panels with experimental results and a consistent approach to material characterization and modeling. The proposed model draws on elements from the classical yield line theory of rigid, perfectly plastic materials and the theory of fracture...... mechanics. Model panels have been cast to investigate the correlation between the load bearing capacity and the amount of fibers (vol. %) in the mixture. The type of fibers in the mixture was Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibers, length 8 mm, diameter 0.04 mm. The mechanical properties of the FRC have been...

  4. Obtenção de um revestimento compósito de poliéster-uretana reforçado com alumina pela técnica de deposição por imersão sobre fibras de poliamida 6 Preparation of a composite coating of alumina reinforced polyester urethane by dip coating on polyamide 6 fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. L. Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de revestimentos compósitos de matriz polimérica e reforço cerâmico capazes de manter a flexibilidade e a elasticidade das fibras poliméricas, agregando propriedades típicas dos materiais cerâmicos (como ação bactericida ou fotocatalítica, resistência à chama, ao desgaste e à abrasão, tem atraído interesse da indústria têxtil. Baseado na técnica dip coating e usando fibras sintéticas de poliamida como substrato, foram produzidas suspensões de poliéster-uretana com partículas de alumina (tamanho médio de partícula 2,2 μm para obtenção de revestimentos uniformes e espessos sobre o material base, poliamida 6. A viscosidade das suspensões foi controlada pela adição de carboximetilcelulose e avaliada por reometria rotacional. A distribuição granulométrica das suspensões também foi determinada. Os parâmetros operacionais do dip coating, i.e., velocidade de bobinamento e temperatura dos fornos, foram mantidos constantes em todas as amostras. O processo mostrou viabilidade para deposição uniforme do recobrimento avaliado, com espessura adequada, indicando ser promissor para revestir fibras, agregando propriedades de interesse tecnológico.Ceramic reinforced polymer composite coatings that can retain the flexibility and elasticity of the polymeric fibers, being also able to incorporate the functionality of ceramic materials (e.g. fire, wear, or abrasion resistance, antibacterial performance, photocatalytic effect are interesting to the processing of textile materials. In this work, polyester-urethane slurries with alumina particles (mean particle size: 2.2 μm were developed based on the dip coating technique and using polyamide-6 synthetic fibers as the substrate, seeking to obtain an uniform and thick coating. The viscosity of the slurries was varied using carboxymethylcellulose as a rheological agent and evaluated by rotational rheometry. Particle size distribution of the slurries was also analyzed. The

  5. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and dried in an oven at 60°C for 24 h to remove moisture. PLA pellets equivalent to 0.8 and 0.7 weight fractions of the nonwoven web and woven fabric, respectively were dissolved in chloroform. It is to be noted that nonwoven flax fiber requires higher... amount of PLA than woven ones. The dried nonwoven web/woven fabric was then placed inside a square metal frame mold of 15 cm×15 cm in dimensions and the PLA solution was poured over the nonwoven web or woven fab- ric. It was observed that 5 to 6 g...

  6. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA...

  7. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  8. Poly(furfuryl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that ...

  9. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  10. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  11. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Falco, A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Lamanna, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); D' Accorso, N.B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Fascio, M.L., E-mail: mfascio@qo.fcen.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  12. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, A.; Lamanna, M.; Goyanes, S.; D'Accorso, N.B.; Fascio, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  13. Modeling reinforced concrete durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  14. Mechanical strength of ceramic scaffolds reinforced with biopolymers is comparable to that of human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, S S; Ding, M; Vinther Juhl, M

    2011-01-01

    Eight groups of calcium-phosphate scaffolds for bone implantation were prepared of which seven were reinforced with biopolymers, poly lactic acid (PLA) or hyaluronic acid in different concentrations in order to increase the mechanical strength, without significantly impairing the microarchitecture....... Controls were un-reinforced calcium-phosphate scaffolds. Microarchitectural properties were quantified using micro-CT scanning. Mechanical properties were evaluated by destructive compression testing. Results showed that adding 10 or 15% PLA to the scaffold significantly increased the mechanical strength...

  15. Bioinspired Poly(2-oxazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schlaad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(2-oxazolines are regarded as pseudopeptides, thus bioinspired polymers, due to their structural relationship to polypeptides. Materials and solution properties can be tuned by varying the side-chain (hydrophilic-hydrophobic, chiral, bioorganic, etc., opening the way to advanced stimulus-responsive materials and complex colloidal structures. The bioinspired “smart” solution and aggregation behavior of poly(2-oxazolines in aqueous environments are discussed in this review.

  16. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  17. Raman study of magnesium induced conversion of polyU·polyA duplexes to polyU·polyA·polyU triplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, S. J. Espinoza; Štepánek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Raman titration experiment with magnesium salt added gradually to aqueous solution of duplexes formed by RNA homopolynucleotides polyU and polyA was performed to reveal its effect on homopolynucleotide complexes. Statistical analysis of obtained spectral set has confirmed the effect already found by less structurally sensitive methods [Nucleic Acids Res. 31(17) (2003), 5101–5107] that at sufficiently high concentrations magnesium causes transformation of polyU·polyA duplexes to polyU·polyA·po...

  18. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  19. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  20. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  1. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  2. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  3. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  4. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  5. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  6. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.

    1973-01-01

    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  7. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  8. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  9. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  10. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayabalan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  11. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  12. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  13. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  14. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  15. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  16. Semi-interpenetrating networks based on POLY(N-isopropyl acrilamide and POLY(N-vinylpyrrolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žugić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three series of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide, PNIPA, and 1, 2 and 3 wt% of linear poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone, PVP, were synthesized in order to improve the mechanical properties of PNIPA gels. The effect of the incorporation of the linear PVP polymer into the temperature responsive networks on the phase transition temperature, swelling behavior and mechanical properties was studied. Polymer networks with four different crosslinking densities were prepared with various molar ratios (25/1 to 100/1 of the monomer (N-isopropylacrylamide to the cross linker (N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide. The hydrogels were characterized by determination of the equilibrium degree of swelling at 25 °C, the dynamic shear modulus and the effective crosslinking density, as well as the ultimate hydrogel properties, such as the tensile strength and elongation at break. Furthermore, the deswelling kinetics of the hydrogels was also studied by measuring their water retention capacity. The inclusion of the linear hydrophilic PVP in the PNIPA networks increased the equilibrium degree of swelling, the highest values of which were obtained for samples with 2 and 3 wt% of PVP and the NIPA/MBA molar ratio of 75/1 and 100/1. The highest reinforcement effect, evaluated from the ratio of G'red(semi-IPN to G'red(PNIPA, was obtained by incorporation of 2 wt% PVP. The tensile strength of the semi-IPNs reinforced with linear PVP was higher than that of the PNIPA networks. The elongation at break of these semi-IPNs varied between 22 and 55%, which are 22^11% larger than those for single PNIPA networks. The tensile measurements confirmed that the presence of 2 wt% of the linear polymer significantly reinforced the PNIPA network.

  17. Oriented Poly(dialkylstannane)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choffat, Fabien; Fornera, Sara; Smith, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction-deposited p......The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction......-deposited poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) layer. Orientation of the polystannanes has been examined by polarization microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy with polarized light, and X-ray diffraction and their direction is found to depend on the length of the alkyl side groups and the method of orientation. Remarkably...

  18. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  19. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  20. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  1. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K

    2007-01-01

    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  2. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  3. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  4. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  5. In vitro degradation of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/PLLA scaffold reinforced by chitin fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming; Feng Qingling; Cui Fuzhai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering was prepared with nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) composite reinforced by chitin fibres. To enhance the strength of the scaffold further, PLLA was linked with chitin fibres by Dicyclohexylcarbodimide (DCC). The structures of the reinforced scaffold with and without linking were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical characteristics of the chitin fibres with and without linking were evaluated by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanical performance during degradation in vitro was investigated. The results indicated that the nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/PLLA composite reinforced by chitin fibres with linking kept better mechanical properties than that of the composite without linking. These results denoted that the stronger interfacial bonding strength of the scaffold with linking could decrease the degradation rate in vitro. The reinforced composite with the link-treatment can be severed as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

  6. Mechanisms of plasma-assisted catalyzed growth of carbon nanofibres: a theoretical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R.; Sharma, S. C.; Sharma, R.

    2017-02-01

    A theoretical model is developed to study the nucleation and catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in a plasma environment. The model includes the charging of CNFs, the kinetics of the plasma species (neutrals, ions and electrons), plasma pretreatment of the catalyst film, and various processes unique to a plasma-exposed catalyst surface such as adsorption of neutrals, thermal dissociation of neutrals, ion induced dissociation, interaction between neutral species, stress exerted by the growing graphene layers and the growth of CNFs. Numerical calculations are carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the growth rate of CNFs decreases with the catalyst nanoparticle size. In addition, the effect of hydrogen on the catalyst nanoparticle size, CNF tip diameter, CNF growth rate, and the tilt angle of the graphene layers to the fiber axis are investigated. Moreover, it is also found that the length of CNFs increases with hydrocarbon number density. Our theoretical findings are in good agreement with experimental observations and can be extended to enhance the field emission characteristics of CNFs.

  7. Usability of cement paste containing carbon nanofibres as an anode in electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral, B. del

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the application of the electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE technique, traditionally, the Ti-RuO2 wire netting has been used as the external anode. This article provides the results of the research based on the use of conductive cement paste with addition of carbon nanofibers (CNF as anodes and its application in ECE. The tests were developed in concrete specimens previously contaminated with chloride. The efficiencies achieved were compared with those obtained using a traditional anode (Ti-RuO2 and cement pastes with the addition of other carbonaceous materials. The results show the feasibility of using conductive cement paste with CNF as the anode in the electrochemical extraction of chlorides in concrete, finding similar efficiencies to those obtained with traditional Ti-RuO2 wire netting but with the added advantage that it can be adapted to complex structural geometries as it can be applied as a paste.

    En la aplicación de la técnica de extracción electroquímica de cloruros (EEC, tradicionalmente se ha venido empleando como ánodo externo una malla de Ti-RuO2. En este artículo se aportan los resultados de investigaciones basadas en la utilización de ánodos formados por pasta de cemento conductora con adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC y su aplicación en EEC. Las experiencias se desarrollaron en probetas de hormigón contaminado previamente con cloruro. Las eficiencias alcanzadas se compararon con las obtenidas empleando un ánodo tradicional (Ti-RuO2 así como pastas de cemento con adición de otros materiales carbonosos. Los resultados muestran la viabilidad en la utilización de la pasta de cemento conductora con NFC como ánodo en la aplicación en EEC en hormigón, encontrándose eficiencias similares a las obtenidas con la tradicional malla de Ti-RuO2 pero teniendo la ventaja añadida sobre ésta de que es posible adaptarla a geometrías estructurales complejas al ser aplicada en forma de pasta.

  8. Constitutive model for reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension

  9. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    .0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...

  10. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  11. Transport properties of poly(GACT)–poly(CTGA)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and within the framework of a generalized Green's function technique, the electronic conduction through the poly(GACT)–poly(CTGA) DNA molecule in SWNT/DNA/SWNT structure has been numerically investigated. In a ladder model, we consider DNA as a ...

  12. Solar CalPoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, Sandra [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The target budget of INhouse was about $650,000 for all materials and student expenses of the Solar Decathlon competition. In order to reach our goal, Cal Poly students and faculty worked with the College of Architecture and Environmental Design’s External Relations office to actively fundraise for INhouse. Students connected with Cal Poly alumni through phone calls, postal mail, email, and live presentations to reach as many alumni in the state of California as possible. Before construction begun, students and faculty met on a weekly basis to determine what brands of materials for the home to use and who would be responsible for reaching out to the company to seek a donation. Our College of Architecture and Environmental Design’s administration was essential in helping us fundraise. For some time, the college was hoping to depend on about half of our fundraising expenses to be covered through the sale of INhouse. However, plans to sell the home fell through during the design development phase; the college turned to the sale of a different asset in to help us meet our goal. If we were to do this project again, completing the design concept and securing a future location of our home sooner would have enhanced our fundraising activities.

  13. Poly(alkyl acrylate) nonparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuter, J.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the preparation of poly(alkyl acrylic) and poly(alkyl cyanocrylic) nanoparticles. Nonoparticles are solid colloidal particles, consisting of macromolecular materials in which drugs or biologically active materials are dissolved, entrapped, and encapsulated, and/or to which the active substance is adsorbed or attached. Poly(alkyl acrylic) nanoparticles are much more slowly biodegradable than poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles, and are thus more suitable for drug delivery purposes. Poly(methyl methacrylate) is the material of choice for the use of nanoparticles as an adjuvant for vaccines and are produced by emulsifier-free polymerization in aqueous media. The polymerization, which can be initiated with gamma rays or with potassium peroxodisulfate, is described

  14. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  15. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  16. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  17. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxi

    2017-01-01

    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  18. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  19. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  20. Experimental investigation on material migration phenomena in micro-EDM of reaction-bonded silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Pay Jun [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 6-6-01, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Manufacturing Process Department, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Yan, Jiwang, E-mail: yan@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan); Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 6-6-01, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Material migration between tool electrode and workpiece material in micro electrical discharge machining of reaction-bonded silicon carbide was experimentally investigated. The microstructural changes of workpiece and tungsten tool electrode were examined using scanning electron microscopy, cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray under various voltage, capacitance and carbon nanofibre concentration in the dielectric fluid. Results show that tungsten is deposited intensively inside the discharge-induced craters on the RB-SiC surface as amorphous structure forming micro particles, and on flat surface region as a thin interdiffusion layer of poly-crystalline structure. Deposition of carbon element on tool electrode was detected, indicating possible material migration to the tool electrode from workpiece material, carbon nanofibres and dielectric oil. Material deposition rate was found to be strongly affected by workpiece surface roughness, voltage and capacitance of the electrical discharge circuit. Carbon nanofibre addition in the dielectric at a suitable concentration significantly reduced the material deposition rate.

  1. Experimental investigation on material migration phenomena in micro-EDM of reaction-bonded silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, Pay Jun; Yan, Jiwang; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2013-01-01

    Material migration between tool electrode and workpiece material in micro electrical discharge machining of reaction-bonded silicon carbide was experimentally investigated. The microstructural changes of workpiece and tungsten tool electrode were examined using scanning electron microscopy, cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray under various voltage, capacitance and carbon nanofibre concentration in the dielectric fluid. Results show that tungsten is deposited intensively inside the discharge-induced craters on the RB-SiC surface as amorphous structure forming micro particles, and on flat surface region as a thin interdiffusion layer of poly-crystalline structure. Deposition of carbon element on tool electrode was detected, indicating possible material migration to the tool electrode from workpiece material, carbon nanofibres and dielectric oil. Material deposition rate was found to be strongly affected by workpiece surface roughness, voltage and capacitance of the electrical discharge circuit. Carbon nanofibre addition in the dielectric at a suitable concentration significantly reduced the material deposition rate.

  2. Multiply fully recyclable carbon fibre reinforced heat-resistant covalent thermosetting advanced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanchao; Sun, Yanxiao; Yan, Shijing; Zhao, Jianqing; Liu, Shumei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Zheng, Xiaoxing; Jia, Lei

    2017-03-02

    Nondestructive retrieval of expensive carbon fibres (CFs) from CF-reinforced thermosetting advanced composites widely applied in high-tech fields has remained inaccessible as the harsh conditions required to recycle high-performance resin matrices unavoidably damage the structure and properties of CFs. Degradable thermosetting resins with stable covalent structures offer a potential solution to this conflict. Here we design a new synthesis scheme and prepare a recyclable CF-reinforced poly(hexahydrotriazine) resin matrix advanced composite. The multiple recycling experiments and characterization data establish that this composite demonstrates performance comparable to those of its commercial counterparts, and more importantly, it realizes multiple intact recoveries of CFs and near-total recycling of the principal raw materials through gentle depolymerization in certain dilute acid solution. To our best knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time a feasible and environment-friendly preparation-recycle-regeneration strategy for multiple CF-recycling from CF-reinforced advanced composites.

  3. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity...... of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover...... are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas...

  4. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Grids for Shear and End Zone Reinforcement in Bridge Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel reduces life spans of bridges throughout the United States; therefore, using non-corroding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is seen as a way to increase service life. The use of CFRP as the flexural ...

  5. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  6. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...... public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  7. Tacticities study of high poly-α-olefins, from poly-1-hexene to poly-1-octadecene, obtained with metallocenes catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciano F. da; Galland, Griselda B.

    2003-01-01

    High poly-α-olefins such as poly-1-hexene, poly-1-octene, poly-1-decene, poly-1-dodecene, poly-1-tetradecene, poly-1-hexadecene and poly-1-octadecene were obtained with the homogeneous iso specific catalyst rac-Et[Ind]ZrCl 2 /MAO and with the homogeneous syndiospecific catalyst Me 2 C[Cp(9-Flu)]ZrCl 2 /MAO at the polymerization temperatures of 0 deg C, 30 deg C and 60 deg C. The polymers were analyzed by 13 C NMR to study the influence of the α - olefins sizes, the catalysts type and the polymerization temperatures in their tacticities. The stereospecific control of both catalytic systems decreased with the increase of the reaction temperature and with the α-olefin size. (author)

  8. Influences of hyperbranched poly(amide-ester) on the properties of poly(butylene succinate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Run, Mingtao; Wang, Jian; Yao, Meng; Guo, Lijie; Wang, Hai-jun; Ba, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    The polymer blends of hyperbranched poly(amide-ester) and poly(butylene succinate) (HBP/PBS) were prepared by melt-blending method. The molecular interaction within the blends, phase morphology, crystal morphology, mechanical, rheological and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile machine, polarized optical microscopy, rotational rheometer and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. The results suggest that PBS and HBP have a certain compatibility at amorphous state. A certain number of H-bonding was detected between PBS and HBP phases and it influences the material properties. HBP not only serves partially as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of PBS but also plays a role of plasticizer for the rheology of PBS. The glass transition temperatures of the blends slightly decrease with increasing HBP content. The proper amount of HBP (4–6%) has a reinforcement effect on the PBS matrix at glassy state. However, the blend with 10%HBP content has an improved impact strength mainly due to the plasticization effect or H-bonding effect of HBP on PBS matrix. The storage modulus is increased with increasing HBP contents, and the loss modulus is much smaller than the storage modulus in each blend at glassy state. At rubbery state the storage modulus of different samples is independent of HBP content. The complex viscosity of the melt decreases with increasing HBP content; however, the blend with 10%HBP is a special sample because of its abnormal larger complex viscosity at low shear frequencies. In addition, the melt’s elasticity behavior increases slightly with increasing HBP content. - Highlights: ► H-bonding was detected between PBS and HBP phases by FTIR. ► HBP serves partly as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of PBS. ► HBP plays a role of plasticizer for PBS. ► The blend with 10%HBP has abnormal larger complex viscosity

  9. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  10. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  11. Stability of reinforced cemented backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Stone, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mining with backfill has been the subject of several international meetings in recent years and a considerable research effort is being applied to improve both mining economics and ore recovery by using backfill for ground support. Classified mill tailings sands are the most commonly used backfill material but these fine sands must be stabilized before full ore pillar recovery can be achieved. Normal portland cement is generally used for stabilization but the high cost of cement prohibits high cement usage. This paper considers the use of reinforcements in cemented fill to reduce the cement usage. It is concluded that strong cemented layers at typical spacings of about 3 meters in a low cement content bulk fill can reinforce the fill and reduce the overall cement usage. Fibre reinforcements introduced into strong layers or into bulk fills are also known to be effective in reducing cement usage. Some development work is needed to produce the ideal type of anchored fibre in order to realize economic gains from fibre-reinforced fills

  12. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own

  13. Depression, Activity, and Evaluation of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance L.; Glass, David R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This research attempted to find the causal relation between mood and level of reinforcement. An effort was made to learn what mood change might occur if depressed subjects increased their levels of participation in reinforcing activities. (Author/RK)

  14. Poly(bisphenol A carbonate) - poly(dimethylsiloxane) multiblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aert, van H.A.M.; Nelissen, L.N.I.H.; Lemstra, P.J.; Brunelle, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    A versatile technique for the synthesis of multiblock copolymers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) is described. Specific reaction of the phenol end groups of a,¿-bis(bisphenol A)-terminated PDMS with the activated end groups of

  15. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  16. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  17. Polystyrene/TiO2 composite electrospun fibers as fillers for poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate): Structure, morphology and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neppalli, R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, composite polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PS/TiO(sub2)) electrospun fibers were used as a reinforcement for a poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) matrix. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and degradation behavior...

  18. Processing of intractable polymers using reactive solvents. 2. Poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Ether) as a Matrix Material for High-Performance Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R.W.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) (PPE) as a matrix material for continuous carbon fibre reinforced composites has been studied. Owing to the intractable nature of PPE, melt impregnation is not feasible and therefore a solution impregnation route was explored using epoxy

  19. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2006-03-01

    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  20. Fiber reinforced silicon-containing arylacetylene resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A silicon-containing arylacetylene resin (SAR, a poly(dimethylsilyleneethynylene phenyleneethynylene (PMSEPE, was synthesized. The PMSEPE is a solid resin at ambient temperature with a softening temperature about 60°C and soluble in some solvents like tetrahydrofuran. The melt viscosity of the PMSEPE resin is less than 1 Pa•s. The resin could cure at the temperature of lower than 200°C. Fiber reinforced PMSEPE composites were prepared from prepregs which were made by the impregnation of fibers in PMSEPE resin solution. The composites exhibit good mechanical properties at room temperature and 250°C. The observation on fracture surfaces of the composites reinforced by glass fibers and carbon fibers demonstrates that the adhesion between the fibers and resin is good. The results from an oxyacetylene flame test show that the composites have good ablation performance and XRD analyses indicate that SiC forms in the residues during the ablation of the composites.

  1. Fabrication of a biocomposite reinforced with hydrophilic eggshell proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Min, Taijin; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Koh, Young Ho

    2007-01-01

    Soluble eggshell proteins were used as a reinforcing material of electrospun micro/nanofibers for tissue engineering. A biocomposite composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) micro/nanofibers and soluble eggshell protein was fabricated with a two-step fabrication method, which is an electrospinning process followed by an air-spraying process. To achieve a stable electrospinning process, we used an auxiliary cylindrical electrode connected with a spinning nozzle. PCL biocomposite was characterized in water contact angle and mechanical properties as well as cell proliferation for its application as a tissue engineering material. It showed an improved hydrophilic characteristic compared with that of a micro/nanofiber web generated from a pure PCL solution using a typical electrospinning process. Moreover, the fabricated biocomposite had good mechanical properties compared to a typical electrospun micro/nanofiber mat. The fabricated biocomposite made human dermal fibroblasts grow better than pure PCL. From the results, the reinforced polymeric micro/nanofiber scaffold can be easily achieved with these modified processes

  2. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  3. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  4. Green Route Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Reinforced Polymer Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendran, R.; Sridharan, D.; Santhakumar, K.; Gnanasekaran, G.

    2016-01-01

    A facile and “Green” route has been applied to fabricate graphene oxide (GO) reinforced polymer composites utilizing “deionized water” as solvent. The GO was reinforced into water soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (PAMPS) matrix by ultrasonication followed by mechanical stirring. The incorporation and dispersion of the GO in the polymer matrix were analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, FT-IR, and TGA. Further, the FE-SEM and AFM images revealed that the surface roughness and agglomeration of the GO in the polymer matrix increased by increasing its concentration. Ionic exchange capacity, proton conductivity, and tensile texture results showed that the reinforcement of GO in the polymer matrix enhances the physicochemical properties of the host polymer. These PVA/PAMPS/GO nano composites showed improved mechanical stability compared to the pristine polymer, because of strong interfacial interactions within the components and homogeneous dispersion of the GO sheets in the PVA/PAMPS matrix.

  5. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Caraschi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  6. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  7. FRP reinforcement of timber structures

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...

  8. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  9. Mechanics of fiber reinforced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huiyu

    This dissertation is dedicated to mechanics of fiber reinforced materials and the woven reinforcement and composed of four parts of research: analytical characterization of the interfaces in laminated composites; micromechanics of braided composites; shear deformation, and Poisson's ratios of woven fabric reinforcements. A new approach to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of interfaces between composite laminae based on a modified laminate theory is proposed. By including an interface as a special lamina termed the "bonding-layer" in the analysis, the mechanical properties of the interfaces are obtained. A numerical illustration is given. For micro-mechanical properties of three-dimensionally braided composite materials, a new method via homogenization theory and incompatible multivariable FEM is developed. Results from the hybrid stress element approach compare more favorably with the experimental data than other existing numerical methods widely used. To evaluate the shearing properties for woven fabrics, a new mechanical model is proposed during the initial slip region. Analytical results show that this model provides better agreement with the experiments for both the initial shear modulus and the slipping angle than the existing models. Finally, another mechanical model for a woven fabric made of extensible yarns is employed to calculate the fabric Poisson's ratios. Theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. A thorough examination on the influences of various mechanical properties of yarns and structural parameters of fabrics on the Poisson's ratios of a woven fabric is given at the end.

  10. Reinforcement learning in computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  11. Poly-m-aramid nanofiber mats: Production for application as structural modifiers in CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchetti, Laura; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Benelli, Tiziana; Belcari, Juri; Brugo, Tommaso Maria; Zucchelli, Andrea; Giorgini, Loris

    2016-05-01

    Poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes were produced to be used as structural reinforcements for carbon fiber reinforced composites production. In order for the polymer to be electrospun, it needs however to be fully solubilized, so the addition of some salts is required to help disrupt the tight macromolecular packing based on intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. Such salts may also contribute to the electrospinnability of the overall solution, since the provide it with a higher conductivity, whatever the solvent might be. The salt haobwever stays in the final nanofibrous mat. The membranes containing the salt are also observed to be highly hygroscopic, with a water content up to 26%, in the presence of 20%wt LiCl in the nanofibrous mat. When those membranes were interleaved among prepregs to produce a laminates, the obtained composite displayed thermal properties comparable to those of a reference nanofiber-free composite, though the former showed also easier delamination. Hence the removal of the hygroscopic salt was performed, that lead to thinner membranes, whose water content matched that of the pristine polymer. The washing step induced a thinning of the layers and of the fibers diameters, though no fiber shrinking nor membrane macroscopic damages were observed. These preliminary encouraging results thus pave the way to a deeper study of the optimized condition for producing convenient poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes to be used for carbon fiber reinforced composites structural modification.

  12. Origins of food reinforcement in infants12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Epstein, Leonard H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with a higher risk of obesity in children and adults. A high relative reinforcing value of food is cross-sectionally related to obesity; lean children find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese children. However, to our knowledge, there is no research on how and when food reinforcement develops. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives could be tested in 9- to 18-mo-old infants and whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives is differentially related to infant weight status. Design: Reinforcing values were assessed by using absolute progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, with presentation of food and nonfood alternatives counterbalanced in 2 separate studies. Two nonfood reinforcers [Baby Einstein–Baby MacDonald shows (study 1, n = 27) or bubbles (study 2, n = 30)] were tested against the baby’s favorite food. Food reinforcing ratio (FRR) was quantified by measuring the reinforcing value of food (Food Pmax) in proportion to the total reinforcing value of food and a nonfood alternative (DVD Pmax or BUB Pmax). Results: Greater weight-for-length z score was associated with a greater FRR of a favorite food in study 1 (FRR-DVD) (r = 0.60, P positively associated with FRR-DVD (r = 0.57, P = 0.009) and FRR-BUB (r = 0.37, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our newly developed paradigm, which tested 2 different nonfood alternatives, demonstrated that lean infants find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese infants. This observation suggests that strengthening the alternative reinforcers may have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This research was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02229552. PMID:25733636

  13. Uniaxial drawing and mechanical properties of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]/poly(L-lactic acid) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Wuk; Doi, Yoshiharu; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2004-01-01

    Blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with two kinds of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) having different molecular weights, commercial-grade bacterial PHB (bacterial-PHB) and ultrahigh molecular weight PHB (UHMW-PHB), were prepared by the solvent-casting method and uniaxially drawn at two drawing temperatures, around PHB's T(g) (2 degrees C) for PHB-rich blends and around PLLA's T(g) (60 degrees C) for PLLA-rich blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that this system was immiscible over the entire composition range. Mechanical properties of all of the samples were improved in proportion to the draw ratio. Although PLLA domains in bacterial-PHB-rich blends remained almost unstretched during cold drawing, a good interfacial adhesion between two polymers and the reinforcing role of PLLA components led to enhanced mechanical properties proportionally to the PLLA content at the same draw ratio. On the contrary, in the case of UHMW-PHB-rich blends, the minor component PLLA was found to be also oriented by cold drawing in ice water due to an increase in the interfacial entanglements caused by the very long chain length of the matrix polymer. As a result, their mechanical properties were considerably improved with increasing PLLA content compared with the bacterial-PHB system. Scanning electron microscopy observations on the surface and cross-section revealed that a layered structure with uniformly oriented microporous in the interior was obtained by selectively removal of PLLA component after simple alkaline treatment.

  14. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  15. Statistical and Detailed Analysis on Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Admixtures- A State of Art of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiyamaan, V.; Mohan Ganesh, G.

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete is one of the special concretes that have ability to flow and consolidate on its own weight, completely fill the formwork even in the presence of dense reinforcement; whilst maintaining its homogeneity throughout the formwork without any requirement for vibration. Researchers all over the world are developing high performance concrete by adding various Fibers, admixtures in different proportions. Various different kinds Fibers like glass, steel, carbon, Poly propylene and aramid Fibers provide improvement in concrete properties like tensile strength, fatigue characteristic, durability, shrinkage, impact, erosion resistance and serviceability of concrete[6]. It includes fundamental study on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete with admixtures; its rheological properties, mechanical properties and overview study on design methodology statistical approaches regarding optimizing the concrete performances. The study has been classified into seven basic chapters: introduction, phenomenal study on material properties review on self-compacting concrete, overview on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing admixtures, review on design and analysis of experiment; a statistical approach, summary of existing works on FRSCC and statistical modeling, literature review and, conclusion. It is so eminent to know the resent studies that had been done on polymer based binder materials (fly ash, metakaolin, GGBS, etc.), fiber reinforced concrete and SCC; to do an effective research on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing admixtures. The key aim of the study is to sort-out the research gap and to gain a complete knowledge on polymer based Self compacting fiber reinforced concrete.

  16. Preparation and Properties of Self-reinforced L- and D,L-lactide Copolymer Rods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Since highly crystalline poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) degrades rather slowly in a biological environment and the crystalline domains remaining after partial degradation of the implant material give rise to an inflammatory response of the surrounding tissue, L- and D,L-lactide copolymer [P(L-DL)LA] having a low crystallinity is preferred in surgical applications. The thermal transitions and the mechanical properties of P(L-DL)LA rods were discussed in this paper. It was found that the self-reinforced P(L-DL)LA [SR-P(L-DL)LA] was strong enough in terms of mechanical properties compared with the self-reinforced PLLA [SR-PLLA].

  17. Crystallization and mechanical properties of reinforced PHBV composites using melt compounding: Effect of CNCs and CNFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Du; Guomin, Zhao; Mingzhu, Pan; Leilei, Zhuang; Dagang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-07-15

    Nanocellulose reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were prepared using melt compounding. The effects of nanocellulose types (CNCs and CNFs) and nanocellulose content (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7wt%) on the crystallization, thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV composites were systematically compared in this study. The thermal stability of PHBV composites was improved by both CNCs and CNFs. CNFs with a higher thermal stability leaded to a higher thermal stability of PHBV composites. Both CNCs and CNFs induced a reduction in the crystalline size of PHBV spherulites. Furthermore, CNCs could act as a better nucleating agent for PHBV than did CNFs. CNCs and CNFs showed reinforcing effects in PHBV composites. At the equivalent content of nanocellulose, CNCs led to a higher tensile modulus of PHBV composites than did CNFs. 1wt% CNCs/PHBV composites exhibited the most optimum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...... reinforcement and it is therefore possible to analyze structures with complex reinforcement layouts. Tests are conducted to validate the method against well-known analytical solutions....

  19. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  20. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.

    1984-09-01

    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  1. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  2. Synthesis and Phase Behavior of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b- Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide- co-Acrylamide-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Spasojević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine and poly(N- isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine copolymers was accomplished by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and ring opening polymerization (ROP. For this purpose, a di-functional initiator with protected amino group was successfully synthetized. The ATRP of N-isopropylacrylamide yielded narrowly dispersed polymers with consistent high yields (~80%. Lower yields (~50% were observed when narrowly dispersed random copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylamide where synthesized. Amino-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylamide were successfully used as macroinitiators for ROP of N6-carbobenzoxy-L- lysine N-carboxyanhydride. The thermal behavior of the homopolymers and copolymers in aqueous solutions was studied by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR.

  3. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  4. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  5. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  6. Double network physical gels from elastin-like polypeptide block copolymers: nanoscale control of thermoresponsive reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Matthew; Olsen, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Triblock copolymers with associative protein midblocks and thermoresponsive endblocks form shear thinning hydrogels with a low yield stress at low temperatures, but can be reinforced by a self-assembled network of the endblock aggregates. Here, we compare the use of bioengineered elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) to synthetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as endblocks to control the self-assembly of the reinforcing network. The temperature dependence of the mechanics of these hydrogels is a strong function of the domain size and morphology in the endblock network. Despite the architectural similarities, triblock ELP fusions and PNIPAM bioconjugates exhibit distinct reinforcement maxima at fixed block composition and polymer concentration, and these differences can be attributed to the nanostructural features of the two systems. Furthermore, in ELP fusions, the amino acid sequence can be readily modified to manipulate the solvation kinetics of the endblock domains. Finally, various endblocks have been combined to form triblock terpolymer hydrogels, demonstrating how the choice of thermoresponsive blocks can be used to tune the reinforcement of shear thinning hydrogels.

  7. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-07-29

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  8. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  9. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  10. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, J.; Jen, G.; Ostertag, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  11. Synergistic reinforcement of highly oriented poly(propylene) tapes by sepiolite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilotti, E.; Deng, H.; Zhang, R.; Lu, D.; Bras, W.; Fischer, H.R.; Peijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of highly oriented nanocomposite tapes based on isotactic PP and needle-like sepiolite nanoclay, obtained by a solid state drawing process. The intrinsic 1D character of sepiolite allows its exploitation in 1D objects, such as oriented polymer fibres and tapes,

  12. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  13. Thermal properties of polyethylene reinforced with recycled–poly (ethylene terephthalate) flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruqiyah Nik Hassan, Nik; Mazni Ismail, Noor; Ghazali, Suriati; Nuruzzaman, Dewan Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    In this study, recycled plastic bottles (RPET) were used as a filler in high density polyethylene (HDPE) thermoplastic. The plastic sheet of RPET/HDPE was prepared by using hot and cold press machine. The effects of RPET addition and hot press process to the thermal properties of the composite RPET/HDPE were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA). Results from DSC analysis show that the melting point of HDPE slightly shifted to a higher temperature for about 2°C to 4°C with the addition of RPET as a filler. The starting degradation temperature of RPET/HDPE composite examined from TGA analysis also seen to be slightly increased. It was observed that the incorporation of recycled PET flakes into HDPE is achievable using hot press process with slight improvement seen in both melting point and thermal stability of the composite compared to the neat HDPE.

  14. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interfacial electrostatics of poly(vinylamine hydrochloride), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), poly-l-lysine, and poly-l-arginine interacting with lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachy, A C; Dalchand, N; Caudill, E R; Li, T; Doğangün, M; Olenick, L L; Chang, H; Pedersen, J A; Geiger, F M

    2018-04-25

    Charge densities of cationic polymers adsorbed to lipid bilayers are estimated from second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements. The systems surveyed included poly(vinylamine hydrochloride) (PVAm), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), poly-l-lysine (PLL), and poly-l-arginine (PLR), as well as polyalcohol controls. Upon accounting for the number of positive charges associated with each polyelectrolyte, the binding constants and apparent free energies of adsorption as estimated from SHG data are comparable despite differences in molecular masses and molecular structure, with ΔGads values of -61 ± 2, -58 ± 2, -57 ± 1, -52 ± 2, -52 ± 1 kJ mol-1 for PDADMAC400, PDADMAC100, PVAm, PLL, and PLR, respectively. Moreover, we find charge densities for polymer adlayers of approximately 0.3 C m-2 for poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) while those of poly(vinylamine) hydrochloride, poly-l-lysine, and poly-l-arginine are approximately 0.2 C m-2. Time-dependent studies indicate that polycation adsorption to supported lipid bilayers is only partially reversible for most of the polymers explored. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) does not demonstrate reversible binding even over long timescales (>8 hours).

  16. Zero-order release of lysozyme from (poly)ethylene glycol)/poly(butylene terephthalate) matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Radersma, R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2000-01-01

    Protein release from a series of biodegradable poly(ether ester) multiblock copolymers, based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was investigated. Lysozyme-containing PEG/PBT films and microspheres were prepared using an emulsion technique. Proteins were

  17. Investigations of timing during the schedule and reinforcement intervals with wheel-running reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Christie-Fougere, Melissa M

    2006-11-01

    Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.

  18. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  19. Synthesis by ATRP of poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-polystyrene, poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-poly(4-acetoxystyrene) and its hydrolysis product poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-poly(hydroxystyrene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova, Katja; Kops, Jørgen; Chen, Xianyi

    1999-01-01

    Diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene-co-butylene) and polystyrene or poly(4-acetoxystyrene) are synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using a 2-bromopropionic ester macroinitiator prepared from commercial monohydroxyl functional narrow dispersity hydrogenated polybutadiene...

  20. Ionic conducting poly-benzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouanneau, J.

    2006-11-01

    Over the last years, many research works have been focused on new clean energy systems. Hydrogen fuel cell seems to be the most promising one. However, the large scale development of this technology is still limited by some key elements. One of them is the polymer electrolyte membrane 'Nafion' currently used, for which the ratio performance/cost is too low. The investigations we carried out during this thesis work are related to a new class of ionic conducting polymer, the sulfonated poly-benzimidazoles (sPBI). Poly-benzimidazoles (PBI) are aromatic heterocyclic polymers well-known for their excellent thermal and chemical stability. Ionic conduction properties are obtained by having strong acid groups (sulfonic acid SO 3 H) on the macromolecular structure. For that purpose, we first synthesized sulfonated monomers. Their poly-condensation with an appropriate non-sulfonated co-monomer yields to sPBI with sulfonation range from 0 to 100 per cent. Three different sPBI structures were obtained, and verified by appropriate analytical techniques. We also showed that the protocol used for the synthesis resulted in high molecular weights polymers. We prepared ionic conducting membrane by casting sPBI solutions on glass plates. Their properties of stability, water swelling and ionic conductivity were investigated. Surprisingly, the behaviour of sPBI was quite different from the other sulfonated aromatic polymers with same amount of SO 3 H, their stability was much higher, but their water swelling and ionic conductivity were quite low. We attributed these differences to strong ionic interactions between the sulfonic acid groups and the basic benzimidazole groups of our polymers. However, we managed to solve this problem synthesizing very highly sulfonated PBI, obtaining membranes with a good balance between all the properties necessary. (author)

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  2. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  3. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  4. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce W.

    1980-01-01

    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  5. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  6. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1996-01-01

    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  7. Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune

    1995-01-01

    programme where 120 reinforced concrete beams, 54 plain concrete beams and 324 concrete cylinders are tested. For the reinforced concrete beams four different parar meters are varied. The slenderness is 6, 12 and 18, the beam depth is 100 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm giving nine different geometries, five...

  8. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  9. The thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA G. POPOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-oxidative thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate was investigated by studying changes in the polymer residue. Due to the different number of b-hydrogens in their ester substituents, these two polymeric isomers behave differently when subjected to elevated temperatures. Poly(iso-butyl methacrylate degrades quantitatively by depolymerisation with zip lengths of the same order of magnitude as those of poly(methyl methacrylate. Poly(sec-butyl methacrylate degrades by a combined degradation mechanism of depolymerisation and de-esterification. De-esterification becomes a significant thermolysis route at temperatures higher than 240°C.

  10. Synthesis and aqueous phase behavior of thermoresponsive biodegradable poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide)-block-poly(ethyelene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide) triblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, Young-Min; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan

    2002-01-01

    Novel biodegradable thermosensitive triblock copolymers of poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide) (PMG-PEG-PMG) have been synthesized. Ring-opening polymerization of D,L-3-methyl-glycolide (MG) initiated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and

  11. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  12. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  13. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  14. Axial Compression Tests on Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns Consolidated with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structure featured by strong bearing capacity, high rigidity, good integrity, good fire resistance, and extensive applicability occupies a mainstream position in contemporary architecture. However, with the development of social economy, people need higher requirements on architectural structure; durability, especially, has been extensively researched. Because of the higher requirement on building material, ordinary reinforced concrete structure has not been able to satisfy the demand. As a result, some new materials and structures have emerged, for example, fibre reinforced polymers. Compared to steel reinforcement, fibre reinforced polymers have many advantages, such as high tensile strength, good durability, good shock absorption, low weight, and simple construction. The application of fibre reinforced polymers in architectural structure can effectively improve the durability of the concrete structure and lower the maintenance, reinforcement, and construction costs in severe environments. Based on the concepts of steel tube concrete, fibre reinforced composite material confined concrete, and fibre reinforced composite material tubed concrete, this study proposes a novel composite structure, i.e., fibre reinforced composite material and steel tube concrete composite structure. The structure was developed by pasting fibre around steel tube concrete and restraining core concrete using fibre reinforced composite material and steel tubes. The bearing capacity and ultimate deformation capacity of the structure was tested using column axial compression test.

  15. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report here a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A⋅cm−3 at 0.9 V or 450 A⋅cm−3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed. PMID:26261338

  16. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibres for defence applications : the influence of growth parameters on graphitic quality and storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, M.; Mellor, I. [Morgan Materials Technology Ltd., Worcestershire (United Kingdom); Shatwell, R.A.; Prentice, C. [QinetiQ Farnborough, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Browning, D.J. [QinetiQ Haslar, Gosport, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Lakeman, J.B. [Dstl Portsdown, Cosham, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Gerrard, M.L.; Mortimer, R.J. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study on hydrogen storage in carbon or graphite nanofibres (GNFs) were presented. Graphite nanofibres used in hydrogen storage treatment were synthesized at 600 degrees C by passing ethylene over a series of Fe:Ni:Cu catalysts. It was shown that while hydrogen storage can occur for up to 6.5 wt per cent, this number can vary depending on the method of preparation and heat treatment. Hydrogen storage requires an effective method, such as Raman spectroscopy, for characterising the product. Transmission Electron Microscopy also helped in the optimisation of the process to produce highly graphitic nanofibres. The main role of heat treatment is to remove carbon from the surface of the GNFs, allowing access to the graphene planes. Hydrogen storage experiments were conducted at 120 bar, using a bespoke apparatus with differential pressure. A detailed error analysis was performed on the uptake measurement system. The rate of penetration by hydrogen into a layer of carbon capping graphene planes is found to be negligible. It is concluded that hydrogen adsorption will not be observed unless the layer is removed. A maximum uptake of 4.2 wt per cent was achieved, increasing to more than 6.5 wt per cent following heat treatment at 1000 degrees C. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. Assessment of nanoparticles release into the environment during drilling of carbon nanotubes/epoxy and carbon nanofibres/epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, Kristof; Frijns, Evelien; Van Laer, Jo; Faisal, Nadimul; Egizabal, Ainhoa; Elizextea, Cristina; Blazquez, Maria; Nelissen, Inge; Njuguna, James

    2017-10-15

    The risk assessment, exposure and understanding of the release of embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from commercial high performance composites during machining processes are yet to be fully evaluated and quantified. In this study, CNTs and CNFs were dispersed in epoxy matrix through calendaring process to form nanocomposites. The automated drilling was carried out in a specially designed drilling chamber that allowed elimination of background noise from the measurements. Emission measurements were taken using condensed particle counter (CPC), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and DMS50 Fast Particulate Size Spectrometer. In comparison to the neat epoxy, the study results revealed that the nano-filled samples produced an increase of 102% and 227% for the EP/CNF and EP/CNT sample respectively in average particle number concentration emission. The particle mass concentration indicated that the EP/CNT and EP/CNF samples released demands a vital new perspective on CNTs and CNFs embedded within nanocomposite materials to be considered and evaluated for occupational exposure assessment. Importantly, the increased concentration observed at 10nm aerosol particle sizes measurements strongly suggest that there are independent CNTs being released at this range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of poly aniline/wood and poly aniline/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, F.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Tasleem, S.

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers have shown many applications in the field of nano science, nano technology and nuclear science. Poly aniline (PAN I) is the most studied conducting polymer due to its environmental stability, easy availability of its raw materials, and simple synthesis. We have synthesized poly aniline and two of its conducting composites i.e., poly aniline-carbon and poly aniline-wood in acidic medium (HCI) using K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ as oxidizing agent. All samples were characterized by FTIR and four-probe d.c. conductivity methods The synthesis was carried out at two different temperatures (0 degree C and -5 degree C) and it was found that the yield and conductivity were maximum at lower temperature (-5 degree C). The poly aniline-carbon composites showed enhanced conductivity whereas poly aniline-wood composites showed reduced conductivity when compared with the conductivity of pure poly aniline. (author)

  19. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  20. Hole drift mobility in poly(hexylphenylsilane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimi, Y.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Poly(n-alkylphenylsilane)s in which n-alkyl were changed from methyl to octyl were polymerized. Hole transport properties of poly(alkyllphenylsilane)s were systematically studied by the DC time-of-flight (TOF) technique. While the hole drift mobility of poly(methylphenylsilane) increased monotonously in entire field, those of poly(hexylphenylsilane) and poly(octylphenylsilane) decreased with increase in the field strength. Temperature dependence of hole drift mobility in those polymers was small. On the basis of Baessler's disorder formalism the mobility was analyzed quantitatively to disserve complex contributions of charge transport. The analyzed results indicated that with increase in the length of n-alkyl side-groups, the energetic disorder of hopping sites became smaller and the disorder of distance between hopping sites became larger. These results were supported by the results obtained by UV absorption measurement and positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy measurement. (author)

  1. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Mejía

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  2. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-01-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ε-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications

  3. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  4. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  5. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  6. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  7. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact...

  8. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  9. Structure and sorption properties of CNC reinforced PVA films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Bio-nanocomposite films based on cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) were obtained by solvent casting method. To assess the structural features of the films, different spectral techniques (FTIR, 2D COS and XRD) have been used. Infrared and 2D correlation spectroscopy evidenced the presence of H-bond interactions between the PVA and CNC, and the variation in the conformational rearrangements, while XRD showed that the crystallite size and the crystallinity degree were affected by the incorporation of CNC. At low content of CNC in the PVA matrix, the crystallinity degree decreased to 29.9%, while at higher CNC content increased to 80.6%, comparing to PVA (35.4%). To evaluate the interaction with water, contact angle measurement, water sorption and NIR spectroscopy were used, respectively. The increase of the CNC content induced a reduction in water sorption ability from 93% for PVA to 75% for PVA/CNC films, indicating the involvement of the hydroxyl groups in new hydrogen bonded interactions. By analyzing the variation of the NIR bands from 1930, 1902 and 1985nm, was observed that the water molecules interact with the polymer matrix through moderate hydrogen bond before diffusing into the free volume of the matrix and form stronger hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  11. Preparation, Characterization and Permeation Behavior of Poly(methyl acrylate-Poly(dimethyl siloxane-Poly(methyl acrylate Block Copolymer/Poly(vinyl acetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of polymeric materials is of the most important factors in determination of the characteristics and properties of the membranes. Various research and developments on polymeric membranes confirm the direct correlation between structure-properties of polymeric membranes. In this research, the structural outcome of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate/poly(vinyl acetate blend membranes and its relationship with gas permeation behavior of the blends were investigated. The flexible block copolymer of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate (PMA-PDMS-PMA was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. Morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized block copolymer was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Blend membranes of PMA-PDMS-PMA and poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc were prepared by solution casting method in different compositions. By adding poly(vinyl acetate to PMA-PDMS-PMA block copolymer, the selectivity of the membranes for carbon dioxide/methane pair gases were increased by 55%. Fractional free volume (an indication of chain packing efficiency in blend membranes and dielectric constant (an indication of the molar volume and molar polarization of the blend membranes were obtained as the factors reflected the microstructural effect of PMA-PDMS-PMA and PVAc blend membranes. The efforts were directed toward expressing more precise structure-properties relationship of PMA-PDMS-PMA/PVAc blend membranes. The experimental permeability values of the blend membranes reported in this research were compared with the modified logarithmic model. The modified logarithmic model was evaluated for other blend membranes.

  12. Poly(methyl-methacrylate) nanocomposites with low silica addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balos, Sebastian; Pilic, Branka; Markovic, Dubravka; Pavlicevic, Jelena; Luzanin, Ognjan

    2014-04-01

    Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) represents the most popular current denture material. However, its major drawbacks are insufficient ductility and strength. The purpose of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of PMMA in denture base application by adding small quantities of nanosilica. Silica nanoparticles were added to the liquid component of the tested materials. The standard heat polymerizing procedure was followed to obtain 6 PMMA--silicon dioxide (/SiO2) concentrations (0.023%, 0.046%, 0.091%, 0.23%, 0.46%, and 0.91% by volume). Microhardness and fracture toughness of each set of specimens was compared with the unmodified specimens. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy analyses were conducted, and the results obtained were correlated with the results of mechanical properties. It was found that the maximum microhardness and fracture toughness values of the materials tested were obtained for the lowest nanosilica content. A nanosilica content of 0.023% resulted in an almost unchanged glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the maximum amount of nanosilica induced a considerable increase in Tg. A higher Tg indicated the possible existence of a thicker interfacial layer caused by the chain immobility due to the presence of the particles. However, scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated extensive agglomeration at 0.91% nanosilica, which may have prevented the formation of a homogenous reinforced field. At a nanosilica content of 0.023%, no agglomeration was observed, which probably influenced a more homogenous distribution of nanoparticles as well as uniform reinforcing fields. Low nanoparticle content yields superior mechanical properties along with the lower cost of nanocomposite synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of reinforcement's corrosion into hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams: a probabilistic failure scenarios analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. PELLIZZER

    Full Text Available AbstractThis work aims to study the mechanical effects of reinforcement's corrosion in hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams. The focus is the probabilistic determination of individual failure scenarios change as well as global failure change along time. The limit state functions assumed describe analytically bending and shear resistance of reinforced concrete rectangular cross sections as a function of steel and concrete resistance and section dimensions. It was incorporated empirical laws that penalize the steel yield stress and the reinforcement's area along time in addition to Fick's law, which models the chloride penetration into concrete pores. The reliability theory was applied based on Monte Carlo simulation method, which assesses each individual probability of failure. The probability of global structural failure was determined based in the concept of failure tree. The results of a hyperstatic reinforced concrete beam showed that reinforcements corrosion make change into the failure scenarios modes. Therefore, unimportant failure modes in design phase become important after corrosion start.

  14. Modeling of geosynthetic reinforced capping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Koenig, D.; Jessberger, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation deals with the influence of a geosynthetic reinforcement on the deformation behavior and sealing efficiency of the reinforced mineral sealing layer at the onset of non-uniform settlements. The research program is mainly concentrated in studying the influence of reinforcement inclusion in restraining cracks and crack propagation due to soil-geosynthetic bond efficiency. Centrifuge model tests are conducted in the 500 gt capacity balanced beam Bochum geotechnical Centrifuge (Z1) simulating a differential deformation of a mineral sealing layer of a landfill with the help of trap-door arrangement. By comparing the performance of the deformed mineral sealing layer with and without geogrid, the reinforcement ability of the geogrid in controlling the crack propagation and permeability of the mineral swing layer is evaluated

  15. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  16. fatigue strength of reinforced concrete flexural members

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... cyclic loads behave differently compared with static bending and can collapse due to the fatigue of concrete, reinforcement or both when maximum fatigue stresses of ... under low and medium load levels, than under high load ...

  17. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldea, Corina-Maria

    2007-01-01

    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...

  18. PROPERTIES OF CHITIN REINFORCES COMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mechanical and thermal properties of chitin reinforced composites. ..... with crabyon fiber and normal viscose filaments. Also. Zhang et al.,[65] successfully blended chitin/cellulose using two different coagulating systems (immersed in 5.

  19. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for four-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focus...

  20. Belief reward shaping in reinforcement learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marom, O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in many reinforcement learning problems is delayed rewards, which can significantly slow down learning. Although reward shaping has previously been introduced to accelerate learning by bootstrapping an agent with additional...

  1. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  2. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for 4-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focused ...

  3. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  4. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawileh, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  5. Combining noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement schedules as treatment for aberrant behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, B A; Vollmer, T R

    1996-01-01

    Research has shown that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) can be an effective behavior-reduction procedure when based on a functional analysis. The effects of NCR may be a result of elimination of the contingency between aberrant behavior and reinforcing consequences (extinction) or frequent and free access to reinforcers that may reduce the participant's motivation to engage in aberrant behaviors or mands. If motivation is momentarily reduced, behavior such as mands may not be sensitive to p...

  6. Reinforcement Schedules in a Verbal Reinforcement Combination and Renection-Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    TAMASE, Koji; UEDA, Masako

    1986-01-01

    It was predicted that higher proportion of the negative reinforcement "Wrong" than that of the positive reinforcement "Right" in a reinforcement combination will produce higher proportion of the correct response and this trend will be greater in reflective children than in impulsive children. From 140 kindergarten children 30 reflective and 30 impulsive children were selected and they were given a two-hole marble-dropping task. The best performance in the ratio of correct responses was obtain...

  7. Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugset, Arne E.

    1997-01-01

    A hypothesis used to explain the relationship between timber harvesting and landslides is that tree roots add mechanical support to soil, thus increasing soil strength. Upon harvest, the tree roots decay which reduces soil strength and increases the risk of management -induced landslides. The technical literature does not adequately support this hypothesis. Soil strength values attributed to root reinforcement that are in the technical literature are such that forested sites can't fail and all high risk, harvested sites must fail. Both unstable forested sites and stable harvested sites exist, in abundance, in the real world thus, the literature does not adequately describe the real world. An analytical model was developed to calculate soil strength increase due to root reinforcement. Conceptually, the model is composed of a reinforcing element with high tensile strength, i.e. a conifer root, embedded in a material with little tensile strength, i.e. a soil. As the soil fails and deforms, the reinforcing element also deforms and stretches. The lateral deformation of the reinforcing element is treated analytically as a laterally loaded pile in a flexible foundation and the axial deformation is treated as an axially loaded pile. The governing differential equations are solved using finite-difference approximation techniques. The root reinforcement model was tested by comparing the final shape of steel and aluminum rods, parachute cord, wooden dowels, and pine roots in direct shear with predicted shapes from the output of the root reinforcement model. The comparisons were generally satisfactory, were best for parachute cord and wooden dowels, and were poorest for steel and aluminum rods. A parameter study was performed on the root reinforcement model which showed reinforced soil strength increased with increasing root diameter and soil depth. Output from the root reinforcement model showed a strain incompatibility between large and small diameter roots. The peak

  8. The Recent Research on Bamboo Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Murni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last research on bamboo reinforced concrete in Brawijaya University Indonesia. Three kinds of structures studied in recent year, the mounting of pegs on reinforcement, the use of lightweight brick to reduce the weight of the beams, and the use the light weight aggregate for bamboo concrete composite frame. All that experiments overcome some problems exist in using bamboo as environmental acceptance structures.

  9. Reinforced concrete wall under hydrogen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.

    2000-11-01

    The structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall in the BWR reactor building under hydrogen detonation conditions has been analysed. Of particular interest is whether the containment integrity can be jeopardised by an external hydrogen detonation. The load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete wall was studied. The detonation pressure loads were estimated with computerised hand calculations assuming a direct initiation of detonation and applying the strong explosion theory. The results can be considered as rough and conservative estimates for the first shock pressure impact induced by a reflecting detonation wave. Structural integrity may be endangered due to slow pressurisation or dynamic impulse loads associated with local detonations. The static pressure following the passage of a shock front may be relatively high, thus this static or slowly decreasing pressure after a detonation may damage the structure severely. The mitigating effects of the opening of a door on pressure history and structural response were also studied. The non-linear behaviour of the wall was studied under detonations corresponding a detonable hydrogen mass of 0.5 kg and 1.428 kg. Non-linear finite element analyses of the reinforced concrete structure were carried out by the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The reinforcement and its non-linear material behaviour and the tensile cracking of concrete were modelled. Reinforcement was defined as layers of uniformly spaced reinforcing bars in shell elements. In these studies the surrounding structures of the non-linearly modelled reinforced concrete wall were modelled using idealised boundary conditions. Especially concrete cracking and yielding of the reinforcement was monitored during the numerical simulation. (au)

  10. Shaking Table Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    -varying systems and to verify various methods for damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures from soft motion measurements. In this study the maximum softening concept will be evaluated. In the paper the assessment obtained by this method is compared to visual damage assessment. The structures considered...... vector ARMA model is suitable for modal identification of degrading reinforced concrete structures and the maximum softening damage index calculated from the obtained identification provides a valuable tool for assessment of the damage state of the structure....

  11. Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil.......The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil....

  12. Robust microcapsules with controlled permeability from silk fibroin reinforced with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunhong; Combs, Zachary A; Calabrese, Rossella; Dai, Hongqi; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-12-29

    Robust and stable microcapsules are assembled from poly-amino acid-modified silk fibroin reinforced with graphene oxide flakes using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, based on biocompatible natural protein and carbon nanosheets. The composite microcapsules are extremely stable in acidic (pH 2.0) and basic (pH 11.5) conditions, accompanied with pH-triggered permeability, which facilitates the controllable encapsulation and release of macromolecules. Furthermore, the graphene oxide incorporated into ultrathin LbL shells induces greatly reinforced mechanical properties, with an elastic modulus which is two orders of magnitude higher than the typical values of original silk LbL shells and shows a significant, three-fold reduction in pore size. Such strong nanocomposite microcapsules can provide solid protection of encapsulated cargo under harsh conditions, indicating a promising candidate with controllable loading/unloading for drug delivery, reinforcement, and bioengineering applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel cellulose reinforcement for polymer electrolyte membranes with outstanding mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Chiappone, A.; Gerbaldi, C.; Ijeri, Vijaykumar S.; Zeno, E.; Bongiovanni, R.; Bodoardo, S.; Penazzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► UV-cured methacrylic-based composite gel-polymer electrolyte membranes for rechargeable lithium batteries. ► Excellent mechanical stability by reinforcement with classical cellulose handsheets. ► Fast and environmentally friendly preparation process, green and low cost cellulose reinforcement. ► Good electrochemical behaviour, stable cyclability and long-term performances in real battery configuration. - Abstract: Methacrylic-based thermo-set gel-polymer electrolytes obtained by an easy and reliable free radical photo-polymerisation process demonstrate good behaviour in terms of ionic conductivity, interfacial stability with the Li-metal electrode and cyclability in lithium cells. Though the obtained membranes are flexible, self standing and easy to handle, there is room for improving mechanical strength. In this respect, a novel approach is adopted in this work, in which a cellulose hand-sheet (paper), specifically designed for the specific application, is used as a composite reinforcing agent. To enhance its compatibility with the polymer matrix, cellulose is modified by UV-grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate on it. Excellent mechanical properties are obtained and good overall electrochemical performances are maintained; highlighting that such specific approach would make these hybrid organic, green, cellulose-based composite polymer electrolyte systems a strong contender in the field of thin and flexible Li-based power sources.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable starch/PVA composite films reinforced with cellulosic fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Bhanu; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Singha, Amar Singh

    2014-08-30

    Cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend films of starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by using citric acid as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend were compared with starch/PVA crossed linked blend films. The increase in the tensile strength, elongation percentage, degree of swelling and biodegradability of blend films was evaluated as compared to starch/PVA crosslinked blend films. The value of different evaluated parameters such as citric acid, glutaraldehyde and reinforced fibre to starch/PVA (5:5) was found to be 25 wt.%, 0.100 wt.% and 20 wt.%, respectively. The blend films were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA/DTG). Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a good adhesion between starch/PVA blend and fibres. The blend films were also explored for antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results confirmed that the blended films may be used as exceptional material for food packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zero-reinforcement vessel closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.; Mou, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Access to the secondary side of a nuclear steam generator is required in order to properly inspect and maintain critical components throughout the life. For the most part, it is only on newer units that sufficient openings have been provided. Older units must be field modified to provide access to the tube bundle and internal lateral support components for inspection and penetration by cleaning equipment. In order to avoid post weld heat treatment after welding on some materials it would be desirable to machine the opening directly into the pressure boundary without providing weld build-up to compensate for the material removed. In such a case, the pressure boundary may be locally thinned below the minimum thickness required by the ASME code. As a result it is not possible to meet reinforcement limits or elastic primary stress limited of the code. However, the ASME code permits justification of the design by utilizing elastic-plastic methods. Elastic-plastic analysis can be utilized to demonstrate shake-down to elastic action and to demonstrate that small deformations in the region of the gasket seating surfaces, or any loss of bolt preload, have not compromised leak tightness. Employing the technique developed by the authors for application in ANSYS, it is feasible to carry-out such a design analysis including the effects of time varying thermal stress. This paper presents the highlights of such an analysis. It is important to note that the method also permits the analysis of openings in locations formerly considered too restrictive, such as near support and major structural discontinuities. (author)

  16. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J; Saffell, M

    2001-01-01

    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  17. Polaron Hopping in Nano-scale Poly(dA–Poly(dT DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the current–voltage relationship and the temperature-dependent conductance of nano-scale samples of poly(dA–poly(dT DNA molecules. A polaron hopping model has been used to calculate the I–V characteristic of nano-scale samples of DNA. This model agrees with the data for current versus voltage at temperatures greater than 100 K. The quantities G 0 , i 0 , and T 1d are determined empirically, and the conductivity is estimated for samples of poly(dA–poly(dT.

  18. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  19. Introduction to Concrete Reinforcing. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on concrete reinforcing is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains three instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) concrete reinforcing materials; (2) concrete reinforcing tools; and (3) concrete reinforcing basic skills. Each…

  20. Poly-thiosemicarbazide membrane for gold recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Yapici, Tahir; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    A novel polymeric membrane adsorber with a high density of adsorption sites that can selectively capture Au(III) ions, is proposed as an efficient alternative to recover gold from dilute solutions. Poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC), a polymer

  1. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  2. Thromboresistance of functionalized poly(methylmethacrylate): the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thrombogenicity; functional group; poly(methylmethacrylate); surface charge; sulphonate. 1. Introduction ... proteins.2 Thus, the interaction of a polymer with the blood results into the .... adsorption process due to its electrostatic forces. 4.

  3. New Linear and Star-Shaped Thermogelling Poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouti, Ghislaine; Liow, Sing Shy; Dou, Qingqing; Ye, Hongye; Orione, Clément; Guillaume, Sophie M; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis of multi-arm poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based triblock copolymers (poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-[[poly(methyl ether methacrylate)-g-poly(ethylene glycol)]-co-[poly(methacrylate)-g-poly(propylene glycol)

  4. Tissue Engineering Bionanocomposites Based on Poly(propylene fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Diez-Pascual

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(propylene fumarate (PPF is a linear and unsaturated copolyester based on fumaric acid that has been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications in recent years due to its tailorable mechanical performance, adjustable biodegradability and exceptional biocompatibility. In order to improve its mechanical properties and spread its range of practical applications, novel approaches need to be developed such as the incorporation of fillers or polymer blending. Thus, PPF-based bionanocomposites reinforced with different amounts of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONR, graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GONP, polyethylene glycol-functionalized graphene oxide (PEG-GO, polyethylene glycol-grafted boron nitride nanotubes (PEG-g-BNNTs and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles were synthesized via sonication and thermal curing, and their morphology, biodegradability, cytotoxicity, thermal, rheological, mechanical and antibacterial properties were investigated. An increase in the level of hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, stiffness and strength was found upon increasing nanofiller loading. The nanocomposites retained enough rigidity and strength under physiological conditions to provide effective support for bone tissue formation, showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and did not induce toxicity on human dermal fibroblasts. These novel biomaterials demonstrate great potential to be used for bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Positive behavioral contrast across food and alcohol reinforcers.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, F K; Melville, C L; Higa, J

    1988-01-01

    The present study examined behavioral contrast during concurrent and multiple schedules that provided food and alcohol reinforcers. Concurrent-schedule contrast occurred in the responding reinforced by food when alcohol reinforcers were removed. It also occurred in the responding reinforced by alcohol when food was removed. Multiple-schedule contrast appeared for food when alcohol reinforcers were removed, but not for alcohol when food was removed. These results show that behavioral contrast ...

  6. A Piriápolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Quijano Alpuin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Es Piriápolis una estrella prodigiosa que del cielo una noche se escapó, y escondiendo su estela luminosa entre el mar y la sierra se ocultó.   Forjador de ilusiones y de sueños, solo Piria soñando lo encontró, mas no es suyo a pesar de ser su dueño a nosotros su sueño nos legó.   Como él quisiera contemplarlo y mirarlo igual que él lo miró, a su espíritu quisiera yo pasearlo y a su sueño llevarlo entre los dos.   Recoger las horas de los desalientos y en una mochila poderlo llevar, y sobre las rocas ir dejando al viento las desiluciones que puedan quedar.   Llenarme los ojos de color y espuma gozar en la playa con él al pasar, el gris de la sierra tras la blanca bruma el azul del cielo y el verde del mar.   Luis Alberto Quijano Alpuin (1937- Poeta y folklorista uruguayo

  7. Prediction of Poly(A Sites by Poly(A Read Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bonfert

    Full Text Available RNA-seq reads containing part of the poly(A tail of transcripts (denoted as poly(A reads provide the most direct evidence for the position of poly(A sites in the genome. However, due to reduced coverage of poly(A tails by reads, poly(A reads are not routinely identified during RNA-seq mapping. Nevertheless, recent studies for several herpesviruses successfully employed mapping of poly(A reads to identify herpesvirus poly(A sites using different strategies and customized programs. To more easily allow such analyses without requiring additional programs, we integrated poly(A read mapping and prediction of poly(A sites into our RNA-seq mapping program ContextMap 2. The implemented approach essentially generalizes previously used poly(A read mapping approaches and combines them with the context-based approach of ContextMap 2 to take into account information provided by other reads aligned to the same location. Poly(A read mapping using ContextMap 2 was evaluated on real-life data from the ENCODE project and compared against a competing approach based on transcriptome assembly (KLEAT. This showed high positive predictive value for our approach, evidenced also by the presence of poly(A signals, and considerably lower runtime than KLEAT. Although sensitivity is low for both methods, we show that this is in part due to a high extent of spurious results in the gold standard set derived from RNA-PET data. Sensitivity improves for poly(A sites of known transcripts or determined with a more specific poly(A sequencing protocol and increases with read coverage on transcript ends. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the approach in a high read coverage scenario by a re-analysis of published data for herpes simplex virus 1. Thus, with current trends towards increasing sequencing depth and read length, poly(A read mapping will prove to be increasingly useful and can now be performed automatically during RNA-seq mapping with ContextMap 2.

  8. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  9. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  10. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  11. On the weld strength of in situ tape placed reinforcements on weave reinforced structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes were welded onto woven fabric reinforced laminates using a laser assisted tape placement process. A mandrel peel setup was used to quantify the interfacial fracture toughness between the tape and the laminate as a measure for weld strength. The tape

  12. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  13. Inorganic Nanoparticle-Modified Poly(Phenylene Sulphide/ Carbon Fiber Laminates: Thermomechanical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Díez-Pascual

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF-reinforced high-temperature thermoplastics such as poly(phenylene sulphide (PPS are widely used in structural composites for aerospace and automotive applications. The porosity of CF-reinforced polymers is a very important topic for practical applications since there is a direct correlation between void content and mechanical properties. In this study, inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulphide (IF-WS2 lubricant nanoparticles were used to manufacture PPS/IF-WS2/CF laminates via melt-blending and hot-press processing, and the effect of IF-WS2 loading on the quality, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the hybrid composites was investigated. The addition of IF-WS2 improved fiber impregnation, resulting in lower degree of porosity and increased delamination resistance, compression and flexural properties; their reinforcement effect was greater at temperatures above the glass transition (Tg. IF-WS2 contents higher than 0.5 wt % increased Tg and the heat deflection temperature while reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion. The multiscale laminates exhibited higher ignition point and notably reduced peak heat release rate compared to PPS/CF. The coexistence of micro- and nano-scale fillers resulted in synergistic effects that enhanced the stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity and flame retardancy of the matrix. The results presented herein demonstrate that the IF-WS2 are very promising nanofillers to improve the thermomechanical properties of conventional thermoplastic/CF composites.

  14. Influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation resistance of reinforced concrete slabs under hard missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbovic, Nebojsa; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly

  15. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Gas-permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) poly(butylene terephthalate block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the gas-permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) segmented multiblock copolymers. These block copolymers allow a precise structural modification by the amount of PBT and the PEO segment length, enabling a systematic study of the

  17. Poly(ethylene oxide)–Poly(propylene oxide)-Based Copolymers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(propylene oxide) (PEO–PPO)-based copolymers are thermoresponsive materials having aggregation properties in aqueous medium. As hydrosolubilizers of poorly water-soluble drugs and improved stability of sensitive agents, these materials have been investigated for improvement ...

  18. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)–poly(ferrocenylsilane) dual-responsive hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sui, Xiaofeng; Feng, Xueling; Di Luca, Andrea; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel hydrogels composed of thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and redox-responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) macromolecules were formed by photopolymerization. PFS chains bearing acrylate side groups were copolymerized with NIPAM and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide in

  19. Poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we have deposited poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ ... along the polyaniline (PANI) chain results in self dop- ing of PANI and ..... The value of electrical conductivity is found to be ...

  20. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  1. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  2. The genetics of speciation by reinforcement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement occurs when natural selection strengthens behavioral discrimination to prevent costly interspecies matings, such as when matings produce sterile hybrids. This evolutionary process can complete speciation, thereby providing a direct link between Darwin's theory of natural selection and the origin of new species. Here, by examining a case of speciation by reinforcement in Drosophila,we present the first high-resolution genetic study of variation within species for female mating discrimination that is enhanced by natural selection. We show that reinforced mating discrimination is inherited as a dominant trait, exhibits variability within species, and may be influenced by a known set of candidate genes involved in olfaction. Our results show that the genetics of reinforced mating discrimination is different from the genetics of mating discrimination between species, suggesting that overall mating discrimination might be a composite phenomenon, which in Drosophila could involve both auditory and olfactory cues. Examining the genetics of reinforcement provides a unique opportunity for both understanding the origin of new species in the face of gene flow and identifying the genetic basis of adaptive female species preferences, two major gaps in our understanding of speciation.

  3. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  4. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4889

  5. Mechanical and physical properties of carbon-graphite fiber-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Susanna; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2007-09-01

    Mechanical properties and quality of fiber/matrix adhesion of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based materials, reinforced with carbon-graphite (CG) fibers that are able to remain in a plastic state until polymerization, were examined. Tubes of cleaned braided CG fibers were treated with a sizing resin. Two resin mixtures, resin A and resin B, stable in the fluid state and containing different cross-linking agents, were reinforced with CG fiber loadings of 24, 36, and 47 wt% (20, 29, and 38 vol.%). In addition, resin B was reinforced with 58 wt% (47 vol.%). After heat-polymerization, flexural strength and modulus were evaluated, both dry and after water storage. Coefficient of thermal expansion, longitudinally and in the transverse direction of the specimens, was determined. Adhesion between fibers and matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties and linear coefficient of thermal expansion were similar for both fiber composites. With increased fiber loading, flexural properties increased. For 47 wt% fibers in polymer A the flexural strength was 547.7 (28.12) MPa and for polymer B 563.3 (89.24) MPa when water saturated. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion was for 47 wt% CG fiber-reinforced polymers; -2.5 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 longitudinally and 62.4 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 in the transverse direction of the specimens. SEM revealed good adhesion between fibers and matrix. More porosity was observed with fiber loading of 58 wt%. The fiber treatment and the developed resin matrices resulted in good adhesion between CG fibers and matrix. The properties observed indicate a potential for implant-retained prostheses.

  6. Long-term successful arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears with a functional and degradable reinforcement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    Rotator cuff repair is a procedure with varying outcomes, and there has been subsequent interest in devices that reinforce the repair and enhance structural and functional outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine these outcomes for arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears augmented with a synthetic absorbable mesh designed specifically for reinforcement of tendon repair by imaging and clinical assessments. Consecutive arthroscopic repairs were performed on 18 patients with large to massive rotator cuff tears by use of a poly-l-lactic acid synthetic patch as a reinforcement device and fixation with 4 sutures. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 6 months, 12 months, and a mean of 42 months after surgery by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score to evaluate clinical performance and at 12 months by ultrasound to assess structural repair. Ultrasound showed that 15 of 18 patients had intact rotator cuff repair at 12 months; at 42 months, an additional patient had a failed repair. Patients showed improvement in the ASES shoulder score from 25 preoperatively to 71 at 12 months and 70 at 42 months after surgery. Patients with intact rotator cuff (n = 14) at 42 months had an ASES shoulder score of 82. The poly-l-lactic acid bioabsorbable patch designed specifically to reinforce the surgical repair of tendons supported successful repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears in 83% of patients at 12 months after surgery and 78% of patients at 42 months after surgery, with substantial functional improvement. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of reinforcement corrosion in marine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Ismail; Nordin Yahaya

    1999-01-01

    The marine environment is known to be aggressive. Structures constructed on this belt need to undergo periodic assessment in order to ensure no defects or signs of deterioration had occurred. One of the most common deterioration that occurs on marine structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. The product of corrosion can increase the reinforcement volume, hence causing cracking on concrete cover. If no action is taken, delamination and spalling of concrete will follow and this will affect the structures integrity. It is therefore important to know the state of the structures condition by monitoring them periodically. NDT techniques that can detect the occurrence of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete uses half cell and resistivity meter. The method of application and interpretation of results are discussed. (author)

  8. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  9. Hypocretin / orexin involvement in reward and reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the hypocretins/orexins, a series of observations have indicated that these peptides influence a variety of physiological processes including feeding, sleep/wake function, memory, and stress. More recently, the hypocretins have been implicated in reinforcement and reward-related processes via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Although investigation into the relationship between the hypocretins and reinforcement/reward remains in relatively early stages, accumulating evidence suggests that continued research into this area may offer new insights into the addiction process and provide the foundation to generate novel pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. The current chapter will focus on contemporary perspectives of hypocretin regulation of cocaine reward and reinforcement via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. PMID:22640614

  10. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  11. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs

  12. Slipforming of reinforced concrete shield building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, M.C.; King, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The unique design and construction features of slipforming the heavily reinforced concrete cylindrical shield walls at the Satsop nuclear plant in Washington, D.C. site are presented. The shield walls were designed in compliance with seismic requirements which resulted in the need for reinforcing steel averaging 326 kg/m/sup 3/. A 7.6 m high, three-deck moving platform was designed to permit easy installation of the reinforcing steel, embedments, and blockouts, and to facilitate concrete placement and finishing. Two circular box trusses, one on each side of the shield wall, were used in combination with a spider truss to meet both the tolerance and strength requirements for the slipform assembly

  13. Pointwise probability reinforcements for robust statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frénay, Benoît; Verleysen, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Statistical inference using machine learning techniques may be difficult with small datasets because of abnormally frequent data (AFDs). AFDs are observations that are much more frequent in the training sample that they should be, with respect to their theoretical probability, and include e.g. outliers. Estimates of parameters tend to be biased towards models which support such data. This paper proposes to introduce pointwise probability reinforcements (PPRs): the probability of each observation is reinforced by a PPR and a regularisation allows controlling the amount of reinforcement which compensates for AFDs. The proposed solution is very generic, since it can be used to robustify any statistical inference method which can be formulated as a likelihood maximisation. Experiments show that PPRs can be easily used to tackle regression, classification and projection: models are freed from the influence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be filtered manually since an abnormality degree is obtained for each observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  15. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Schuetze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases. However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  16. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheethasanee, Katanchalee; Wang, Shuwu; Qiu, Yongxing; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO:hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces.

  17. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Michael L.

    2015-05-01

    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  18. Seismic response of reinforced soil slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, Ioanna; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures taking into account the most important aspects of the problem and to compare the available design methods. For this purpose, initially the most commonly used pseudostatic approach is implemented via...... a parametric investigation to illustrate the impact of the crucial parameters of this approach. Subsequently, Newmark’s sliding block model is modified to account for the reinforcement forces in the calculation of seismic displacements. Finally, finite element analyses were performed and the numerical results...

  19. PRACTICAL STUDY ON THE CFRP REINFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina IANASI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of CFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem which are presented in this paper.

  20. Hybrid poly(lactic acid)/nanocellulose/nanoclay composites with synergistically enhanced barrier properties and improved thermomechanical resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon; Plackett, David; Sillard, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)‐based hybrid nanocomposites (PLA, nanoclay and nanocellulose) were prepared by reinforcing neat PLA with commercially available nanoclay (Cloisite C30B) and nanocellulose, in the form of either partially acetylated cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) or nanocrystalline cellulose......) through a reduction of up to 90% in OTR and a further reduction in the water vapour transmission rate of up to 76%. In addition, the nanocomposite films showed improved thermomechanical resistance and improved crystallisation kinetics while maintaining high film transparency. This makes the hybrid PLA...

  1. Remarkable improvement of the wear resistance of poly(vinylidene difluoride) by incorporating polyimide powder and carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chunying; Liu, Dengdeng; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Qiaqia; Shen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) composites reinforced via adding different fillers have attracted wide attention in the field of dielectric materials, but few have been reported in the tribological area. In this paper, the effect of polyimide (PI) powder and carbon nanofibers (CF) as reinforcement phases on the friction and wear performance of PVDF composites has been investigated. It was found that PI powder enhances the mechanical and tribological properties of PVDF and especially as the content of the PI powder reaches 5 wt%. In addition, CF and PI exhibited synergistic effect on the tribological properties of PVDF. With PVDF containing 5 wt% PI powder and 20 wt% CF, the friction and wear behavior of the PVDF composite showed the best performance. PVDF, PI powder and CF can form a consistent network structure, which prevents the polymer molecular chains from moving or deformation, decreasing the wear loss of PVDF composites.

  2. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  3. Finite element modelling of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid fiber reinforced bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smring, Santa binti; Salleh, Norhafizah; Hamid, NoorAzlina Abdul; Majid, Masni A.

    2017-11-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite material made up of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water mixed in a desired proportion to obtain the required strength. Plain concrete does not with stand tension as compared to compression. In order to compensate this drawback steel reinforcement are provided in concrete. Now a day, for improving the properties of concrete and also to take up tension combination of steel and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars promises favourable strength, serviceability, and durability. To verify its promise and support design concrete structures with hybrid type of reinforcement, this study have investigated the load-deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP and steel bars by using ATENA software. Fourteen beams, including six control beams reinforced with only steel or only GFRP bars, were analysed. The ratio and the ordinate of GFRP to steel were the main parameters investigated. The behaviour of these beams was investigated via the load-deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and mode of failure. Hybrid GFRP-Steel reinforced concrete beam showed the improvement in both ultimate capacity and deflection concomitant to the steel reinforced concrete beam. On the other hand, finite element (FE) modelling which is ATENA were validated with previous experiment and promising the good result to be used for further analyses and development in the field of present study.

  4. The possibility of using high strength reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Nobuaki

    1991-01-01

    There is recently much research about and developments in reinforced concrete using high strength concrete and reinforcement. As a result, some high-rise buildings and nuclear buildings have been constructed with such concrete. Reinforced concrete will be stronger in the future, but there is a limit to its strength defined by the character of the materials and also by the character of the reinforced concrete members made of the concrete and reinforcement. This report describes the merits and demerits of using high strength reinforced concrete. (author)

  5. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  6. Immobilisation of enzymes on poly(aniline)-poly(anion) composite films. Preparation of bioanodes for biofuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Evelyne; Halliwell, Catherine M; Toh, Chee Seng; Cass, Anthony E G; Bartlett, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    Immobilisation of enzymes is important for applications such as biosensors or biofuel cells. A poly(histidine) tag had been introduced on the C terminus of a lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This mutant enzyme was then immobilised onto poly(aniline) (PANi)-poly(anion) composite films, PANi-poly(vinylsulfonate) (PVS) or PANi-poly(acrylate) (PAA). The NADH produced by the immobilised enzyme in the presence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and lactate is oxidised at the poly(aniline)-coated electrode at 0.05 to 0.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) at 35 degrees C.

  7. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.

    2012-03-01

    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  8. Electrochemical properties of poly(2-chloroaniline)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizio, M.; Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Paolucci, F. (Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, CNR, Camin (Italy))

    1991-09-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of poly(2-chloroaniline) was studied by cyclic voltammetry and a.c. impedance as a function of the concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. In concentrated solutions polymer oxidation occurs as a two-stage process, thus showing the existence of an 'emeraldine' form not detected in {<=}2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. Both polyaniline and poly(2-chloroaniline) can mediate the oxidation of SO{sub 2}, the performance of the latter polymer being more stable with time. Mediated oxidation of SO{sub 2} occurs within poly(2-chloroaniline) film under kinetic control, so that current is proportional to film thickness. (orig.).

  9. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  10. Interactive effects between carbon allotrope fillers on the mechanical reinforcement of polyisoprene based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galimberti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive effects of carbon allotropes on the mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites were investigated. Carbon nanotubes (CNT and nano-graphite with high shape anisotropy (nanoG were melt blended with poly(1,4-cis-isoprene, as the only fillers or in combination with carbon black (CB, measuring the shear modulus at low strain amplitudes for peroxide crosslinked composites. The nanofiller was found to increase the low amplitude storage modulus of the matrix, with or without CB, by a factor depending on nanofiller type and content. This factor, fingerprint of the nanofiller, was higher for CNT than for nanoG. The filler-polymer interfacial area was able to correlate modulus data of composites with CNT, CB and with the hybrid filler system, leading to the construction of a common master curve.

  11. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  12. The Reinforcements of Religiousness in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss

    A study conducted in 1986 found that parents were the critical influence on the religious beliefs and commitment of their adolescent sons and daughters, while the adolescent's peers seemed to have no significant effect. In addition, the content of the beliefs did not seem to act as a strong reinforcer. Thirty-two of the 390 subjects who…

  13. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  14. Membrane reinforcement in concrete shells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    A historical evolution of the membrane reinforcement design in concrete shells is presented. Theoretical developments, experimental verifications and the history of US codes and standards have been traced. For two decades now, the evidence is converging towards application of the principle of minimum resistance. This principle is rational, and it can reasonably explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  15. Using a board game to reinforce learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bona; Rodriguez, Leslie; Faselis, Charles J; Liappis, Angelike P

    2014-03-01

    Experiential gaming strategies offer a variation on traditional learning. A board game was used to present synthesized content of fundamental catheter care concepts and reinforce evidence-based practices relevant to nursing. Board games are innovative educational tools that can enhance active learning. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  17. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Tomoko

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (poverdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  18. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  19. Scheduling reinforcement about once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, D A

    1999-04-01

    A pigeon earned its daily food by pecking a key according to reinforcement schedules that produced food about once per day. Fixed-interval (FI), Fixed-time (FT), and various complex schedules were arranged to demonstrate the degree to which a scalloped pattern of responding remained. Pausing continued until about an hour before the reinforcer could be earned for FIs of 12, 24, and 48 h. Pausing was not as long for FIs of 18, 19, and 23 h. Pausing of about 24 h was seen for FI 36 h. FT 24 h produced continued responding but at a diminished frequency. The pattern of responding was strongly controlled by the schedule of reinforcement and seemed relatively independent of the cycle of human activity in the surrounding laboratory. Effects of added ratio contingencies and of signaling the availability of reinforcement in FT were also examined. Signaled FTs of 5 min-3 h produced more responding during the signal (autoshaping) than did FTs of 19 or 24 h.

  20. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  1. Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of robot behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leottau, David L.; Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Babuska, R.

    2018-01-01

    A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In

  2. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  3. Assessing corrosion of MSE wall reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to extract reinforcement coupons from select MSE walls and document the extent of corrosion. In doing this, a baseline has been established against which coupons extracted in the future can be compared. A secon...

  4. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  5. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  6. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  7. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  8. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  9. Global methods for reinforced concrete slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Lepareux, M.; Combescure, A.

    1985-08-01

    This paper develops the global method strategy to compute elastoplastic thin shells or beams. It is shown how this methodology can be applied to the case of reinforced concrete structures. Two cases of applications are presented: one static, the other dynamic. The numerical results are compared to experimental data

  10. Online reinforcement learning control for aerospace systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods are relatively new in the field of aerospace guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation aims to exploit RL methods to improve the autonomy and online learning of aerospace systems with respect to the a priori unknown system and environment, dynamical

  11. Reinforcement Learning in Continuous Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, H. van; Wiering, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Quite some research has been done on Reinforcement Learning in continuous environments, but the research on problems where the actions can also be chosen from a continuous space is much more limited. We present a new class of algorithms named Continuous Actor Critic Learning Automaton (CACLA)

  12. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  13. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2004-01-01

    Idealized materials data are derived from a number of test series reported in the literature and made by the author. The data cover a variety of reinforcing steels from mild steel, deformed bars and cold worked bars to cold drawn prestressing steels. Processes are described, which are responsible...

  14. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  15. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Enriquez, M.A.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.; Morales, J.; Olayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  16. Measurement capability overview in PolyNano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    A measurement capability overview has been conducted to evaluate, among the most used instruments in the field of nanometrology, where the PolyNano project should focus its research. The deliverable presents the most relevant instruments to achieve the best possible measurements accuracy matching...... requirements such as low uncertainty, high repeatability and resolution, adequate measuring range and availability among the different project partners. Based on the present measurement capability overview and in relation to the objective of PolyNano to “remove the technology barrier between lab‐scale proof...

  17. Water soluble poly(styrene sulfonate)-b-poly(vinylidene fluoride)-b-poly(styrene sulfonate) triblock copolymer nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černoch, Peter; Černochová, Zulfiya; Petrova, Svetlana; Kaňková, Dana; Kim, J.-S.; Vasu, V.; Asandei, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 60 (2016), s. 55374-55381 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14038 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polystyrenesulfonate * poly(neopentyl styrenesulfonate) * PVDF Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  18. Structural design guidelines for concrete bridge decks reinforced with corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research program develops and validates structural design guidelines and details for concrete bridge decks with : corrosion-resistant reinforcing (CRR) bars. A two-phase experimental program was conducted where a control test set consistent : wi...

  19. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  20. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  1. simulation models for presiction of structrual fibre-reinforced come

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    showed increasing flexural strength up to the optimum fibre volume fraction while the ... the analysis and design of palmnut fibre-reinforced cement composites. ..... Nilson, L. “Reinforcement of Concrete with Sisal and other Vegetable Fibres”.

  2. Acquisition with partial and continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% reinforcement, holding intertrial interval constant. Contrary to what was predicted, evidence for slowed acquisition in partially reinforced animals was observed with several response measures. However, asymptotic performance was superior with 25% reinforcement. A switching of reinforcement contingencies after initial acquisition did not immediately affect responding. After further sessions, partial reinforcement augmented responding, whereas continuous reinforcement did not, irrespective of an animal's reinforcement history. Subsequent training with a novel stimulus maintained the response patterns. These acquisition results generally support associative, rather than time accumulation, accounts of conditioning.

  3. GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES: THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    mechanical and corrosion wear behaviour of any reinforced composites. In other ..... physical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin and the following .... waste in concrete and cement composites," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.

  4. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Granular/Particulate Media Reinforced with Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalowski, Radoslw

    1999-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced ganular composites (for instance, fiber-reinforced sand) are considered as construction materials for such applications as subgrades of airfields and roads, aircraft parking facilities, etc...

  6. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I, Design and construction guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  7. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The existing test method to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, mainly : ASTM G109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, and often expensive. : However, corrosion of reinforc...

  8. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the ... A simple equation for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep ..... AASHTO 2007 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of ...

  9. Poly-electrolytes for fuel cells: tools and methods for characterization; Polyelectrolytes pour piles a combustible: outils et methodes de caracterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, M

    2004-12-15

    The research works reported in the manuscript are a contribution to the study of poly-electrolytes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). They are supported by two investigation tools, i.e. the study of model molecules and accurate conductivity measurements. With regard to the material science domain, the optimization of poly-sulfone sulfonation procedure allows chain breaking to be reduced and even eliminated while obtaining reproducible sulfonation degrees. It is thus possible to improve the mechanical properties of the dense membrane elaborated with these poly-electrolytes before performing the tests on the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly). In parallel, the functionalization of microporous silicon made it possible to prepare poly-electrolytes reinforced by the mechanical strength of the silicon separator. With regard to the physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations, the model molecules, with the same functions and groups than for associated polymers, make it possible to amplify the electrochemical or thermal phenomena vs. the corresponding polymers. Thus, they simulate an accelerated ageing of the poly-electrolytes. The development of a new conductivity measurement set allows conductivity to be obtained with a great accuracy, in a wide range of temperature and relative humidity. (author)

  10. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    reinforcement if the enamel is broken  Embedded cement grains hydrate if enamel is cracked to self-heal with the formation of calcium silicate hydrate Goal...Reinforced Concrete Pavement The 600% volume change in the iron to iron oxide formation put the concrete in tension and it cracks an spalls BUILDING...corrodes prematurely and delaminates the pavement  Moisture and chlorides can move through the natural porosity of concrete and the cracks in the

  11. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...

  12. TEACHING SELF-CONTROL WITH QUALITATIVELY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration schedule of reinforcement. Finally, he was exposed to self-control training, during which the delay to a more preferred reinforcer was initially sh...

  13. Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelli...

  14. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alias Yusof; Norazman Norazman; Ariffin Ariffin; Fauzi Mohd Zain; Risby Risby; CP Ng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC) subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0...

  15. Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Inamullah; François, Raoul; Castel, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of reinforcement corrosion in comparison to corrosion crack width in a highly corroded reinforced concrete beam. Cracking and corrosion maps of the beam were drawn and steel reinforcement was recovered from the beam to observe the corrosion pattern and to measure the loss of mass of steel reinforcement. Maximum steel cross-section loss of the main reinforcement and average steel cross-section loss between stirrups were plotted against the crack width. The experimental results were compared with existing models proposed by Rodriguez et al., Vidal et al. and Zhang et al. Time prediction models for a given opening threshold are also compared to experimental results. Steel cross-section loss for stirrups was also measured and was plotted against the crack width. It was observed that steel cross-section loss in the stirrups had no relationship with the crack width of longitudinal corrosion cracks. -- Highlights: •Relationship between crack and corrosion of reinforcement was investigated. •Corrosion results of natural process and then corresponds to in-situ conditions. •Comparison with time predicting model is provided. •Prediction of load-bearing capacity from crack pattern was studied

  16. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Said

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  17. Study of the internal confinement of concrete reinforced (in civil engineering) with woven reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, M.; Goumairi, O.; El Malik, A.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete is generally the most used material in the field of construction. Despite its extensive use in structures, it represents some drawbacks related to its properties including its low tensile strength and low ductility. To solve this problem, the use of steel reinforcement in concrete structures is possible. Another possibility is the introduction of different types of continuous fibre / staple in the concrete, such as steel fibres or synthetic fibres, to obtain ″Concretes bundles″. Many types of fibre concrete, which have been developed and for many of them, the gain provided by the fibre was rather low and no significant improvement in tensile strength was really reaching. By cons, the ductility was higher than that of ordinary concrete. The objective of this study is to examine concrete reinforcement by inserting reinforcements woven polyester. These are either woven bidirectional (2D) or three-dimensional woven (3D). So we will report the properties of each type of reinforcement and the influence of the method of weaving on the strength reinforcements and on the strength of concrete in which they are incorporated. Such influence should contribute to improving the sustainability and enhancement of reinforcement

  18. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced PVC/ENR blend-electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Raju, Gunasunderi; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus

    2007-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/epoxidized natural rubber (PVC/ENR) blends were studied. The composites were prepared by mixing the fiber and the PVC/ENR blend using HAAKE Rheomixer at 150 deg. C. The composites were then irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine at doses ranging from 0 to 100 kGy in air and room temperature. The tensile strength, Young's modulus, elongation at break and gel fraction of the composites were measured. Comparative studies were also made by using poly(methyl acrylate) grafted OPEFB fiber in the similar blend system. An increase in tensile strength, Young's modulus and gel fraction, with a concurrent reduction in the elongation at break (Eb) of the PVC/ENR/OPEFB composites were observed upon electron beam irradiation. Studies revealed that grafting of the OPEFB fiber with methyl acrylate did not cause appreciable effect to the tensile properties and gel fraction of the composites upon irradiation. The morphology of fractured surfaces of the composites, examined by a scanning electron microscope showed an improvement in the adhesion between the fiber and the matrix was achieved upon grafting of the fiber with methyl acrylate

  19. Fatigue damage mechanisms in short fiber reinforced PBT+PET GF30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimkeit, B.; Castagnet, S.; Nadot, Y.; Habib, A. El; Benoit, G.; Bergamo, S.; Dumas, C.; Achard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Final macroscopic cracking only affects the few last percent of the lifetime → Classical approach based on fracture surface observation is not sufficient to characterize micro-mechanisms → Different techniques (scanning electron microscopy, replica technique, infra-red imaging) are compared to the macroscopic mechanical behavior evolution (stiffness, viscous damping, ratcheting effect) → The influence of surrounding fibers on some observed damage processes is being evidenced for the first time. - Abstract: The fatigue damage of a glass-reinforced PolyButylene Terephthalate and PolyEthylene Terephthalate with the fiber volume fraction of 30% (PBT+PET GF30) is investigated by means of various techniques. Fatigue tests at R = 0.1 are carried out on dogbone specimens and tubular specimens with different fiber orientations. The macroscopic evolution of the material behavior is evaluated and fatigue damage mechanisms are observed with a replica technique, Infrared imaging and scanning electron microscopy. A fatigue damage scenario is finally proposed. It is shown that the propagation of a single macroscopic crack is not the major fatigue mechanism under fatigue loading. Damage is spatially distributed in the material and the classical circular crack at the end of the fiber is confirmed as the based fatigue mechanisms. It is also shown that the damage observed alongside the fibers is related to spatial distribution of fiber rather than stress distribution around one single fiber.

  20. Application of Fiber Reinforcement Concrete Technique in Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulus of elasticity, high tensile strength, improved fatigue and impact resistance. Reinforcing the concrete structures with fibers such as polyester is one of the possible ways to provide all the criteria of the durable repair material. This type of reinforcement is called Fiber Reinforcement of Concrete Structures. There is an ...

  1. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  2. Environmental Durability of Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders Strengthened for Shear with Surface-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    "This research investigated the durability of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) used for shear strengthening reinforced concrete deck girders. Large beams were used to avoid accounting for size effects in the data analysis. The effort...

  3. Undoped poly (phenyl sulfone) for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2015-01-01

    Undoped aromatic ring polymers are potential scintillation materials. Here, we characterise poly (phenyl sulfone) (PPSU) for radiation detection. The amber-coloured transparent resin emits bluish-white fluorescence with 390-nm maximum. It has an excitation maximum of 340 nm, and has a density of 1.29 g/cm 3 . The effective refractive index based on its emission spectrum is 1.75. The light yield is almost equal to that of poly (ethylene terephthalate), which is a transparent resin. These results demonstrate that PPSU can be used as a component substrate in polymer blends for altering optical characteristics. - Highlights: • Poly (phenyl sulfone) (PPSU) has suitable characteristics as a scintillation material. • PPSU is an amber-coloured transparent resin that emits bluish white fluorescence with 390-nm maximum. • The 1.75 effective refractive index over the emission spectrum is relatively high. • The light yield is 0.95 times that of poly (ethylene terephthalate), which is a transparent resin. • PPSU can potentially alter optical characteristics in polymer blends

  4. Chiral poly(ureidophthalimide) foldamers in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeldam, R.W.; Houtem, van M.H.C.J.; Pieterse, K.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Meijer, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ureidophthalimide)s decorated with hydrophilic side chains, that ensure soly. in aq. media, have been synthesized and characterized by UV/Vis and CD (CD) spectroscopy. Temp. and concn. dependent CD measurements in water have revealed an almost temp. and concentra-ion independent Cotton effect,

  5. Poly(tetramethyleneterephthalate) crosslinked by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Crosslinking, e.g., by irradiation, of a polymer comprising poly(tetramethyleneterephthalate) is made possible by the addition of a member selected from the group consisting of triallyl cyanurate and N,N'-m-phenylenedimaleimide. The resulting crosslinked modified polymer may be rendered heat recoverable

  6. Cytotoxicity of poly(p-phenylenediamine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuceková, Z.; Rejmontová, P.; Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Bober, Patrycja; Sáha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 367-372 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cytotoxicity * poly(p-phenylenediamine) * mouse embryonic fibroblasts Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  7. Poly(ethyl methacrylate) and poly(2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate) based polymer gel electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiter, Jakub; Michálek, Jiří; Vondrák, Jiří; Chmelíková, Dana; Přádný, Martin; Mička, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2006), s. 509-517 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/171/05; GA MŠk(CZ) LC523; GA ČR GA104/02/0731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly mer electrolyte * cross-linked poly mer * lithium batteries Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.521, year: 2006

  8. Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles of Poly(ethyleneimine) and Poly(acrylic acid): Preparation and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Müller; Bernd Keßler; Sebastian Poeschla; Bernhard Torger; Johanna Fröhlich

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution we outline polyelectrolyte (PEL) complex (PEC) nanoparticles, prepared by mixing solutions of the low cost PEL components poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAC). It was found, that the size and internal structure of PEI/PAC particles can be regulated by process, media and structural parameters. Especially, mixing order, mixing ratio, PEL concentration, pH and molecular weight, were found to be sensible parameters to regulate the size (diameter) of spherica...

  9. Chemical modification of biodegradable polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by poly(ethylene oxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Lilian L.; Rocha, Gisele A.; Hui, Wang S.

    2009-01-01

    Catalyzed transesterification in the melt was used to produce triblock copolymers from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEG), in a simplified process. PHB of high molecular weight was depolymerized by pyrolysis and transesterification with dihydroxy terminated PEG occurred through consecutive and partly simultaneous reactions. The effectiveness of the process was verified by the characterization of the formed copolymers by Hydrogen and Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopies (NMR) and solubility analysis in a series of solvents. (author)

  10. Phase Separation and Elastic Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate)-block-poly(Ethylene Oxide) Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Piesowicz; Sandra Paszkiewicz; Anna Szymczyk

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PTT-b-PEOT) copolymers with different compositions of rigid PTT and flexible PEOT segments were synthesized via condensation in the melt. The influence of the block length and the block ratio on the micro-separated phase structure and elastic properties of the synthesized multiblock copolymers was studied. The PEOT segments in these copolymers were kept constant at 1130, 2130 or 3130 g/mol, whereas the PTT content varied...

  11. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic) Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Jayaraman, Krishnan; Bhattacharyya, Debes; Mohamad Haafiz, M.K.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Hussin, M. Hazwan; H.P.S., Abdul Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic) acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites. PMID:28773558

  12. Effect of crosslinker length on the elastic and compression modulus of poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaragoza, J; Chang, A; Asuri, P

    2017-01-01

    Polymer hydrogelshave shown to exhibit improved properties upon the addition of nanoparticles; however, the mechanical underpinnings behind these enhancements have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, fewer studies have focused on developing an understanding of how polymer parameters affect the nanoparticle-mediated enhancements. In this study, we investigated the elastic properties of silica nanoparticle-reinforced poly(acrylamide) hydrogels synthesized using crosslinkers of various lengths. Crosslinker length positively affected the mechanical properties of hydrogels that were synthesized with or without nanoparticles. However the degree of nanoparticle enhancement was negatively correlated to crosslinker length. Our findings enable the understanding of the respective roles of nanoparticle and polymer properties on nanoparticle-mediated enhancement of hydrogels and thereby the development of next-generation nanocomposite materials. (paper)

  13. Characterization of melt-blended graphene – poly(ether ether ketone) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewatia, Arya; Hendrix, Justin; Dong, Zhizhong; Taghon, Meredith; Tse, Stephen; Chiu, Gordon; Mayo, William E.; Kear, Bernard; Nosker, Thomas; Lynch, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Using a high shear melt-processing method, graphene-reinforced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) were produced with good distribution and particle–matrix interaction of bi/trilayer graphene at 2 wt. % and 5 wt. % in poly ether ether ketone (2Gn-PEEK and 5Gn-PEEK). The morphology, structure, thermal properties, and mechanical properties of PEEK, 2Gn-PEEK and 5 Gn-PEEK were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), flexural mechanical testing, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Addition of graphene to PEEK induces surface crystallization, increased percent crystallinity, offers a composite that is thermally stable until 550 °C and enhances thermomechanical properties. Results show that graphene was successfully melt-blended within PEEK using this method.

  14. Characterization of melt-blended graphene – poly(ether ether ketone) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewatia, Arya; Hendrix, Justin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Dong, Zhizhong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Taghon, Meredith [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Tse, Stephen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Chiu, Gordon; Mayo, William E.; Kear, Bernard; Nosker, Thomas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Lynch, Jennifer, E-mail: jklynch@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Using a high shear melt-processing method, graphene-reinforced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) were produced with good distribution and particle–matrix interaction of bi/trilayer graphene at 2 wt. % and 5 wt. % in poly ether ether ketone (2Gn-PEEK and 5Gn-PEEK). The morphology, structure, thermal properties, and mechanical properties of PEEK, 2Gn-PEEK and 5 Gn-PEEK were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), flexural mechanical testing, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Addition of graphene to PEEK induces surface crystallization, increased percent crystallinity, offers a composite that is thermally stable until 550 °C and enhances thermomechanical properties. Results show that graphene was successfully melt-blended within PEEK using this method.

  15. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  16. Effect of Compatibilization on Poly-ε-Caprolactone Grafting onto Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Taha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The non-miscibility of the reactants during solvent free poly-ε-caprolactone grafting onto poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH dramatically affects reaction kinetics. Different solutions were proposed to accelerate the exchange reactions between poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol and poly-ε-caprolactone. Reactions were conducted in a batch reactor or a mini twin-screw extruder. The addition of a poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol-g-poly-ε-caprolactone copolymer increased the compatibility of the reactants and led to a higher reaction rate. This copolymer was either prepared separately and added at the reaction beginning or prepared in situ grafting caprolactone from EVOH. The reactive system evolution was analyzed using molar mass evolution, microstructure characterization, thermal properties and the reactive blend morphology. The compatibilization effect combined with optimized reaction conditions, such as concentration and nature of catalyst and temperature, resulted in an important increase in reaction rates. Among the tested catalysts, 1,5,7-Triazabicyclo [4.4.0]dec-5-ene was a more efficient catalyst for grafting reactions than Tin (II 2-ethylhexanoate.

  17. Curaua fiber reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: effect of impact modifier and fiber loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Albano de Morais

    Full Text Available Abstract Short fibers are used in thermoplastic composites to increase their tensile and flexural resistance; however, it often decreases impact resistance. Composites with short vegetal fibers are not an exception to this behavior. The purpose of this work is to produce a vegetal fiber reinforced composite with improved tensile and impact resistance in relation to the polymer matrix. We used poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, to recover the impact resistance of high density polyethylene, HDPE, reinforced with Curauá fibers, CF. Blends and composites were processed in a corotating twin screw extruder. The pure polymers, blends and composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile mechanical properties and Izod impact resistance. EVA used as impact modifier in the HDPE matrix exhibited a co-continuous phase and in the composites the fibers were homogeneously dispersed. The best combination of mechanical properties, tensile, flexural and impact, were obtained for the formulations of composites with 20 wt. % of CF and 20 to 40 wt. % of EVA. The composite prepared with 20 wt. % EVA and containing 30 wt. % of CF showed impact resistance comparable to pure HDPE and improved tensile and flexural mechanical properties.

  18. Biodegradable polyesters reinforced with triclosan loaded polylactide micro/nanofibers: Properties, release and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. del Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties and drug release behavior were studied for three biodegradable polyester matrices (polycaprolactone, poly(nonamethylene azelate and the copolymer derived from 1,9-nonanediol and an equimolar mixture of azelaic and pimelic acids reinforced with polylactide (PLA fibers. Electrospinning was used to produce suitable mats constituted by fibers of different diameters (i.e. from micro- to nanoscale and a homogeneous dispersion of a representative hydrophobic drug (i.e. triclosan. Fabrics were prepared by a molding process, which allowed cold crystallization of PLA micro/nanofibers and hot crystallization of the polyester matrices. The orientation of PLA molecules during electrospinning favored the crystallization process, which was slightly enhanced when the diameter decreased. Incorporation of PLA micro/nanofibers led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus and tensile strength, and in general to a decrease in the strain at break. The brittle fracture was clearer when high molecular weight samples with high plastic deformation were employed. Large differences in the release behavior were detected depending on the loading process, fiber diameter size and hydrophobicity of the polyester matrix. The release of samples with the drug only loaded into the reinforcing fibers was initially fast and then became slow and sustained, resulting in longer lasting antimicrobial activity. Biocompatibility of all samples studied was demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays using HEp-2 cell cultures.

  19. On the PEEK composites reinforced by surface-modified nano-silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.H.; Kuo, M.C.; Huang, J.C.; Chen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The nano-sized silica fillers reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) composites were fabricated by means of compression molding technique. The nano-sized silica, measuring 30 nm in size, was firstly modified by surface pretreatment with stearic acid. The performances and properties of the resulting PEEK/SiO 2 nanocomposites were examined in terms of tensile loading, hardness, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The modified nano-silica was seen to disperse more uniformly than the unmodified counterpart. The XRD patterns of the modified silica reinforced PEEK composites reveal a systematic shift toward higher angles, suggesting the smaller d-spacing of the PEEK crystallites. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) becomes lowered when the content of the nano-silica increases. Furthermore, the CTE of the modified silica filled PEEK nanocomposites shows the higher CTE values. A logic model is proposed. The increment of the dynamic modulus for the PEEK nanocomposites is up to 40% at elevated temperatures from 100 to 250 deg. C, indicating the apparent improvement of elevated temperature mechanical properties

  20. Physical properties of coir and pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polylactic acid hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siakeng, R.; Jawaid, M.; Ariffin, H.; Sapuan, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the physical behaviour of Coir fibres (CF)/Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF)/Poly lactic acid (PLA) composites. In this research, coir and PALF reinforced PLA hybrid composites were fabricated by hand lay-up process and hot press. The aim of this work is to do comparative study on density, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) of untreated CF/PALF reinforced PLA composites and hybrid composites. The effect of different fibre ratios in hybridization on density, WA and TS of CF/PALF hybrid composites were also analyzed and C7P3 showed highest density while P30 had lowest. The results indicated that the density varies on different fibre ratio. WA and TS of CF/PALF composites and hybrid composites vary with fibres ratio and soaking duration. WA and TS of untreated CF/PALF hybrid composites were increased by increasing coir fibre ratio so, C30 showed highest WA and TS whereas P30 and C1P1 showed least WA and TS respectively apart from neat PLA.

  1. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  2. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Li Yan; Gu Ning

    2010-01-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  3. Optimisation of mechanical properties of bamboo fibre reinforced-PLA biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnadia M., J.; Fazita, M. R. Nurul; Abdul Khalil H. P., S.; Mohamad Haafiz M., K.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the raw materials that have been widely used in industries are petroleum-based. Growing environmental awareness, the depletion of fossil fuels, and climate change are the key drivers to seek more ecologically friendly materials, such as natural fibres to replace synthetic fibres in polymeric composite. Among the natural fibres available, bamboo fibre has relatively high strength. Poly (lactic) acid (PLA), one of the well-known biopolymers, has been used as a matrix in order to produce totally biodegradable biocomposites. In this study, bamboo fibres were compounded with PLA by a twin screw extruder. The bamboo fibre reinforced PLA composites were then manufactured via the compression moulding method. The influences of screw speed and die temperature during extrusion on the mechanical properties, the tensile and flexural of the biocomposites, were studied. The effects of fibre content and fibre length were also investigated. Taguchi experimental design approach was adopted to determine the optimum set of conditions to achieve the "best" mechanical properties of the composites. Tensile and flexural properties were characterised based on the D638-10 and D790-10 standards, respectively. It was observed that the fibre aspect ratio and fibre content significantly affected the mechanical performance of bamboo fibres reinforced PLA composites.

  4. Strain Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Members Subjected to Uniaxial Tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to set up a method to determine the strain capacity of tension bars of reinforced concrete (RC) subjected to pure tension. Due to the interaction between reinforcement and concrete and due to the presence of cracks, the stresses in both reinforcement and concrete...... are varying along the length of the tension bar. The strain capacity of the tension bar is seen as the average strain in the reinforcement at the load level corresponding to the ultimate stress capacity of the reinforcement at the cracks. The result of the approach is in overall good agreement when comparing...

  5. [The behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics during laser cutting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmrich, M; Levsen, K; Trasser, F J

    1992-06-01

    The pattern of the organic emissions, which are produced by processing of fibre reinforced plastics (epoxy resins reinforced by aramid and glass fibres and phenol resins reinforced by aramid fibre) with laser beam was studied and the concentrations of the main components determined. Despite the application of plastic materials with different chemical structures, the observed patterns are very similar. Mainly aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted, especially benzene and toluene, as well as some heteroatom-containing aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. phenol). By use of oxygen as process gas the emissions during cutting of glass fibre reinforced plastics can be reduced, while they will be constantly high with aramid fibre reinforced plastics.

  6. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  7. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  8. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seismic evaluation of reinforced masonry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.E.; Button, M.R.; Mayes, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Masonry walls in operating nuclear plants are in many cases found to be overstressed in terms of allowable stresses when evaluated using current seismic design criteria. However, experimental evidence exists indicating that reinforced masonry walls have a considerable margin between the load levels at which allowable stresses are exceeded and the load levels at which structural distress and loss of function occurs. This paper presents a methodology which allows the actual capacity of reinforced masonry walls under seismic loading to be quantified. The methodology is based on the use of non-linear dynamic analyses and incorporates observed hysteretic behavior for both in-plane and out-of-plane response. Experimental data is used to develop response parameters and to validate the results predicted by the models. Criteria have been concurrently developed to evaluate the deformations and material performance in the walls to ensure adequate margins of safety for the required function. An example of the application of these procedures is provided

  10. Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  12. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  13. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... methods provide engineers with valuable tools for limit sta- te analysis, their application becomes difficult with increased structural complexity. The main challenge is to solve the optimization problem posed by the extremum principles. This thesis is a study of how numerical methods can be used to solve...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...

  14. The technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity comes from mining industries, geological resources and ores de-confinement, and from separation, purification, transformation and use of by-products or products. Partly based on a survey and questionnaires sent to industrial organisations, this report proposes a large and detailed overview of this kind of radioactivity for different sectors or specific activities: the French phosphate sector, the international rare Earth and heavy ores sector, the French monazite sector, the ilmenite sector, the French and international zirconium sector, the non-ferrous metal sector, the international and French drinkable, mineral and spring water sector, the international wastewater sector, the French drilling sector, the international and French geothermal sector, the international and French gas and oil sector, the international and French coal sector, the international and French biomass sector, the international and French paper-making industry, and the management of wastes with technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity in France

  15. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  16. Fiber-reinforced neutron shielding mortar concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Keisuke; Okazaki, Masaki; Ohigashi, Toshihide; Mayahara, Mitsuro.

    1989-01-01

    To improve the moldability, durability and economicity by adding cement curing promotors and reinforcing fibers to cement and boron compound which has been considered difficult so far, thereby enabling to add a great amount of the boron compound. The boron compound is added by from 5 to 200% by weight of powder of colemanite or borocarcite as natural ores or boric acid, borax or titanium boride, etc. as synthesis products and lithium hydroxide. calcium aluminate, etc. is added by more than 0.1% x boron compound blending ration (%) as the curing promoter. 0.3 to 5% by weight of polyvinyl alcohol type synthetic fibers, polyacrilonitrile type synthetic fibers or carbon fibers, etc. are added as the reinforcing fibers. This can prevent instantaneous coagulation, curing delay, etc. due to sulfur ions, enable easy application and molding and improve the durability and economicity. (T.M.)

  17. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nischal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. Midline fracture of the prosthesis is the most common complication related to single implant and two-implant retained mandibular overdentures. To manage such complication, a thin metal mesh is used to reinforce the overdenture and also to make the prostheses lighter and cost effective as compared to conventional cast metal framework.

  18. Thermoresponsive behaviour of terpolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone) blocks in aqueous solutions: an NMR study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konefal, Rafal; Spěváček, Jiří; Jäger, Eliezer; Petrova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 11 (2016), s. 1717-1726 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13853S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoresponsive polymer * terpolymer containing poly(ethylene oxide), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blocks * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  19. Reinforced concrete behavior due to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w

  20. Online constrained model-based reinforcement learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Constrained Model-based Reinforcement Learning Benjamin van Niekerk School of Computer Science University of the Witwatersrand South Africa Andreas Damianou∗ Amazon.com Cambridge, UK Benjamin Rosman Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and School... MULTIPLE SHOOTING Using direct multiple shooting (Bock and Plitt, 1984), problem (1) can be transformed into a structured non- linear program (NLP). First, the time horizon [t0, t0 + T ] is partitioned into N equal subintervals [tk, tk+1] for k = 0...

  1. Design and analysis of reinforced fiber composites

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagata, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume present a broad range of applications for reinforced fiber composites - from thin shell structures to tires. Linear and nonlinear structural behavior (from linear buckling to nonlinear yelding and fracture) are discussed as well as different materials are presented. Latest developments in computational methods for constructíons are presented which will help to save money and time. This is an edited collection of papers presented at a symposium at the WCCM, Barcelona, 2014.

  2. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  3. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    OpenAIRE

    R. Fujiyama; F. Darwish; M.V. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the eff...

  4. Fatigue crack growth in fiber reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in fiber composites occurs by such complex modes as to frustrate efforts at developing comprehensive theories and models. Under certain loading conditions and with certain types of reinforcement, simpler modes of fatigue crack growth are observed. These modes are more amenable to modeling efforts, and the fatigue crack growth rate can be predicted in some cases. Thus, a formula for prediction of ligamented mode fatigue crack growth rate is available.

  5. Gaudi and reinforced concrete in construction

    OpenAIRE

    Grima Lopez, Rosa; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Gómez Serrano, José

    2013-01-01

    The first two decades of the 20th century witnessed the introduction and expansion of reinforced concrete as a building material in Spain. Few years passed between the introduction of the first patents in the most industrialized areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent generalization of the technique through scientific knowledge obtained in universities. This period coincides almost completely with the professional career of Antoni Gaudí, one of the most famous Catalan architects. Th...

  6. Ferroelastic ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials comprising ferroelastic ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the ferroelastic ceramic particulates are subjected to stress, such as the cyclic stress experienced during vibration of the material, internal stresses in the ceramic cause the material to deform via twinning, domain rotation or domain motion thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The ferroelastic ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to impro...

  7. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  8. Open-chain poly(organophosphazenes). Synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, Svetlana V; Tur, Dzidra R; Vasnev, Valery A

    1998-01-01

    Various methods for the synthesis of open-chain poly(organophosphazenes) are considered. The mechanism of polymerisation of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and the basic principles of formation of poly(organophosphazene) macromolecules by polymeranalogous reactions of poly(dichloro-phosphazene) with various nucleophilic reagents are analysed from a new viewpoint. The potential of this synthetic method for targeted design of poly(organophosphazenes) of various structures is shown. The possibility of synthesising poly(organophosphazenes) by polymerisation of cyclophosphazenes is also discussed. The problem of unit non-uniformity of poly(organophosphazenes) and its influence on the properties of these polymers are considered. The properties of poly(organophosphazenes) are considered in detail and it is shown that these polymers possess unusual valuable properties, which provide opportunities for their successful practical application. The bibliography includes 276 references.

  9. Using Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedules to Support Students in the Classroom: An Introduction with Illustrative Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulac, David; Benson, Nicholas; Nesmith, Matthew C.; Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    When behaviors are reinforced with a variable interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is available only after an unknown period of time. These types of reinforcement schedules are most useful for reinforcing slow and steady responding and for differentially reinforcing behaviors that are incompatible with some problematic behaviors. This…

  10. FEM performance of concrete beams reinforced by carbon fiber bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures may be vulnerable to harsh environment, reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars have an increasing acceptance than normal steel. The nature of (FRP bar is (non-corrosive which is very beneficial for increased durability as well as the reinforcement of FRP bar has higher strength than steel bar. FRP usage are being specified more and more by public structural engineers and individual companies as main reinforcement and as strengthening of structures. Steel reinforcement as compared to (FRP reinforcement are decreasingly acceptable for structural concrete reinforcement including precast concrete, cast in place concrete, columns, beams and other components. Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP have a very high modulus of elasticity “high modulus” and very high tensile strength. In aerospace industry, CFRP with high modulus are popular among all FRPs because it has a high strength to weight ratio. In this research, a finite element models will be used to represent beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and beams with steel reinforcement. The primary objective of the research is the evaluation of the effect of (CFR on beam reinforcement.

  11. Glass FRP reinforcement in rehabilitation of concrete marine infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhook, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcements for concrete structures are gaining wide acceptance as a suitable alternative to steel reinforcements. The primary advantage is that they do not suffer corrosion and hence they promise to be more durable in environments where steel reinforced concrete has a limited life span. Concrete wharves and jetties are examples of structures subjected to such harsh environments and represent the general class of marine infrastructure in which glass FRP (GFRP) reinforcement should be used for improved durability and service life. General design considerations which make glass FRP suitable for use in marine concrete rehabilitation projects are discussed. A case study of recent wharf rehabilitation project in Canada is used to reinforce these considerations. The structure consisted of a GFRP reinforced concrete deck panel and steel - GFRP hybrid reinforced concrete pile cap. A design methodology is developed for the hybrid reinforcement design and verified through testing. The results of a field monitoring program are used to establish the satisfactory field performance of the GFRP reinforcement. The design concepts presented in the paper are applicable to many concrete marine components and other structures where steel reinforcement corrosion is a problem. (author)

  12. Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassian, Hossein; Poorebrahim, Gholamreza; Gray, Donald H

    2004-04-01

    A root or fibre-reinforced soil behaves as a composite material in which fibres of relatively high tensile strength are embedded in a matrix of relatively plastic soil. Shear stresses in the soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibres, which in turn impart greater strength to the soil. A research project has been undertaken to study the influence of synthetic fibrous materials for improving the strength characteristics of a fine sandy soil. One of the main objectives of the project is to explore the conversion of fibrous carpet waste into a value-added product for soil reinforcement. Drained triaxial tests were conducted on specimens, which were prepared in a cylindrical mould and compacted at their optimum water contents. The main test variables included the aspect ratio and the weight percentage of the fibrous strips. The results clearly show that fibrous inclusions derived from carpet wastes improve the shear strength of silty sands. A model developed to simulate the effect of the fibrous inclusions accurately predicts the influence of strip content, aspect ratio and confining pressure on the shear strength of reinforced sand.

  13. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Khan, S.; Munawar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

  14. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  15. Damping characteristics of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisano, M.; Nagashima, I.; Kawamura, S.

    1987-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures in a nuclear power plant are not permitted to go far into the inelasticity generally, even when subjected to strong ground motion. Therefore it is important to evaluate the damping appropriately in linear and after cracking stage before yielding in the dynamic response analysis. Next three dampings are considered of reinforced concrete structures. 1) Internal damping in linear range material damping of concrete without cracks;2) Hysteretic damping in inelastic range material hysteretic damping of concrete due to cracking and yielding;3) Damping due to the energy dissipation into the ground. Among these damping material damping affects dynamic response of a nuclear power plant on hard rock site where damping due to energy dissipation into the ground is scarcely expected. However material damping in linear and slightly nonlinear range have only been assumed without enough experimental data. In this paper such damping is investigated experimentally by the shaking table tests of reinforced concrete box-walls which modeled roughly the outer wall structure of a P.W.R. type nuclear power plant

  16. The critical dimensions of the response-reinforcer contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B A.

    2001-05-03

    Two major dimensions of any contingency of reinforcement are the temporal relation between a response and its reinforcer, and the relative frequency of the reinforcer given the response versus when the response has not occurred. Previous data demonstrate that time, per se, is not sufficient to explain the effects of delay-of-reinforcement procedures; needed in addition is some account of the events occurring in the delay interval. Moreover, the effects of the same absolute time values vary greatly across situations, such that any notion of a standard delay-of-reinforcement gradient is simplistic. The effects of reinforcers occurring in the absence of a response depend critically upon the stimulus conditions paired with those reinforcers, in much the same manner as has been shown with Pavlovian contingency effects. However, it is unclear whether the underlying basis of such effects is response competition or changes in the calculus of causation.

  17. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protchenko Kostiantyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  18. Facile preparation of layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2}/poly(vinyl alcohol) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Keqing, E-mail: zhoukq@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Hu, Yixin [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Jiajia [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Jiang, Saihua [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou, 510641 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma' anshan, Anhui, 243002 (China)

    2016-08-01

    In present study, the layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2} hybrids are facilely synthesized by self-assembly of exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and layered double hydroxide nanoplates via electrostatic interaction, with the aim of combining their physical and chemical functionalities to form a promising nanofiller for flame retardancy in polymer composites. The structure and morphology of the layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2} hybrids are probed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, the hybrids are incorporated into poly (vinyl alcohol) to serve as reinforcements. The flame retardant efficiency of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets in poly (vinyl alcohol) is significantly enhanced after the incorporation of layered double hydroxide nanoplates, which can be explained by the forming of a compact and uniform char during combustion. - Highlights: • The LDH/MoS{sub 2} hybrids were facilely synthesized by self-assembly method. • The flame retardant efficiency of LDH/MoS{sub 2} hybrids in PVA was significantly enhanced. • It is a promising strategy for improving the flame retardant efficiency of MoS{sub 2}.

  19. Les polymères auto-renforcés à cristaux liquides Self-Reinforcing Liquid-Crystal Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorbon M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les polymères auto-renforcés à cristaux liquides (PARCL sont des matériaux dont les molécules, des polymères organiques, sont susceptibles de s'auto-orienter les unes par rapport aux autres. Cette propriété leur confère des caractéristiques mécaniques proches de celles des acier: pour des poids plus faibles sans qu'il soit nécessaire d'avoir recours à des fibres renforçantes. Il existe deux types de PARCL: ceux pouvant s'orienter en solution, qualifiés de lyotropiques, et ceux pouvant s'orienter à l'état fondu, appelés thermotropiques. Des fibres en poly (p-phénylène térephtalamide PPT, PARCL de type lyotropique, sont disponibles commercialement et connaissent déjà de nombreuses applications. Les PARCL thermotropiques n'existent pas encore sur le marché mais sont porteurs de nombreux espoirs car ils sont susceptibles d'être moulés et donc de prendre les formes les plus diverses, ce qui n'est pas le cas de ceux de type lyotropique. Self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers are materials in which the molecules, i. e. organic polymers, are capable of orienting themselves in relation to one another. This property gives them mechanical characteristics close to those of steels yet of much less weight without having to use reinforcing fibers. There are two types of self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers: (i those capable of orienting themselves in solution, called Iyotropic, and (ii those capable of orienting themselves in a molten state, called thermotropic. Poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide fibers, self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers of the Iyotropic type, are commercially available and have already found numerous applications. Thermotropic self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers are not yet on the market but seem to be very promising because they are capable of being molded and hence of taking on a wide variety of shapes, which is not the case of those of the lyotropic type.

  20. Poly(organo phosphazene) nanoparticles surface modified with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, J; Schacht, E; Stolnik, S; Garnett, M C; Davies, M C; Illum, L; Davis, S S

    1996-10-05

    The use of biodegradable derivatives of poly(organo phosphazenes) for the preparation of nanoparticles and their surface modification with the novel poly(ethylene oxide) derivative of poly(organo phosphazene) has been assessed using a range of in vitro characterization methods. The nanoparticles were produced by the precipitation solvent evaporation method from the derivative co-substituted with phenylalanine and glycine ethyl ester side groups. A reduction in particle size to less than 200 nm was achieved by an increase in pH of the preparation medium. The formation (and colloidal stability) of these nanoparticles seems to be controlled by two opposite effects: attractive hydrophobic interactions between phenylalanine ester groups and electrostatic repulsions arising from the carboxyl groups formed due to (partial) hydrolysis of the ester bond(s) at the high pH of the preparation medium. The poly[(glycine ethyl ester)phosphazene] derivative containing 5000-Da poly(ethylene oxide) as 5% of the side groups was used for the surface modification of nanoparticles. Adsorbed onto the particles, the polymer produced a thick coating layer of approximately 35 nm. The coated nanoparticles exhibited reduced surface negative potential and improved colloidal stability toward electrolyte-induced flocculation, relative to the uncoated system. However, the steric stabilization provided was less effective than that of a Poloxamine 908 coating. This difference in effectiveness of the steric stabilization might indicate that, although both the stabilizing polymers possess a 5000-Da poly(ethylene oxide) moiety, there is a difference in the arrangements of these poly(ethylene oxide) chains at the particle surface. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Mechanical characterization and validation of poly (methyl methacrylate)/multi walled carbon nanotube composite for the polycentric knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, S; Kanagaraj, S

    2015-10-01

    Trans femoral amputation is one of the most uncomfortable surgeries in patient׳s life, where the prosthesis consisting of a socket, knee joint, pylon and foot is used to do the walking activities. The artificial prosthetic knee joint imitates the functions of human knee to achieve the flexion-extension for the above knee amputee. The objective of present work is to develop a light weight composite material for the knee joint to reduce the metabolic cost of an amputee. Hence, an attempt was made to study the mechanical properties of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared through melt mixing technique and optimize the concentration of reinforcement. The PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by reinforcing 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.4 wt% of MWCNT using injection moulding machine via twin screw extruder. It is observed that the tensile and flexural strength of PMMA, which were studied as per ASTM D638 and D790, respectively, were increased by 32.9% and 26.3% till 0.25 wt% reinforcement of MWCNT. The experimental results of strength and modulus were compared with theoretical prediction, where a good correlation was noted. It is concluded that the mechanical properties of PMMA were found to be increased to maximum at 0.25 wt% reinforcement of MWCNT, where the Pukanszky model and modified Halpin-Tsai model are suggested to predict the strength and modulus, respectively, of the PMMA/MWCNT composite, which can be opted as a suitable materiel for the development of polycentric knee joint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Poly(vinyl-alcohol)/poly(ethylene-glycol)/poly(ethylene-imine) blend membranes - structure and CO2 facilitated transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, S.; Quang, Trong Nguyen; Langevin, D.; Sadok, Roudeslic

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA)/poly(ethylene-imine) (PEI)/poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) blend membranes were prepared by solution casting followed by solvent evaporation. The effects of the blend polymer composition on the membrane structure and CO 2 /N 2 permeation characteristics were investigated. IR spectroscopy evidenced strong hydrogen bonding interactions between amorphous PVA and PEI, and weaker interactions between PVA and PEG. DSC studies showed that PVA crystallization was partially inhibited by the interactions between amorphous PVA and PEI blend, in which PEG separated into nodules. The CO 2 permeability decreased with an increase in CO 2 partial pressure in feed gas, while the N 2 permeability remained constant. This result indicated that only CO 2 was transported by the facilitated transport mechanism. The CO 2 and N 2 permeabilities increased monotonically with the PEI content in the blend membranes, whereas the ideal selectivity of CO 2 to N 2 transport showed a maximum. When CO 2 is humidified, its permeability through the blend membranes is much higher than that of dry CO 2 , but the change in permeability due to the presence of humidity is reversible. (authors)

  3. Effects of ethyl cellulose on the crystallization and mechanical properties of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxiang; Wu, Defeng; Pan, Keren

    2016-07-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was blended with poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), aiming at controlling crystallization and mechanical properties of PHB. The obtained PHB/EC blend is an immiscible system, and the discrete EC phase behaves dual characteristics in the PHB matrix, as the viscoelastic droplets during processing, and as the rigid filler particles during shear flow. This is confirmed by the rheological tests. The presence of EC domains acts as the tackifier, sharply increasing system viscosity from 1000Pas to 5000Pas, and as a result, has large influence on the spherulite morphology of PHB and its crystallization kinetics. The PHB spherulite growth rate reduces in the presence of inert EC, accompanied by decreased degree of crystallinity and reduced lamella defects. These affect the mechanical properties of PHB strongly, together with reinforcing effect of EC itself. At the lower content level, EC can act as both reinforcement and toughener. The presence of 1wt% EC enhances the tensile strength of PHB by about 22%, from 27.5MPa to 33.3MPa, accompanied by 15% increase of impact strength. This work provide an easy way to control the structure and properties of PHB using EC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modification of nylon-6 with semi-rigid poly (p-diphenyl oxide terephthalamide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Wang, H.H.; Shu, Y.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the flexible nylon-6 was reinforced by the semi-rigid aromatic polyamide, poly (p-diphenyl oxide terephthalamide) (POA), through physical polybending and chemical copolymerization using p-aminophenylacetic acid (P-APA) as a coupling agent. From the DSC measurements, it was shown that Tg of the polyblends was increased with the increase of POA content. The Tg and Tm of multiblock copolyamides were found to be higher than those of polyblends and triblock copolyamides. From the Rheovibron measurements, it was shown that the POA with nylon-6 poy-blends exhibited higher E' and Tg value than that of nylon-6, which increased with the increase of POA content. The Tg and E' values of multiblock copolyamides were higher than those of polyblends triblock copolyamides. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the polyblends were a dispersed phase structure, although the multiblock copolyamides exhibited a homogeneous texture rather than an aggregated one. From the wide-angle x-ray diffraction pattern, the triblock copolyamides and polyblends had two diffraction peaks, i.e., 2 θ = 20.5 degrees and 24 degrees. However, the multiblock had only one at 2 θ = 20 degrees, which indicates that a different crystal structure of multiblock copolyamides. For the mechanical properties, it was found that the multiblock copolyamides had a more significant reinforcing effect than those of polyblends and triblock copolyamides. 21 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  6. Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites as Internal and External Reinforcements for Building Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Banu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the latest decades fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composite materials have proven valuable properties and suitable to be used in construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones. These materials have covered the road from research laboratory and demonstration projects to implementation in actual structures. Nowadays the civil and structural engineering communities are about to commence the stage in which the use of FRP composites is becoming a routine similar to that of traditional material such as concrete, masonry and wood. Two main issues are presented in this paper, the use of FRP composite materials for new structural members (internal reinforcements and strengthening of existing members (externally bonded reinforcements. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the problems and constraints associated with both issues are discussed in detail mainly related to concrete members.

  7. Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah binti Ali; Jamarosliza Jamaluddin; Arun Kumar Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has b...

  8. Preparation and Properties of Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/poly(dimethylsiloxane) graft (poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)) blend porous separators and corresponding electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Liang, Zhi-Ying; Chen, Yue-Ming; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Zhu, Li-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •This work aims exploring microporous PVDF separators for lithium ion batteries. •Comb structure polymer PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) was used in PVDF blend separators. •The influence of polyether side chains on interfacial resistance was studied. -- Abstract: This work aims exploring the high performance porous separators that can be activated into gel electrolyte membranes for lithium ion batteries. A comb-like copolymer poly (dimethylsiloxane) graft poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO)) was synthesized and blended with poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to fabricate porous separators via a typical phase inversion process, and then the separators absorbed liquid electrolyte solution and formed into polymer electrolyte membranes. By measuring the composition, morphology and ion conductivity etc, the influence of PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) on structure and properties of blend separators were discussed. Compared with pure PVDF separator with comparable porous structure, the adoption of PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) decreased the crystallinity and increased the liquid electrolyte uptake and stability effectively. It was also found that the electrode/electrolyte interfacial resistance could be reduced greatly. The resulting electrolyte membrane using separator with PVDF/PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) mass ratio in 8/2 exhibited highest ionic conductivity in 4.5 × 10 −3 S/cm at room temperature, while the electrochemical stability was up to 4.7 V (vs. Li/Li + ). Coin cells assembled with such separators also exhibited stable cycle performance and improved rate capabilities, especially when discharge rate higher than 0.5 C

  9. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  10. Synthesis by plasma of halogenated poly anilines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriquez, M.A.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work polymerization by plasma of aniline with iodine and chlorine bonded chemically to the aniline ring were realized. The results of the synthesis and characterizations are compared with those ones obtained starting from the poly aniline synthesis (P An) doped with iodine, where the dopant was aggregated in the moment of the polymerization. The objective is to study the dopant behavior in the synthesis by plasma in function of the properties of these polymers. (Author)

  11. Poly(A)-tag deep sequencing data processing to extract poly(A) sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Ji, Guoli; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Polyadenylation [poly(A)] is an essential posttranscriptional processing step in the maturation of eukaryotic mRNA. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has offered feasible means to generate large-scale data and new opportunities for intensive study of polyadenylation, particularly deep sequencing of the transcriptome targeting the junction of 3'-UTR and the poly(A) tail of the transcript. To take advantage of this unprecedented amount of data, we present an automated workflow to identify polyadenylation sites by integrating NGS data cleaning, processing, mapping, normalizing, and clustering. In this pipeline, a series of Perl scripts are seamlessly integrated to iteratively map the single- or paired-end sequences to the reference genome. After mapping, the poly(A) tags (PATs) at the same genome coordinate are grouped into one cleavage site, and the internal priming artifacts removed. Then the ambiguous region is introduced to parse the genome annotation for cleavage site clustering. Finally, cleavage sites within a close range of 24 nucleotides and from different samples can be clustered into poly(A) clusters. This procedure could be used to identify thousands of reliable poly(A) clusters from millions of NGS sequences in different tissues or treatments.

  12. Influence of reinforcement on strains within maxillary implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reinforcement of an embedded cast on the strains within maxillary implant overdentures. A maxillary edentulous model with implants placed bilaterally in the canine positions, dome-shaped copings, and experimental overdentures was fabricated. Rosette-type strain gauges were attached in the canine positions and at three points along the midline of the polished surface of the denture and connected to the sensor interface controlled by a personal computer. Experimental dentures with five different reinforcements were tested: without reinforcement; with a cast cobalt-chrome reinforcement over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings; and with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings. A vertical occlusal load of 49 N was applied to the first premolar and then to the first molar, and the strains were measured and compared by analysis of variance. In both loading situations, significantly less strain was recorded in dentures with reinforcement than in those without reinforcement. When the first premolar was loaded on dentures with and without palatal reinforcement at the first premolars, the strains on the denture with reinforcement over the tops of the copings were significantly lower than on the denture with reinforcement over the sides of the copings at the canine position. Cast reinforcement over the residual ridge and the top of copings embedded in an acrylic base reduced the strain from occlusal stress on maxillary implant overdentures.

  13. In vivo and in vitro degradation of poly(ether ester) block copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(butylene terephthalate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, A.A.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Hayen, H.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Karst, U.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Two in vivo degradation studies were performed on segmented poly(ether ester)s based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) (PEOT/PBT). In a first series of experiments, the in vivo degradation of melt-pressed discs of different copolymer compositions were followed up

  14. Block copolymers of poly(l-lactide) and poly(e-caprolactone) or poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by reactive extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevels, W.M.; Bernard, A.; van de Witte, P.; van de Witte, P.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Blends of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw miniextruder (40 rpm, 200°). It was attempted to prepare multiblock copolymers by allowing a controlled number of transesterification reactions. Various cat-alysts (n-Bu3SnOMe, Sn(Oct)2,

  15. Neutron structure analyses and structural disorders of poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) and poly(p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro

    2001-01-01

    Poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole)(PBO) and poly(p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole)(PBZT) are disordered with respect to the molecular heights. The molecular heights of PBO are disordered by 1/2 along the molecular axis, while the molecular heights of PBZT are disordered by 1/2 on the ac-plane and by every 1/5 on the bc-plane. Neutron structure analyses of both polymers were carried out for the c-projected structure in the temperature range 17 - 295K. The molecular structures of both polymers deviate from the planar structure. The crystal structures are less dependent on the temperature than the flexible polymers, polyethylene and poly(vinyl alcohol). (author)

  16. Phase Diagrams of Smart Copolymers Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Poly(sodium acrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura; Pyda, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The phase behavior of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), linear copolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PNIPA-SA), and chemically cross-linked PNIPA in water has been determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TM-DSC). Experiments related to linear polymers (PNIPA and PNIPA-SA) indicated nontypical demixing/mixing behavior with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), which do not correspond to the three classical types of limiting critical behavior. Some similarities and differences are observed in comparison to our literature data using standard TM-DSC for PNIPA/water. Furthermore no influence of composition cross-linked PNIPA/water system on demixing/mixing temperature was observed. PMID:25202728

  17. Phase Diagrams of Smart Copolymers Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and Poly(sodium acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Zarzyka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase behavior of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPA, linear copolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(sodium acrylate (PNIPA-SA, and chemically cross-linked PNIPA in water has been determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TM-DSC. Experiments related to linear polymers (PNIPA and PNIPA-SA indicated nontypical demixing/mixing behavior with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST, which do not correspond to the three classical types of limiting critical behavior. Some similarities and differences are observed in comparison to our literature data using standard TM-DSC for PNIPA/water. Furthermore no influence of composition cross-linked PNIPA/water system on demixing/mixing temperature was observed.

  18. Reinforced concrete tomography; Tomografia de hormigon armado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscotti, M A.J.; Morixe, M; Tarela, P A; Thieberger, P [Tomografia de Hormigon Armado S.A., Boulogne (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of {+-} 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) 8 refs., 12 figs. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica de tomografia de hormigon armado, sus antededentes, recientes desarrollos y aplicaciones mas importantes. Esta tecnica se basa en el uso de radiacion gamma para penetrar piezas de hormigon. Placas gammagraficas son sensibilizadas con la radiacion que atraviesa la pieza bajo estudio y luego procesadas para revelar la presencia de armadura e inhomogeneidades en la densidad del concreto. La reconstruccion tridimensional o tomografia, de la armadura a partir de una sola gammagrafia es un desarrollo original alternativo a los metodos convencionales. Diametros y posiciones de los hierros existentes en el interior de columnas, vigas y losas pueden ser determinados con precisiones de {+-} 1 mm y 0.5-1 cm, respectivamente. La condicion de no destructiva hace que esta tecnica sea particularmente apreciada en los casos de edificios habitados y sea insustituible para el diagnostico de balcones. (autor)

  19. Enriching behavioral ecology with reinforcement learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Barto, Andrew G

    2018-02-13

    This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods. These methods allow for the study of behavior in highly complex environments, which conventional dynamic programming methods do not feasibly address. In addition, reinforcement learning methods are well-suited to studying how biological mechanisms solve developmental and learning problems. For instance, we can use them to study simple rules that perform well in complex environments. Or to investigate under what conditions natural selection favors fixed, non-plastic traits (which do not vary across individuals), cue-driven-switch plasticity (innate instructions for adaptive behavioral development based on experience), or developmental selection (the incremental acquisition of adaptive behavior based on experience). If natural selection favors developmental selection, which includes learning from environmental feedback, we can also make predictions about the design of reward systems. Our paper is written in an accessible manner and for a broad audience, though we believe some novel insights can be drawn from our discussion. We hope our paper will help advance the emerging bridge connecting the fields of behavioral ecology and reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reinforcement learning for microgrid energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Elizaveta; Li, Yan-Fu; Ruiz, Carlos; Zio, Enrico; Ault, Graham; Bell, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We consider a microgrid for energy distribution, with a local consumer, a renewable generator (wind turbine) and a storage facility (battery), connected to the external grid via a transformer. We propose a 2 steps-ahead reinforcement learning algorithm to plan the battery scheduling, which plays a key role in the achievement of the consumer goals. The underlying framework is one of multi-criteria decision-making by an individual consumer who has the goals of increasing the utilization rate of the battery during high electricity demand (so as to decrease the electricity purchase from the external grid) and increasing the utilization rate of the wind turbine for local use (so as to increase the consumer independence from the external grid). Predictions of available wind power feed the reinforcement learning algorithm for selecting the optimal battery scheduling actions. The embedded learning mechanism allows to enhance the consumer knowledge about the optimal actions for battery scheduling under different time-dependent environmental conditions. The developed framework gives the capability to intelligent consumers to learn the stochastic environment and make use of the experience to select optimal energy management actions. - Highlights: • A consumer exploits a 2 steps-ahead reinforcement learning for battery scheduling. • The Q-learning based mechanism is fed by the predictions of available wind power. • Wind speed state evolutions are modeled with a Markov chain model. • Optimal scheduling actions are learned through the occurrence of similar scenarios. • The consumer manifests a continuous enhance of his knowledge about optimal actions