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Sample records for carbon-enhanced metal-poor dwarf

  1. The first carbon-enhanced metal-poor star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Skuladottir, Asa; Salvadori, Stefania; Hill, Vanessa; Pettini, Max; Shetrone, Matthew D; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connection with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generation is still highly debated. In contrast to the Galactic halo, not many CEMP stars have been found in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way. Here we present detailed abundances from ESO VLT/UVES high-resolution spectroscopy for ET0097, the first CEMP star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal. This star has $\\text{[Fe/H]}=-2.03\\pm0.10$, $\\text{[C/Fe]}=0.51\\pm0.10$ and $\\text{[N/Fe]}=1.18\\pm0.20$. The traditional definition of CEMP stars is $\\text{[C/Fe]}\\geq0.70$, but taking into account that this luminous red giant branch star has undergone mixing, it was intrinsically less nitrogen enhanced and more carbon-rich when it was formed, and so it falls under the definition of CEMP stars, as proposed by Aoki et al. (2007) to account for this effect. By making corrections for this mixing, we conclude that the star had $\\text{[C/Fe]}\\approx0.8$ during its e...

  2. Origins of carbon enhanced metal poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mahavir; Frenk, Carlos; Cooke, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nature of carbon-enhanced metal poor (CEMP) stars in Milky Way (MW) analogues selected from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. The stellar evolution model in EAGLE includes the physics of enrichment by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, winds from massive stars, and type I and type II supernovae (SNe). In the simulation, star formation in young MW progenitors is bursty due to efficient stellar feedback, which causes poor metal mixing leading to the formation of CEMP stars with extreme abundance patterns. In this scenario, two classes of CEMP stars emerge: those mostly enriched by low-metallicity type II SNe with low Fe yields that drive galactic outflows, and those mostly enriched by AGB stars when a gas-poor progenitor accretes pristine gas. The first class resembles CEMP-no stars with high [C/Fe] and low [C/O], the second class resembles CEMP-s stars overabundant in s-process elements and high values of [C/O]. This scenario explains several trends seen in data: (i) the in...

  3. Binarity in Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Starkenburg, Else; McConnachie, Alan W; Venn, Kim A

    2014-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the lowest metallicity stars show very high enhancements in carbon. It is debated whether these enhancements reflect the stars' birth composition, or if their atmospheres were subsequently polluted, most likely by accretion from an AGB binary companion. Here we investigate and compare the binary properties of three carbon-enhanced sub-classes: The metal-poor CEMP-s stars that are additionally enhanced in barium; the higher metallicity (sg)CH- and Ba II stars also enhanced in barium; and the metal-poor CEMP-no stars, not enhanced in barium. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that all barium-enhanced populations are best represented by a ~100% binary fraction with a shorter period distribution of at maximum ~20,000 days. This result greatly strengthens the hypothesis that a similar binary mass transfer origin is responsible for their chemical patterns. For the CEMP-no group we present new radial velocity data from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for 15 stars to supplement t...

  4. Fluorine in a Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, S C; Smith, V V; Sivarani, T; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S

    2007-01-01

    The fluorine abundance of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 has been derived by analysis of the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3357 microns in a high-resolution (R = 50,000) spectrum obtained with the Phoenix spectrometer and Gemini-South telescope. Our abundance analysis makes use of a CNO-enhanced ATLAS12 model atmosphere characterized by a metallicity and CNO enhancements determined utilizing medium-resolution (R = 3,000) optical and near-IR spectra. The effective iron abundance is found to be [Fe/H] = -2.5, making HE 1305+0132 the most Fe-deficient star, by more than an order of magnitude, for which the abundance of fluorine has been measured. Using spectral synthesis, we derive a super-solar fluorine abundance of A(19F) = 4.96 +/- 0.21, corresponding to a relative abundance of [F/Fe] = 2.90. A single line of the Phillips C_2 system is identified in our Phoenix spectrum, and along with multiple lines of the first-overtone vibration-rotation CO (3-1) band head, C and O abundances of ...

  5. Abundances In Very Metal Poor Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Wasserburg, G J; Ivans, I I; Dehn, M; Karlsson, T; Melendez, J; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; William, Andrew Mc; Shectman, Steve; Thompson, Ian; Ivans, Inese; Dehn, Matthias; Karlsson, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the detailed composition of 28 extremely metal-poor dwarfs, 22 of which are from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, based on Keck Echelle spectra. Our sample has a median [Fe/H] of -2.7 dex, extends to -3.5 dex, and is somewhat less metal-poor than was expected from [Fe/H](HK,HES) determined from low resolution spectra. Our analysis supports the existence of a sharp decline in the distribution of halo stars with metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.0 dex. So far no additional turnoff stars with [Fe/H]}<-3.5 have been identified in our follow up efforts. For the best observed elements between Mg and Ni, we find that the abundance ratios appear to have reached a plateau, i.e. [X/Fe] is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H], except for Cr, Mn and Co, which show trends of abundance ratios varying with [Fe/H]. These abundance ratios at low metallicity correspond approximately to the yield expected from Type II SN with a narrow range in mass and explosion parameters; high mass Type II SN progenitors are requir...

  6. The Impact of Carbon Enhancement on Extra Mixing in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, Pavel A

    2007-01-01

    We critically examine the constraints imposed by carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars on the mixing mechanisms that operate in red giants. CEMP stars are created when the surface layers of a metal-poor dwarf are enriched with He-burning products via mass transfer from an evolved donor. The difference between main sequence (MS) and red giant CEMP abundances can be used as a diagnostic of the timescale for the mixing of the processed material into stellar interiors on the MS. Abundance trends with luminosity among red giant CEMP stars test theories of canonical extra mixing for low mass giants with a high bulk metallicity. We find a significant dilution in CN enrichment in giant CEMP stars relative to their MS precursors, and take this as evidence that thermohaline mixing induced by mean molecular weight inversions is ineffective in CEMP stars. This contradicts models that rely on efficient thermohaline mixing induced by small mu gradients in red giants, because such models would predict that MS CEMP stars w...

  7. Binary properties of CH and Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jorissen, A; Van Winckel, H; Merle, T; Boffin, H M J; Andersen, J; Nordstroem, B; Udry, S; Masseron, T; Lenaerts, L; Waelkens, C

    2015-01-01

    The HERMES spectrograph installed on the 1.2-m Mercator telescope has been used to monitor the radial velocity of 13 low-metallicity carbon stars, among which 7 Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars and 6 CH stars. All stars but one show clear evidence for binarity. New orbits are obtained for 8 systems. The sample covers an extended range in orbital periods, extending from 3.4 d (for the dwarf carbon star HE 0024-2523) to about 54 yr (for the CH star HD 26, the longest known among barium, CH and extrinsic S stars). Three systems exhibit low-amplitude velocity variations with periods close to 1 yr superimposed on a long-term trend. In the absence of an accurate photometric monitoring of these systems, it is not clear yet whether these variations are the signature of a very low-mass companion, or of regular envelope pulsations. The period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram for the 40 low-metallicity carbon stars with orbits now available shows no difference between CH and CEMP-s stars (the latter corresponding t...

  8. A holistic approach to carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Masseron, T; Plez, B; Van Eck, S; Primas, F; Goriely, S; Jorissen, A

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars are known to be the direct witnesses of the nucleosynthesis of the first low- and intermediate-mass stars, because they have been polluted by a now-extinct AGB star. To put CEMP stars in a broad context, we collect abundances for about 180 stars of various metallicities (from solar down to [Fe/H]=-4), luminosity classes (dwarfs and giants), and abundance patterns (C-rich and poor, Ba-rich and poor, etc), from our own sample and from literature. First, we introduce a class of CEMP stars sharing the properties of CEMP-s stars and CEMP-no stars. We also show that there is a strong correlation between Ba and C in the s-only CEMP stars. This strongly points at the operation of the 13C neutron source in low-mass AGB stars. For the CEMP-rs stars (enriched with elements from both the s- and r-processes), the correlation of the N abundances with abundances of heavy elements from the 2nd and 3rd s-process peaks bears instead the signature of the 22Ne neutron source. Adding to the...

  9. Chemical Analysis of the Ninth Magnitude Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star BD+44 493

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, H; Beers, T C; Tominaga, N; Honda, S

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star BD+44 493, previously reported on by Ito et al. Our measurements confirm that BD+44 493 is an extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-3.8) subgiant star with excesses of carbon and oxygen. No significant excesses are found for nitrogen and neutron-capture elements (the latter of which place it in the CEMP-no class of stars). Other elements that we measure exhibit abundance patterns that are typical for non-CEMP extremely metal-poor stars. No evidence for variations of radial velocity have been found for this star. These results strongly suggest that the carbon enhancement in BD+44 493 is unlikely to have been produced by a companion asymptotic giant-branch star and transferred to the presently observed star, nor by pollution of its natal molecular cloud by rapidly-rotating, massive, mega metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -6.0) stars. A more likely possibility is that this star formed from gas polluted by the elements produced in a "fain...

  10. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guochao; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(a;n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor weak s-process stars could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr shoul...

  11. Population Synthesis of Binary Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Izzard, Robert G; Stancliffe, Richard J; Pols, Onno

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars constitute approximately one fifth of the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~< -2) population but their origin is not well understood. The most widely accepted formation scenario, invokes mass-transfer of carbon-rich material from a thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TPAGB) primary star to a less massive main-sequence companion which is seen today. Recent studies explore the possibility that an initial mass function biased toward intermediate-mass stars is required to reproduce the observed CEMP fraction in stars with metallicity [Fe/H] < -2.5. These models also implicitly predict a large number of nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor (NEMP) stars which is not seen. We investigate whether the observed CEMP and NEMP to extremely metal-poor (EMP) ratios can be explained without invoking a change in the initial mass function. We confirm earlier findings that with current detailed TPAGB models the large observed CEMP fraction cannot be accounted for. We find that efficient third...

  12. The elusive origin of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Izzard, R G; Mohamed, S S; de Mink, S E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars count for 9-25% of all the very metal-poor stars of the halo. In at least some CEMP stars the chemical enrichment is believed to be due to wind mass transfer in the past from an AGB donor star on to a low-mass companion. However, binary population synthesis models predict much lower CEMP fractions. As an alternative to the canonical Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) wind accretion model, recent hydrodynamical simulations suggest an efficient mode of wind mass transfer, called wind Roche-lobe overflow (WRLOF), can reproduce observations of AGB winds in binary systems. We use our population synthesis model to test the consequences of WRLOF on a population of CEMP stars. Compared to previous predictions based on the BHL model we find a modest increase of the fraction of CEMP stars and substantial differences in the distributions of carbon and periods in the population of CEMP stars.

  13. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: the most pristine objects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spite, M.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, F.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Plez, B.; Christlieb, N.

    2013-04-01

    Context. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (CEMP) form a significant proportion of the metal-poor stars, their origin is not well understood, and this carbon-enhancement appears in stars that exhibit different abundance patterns. Aims: Three very metal-poor C-rich turnoff stars were selected from the SDSS survey, observed with the ESO VLT (UVES) to precisely determine the element abundances. In turnoff stars (unlike giants) the carbon abundance has not been affected by mixing with deep layers and is therefore easier to interpret. Methods: The analysis was performed with one dimensional (1D) local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) static model atmospheres. When available, non-LTE corrections were applied to the classical LTE abundances. The 3D effects on the CH and CN molecular bands were computed using hydrodynamical simulations of the stellar atmosphere (CO5BOLD) and are found to be very important. Results: To facilitate a comparison with previous results, only 1D abundances are used in the discussion. The abundances (or upper limits) of the elements enable us to place these stars in different CEMP classes. The carbon abundances confirm the existence of a plateau at A(C)= 8.25 for [Fe/H] ≥ -3.4. The most metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -3.4) have significantly lower carbon abundances, suggesting a lower plateau at A(C) ≈ 6.5. Detailed analyses of a larger sample of very low metallicity carbon-rich stars are required to confirm (or refute) this possible second plateau and specify the behavior of the CEMP stars at very low metallicity. Based on observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (ID 087.D-0123(A).Table 5 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (Placco+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placco, V. M.; Frebel, A.; Beers, T. C.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the observed frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars as a function of the metallicity in the Galaxy, using data from the literature with available high-resolution spectroscopy. Our analysis excludes stars exhibiting clear overabundances of neutron-capture elements and takes into account the expected depletion of surface carbon abundance that occurs due to CN processing on the upper red giant branch. This allows for the recovery of the initial carbon abundance of these stars, and thus for an accurate assessment of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced stars. The correction procedure we develop is based on stellar-evolution models and depends on the surface gravity, log g, of a given star. (2 data files).

  15. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(α , n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor "weak s-process stars" could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr should mainly come from the primary weak s-process. The contributed fractions of the primary weak s-process to the Sr, Y and Zr abundances of ET0097 are about 82 %, 84 % and 58 % respectively, suggesting that the CEMP star ET0097 should have the footprints of the weak s-process. The derived result should be a significant evidence that the weak s-process elements can be produced in metal-poor massive stars.

  16. Formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the presence of far ultraviolet radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, S; Schleicher, D R G; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the Universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C$^+$, O, O$^+$, Si, Si$^+$, and Si$^{2+}$ following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from $z=21$ to $z=15$ and cool the gas down to the CMB temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z$_\\odot$=10$^{-3}$. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z$_\\odot$=10$...

  17. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Marsteller, B; Rossi, S; Christlieb, N; Bessell, M; Rhee, J

    2004-01-01

    Very metal-deficient stars that exhibit enhancements of their carbon abundances are of crucial importance for understanding a number of issues -- the nature of stellar evolution among the first generations of stars, the shape of the Initial Mass Function, and the relationship between carbon enhancement and neutron-capture processes, in particular the astrophysical s-process. One recent discovery from objective-prism surveys dedicated to the discovery of metal-deficient stars is that the frequency of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars increases with declining metallicity, reaching roughly 25% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. In order to explore this phenomenon in greater detail we have obtained medium-resolution (2 A) spectroscopy for about 350 of the 413 objects in the Christlieb et al. catalog of carbon-rich stars, selected from the Hamburg/ESO objective prism survey on the basis of their carbon-enhancement, rather than metal deficiency. Based on these spectra, and near-IR JHK photometry from the 2MASS Point Sourc...

  18. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars: Relics from the Dark Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: The observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation but, as a result, the second stars are borne with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the obser...

  19. Wind Roche-lobe overflow: Application to carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Izzard, R G; Mohamed, S S; de Mink, S E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (CEMP) are observed as a substantial fraction of the very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. Most CEMP stars are also enriched in s-process elements and these are often found in binary systems. This suggests that the carbon enrichment is due to mass transfer in the past from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star on to a low-mass companion. Models of binary population synthesis are not able to reproduce the observed fraction of CEMP stars without invoking non-standard nucleosynthesis or a substantial change in the initial mass function. This is interpreted as evidence of missing physical ingredients in the models. Recent hydrodynamical simulations show that efficient wind mass transfer is possible in the case of the slow and dense winds typical of AGB stars through a mechanism called wind Roche-lobe overflow (WRLOF), which lies in between the canonical Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) accretion and Roche-lobe overflow. WRLOF has an effect on the accretion efficiency of mass tran...

  20. On the Binarity of Carbon-Enhanced, Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tsangarides, S A; Beers, T C

    2004-01-01

    We report on a programme to monitor the radial velocities of a sample of candidate and confirmed carbon-enhanced, metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We observed 45 targets using the Echelle Spectrographs of three 4m class telescopes. Radial velocities for these objects were calculated by cross-correlation of their spectra with the spectrum of HD 140283, and have errors < 1 km/s. Sixteen of our programme's targets have reported carbon excess, and nine of these objects also exhibit s-process enhancements (CEMP-s). We combine these stars' radial velocities with other literature studies in search of binarity. The search reveals that four of our CEMP-s stars (44%) are in binary systems. Using the analysis of Lucatello et al. (2004), we find that all the CEMP-s stars in our sample are binaries. This conclusion implies that CEMP-s stars may be the very metal-poor relatives of CH and Ba II stars, which are believed to have acquired their peculiar abundance patterns by mass transfer from a thermally-pulsing AGB companion.

  1. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Hansen, T T; Kennedy, C R; Placco, V M; Beers, T C; Andersen, J; Cescutti, G; Chiappini, C

    2015-01-01

    An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] = -2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). CNO abundance determinations offer clues to their formation sites. C, N, Sr, and Ba abundances (or limits) and 12C/13C ratios where possible are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-shooter spectra have sufficient S/N ratios. These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP sub-classes (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances,...

  2. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Matrozis, E

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars) and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses (M ~ 0.85 Msun) have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv +4). We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process m...

  3. Modelling the nucleosynthetic properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stancliffe, Richard J; Lau, Herbert H B; Beers, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    Certain carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars likely obtained their composition via pollution from some of the earliest generations of asymptotic giant branch stars and as such provide important clues to early Universe nucleosynthesis. Recently, Kinman et al. discovered that the highly carbon- and barium-enriched metal-poor star SDSS J1707+58 is in fact an RR Lyrae pulsator. This gives us an object in a definite evolutionary state where the effects of dilution of material during the Main Sequence are minimised owing to the object having passed through first dredge-up. We perform detailed stellar modelling of putative progenitor systems in which we accreted material from asymptotic giant branch stars in the mass range 1-2 solar masses. We investigate how the surface abundances are affected by the inclusion of mechanisms like thermohaline mixing and gravitational settling. While we are able to find a reasonable fit to the carbon and sodium abundances of SDSS J1707+58, suggesting accretion of around 0.1 solar masses ...

  4. Seven New Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor RR Lyrae Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Catherine R; Kuehn, Charles; Beers, Timothy C; Kinman, T D; Placco, Vinicius M; Reggiani, Henrique; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-01-01

    We report estimated carbon-abundance ratios, [C/Fe], for seven newly-discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) RR Lyrae stars. These are well-studied RRab stars that had previously been selected as CEMP candidates based on low-resolution spectra. For this pilot study, we observed eight of these CEMP RR Lyrae candidates with the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) on the ANU 2.3m telescope. Prior to this study, only two CEMP RR Lyrae stars had been discovered: TY Gru and SDSS J1707+58. We compare our abundances to new theoretical models of the evolution of low-mass stars in binary systems. These simulations evolve the secondary stars, post accretion from an AGB donor, all the way to the RR Lyrae stage. The abundances of CEMP RR Lyrae stars can be used as direct probes of the nature of the donor star, such as its mass, and the amount of material accreted onto the secondary. We find that the majority of the sample of CEMP RR Lyrae stars is consistent with AGB donor masses of around 1.5 - 2.0 solar masses and accr...

  5. Chemical analysis of a carbon-enhanced very metal-poor star: CD-27 14351

    CERN Document Server

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Masseron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present the first time abundance analysis of a very metal-poor carbon-enhanced star CD-27 14351 based on a high resolution (R ~ 48000) FEROS spectrum. Our abundance analysis performed using Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres shows that the object is a cool star with stellar atmospheric parameters, effective temperature Teff = 4335 K, surface gravity log g = 0.5, microturbulence = 2.42 km/s, and, metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.6. The star exhibits high carbon and nitrogen abundances with [C/Fe] = 2.89 and [N/Fe] = 1.89. Overabundances of neutron-capture elements are evident in Ba, La, Ce, and Nd with estimated [X/Fe] > 1, the largest enhancement being seen in Ce with [Ce/Fe] = 2.63. While the first peak s-process elements Sr and Y are found to be enhanced with respect to Fe, ([Sr/Fe] = 1.73 and [Y/Fe] = 1.91) the third peak s-process element Pb could not be detected in our spectrum at the given resolution. Europium, primarily a r-process element also shows an enhancement with [Eu/Fe] = 1.65. W...

  6. Fluorine in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a binary scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, M; Izzard, R G; Campbell, S W; Karakas, A I; Cristallo, S; Pols, O R; Lattanzio, J C; Straniero, O; Gallino, R; Beers, T C

    2008-01-01

    A super-solar fluorine abundance was observed in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 ([F/Fe] = +2.90, [Fe/H] = -2.5). We propose that this observation can be explained using a binary model that involve mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star companion and, based on this model, we predict F abundances in CEMP stars in general. We discuss wether F can be used to discriminate between the formation histories of most CEMP stars: via binary mass transfer or from the ejecta of fast-rotating massive stars. We compute AGB yields using different stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis codes to evaluate stellar model uncertainties. We use a simple dilution model to determine the factor by which the AGB yields should be diluted to match the abundances observed in HE 1305+0132. We further employ a binary population synthesis tool to estimate the probability of F-rich CEMP stars. The abundances observed in HE 1305+0132 can be explained if this star accreted 3-11% of the mass lost by its f...

  7. The intermediate neutron-capture process and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hampel, Melanie; Lugaro, Maria; Meyer, Bradley S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the Galactic Halo display enrichments in heavy elements associated with either the s (slow) or the r (rapid) neutron-capture process (e.g., barium and europium respectively), and in some cases they display evidence of both. The abundance patterns of these CEMP-s/r stars, which show both Ba and Eu enrichment, are particularly puzzling since the s and the r processes require neutron densities that are more than ten orders of magnitude apart, and hence are thought to occur in very different stellar sites with very different physical conditions. We investigate whether the abundance patterns of CEMP-s/r stars can arise from the nucleosynthesis of the intermediate neutron-capture process (the i process), which is characterised by neutron densities between those of the s and the r processes. Using nuclear network calculations, we study neutron capture nucleosynthesis at different constant neutron densities n ranging from $10^7$ to $10^{15}$ cm$^{-3}$. With respect to the cl...

  8. The s-Process Nucleosynthesis in Extremely Metal-Poor Stars as the Generating Mechanism of Carbon Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2016-01-01

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars plays a key role in characterising the formation and evolution of the first stars and the Galaxy since the extremely-poor (EMP) stars with [Fe/H] \\leq -2.5 share the common features of carbon enhancement in their surface chemical compositions. The origin of these stars is not yet established due to the controversy of the origin of CEMP stars without the enhancement of s-process element abundances, i.e., so called CEMP-no stars. In this paper, we elaborate the s-process nucleosynthesis in the EMP AGB stars and explore the origin of CEMP stars. We find that the efficiency of the s-process is controlled by O rather than Fe at [Fe/H] \\lesssim -2. We demonstrate that the relative abundances of Sr, Ba, Pb to C are explained in terms of the wind accretion from AGB stars in binary systems.

  9. First stars VII. Lithium in extremely metal poor dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Sivarani, T; Cayrel, R; Spite, M; Spite, F; Plez, B; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Depagne, E; Hill, V; François, P; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2006-01-01

    Aims. This study aims to determine the level and constancy of the Spite plateau as definitively as possible from homogeneous high-quality VLT-UVES spectra of 19 of the most metal-poor dwarf stars known. Methods. Our high-resolution (R ~ 43000), high S/N spectra are analysed with OSMARCS 1D LTE model atmospheres and turbospectrum synthetic spectra to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities as well as Li abundances for our stars. Results. Eliminating a cool subgiant and a spectroscopic binary, we find 8 stars to have -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -3.0 and 9 stars with -3.0 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Our best value for the mean level of the plateau is A(Li) =2.10 +- 0.09. The scatter around the mean is entirely explained by our estimate of the observational error and does not allow for any intrinsic scatter in the Li abundances. In addition, we conclude that a systematic error of the order of 200 K in any of the current temperature scales remains possible. The iron excitation equilibria in our...

  10. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars), and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses, M ≈ 0.85 M⊙, have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv ≲ 10-7 M⊙). Hence, the surface abundance variations arising from the competition between gravitational settling and radiative levitation should be orders of magnitude larger than observed (e.g. [C/Fe] +4). Lower-mass stars (M ≈ 0.80 M⊙) retain thicker convective envelopes and thus show variations more in line with observations, but are generally too unevolved (log g > 4) when they reach the age of the Universe. We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process must largely suppress atomic diffusion in the outer layers of CEMP-s stars. We demonstrate that this could be achieved by some additional (turbulent) mixing process operating at the base of the convective envelope, as found by other authors. Alternatively, mass-loss rates around 10-13 M⊙yr-1 could also negate most of the abundance variations by eroding the surface layers and forcing the base of the convective envelope to move inwards in mass. Since atomic diffusion cannot have a substantial effect on the surface abundances of CEMP-s stars, the

  11. Carbon Abundance Plateaus among Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; He, Siyu; Placco, Vinicius; Carollo, Daniela; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of low-metallicity stars in the Milky Way, the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, exhibit enhancements of their carbon-to-iron relative to the solar value ([C/Fe] > +0.7). They can be divided into several sub-classes, depending on the nature and degree of the observed enhancements of their neutron-capture elements, providing information on their likely progenitors. CEMP-s stars (which exhibit enhanced s-process elements) are thought to be enhanced by mass transfer from an evolved AGB companion, while CEMP-no stars (which exhibit no over-abundances of neutron-capture elements) appear to be associated with explosions of the very first generations of stars. High-resolution spectroscopic analyses are generally required in order to make these sub-classifications.Several recent studies have suggested the existence of bimodality in the distribution of absolute carbon abundances among CEMP stars -- most CEMP-no stars belong to a low-C band ((A(C) ˜ 6.5), while most CEMP-s stars reside on a high-C band (A(C) ˜ 8.25). The number of CEMP stars considered by individual studies is, however, quite small, so we have compiled all available high-resolution spectroscopic data for CEMP stars, in order to further investigate the existence of the claimed carbon bi-modality, and to consider what can be learned about the progenitors of CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars based on the observed distribution of A(C) on the individual plateaus.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  12. Fluorine in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a binary scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaro, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Izzard, R. G.; Campbell, S. W.; Karakas, A. I.; Cristallo, S.; Pols, O. R.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Beers, T. C.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: A super-solar fluorine abundance was observed in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 ([F/Fe] = +2.90, [Fe/H] = -2.5). We propose that this observation can be explained using a binary model that involve mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star companion and, based on this model, we predict F abundances in CEMP stars in general. We discuss wether F can be used to discriminate between the formation histories of most CEMP stars: via binary mass transfer or from the ejecta of fast-rotating massive stars. Methods: We compute AGB yields using different stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis codes to evaluate stellar model uncertainties. We use a simple dilution model to determine the factor by which the AGB yields should be diluted to match the abundances observed in HE 1305+0132. We further employ a binary population synthesis tool to estimate the probability of F-rich CEMP stars. Results: The abundances observed in HE 1305+0132 can be explained if this star accreted 3-11% of the mass lost by its former AGB companion. The primary AGB star should have dredged-up at least 0.2 {M}⊙ of material from its He-rich region into the convective envelope via third dredge-up, which corresponds to AGB models of Z ≃ 0.0001 and mass ≃2 {M}⊙. Many AGB model uncertainties, such as the treatment of convective borders and mass loss, require further investigation. We find that in the binary scenario most CEMP stars should also be FEMP stars, that is, have [F/Fe] > +1, while fast-rotating massive stars do not appear to produce fluorine. We conclude that fluorine is a signature of low-mass AGB pollution in CEMP stars, together with elements associated with the slow neutron-capture process.

  13. Chemical Analysis of a Carbon-enhanced Very Metal-poor Star: CD-27 14351

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Masseron, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, an abundance analysis of a very metal-poor carbon-enhanced star CD-27 14351 based on a high-resolution (R ∼ 48,000) FEROS spectrum. Our abundance analysis performed using local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres shows that the object is a cool star with stellar atmospheric parameters, effective temperature Teff = 4335 K, surface gravity log g = 0.5, microturbulence ξ = 2.42 km s‑1, and metallicity [Fe/H] = ‑2.6. The star exhibits high carbon and nitrogen abundances with [C/Fe] = 2.89 and [N/Fe] = 1.89. Overabundances of neutron-capture elements are evident in Ba, La, Ce, and Nd, with estimated [X/Fe] > 1, the largest enhancement being seen in Ce with [Ce/Fe] = 2.63. While the first peak s-process elements Sr and Y are found to be enhanced with respect to Fe, ([Sr/Fe] = 1.73 and [Y/Fe] = 1.91), the third peak s-process element Pb could not be detected in our spectrum at the given resolution. Europium, primarily an r-process element also shows an enhancement with [Eu/Fe] = 1.65. With [Ba/Eu] = 0.12, the object CD-27 14351 satisfies the classification criterion for a CEMP-r/s star. The elemental abundance distributions observed in this star are discussed in light of the chemical abundances observed in other CEMP stars in the literature.

  14. Abundances in the metal poor dwarf Ross 451

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesman, William J.

    1990-01-01

    High dispersion echelle spectra of the high velocity subdwarf Ross 451 (= G236-080) were obtained using the 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak. Initial abundance determinations for six elements are presented, using absolute oscillator strengths and metal-poor stellar-atmosphere models.

  15. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star BD+44 493

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Beers, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44 493 ([Fe/H]=-3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44 493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe]=-0.34 +/- 0.21, [S/Fe]=+0.07 +/- 0.41, and [Zn/Fe]=-0.10 +/- 0.24. We increase by ten-fold the number of Si I lines detected in BD+44 493, yielding [Si/Fe]=+0.15 +/- 0.22. The solar [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44 493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44 493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 Msun of Ni-56, characteristic of a faint supernova.

  16. Formation of Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in the Presence of Far-ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C+, O, O+, Si, Si+, and Si2 + following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z ⊙ = 10-3. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z ⊙ = 10-2 or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36-670839.3.

  17. FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovino, S.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Latif, M. A. [Institut für Astrophysik Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grassi, T., E-mail: sbovino@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36–670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C{sup +}, O, O{sup +}, Si, Si{sup +}, and Si{sup 2+} following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –3}. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –2} or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36–670839.3.

  18. CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN SDSS/SEGUE. I. CARBON ABUNDANCE ESTIMATION AND FREQUENCY OF CEMP STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Masseron, Thomas [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR7293), Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 04 (France); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd block Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Carollo, Daniela, E-mail: yslee@nmsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonic Research Center, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2019 (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N ≥ 15 Å{sup –1} to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T {sub eff} = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [–0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] ≥ +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4 to [Fe/H] ∼ –3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < –4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5; a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = –2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3

  19. A search for lithium in metal-poor L dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Pavlenko, Y; Rebolo, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the project is to search for lithium in absorption at 6707.8 Angstroms to constrain the nature and the mass of the brightest low-metallicity L-type dwarfs (refered to as L subdwarfs) identified in large-scale surveys. We obtained low- to intermediate-resolution (R~2500-9000) optical (~560-770 nm) spectra of two mid-L subdwarfs, SDSSJ125637.13-022452.4 (SDSS1256; sdL3.5) and 2MASSJ162620.14+392519.5 (2MASS1626; sdL4) with spectrographs on the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope and the Gran Telescopio de Canarias. We report the presence of a feature at the nominal position of the lithium absorption doublet at 6707.8 Angstroms in the spectrum of SDSS1256, with an equivalent width of 66+/-27 Angstroms at 2.4 sigma, which we identify as arising from a CaH molecular transition based on atmosphere models. We do not see any feature at the position of the lithium feature in the spectrum of 2MASS1626. The existence of overlapping molecular absorption sets a confusion detection limit of [Li/H]...

  20. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Star BD+44 493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-06-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44°493 ([Fe/H] = -3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44°493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe] = -0.34 ± 0.21, [S/Fe] = +0.07 ± 0.41, and [Zn/Fe] = -0.10 ± 0.24. We increase by 10-fold the number of Si i lines detected in BD+44°493, yielding [Si/Fe] = +0.15 ± 0.22. The [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44°493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova (SN) models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44°493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 M ⊙ of 56Ni, characteristic of a faint SN. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14231.

  1. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-Poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N

    2012-01-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae. These supernovae could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two Milky Way dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[alpha/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of supernova yields is the cause. The earlies...

  2. Discovery of the benchmark metal poor T8 dwarf BD+01 2920B

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfield, D J; Lodieu, N; Leggett, S K; Tinney, C G; van Spaandonk, L; Marocco, F; Smart, R; Gomes, J; Smith, L; Lucas, P W; Day-Jones, A C; Murray, D N; Katsiyannis, A C; Catalan, S; Cardoso, C; Clarke, J R A; Folkes, S; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Homeier, D; Jenkins, J S; Jones, H R A; Zhang, Z H

    2012-01-01

    We have searched the WISE first data release for widely separated (<10,000AU) late T dwarf companions to Hipparcos and Gliese stars. We have discovered a new binary system containing a K-band suppressed T8p dwarf WISEP J1423+0116 and the mildly metal poor ([Fe/H]=-0.38+-0.06) primary BD+01 2920 (Hip 70319), a G1 dwarf at a distance of 17.2pc. This new benchmark has Teff=680+-55K and a mass of 20-50 Mjup. Its spectral properties are well modelled except for known discrepancies in the Y and K bands. Based on the well determined metallicity of its companion, the properties of BD+01 2920B imply that the currently known T dwarfs are dominated by young low-mass objects. We also present an accurate proper motion for the T8.5 dwarf WISEP J075003.84+272544.8.

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars. I. A SOAR/OSIRIS Pilot Study

    CERN Document Server

    Beers, T C; Marstellar, B; Lee, Y S; Rossi, S; Plez, B; Beers, Timothy C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Marstellar, Brian; Lee, YoungSun; Rossi, Silvia; Plez, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    We report on an abundance analysis for a pilot study of seven Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, based on medium-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The optical spectra are used to estimate [Fe/H], [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] for our program stars. The near-infrared spectra, obtained during a limited early science run with the new SOAR 4.1m telescope and the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (OSIRIS), are used to obtain estimates of [O/Fe] and 12C/13C. The chemical abundances of CEMP stars are of importance for understanding the origin of CNO in the early Galaxy, as well as for placing constraints on the operation of the astrophysical s-process in very low-metallicity Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. This pilot study includes a few stars with previously measured [Fe/H], [C/Fe], [N/Fe],[O/Fe], 12C/13C, and [Ba/Fe], based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with large-aperture telescopes. Our analysis demonstrates that we are able to achieve reasonably accurate determi...

  4. G64-12 and G64-37 are Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Reggiani, Henrique; Melendez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We present new high-resolution chemical-abundance analyses for the well-known high proper-motion subdwarfs G64-12 and G64-37, based on very high signal-to-noise spectra (S/N ~ 700/1) with resolving power R ~ 95,000. These high-quality data enable the first reliable determination of the carbon abundances for these two stars; we classify them as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars based on their carbonicities, which both exceed [C/Fe] = +1.0. They are sub-classified as CEMP- no Group-II stars, based on their location in the Yoon-Beers diagram of absolute carbon abundance, A(C) vs. [Fe/H], as well as on the conventional diagnostic [Ba/Fe]. The relatively low absolute carbon abundances of CEMP-no stars, in combination with the high effective temperatures of these two stars (Teff ~ 6500 K) weakens their CH molecular features to the point that accurate carbon abundances can only be estimated from spectra with very high S/N. A comparison of the observed abundance patterns with the predicted yields from massive, ...

  5. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF TWO VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[{alpha}/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] << -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] {approx} -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo.

  6. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] Lt -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ~ -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor and Sextans

    CERN Document Server

    Tafelmeyer, M; Hill, V; Shetrone, M; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M J; Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Starkenburg, E; Venn, K A; Abel, T; Francois, P; Kaufer, A; North, P; Primas, F; Szeifert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to have [Fe/H] <= -3 and three stars are below [Fe/H]~-3.5. This constitutes the first evidence that the classical dSphs Fornax and Sextans join Sculptor in containing extremely metal-poor stars and suggests that all of the classical dSphs contain extremely metal-poor stars. One giant in Sculptor at [Fe/H]=-3.96 +- 0.10 is the most metal-poor star ever observed in an external galaxy. We carried out a detailed analysis of the chemical abundances of the alpha, iron peak, and the heavy elements, and we performed a comparison with the Milky Way halo and the ultra faint dwarf stellar populations. Carbon, barium and strontium show distinct features characterized by the early stages of galaxy formation and can constrain the o...

  8. G64-12 and G64-37 Are Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    We present new high-resolution chemical-abundance analyses for the well-known high proper-motion subdwarfs G64-12 and G64-37, based on very high signal-to-noise ratio spectra ({{S}}/{{N}}˜ 700/1) with resolving power R ˜ 95,000. These high-quality data enable the first reliable determination of the carbon abundances for these two stars; we classify them as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars based on their carboni cities, which both exceed [C/Fe] = +1.0. They are sub-classified as CEMP-no Group-II stars, based on their location in the Yoon-Beers diagram of absolute carbon abundance, A(C) versus [Fe/H], as well as on the conventional diagnostic [Ba/Fe]. The relatively low absolute carbon abundances of CEMP-no stars, in combination with the high effective temperatures of these two stars ({T}{eff}˜ 6500 {{K}}), weakens their CH molecular features to the point that accurate carbon abundances can only be estimated from spectra with very high S/N. A comparison of the observed abundance patterns with the predicted yields from massive, metal-free supernova models reduces the inferred progenitor masses by factors of ˜2-3, and explosion energies by factors of ˜10-15, compared to those derived using previously claimed carbon-abundance estimates. There are certainly many more warm CEMP-no stars near the halo main-sequence turnoff that have been overlooked in past studies, directly impacting the derived frequencies of CEMP-no stars as a function of metallicity, a probe that provides important constraints on Galactic chemical evolution models, the initial mass function in the early universe, and first-star nucleosynthesis.

  9. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. Based on the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. However, verification of the iron-deficiency and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are mandatory for demonstrating that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming the iron abundance of less than 1/4000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern mirrors th...

  10. Stellar populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    CERN Document Server

    Sacchi, E; Cignoni, M; Aloisi, A; Sohn, T; Tosi, M; van der Marel, R P; Grocholski, A J; James, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the star formation history of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO~68, based on our $V-$ and $I-$ band photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. With a metallicity of only $12+\\log(O/H)=7.15$ and an isolated location in the periphery of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void, DDO~68 is one of the most metal poor galaxies known. It has been argued in the past that DDO~68 is a young system that started forming stars only $\\sim 0.15$~Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color-magnitude diagram that now allows us to disprove this hypothesis, since we find a population of at least $\\sim 1$~Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is \\mbox{$\\simeq 0.01$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$}, providing a total mass of formed stars of \\mbox{$\\simeq 1.3 ...

  11. The Kennicutt-Schmidt Relation in Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, M E; Amorín, R; Muñoz-Tuñón, C; Elmegreen, B G; Elmegreen, D M

    2016-01-01

    The Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP HI data occupy the same region as dwarfs, and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the HI gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of 'dark' H$_2$ mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE$_{\\rm gas}$). Low SFE$_{\\rm gas}$ in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the HI gas. Alternatively, the HI reservoir may be ...

  12. The metal-poor Knee in the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A; Boeche, Corrado; Walker, Matthew; Johnson, Christian I; Penarrubia, Jorge; Gilmore, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We present alpha-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), obtained with VLT/GIRAFFE (R~16,000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor stars in our sample, we are able to follow the alpha-element evolution from [Fe/H]=-2.5 continuously to [Fe/H]=-0.7 dex. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, alpha-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [alpha/Fe] values due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an alpha-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined "knee", caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [alpha/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H]=-1.9 and therefore significantly more metal-poor than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value ...

  13. The chemical compositions of two nitrogen-rich, metal-poor, halo dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Renee C.; Sneden, Cristopher

    1994-07-01

    New high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained for HD 25329 and HD 74000, dwarf stars that are metal-poor but nitrogen-rich members of the galactic halo. An atmosphere parameter and chemical composition analysis confirms earlier assertions of both their metal poverty, (Fe/H) approximately equals -2, and their high gravity, log g greater than 4. The relative abundances of the alpha-capture and iron-peak elements are normal for metal-poor stars. Overabundances of sodium, and possibly aluminum as well, are derived, but there are no pronounced depletions of oxygen; thus these stars do not show the sodium/oxygen or nitrogen/oxygen anticorrelations seen in globular cluster giants. All very heavy elements synthesized through s-process neutron-capture nucleosynthesis are enhanced in these stars. It is likely that the enrichments of nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, and the very heavy elements in these stars originated in material dredged up from the helium-burning shells of former AGB stars, but there is no direct evidence for binary companions for these stars.

  14. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun [NMSU, Las Cruces; Beers, Timothy C. [Michigan State U., JINA; Masseron, Thomas [Brussels U.; Plez, Bertrand [U. Montpellier 2, LUPM; Rockosi, Constance M. [Lick Observ.; Sobeck, Jennifer [Chicago U.; Yanny, Brian [Fermilab; Lucatello, Sara [Padua Observ.; Sivarani, Thirupathi [Bangalore, Indian Inst. Astrophys.; Placco, Vinicius M. [Sao Paulo U., IAG; Carollo, Daniela [Macquarie U.

    2013-10-17

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the SDSS and SEGUE. By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N > 15 to a precision better than 0.35 dex. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] < -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] < -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] < -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.5), but rather, decreases, due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] < -3.0. [abridged

  15. THE KENNICUTT–SCHMIDT RELATION IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Amorín, R. [National Institute for Astrophysics, Astronomical Observatory of Rome, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Rome) (Italy); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM, T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low-metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP H i data occupy the same region as dwarfs and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the H i gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of “dark” H{sub 2} mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE{sub gas}). Low SFE{sub gas} in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the H i gas. Alternatively, the H i reservoir may be largely inert, the star formation being dominated by cosmological accretion. Time lags between gas accretion and star formation may also reduce the apparent SFE{sub gas}, as may galaxy winds, which can expel most of the gas into the intergalactic medium. Hence, on global scales, XMPs could be H i-dominated, high-specific-SFR (≳10{sup −10} yr{sup −1}), low-SFE{sub gas} (≲10{sup −9} yr{sup −1}) systems, in which the total H i mass is likely not a good predictor of the total H{sub 2} mass, nor of the SFR.

  16. Stellar Populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, T.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Grocholski, A. J.; James, B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO 68, based on our photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. With a metallicity of only 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.15 and a very isolated location, DDO 68 is one of the most metal-poor galaxies known. It has been argued that DDO 68 is a young system that started forming stars only ∼0.15 Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color–magnitude diagram (CMD) that allows us to disprove this hypothesis since we find a population of at least ∼1 Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is ≃0.01 M ⊙ yr‑1, corresponding to a total astrated mass of ≃1.3 × 108 M ⊙. Our photometry allows us to infer the distance from the tip of the red giant branch, D = 12.08 ± 0.67 Mpc; however, to let our synthetic CMD reproduce the observed ones, we need a slightly higher distance, D = 12.65 Mpc, or (m ‑ M)0 = 30.51, still inside the errors of the previous determination, and we adopt the latter. DDO 68 shows a very interesting and complex history, with its quite disturbed shape and a long tail, probably due to tidal interactions. The SFH of the tail differs from that of the main body mainly for enhanced activity at recent epochs likely triggered by the interaction. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.

  17. The most metal-poor damped Lyman alpha systems: An insight into dwarf galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Jorgenson, Regina A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a `knee' in the relative abundances of the alpha-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ~ -2.0. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have m...

  18. Stellar Yields of Rotating First Stars: Yields of Weak Supernovae and Abundances of Carbon-enhanced Hyper Metal Poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The three most iron-poor stars known until now are also known to have peculiar enhancements of intermediate mass elements. Under the assumption that these iron-deficient stars reveal the nucleosynthesis result of Pop III stars, we show that a weak supernova model successfully reproduces the observed abundance patterns. Moreover, we show that the initial parameters of the progenitor, such as the initial masses and the rotational property, can be constrained by the model, since the stellar yields result from the nucleosynthesis in the outer region of the star, which is significantly affected by the initial parameters. The initial parameter of Pop III stars is of prime importance for the theoretical study of the early universe. Future observation will increase the number of such carbon enhanced iron-deficient stars, and the same analysis on the stars may give valuable information for the Pop III stars that existed in our universe.

  19. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars - CEMP-no stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon - the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds, or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocit variation...

  20. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars -- CEMP-s stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spectroscopic studies of metal-poor halo stars have highlighted the important role of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in understanding the early production and ejection of carbon in the Galaxy and in identifying the progenitors of the CEMP stars among the first stars formed after the Big Bang. Recent work has also classified the CEMP stars by absolute carbon abundance, A(C), into high- and low-C bands, mostly populated by binary and single stars, respectively. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binary systems among the CEMP-s stars, which exhibit strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements associated with the s-process. This allows us to test whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their dramatic carbon excesses. Eighteen of the 22 stars exhibit clear orbital motion, yielding a binary frequency of 82+-10%, while four stars appear to be single (18+-10%). We thus confirm that the binary frequency of CEMP-s stars...

  1. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Ryan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Pettini, Max [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jorgenson, Regina A., E-mail: rcooke@ucolick.org [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T {sub gas} ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe.

  2. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star Frequencies in the Galaxy: Corrections for the Effect of Evolutionary Status on Carbon Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Beers, Timothy C; Stancliffe, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the observed frequencies of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars as a function of the metallicity in the Galaxy, using data from the literature with available high-resolution spectroscopy. Our analysis excludes stars exhibiting clear over-abundances of neutron-capture elements, and takes into account the expected depletion of surface carbon abundance that occurs due to CN processing on the upper red-giant branch. This allows for the recovery of the initial carbon abundance of these stars, and thus for an accurate assessment of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced stars. The correction procedure we develope is based on stellar-evolution models, and depends on the surface gravity, log g, of a given star. Our analysis indicates that, for stars with [Fe/H]=+0.7. This fraction increases to 43% for [Fe/H]<=-3.0 and 81% for [Fe/H]<=-4.0, which is higher than have been previously inferred without taking the carbon-abundance correction into account. These CEMP-star frequencies provide important input...

  3. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies : Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to hav

  4. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. II. Comparison of CEMP Star Frequencies with Binary Population Synthesis Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C; Lucatello, Sara

    2013-01-01

    We present a comparison of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) giant and main-sequence turnoff stars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, with predictions from asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) mass-transfer models. We consider two initial mass functions (IMFs)-a Salpeter IMF, and a mass function with a characteristic mass of 10 solar mass. These comparisons indicate good agreement between the observed CEMP frequencies for stars with [Fe/H] > -1.5 and a Salpeter IMF, but not with an IMF having a higher characteristic mass. Thus, while the adopted AGB model works well for low-mass progenitor stars, it does not do so for high-mass progenitors. Our results imply that the IMF shifted from high- to low-mass dominated in the early history of the Milky Way, which appears to have occurred at a "chemical time" between [Fe/H] = -2.5 and [Fe/H] = -1.5. The corrected CEMP frequency for the turnoff stars with [Fe/H] < -3.0 is much h...

  5. The Most Metal-poor Damped Lyα Systems: An Insight into Dwarf Galaxies at High-redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a "knee" in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] sime -2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T gas ~= 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (VLT program IDs: 60.A-9022(A), 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0296(A), 67.A-0022(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0600(A), 68.B-0115(A), 70.A-0425(C), 078.A-0185(A), 080.A-0014(A), 082.A-0544(A), 083.A-0042(A), 083.A-0454(A), 085.A-0109(A), 086.A-0204(A)), and at the

  6. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a window on AGB nucleosynthesis and binary evolution. I. Detailed analysis of 15 binary stars with known orbital periods

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Karakas, A I; Izzard, R G

    2015-01-01

    AGB stars are responsible for producing a variety of elements, including carbon, nitrogen, and the heavy elements produced in the slow neutron-capture process ($s$-elements). There are many uncertainties involved in modelling the evolution and nucleosynthesis of AGB stars, and this is especially the case at low metallicity, where most of the stars with high enough masses to enter the AGB have evolved to become white dwarfs and can no longer be observed. The stellar population in the Galactic halo is of low mass ($\\lesssim 0.85M_{\\odot}$) and only a few observed stars have evolved beyond the first giant branch. However, we have evidence that low-metallicity AGB stars in binary systems have interacted with their low-mass secondary companions in the past. The aim of this work is to investigate AGB nucleosynthesis at low metallicity by studying the surface abundances of chemically peculiar very metal-poor stars of the halo observed in binary systems. To this end we select a sample of 15 carbon- and $s$-element-en...

  7. The Oldest Stars of the Extremely Metal-Poor Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Leo A

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, R E; Drozdovsky, I O; Greggio, L; Crone, M M; Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Hopp, Ulrich; Drozdovsky, Igor O.; Greggio, Laura; Crone, Mary M.

    2002-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope single-star photometry of Leo A in B, V, and I. Our new field of view is offset from the centrally located field observed by Tolstoy et al. (1998) in order to expose the halo population of this galaxy. We report the detection of metal-poor red horizontal branch stars, which demonstrate that Leo A is not a young galaxy. In fact, Leo A is as least as old as metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters which exhibit red horizontal branches, and are considered to have a minimum age of about 9 Gyr. We discuss the distance to Leo A, and perform an extensive comparison of the data with stellar isochrones. For a distance modulus of 24.5, the data are better than 50% complete down to absolute magnitudes of 2 or more. We can easily identify stars with metallicities between 0.0001 and 0.0004, and ages between about 5 and 10 Gyr, in their post-main-sequence phases, but lack the detection of main-sequence turnoffs which would provide unambiguous proof of ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar generation...

  8. Detailed abundances in extremely metal poor dwarf stars extracted from SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, Luca; Caffau, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Hans-Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We report on the result of an ongoing campaign to determine chemical abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) low resolution spectra. This contribution focuses principally on the largest part of the sample (18 stars out of 29), observed with UVES@VLT and analyzed by means of the automatic abundance analysis code MyGIsFOS to derive atmosphere parameters and detailed compositions. The most significant findings include i) the detection of a C-rich, strongly Mg-enhanced star ([Mg/Fe]=1.45); ii) a group of Mn-rich stars ([Mn/Fe]>-0.4); iii) a group of Ni-rich stars ([Ni/Fe]>0.2). Li is measured in twelve stars, while for three upper limits are derived.

  9. The Oldest Stars of the Extremely Metal-Poor Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Hopp, Ulrich; Drozdovsky, Igor O.; Greggio, Laura; Crone, Mary M.

    2002-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) single-star photometry of Leo A in B, V, and I. Our new field of view is offset from the centrally located field observed by Tolstoy et al. in order to expose the halo population of this galaxy. We report the detection of metal-poor red horizontal branch stars, which demonstrate that Leo A is not a young galaxy. In fact, Leo A is as least as old as metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters that exhibit red horizontal branches and are considered to have a minimum age of about 9 Gyr. We discuss the distance to Leo A and perform an extensive comparison of the data with stellar isochrones. For a distance modulus of 24.5, the data are better than 50% complete down to absolute magnitudes of 2 or more. We can easily identify stars with metallicities between 0.0001 and 0.0004, and ages between about 5 and 10 Gyr, in their post-main-sequence phases, but we lack the detection of main-sequence turnoffs that would provide unambiguous proof of ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar generations. Blue horizontal branch stars are above the detection limits but difficult to distinguish from young stars with similar colors and magnitudes. Synthetic color-magnitude diagrams show it is possible to populate the blue horizontal branch in the halo of Leo A. The models also suggest ~50% of the total astrated mass in our pointing to be attributed to an ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar population. We conclude that Leo A started to form stars at least about 9 Gyr ago. Leo A exhibits an extremely low oxygen abundance, only 3% of solar, in its ionized interstellar medium. The existence of old stars in this very oxygen-deficient galaxy illustrates that a low oxygen abundance does not preclude a history of early star formation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. DISCOVERY OF MIRA VARIABLE STARS IN THE METAL-POOR SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi [Japan Spaceguard Association, 1716-3 Ookura, Bisei, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411 (Japan); Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Hasegawa, Takashi, E-mail: sakamoto@spaceguard.or.jp [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, 6860-86 Nakayama, Takayama, Agatsuma, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan)

    2012-12-10

    We report the discovery of two Mira variable stars (Miras) toward the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). We performed optical long-term monitoring observations for two red stars in the Sextans dSph. The light curves of both stars in the I{sub c} band show large-amplitude (3.7 and 0.9 mag) and long-period (326 {+-} 15 and 122 {+-} 5 days) variations, suggesting that they are Miras. We combine our own infrared data with previously published data to estimate the mean infrared magnitudes. The distances obtained from the period-luminosity relation of the Miras (75.3{sup +12.8}{sub -10.9} and 79.8{sup +11.5}{sub -9.9} kpc, respectively), together with the radial velocities available, support memberships of the Sextans dSph (90.0 {+-} 10.0 kpc). These are the first Miras found in a stellar system with a metallicity as low as [Fe/H] {approx} -1.9 than any other known system with Miras.

  11. The Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy Survey (SDGS); 1, CMDs, Reddening and Population Gradients First evidences of a very metal poor population

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Buonanno, R

    1998-01-01

    We present first results of a large photometric survey devoted to study the star formation history of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). Three wide strips (9 X 35 arcmin^2) located at l~5 and b=-16, -14, -12 have been observed. Each strip is roughly EW oriented, nearly along the major axis of the galaxy. A control field (~9 X 24 arcmin^2), located outside the body of Sgr dSph has also been observed for statistic decontamination purposes. Accurate and well calibrated V,I photometry down to V~22 have been obtained for is the largest photometric sample (covering the widest spatial extension) ever observed in the Sgr dSph up to now. The main new results presented in this paper are: (1) the possible discovery of a strong asymmetry in the distribution of stars along the major axis, since the north-western arm of the Sgr galaxy (i.e. the region nearer to the Galactic Bulge) apparently shows a significant deficiency of Sgr stars and (2) the first direct detection of a very metal poor (and presumably ...

  12. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  13. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-Enhanced Metal-poor Stars with S-process Element Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Hollek, Julie K; Placco, Vinicius M; Karakas, Amanda I; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, log g = 1.25, vmic = 2.20 km/s, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has [C/Fe] = 1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as "CEMP-r/s" star. Based on abundance comparisons with AGB star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically-motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly-understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of therma...

  14. First Stars XI. Chemical composition of the extremely metal-poor dwarfs in the binary CS 22876--032

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, J I González; Ludwig, H -G; Caffau, E; Spite, M; Spite, F; Cayrel, R; Molaro, P; Hill, V; François, P; Plez, B; Beers, T C; Sivarani, T; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Depagne, E; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2007-01-01

    We have used high-resolution, high-S/N ratio spectra from the UVES spectrograph at the ESO VLT telescope. Long-term radial-velocity measurements and broad-band photometry allow us to determine improved orbital elements and stellar parameters for both components. We use OSMARCS 1D models and the {{\\scshape turbospectrum}} spectral synthesis code to determine the abundances of Li, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. We also use the CO$^5$BOLD model atmosphere code to compute the 3D abundance corrections, especially for Li and O. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H]$\\sim -3.6$ for both stars, using 1D models with 3D corrections of $\\sim -0.1$ dex from averaged 3D models. We determine the oxygen abundance from the near-UV OH bands; the 3D corrections are large, -1 and -1.5 dex for the secondary and primary respectively, and yield [O/Fe] $\\sim 0.8$, close to the high-quality results obtained from the [OI] 630 nm line in metal-poor giants. Other [$\\alpha$/Fe] ratios are consistent with those measured i...

  15. A New View of the Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites of the Milky Way From VLT/FLAMES: Where are the Very Metal Poor Stars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmi, Amina; Irwin, M.J.; Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Arimoto, N.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; Primas, F.; Sadakane, K.; Szeifert, T.; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron. /Meudon Observ. /LASTRO Observ. /Victoria U. /Texas U., McDonald Observ.

    2006-11-20

    As part of the Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team (DART) Programme, we have measured the metallicities of a large sample of stars in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph): Sculptor, Sextans, Fornax and Carina. The low mean metal abundances and the presence of very old stellar populations in these galaxies have supported the view that they are fossils from the early Universe. However, contrary to naive expectations, we find a significant lack of stars with metallicities below [Fe/H] {approx} -3 dex in all four systems. This suggests that the gas that made up the stars in these systems had been uniformly enriched prior to their formation. Furthermore, the metal-poor tail of the dSph metallicity distribution is significantly different from that of the Galactic halo. These findings show that the progenitors of nearby dSph appear to have been fundamentally different from the building blocks of the Milky Way, even at the earliest epochs.

  16. VLT/GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations of the metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxy SBS 0335-052E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Schaerer, D.; Blecha, A.; Royer, F.; Guseva, N. G.; North, P.

    2006-11-01

    Aims.We present two-dimensional spectroscopy of the extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy SBS 0335-052E to study physical conditions, element abundances and kinematical properties of the ionised gas in this galaxy. Methods: .Observations were obtained in the spectral range λ3620-9400 Å with the imaging spectrograph GIRAFFE on the UT2 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). These observations are the first ones carried out so far with GIRAFFE in the ARGUS mode which allows one to simultaneously obtain 308 spectra covering a 11.4 arcsec×7.3 arcsec region. Results: .We produced images of SBS 0335-052E in the continuum and in emission lines of different stages of excitation. While the maximum of emission in the majority of lines, including the strong lines Hβ 4861 Å, Hα 6563 Å, [O iii] 4363,5007 Å, [O ii] 3726,3729 Å, coincides with the youngest south-eastern star clusters 1 and 2, the emission of He II 4686 Å line is offset to the more evolved north-west clusters 4, 5. This suggests that hard ionising radiation responsible for the He II λ4686 Å emission is not related to the most massive youngest stars, but rather is related to fast radiative shocks. This conclusion is supported by the kinematical properties of the ionised gas from the different emission lines as the velocity dispersion in the He II λ4686 Å line is systematically higher, by ~50-100%, than that in other lines. The variations of the emission line profiles suggest the presence of an ionised gas outflow in the direction perpendicular to the galaxy disk. We find a relatively high electron number density Ne of several hundred cm-3 in the brightest part of SBS 0335-052E. There is a small gradient of the electron temperature Te and oxygen abundance from the East to the West with systematically higher Te and lower 12+log O/H in the western part of the galaxy. The oxygen abundances for the whole H II region and its brightest part are 12 + log O/H = 7.29 ± 0.02 and 7.31 ± 0

  17. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars with s-process Element Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Placco, Vinicius M.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, {log}g=1.25,\\ξ = 2.20 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has {{[C/Fe]}}=1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as a “CEMP-r/s” star. Based on abundance comparisons with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of thermal pulses the AGB companion underwent, the effect of different AGB star masses on their nucleosynthetic yields, and physics that is not well approximated in 1D stellar models such as proton ingestion episodes and rotation. Based on a set of detailed AGB models, we suggest the abundance signature of HE 0414-0343 to have arisen from a >1.3 M⊙ mass AGB star and a late-time mass transfer that transformed HE 0414-0343 into a CEMP-sC star. We also find that the [Y/Ba] ratio well parametrizes the classification and can thus be used to easily classify any future such stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  18. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXIX. HD175607 b, the most metal-poor G dwarf with an orbiting sub-Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Mortier, A; Santos, N C; Rajpaul, V; Figueira, P; Boisse, I; Cameron, A Collier; Dumusque, X; Curto, G Lo; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Melo, C; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Ségransan, D; Sousa, S G; Sozzetti, A; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    Context. The presence of a small-mass planet (M$_p<$0.1\\,M$_{Jup}$) seems, to date, not to depend on metallicity, however, theoretical simulations have shown that stars with subsolar metallicities may be favoured for harbouring smaller planets. A large, dedicated survey of metal-poor stars with the HARPS spectrograph has thus been carried out to search for Neptunes and super-Earths. Aims. In this paper, we present the analysis of \\object{HD175607}, an old G6 star with metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.62. We gathered 119 radial velocity measurements in 110 nights over a time span of more than nine years. Methods. The radial velocities were analysed using Lomb-Scargle periodograms, a genetic algorithm, a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, and a Gaussian processes analysis. The spectra were also used to derive stellar properties. Several activity indicators were analysed to study the effect of stellar activity on the radial velocities. Results. We find evidence for the presence of a small Neptune-mass planet (M$_{p}\\s...

  19. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. II. The electron temperature-abundance calibration and the parameters that affect it

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in HII regions. In the previous paper we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of seventeen HII regions in fourteen isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between 1/10 and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin HII regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the ...

  20. Discovering extremely compact and metal-poor, star-forming dwarf galaxies out to z ~ 0.9 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo; Castellano, M; Grazian, A; Tasca, L A M; Fontana, A; Pentericci, L; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bardelli, S; Capak, P; Cassará, L; Cimatti, A; Cuby, J G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; Durkalec, A; Giavalisco, M; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Lemaux, B C; Moreau, C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Salvato, M; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Talia, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Wang, P W; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Fotopoulou, S; López-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Scoville, N

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 31 low-luminosity (-14.5 < M_{AB}(B) < -18.8), extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at 0.3 < z < 0.9 identified by their unusually high rest-frame equivalent widths (100 < EW[OIII] < 1700 A) as part of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). VIMOS optical spectra of unprecedented sensitivity ($I_{AB}$ ~ 25 mag) along with multiwavelength photometry and HST imaging are used to investigate spectrophotometric properties of this unique sample and explore, for the first time, the very low stellar mass end (M* < 10^8 M$_{\\odot}$) of the luminosity-metallicity (LZR) and mass-metallicity (MZR) relations at z < 1. Characterized by their extreme compactness (R50 < 1 kpc), low stellar mass and enhanced specific star formation rates (SFR/M* ~ 10^{-9} - 10^{-7} yr^{-1}), the VUDS EELGs are blue dwarf galaxies likely experiencing the first stages of a vigorous galaxy-wide starburst. Using T_e-sensitive direct and strong-line methods, we find that VUDS EELGs are low-metall...

  1. Properties of the most metal-poor gas-rich LSB dwarf galaxies SDSS J0015+0104 and J2354-0005 residing in the Eridanus void

    CERN Document Server

    Pustilnik, S A; Lyamina, Y A; Kniazev, A Y

    2013-01-01

    SDSS J0015+0104 is the lowest metallicity low surface brightness dwarf (LSBD) galaxy known. The oxygen abundance in its HII region SDSS J001520.70+010436.9 (at ~1.5 kpc from the galaxy centre) is 12+log(O/H)=7.07 (Guseva et al.). This galaxy, at the distance of 28.4 Mpc, appears to reside deeply in the volume devoid of luminous massive galaxies, known as the Eridanus void. SDSS J235437.29-000501.6 is another Eridanus void LSBD galaxy, with parameter 12+log(O/H)=7.36 (also Guseva et al.). We present the results of their HI observations with the Nancay Radio Telescope revealing their high ratios of M(HI)/L_B ~2.3. Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, we derived for both galaxies their radial surface brightness profiles and the main photometric parameters. Their colours and total magnitudes are used to estimate the galaxy stellar mass and ages. The related gas mass-fractions, f_g ~0.98 and ~0.97, and the extremely low metallicities (much lower than for their more typical counterparts with the same lumin...

  2. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, A J; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that, for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 <= T_eff [K] <= 6550, 4.0 <= log g <= 4.5, -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Early analysis revealed that the ...

  3. On the properties of the interstellar medium in extremely metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxies: GMOS-IFU spectroscopy and SDSS photometry of the double-knot galaxy HS 2236+1344

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, P; Gomes, J M; Castelli, A V Smith; Vega, L R; .,

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to carry out a spatially resolved investigation of the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in the extremely metal-poor Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxy HS 2236+1344. Special emphasis is laid on the analysis of the spatial distribution of chemical abundances, emission-line ratios and kinematics of the ISM, and to the recent star-forming activity in this galaxy. This study is based on optical integral field unit spectroscopy data from Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini North telescope and archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey images. The data were obtained in two different positions across the galaxy, obtaining a total 4 arcsec X 8 arcsec field which encompasses most of its ISM. Emission-line maps and broad-band images obtained in this study indicate that HS 2236+1344 hosts three Giant HII regions. Our data also reveal some faint curved features in the BCD periphery that might be due to tidal perturbations or expanding ionized-gas shells. The ISM velocity field shows systematic ...

  4. 统计SDSS-DR7中的CEMP星并分析其温度和光谱型%Statistics of Effective Temperatures and Spectral Types of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor(CEMP) Stars in the SDSS-DR7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤飞; 罗阿理; 张健楠; 刘超; 赵永恒

    2009-01-01

    统计了SDSS(The Sloan Digital Sky Survey)最新发布的DR7(Data Release 7)数据中的CEMP星(Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars).分析了样本的温度、光谱型、颜色等物理参量,同时给出了CEMP星在SDSS贫金属星中占的比例约为11%.统计得到SDSS-SSPP(The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline)发布的CEMP星样本的温度主要集中在6000~9000 K范围内.采用PLSR(偏最小二乘回归)方法计算样本的温度并给出其光谱型,结果显示与SSPP发布的温度比较没有系统误差,但在温度较高时,随机误差较大,这与SSPP中采用不同方法给出的温度值是一致的.从颜色-颜色图上看,选出的CEMP星主要包含两类星:BHB/BS和F(F Turn-Off),前者温度较高且温度误差相对较大.通过样本在Log(g)-颜色图上的划分,可以区分BHB和BS样本.最后讨论了BHB/BS和F(F Turn-Off)中C元素的来源.

  5. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  6. Near-Field Cosmology with Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The oldest, most metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and satellite dwarf galaxies present an opportunity to explore the chemical and physical conditions of the earliest star forming environments in the Universe. We review the fields of stellar archaeology and dwarf galaxy archaeology by examining the chemical abundance measurements of various elements in extremely metal-poor stars. Focus on the carbon-rich and carbon-normal halo star populations illustrates how these provide insight into the Population III star progenitors responsible for the first metal enrichment events. We extend the discussion to near-field cosmology, which is concerned with the formation of the first stars and galaxies and how metal-poor stars can be used to constrain these processes. Complementary abundance measurements in high-redshift gas clouds further help to establish the early chemical evolution of the Universe. The data appear consistent with the existence of two distinct channels of star formation at the earliest times.

  7. Stellar Archaeology -- Exploring the Universe with Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The abundance patterns of the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and small dwarf galaxies provide us with a wealth of information about the early Universe. In particular, these old survivors allow us to study the nature of the first stars and supernovae, the relevant nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the formation and evolution of the elements, early star- and galaxy formation processes, as well as the assembly process of the stellar halo from dwarf galaxies a long time ago. This review presents the current state of the field of "stellar archaeology" -- the diverse use of metal-poor stars to explore the high-redshift Universe and its constituents. In particular, the conditions for early star formation are discussed, how these ultimately led to a chemical evolution, and what the role of the most iron-poor stars is for learning about Population III supernovae yields. Rapid neutron-capture signatures found in metal-poor stars can be used to obtain stellar ages, but also to constrain this complex ...

  8. The oldest and most metal poor stars in the APOSTLE Local Group simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Starkenburg, Else; Navarro, Julio F; Crain, Robert A; Fattahi, Azadeh; Frenk, Carlos S; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of the oldest and most metal poor stellar populations of Milky Way-sized galaxies using the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. In agreement with earlier work, we find strong radial gradients in the fraction of the oldest (tform < 0.8 Gyr) and most metal poor ([Fe/H]< -2.5) stars, both of which increase outwards. The most metal poor stars form over an extended period of time; half of them form after z = 5.3, and the last 10% after z = 2.8. The age of the metal poor stellar population also shows significant variation with environment; a high fraction of them are old in the galaxy's central regions and an even higher fraction in some individual dwarf galaxies, with substantial scatter from dwarf to dwarf. Overall, over half of the stars that belong to both the oldest and most metal-poor population are found outside the solar circle. Somewhat counter-intuitively, we find that dwarf galaxies with a large fraction of metal poor stars that ar...

  9. The oldest and most metal-poor stars in the APOSTLE Local Group simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkenburg, Else; Oman, Kyle A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Crain, Robert A.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Frenk, Carlos S.; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop

    2017-02-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of the oldest and most metal-poor stellar populations of Milky Way-sized galaxies using the A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment (APOSTLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. In agreement with earlier work, we find strong radial gradients in the fraction of the oldest (tform stars, both of which increase outwards. The most metal-poor stars form over an extended period of time; half of them form after z = 5.3, and the last 10 per cent after z = 2.8. The age of the metal-poor stellar population also shows significant variation with environment; a high fraction of them are old in the galaxy's central regions and an even higher fraction in some individual dwarf galaxies, with substantial scatter from dwarf to dwarf. We investigate the dependence of these results on the assumptions made for metal mixing. Overall, over half of the stars that belong to both the oldest and most metal-poor population are found outside the solar circle. Somewhat counter-intuitively, we find that dwarf galaxies with a large fraction of metal-poor stars that are very old are systems where metal-poor stars are relatively rare, but where a substantial old population is present. Our results provide guidance for interpreting the results of surveys designed to hunt for the earliest and most pristine stellar component of our Milky Way.

  10. The Most Metal-Poor Stars. III. The Metallicity Distribution Function and CEMP Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Yong, David; Bessell, M S; Christlieb, N; Asplund, M; Beers, Timothy C; Barklem, P S; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] < -3.0, based on high-resolution, high-S/N spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = -3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the "corrected" MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = -3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = -4.1. Similar results are obtained from the "raw" MDF. We find the fraction of CEMP objects below [Fe/H] = -3.0 is 23 +/- 6% and 32 +/- 8% when adopting the Beers et al. and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers et al. criterion.

  11. THE ORIGIN OF LOW [α/Fe] RATIOS IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken' ichi, E-mail: c.kobayashi@herts.ac.uk [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-10

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  12. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z_⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f_(70μm)/f_(160 μm) ratios at a given f_(160 μm)/f_(2...

  13. Carbon and Strontium Abundances of Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David K; Bolte, Michael; Lucatello, Sara

    2007-01-01

    We present carbon and strontium abundances for 100 metal-poor stars measured from R$\\sim $7000 spectra obtained with the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager at the Keck Observatory. Using spectral synthesis of the G-band region, we have derived carbon abundances for stars ranging from [Fe/H]$=-1.3$ to [Fe/H]$=-3.8$. The formal errors are $\\sim 0.2$ dex in [C/Fe]. The strontium abundance in these stars was measured using spectral synthesis of the resonance line at 4215 {\\AA}. Using these two abundance measurments along with the barium abundances from our previous study of these stars, we show it is possible to identify neutron-capture-rich stars with our spectra. We find, as in other studies, a large scatter in [C/Fe] below [Fe/H]$ = -2$. Of the stars with [Fe/H]$<-2$, 9$\\pm$4% can be classified as carbon-rich metal-poor stars. The Sr and Ba abundances show that three of the carbon-rich stars are neutron-capture-rich, while two have normal Ba and Sr. This fraction of carbon enhanced stars is consistent with ...

  14. Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. II. A Chemodynamical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Dietz, Sarah; Masseron, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We obtain estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters for a previously published sample of 1777 relatively bright (9Survey. The original Frebel et al. analysis of these stars was able to derive estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] only for a subset of the sample, due to limitations in the methodology then available. A new spectroscopic analysis pipeline has been used to obtain estimates of {T}{eff}, {log} g, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for almost the entire data set. This sample is very local—about 90% of the stars are located within 0.5 kpc of the Sun. We consider the chemodynamical properties of these stars in concert with a similarly local sample of stars from a recent analysis of the Bidelman and MacConnell “weak metal” candidates by Beers et al. We use this combined sample to identify possible members of the halo stream of stars suggested by Helmi et al. and Chiba & Beers, as well as stars that may be associated with stripped debris from the putative parent dwarf of the globular cluster Omega Centauri, suggested to exist by previous authors. We identify a clear increase in the cumulative frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with declining metallicity, as well as an increase in the fraction of CEMP stars with distance from the Galactic plane, consistent with previous results. We also identify a relatively large number of CEMP stars with kinematics consistent with the metal-weak thick-disk population, with possible implications for its origin.

  15. A New Type of Extremely Metal Poor Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; Christlieb, N; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Melendez, J; Reimers, L W D; Cohen, Judith G.; William, Andrew Mc; Christlieb, Norbert; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian; Melendez, Jorge; Reimers, Lutz Wisotzki & Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We present an abundance analysis for the extremely metal poor star HE1424-0241 based on high dispersion spectra from HIRES at Keck. This star is a giant on the lower red giant branch with [Fe/H] ~ -4.0 dex. Relative to Fe, HE1424-0241 has normal Mg, but it shows a very large deficiency of Si, with epsilon(Si)/epsilon(Fe) ~ 1/10 and epsilon(Si)/epsilon(Mg) ~ 1/25 that of all previously known extremely metal poor giants or dwarfs. It also has a moderately large deficiency of Ca and a smaller deficit of Ti, combined with enhanced Mn and Co and normal or low C. We suggest that in HE1424-0241 we see the effect of a very small number of contributing supernovae, and that the SNII contributing to the chemical inventory of HE1424-0241 were biased in progenitor mass or in explosion characteristics so as to reproduce its abnormal extremely low Si/Mg ratio. HE1424-0241 shows a deficiency of the explosive alpha-burning elements Si, Ca and Ti coupled with a ratio [Mg/Fe] normal for EMP stars; Mg is produced via hydrostatic...

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of metal-poor stars from LAMOST: early results

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai-Ning; Christlieb, Norbert; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan~II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars...

  17. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  18. Modelling the observed properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars using binary population synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Stancliffe, R J; Izzard, R G; Karakas, A I; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S

    2015-01-01

    The stellar population in the Galactic halo is characterised by a large fraction of CEMP stars. Most CEMP stars are enriched in $s$-elements (CEMP-$s$ stars), and some of these are also enriched in $r$-elements (CEMP-$s/r$ stars). One formation scenario proposed for CEMP stars invokes wind mass transfer in the past from a TP-AGB primary star to a less massive companion star which is presently observed. We generate low-metallicity populations of binary stars to reproduce the observed CEMP-star fraction. In addition, we aim to constrain our wind mass-transfer model and investigate under which conditions our synthetic populations reproduce observed abundance distributions. We compare the CEMP fractions and the abundance distributions determined from our synthetic populations with observations. Several physical parameters of the binary stellar population of the halo are uncertain, e.g. the initial mass function, the mass-ratio and orbital-period distributions, and the binary fraction. We vary the assumptions in o...

  19. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Jeremy S; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 Msun Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 10^51 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 Msun, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blastwave deposited metals on...

  20. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor galaxy, I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding galaxies in the early universe by providing constraints on the IMF of massive stars, the role of galaxies in reionization of the universe, mixing of newly synthesized material in the ISM, and gamma-ray bursts at low metallicity, and on the earliest generations of stars producing the observed abundance pattern. We describe these constraints as derived from analyses of HST/COS spectra of I Zw 18 including stellar atmosphere analysis and photo-ionization modeling of both the emission and absorption spectra of the nebular material and interstellar medium.

  1. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z around Zsun/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70um/f160um ratios at a given f160um/f250um ratio; single modified black-body (MBB) fittings to the SED at \\lambda >= 100 um still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (beta = 2) show that even at 100 um about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (~20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images further reveal that the far-IR colors including f70um/f160um, f160um/f250um and f250um/f350um are all related to ...

  2. Lithium isotopic abundances in metal-poor halo stars

    CERN Document Server

    Asplund, M; Nissen, P E; Primas, F; Smith, V V; Asplund, Martin; Lambert, David L.; Nissen, Poul Erik; Primas, Francesca; Smith, Verne V.

    2005-01-01

    Very high-quality spectra of 24 metal-poor halo dwarfs and subgiants have been acquired with ESO's VLT/UVES for the purpose of determining Li isotopic abundances. The derived 1D, non-LTE 7Li abundances from the LiI 670.8nm line reveal a pronounced dependence on metallicity but with negligible scatter around this trend. Very good agreement is found between the abundances from the LiI 670.8nm line and the LiI 610.4nm line. The estimated primordial 7Li abundance is $7Li/H = 1.1-1.5 x 10^-10, which is a factor of three to four lower than predicted from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis with the baryon density inferred from the cosmic microwave background. Interestingly, 6Li is detected in nine of our 24 stars at the >2sigma significance level. Our observations suggest the existence of a 6Li plateau at the level of log 6Li = 0.8; however, taking into account predictions for 6Li destruction during the pre-main sequence evolution tilts the plateau such that the 6Li abundances apparently increase with metallicity. Ou...

  3. Chemical abundances of distant extremely metal-poor unevolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M; Hernández, J I González; Behara, N T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study is to determine the chemical composition of a sample of 16 candidate Extremely Metal-Poor (EMP) dwarf stars, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). There are two main purposes: in the first place to verify the reliability of the metallicity estimates derived from the SDSS spectra; in the second place to see if the abundance trends found for the brighter nearer stars studied previously also hold for this sample of fainter, more distant stars. Methods: We used the UVES at the VLT to obtain high-resolution spectra of the programme stars. The abundances were determined by an automatic analysis with the MyGIsFOS code, with the exception of lithium, for which the abundances were determined from the measured equivalent widths of the Li I resonance doublet. Results: All candidates are confirmed to be EMP stars, with [Fe/H]<= -3.0. The chemical composition of the sample of stars is similar to that of brighter and nearer samples. We measured the lithium abundance for 12 st...

  4. Abundance anomalies in metal-poor stars from Population III supernova ejecta hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sluder, Alan; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation of the long-term evolution of a Population III supernova remnant in a cosmological minihalo. Employing passive Lagrangian tracer particles, we investigate how chemical stratification and anisotropy in the explosion can affect the abundances of the first low-mass, metal-enriched stars. We find that reverse shock heating can leave the inner mass shells at entropies too high to cool, leading to carbon-enhancement in the re-collapsing gas. This hydrodynamic selection effect could explain the observed incidence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars at low metallicity. We further explore how anisotropic ejecta distributions, recently seen in direct numerical simulations of core-collapse explosions, may translate to abundances in metal-poor stars. We find that some of the observed scatter in the Population II abundance ratios can be explained by an incomplete mixing of supernova ejecta, even in the case of only one contributing enrichment event. We demonstrate that the customary hypothes...

  5. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L M; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-01-01

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that the most metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through...

  6. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  7. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-05-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70μm/f160 μm ratios at a given f160 μm/f250 μm ratio; single modified blackbody (MBB) fittings to the SED at λ ≥ 100 μm still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2) show that even at 100 μm, about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (˜20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images furthermore reveal that the far-IR colours including f70 μm/f160 μm, f160 μm/f250 μm and f250 μm/f350 μm are all related to the surface densities of young stars as traced by far-UV, 24 μm and star formation rates (SFRs), but not to the stellar mass surface densities. This suggests that the dust emitting at wavelengths from 70 to 350 μm is primarily heated by radiation from young stars.

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100012 (China); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui, E-mail: lhn@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  9. ESO 546-G34: The most metal poor LSB galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Mattsson, Lars; Bergvall, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of spectroscopic data for 23 HII-regions in 12 blue, metal-poor low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) taking advantage of recent developments in calibrating strong-line methods. In doing so we have identified a galaxy (ESO 546-G34) which may be the most metal-poor LSB galaxy found in the local Universe. Furthermore, we see evidence that blue metal-poor LSBGs, together with blue compact galaxies (BCGs) and many other HII galaxies, fall outside the regular luminosity-metallicity relation. This suggests there might be an evolutionary connection between LSBGs and BCGs. In such case, several very metal-poor LSBGs should exist in the local Universe.

  10. Exploring the Origin of Lithium, Carbon, Strontium and Barium with four new Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T; Christlieb, N; Yong, D; Bessell, M S; Pérez, A E García; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Frebel, A; Norris, J E; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    We present an elemental abundance analysis for four newly discovered ultra metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey, with $\\mathrm{[Fe/H]}\\leq-4$. Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra, we derive abundances for 17 elements in the range from Li to Ba. Three of the four stars exhibit moderate to large over-abundances of carbon, but have no enhancements in their neutron-capture elements. The most metal-poor star in the sample, HE~0233$-$0343 ($\\mathrm{[Fe/H]} = -4.68$), is a subgiant with a carbon enhancement of $\\mathrm{[C/Fe]}= +3.5$, slightly above the carbon-enhancement plateau suggested by Spite et al. No carbon is detected in the spectrum of the fourth star, but the quality of its spectrum only allows for the determination of an upper limit on the carbon abundance ratio of $\\mathrm{[C/Fe]} < +1.7$. We detect lithium in the spectra of two of the carbon-enhanced stars, including HE~0233$-$0343. Both stars with Li detections are Li-depleted, with respect to the Li plateau for metal-poo...

  11. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: II. Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C; Honda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor, Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported three double-lined spectroscopic...

  12. Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. I. Selection and Follow-up Observations from 329 Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, A; Norris, J E; Beers, T C; Bessell, M S; Rhee, J; Fechner, C; Marsteller, B; Rossi, S; Thom, C; Wisotzki, L; Reimers, D

    2006-01-01

    We present a sample of 1777 bright (91.0) metal-poor ([Fe/H]20%) and higher values with increasing distance from the Galactic plane. Although the numbers of stars at low metallicity are falling rapidly at the lowest metallicities, there is evidence that the fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is increasing rapidly as a function of declining metallicity. For ~60 objects, high-resolution data have already been obtained; one of these, HE 1327-2326, is the new record holder for the most iron-deficient star known.

  13. Carbon-rich dust production in metal-poor galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Lagadec, E; van Loon, J Th; Kraemer, K E; McDonald, I; Groenewegen, M A T; Wood, P R; Bernard-Salas, J; Zijlstra, A A

    2012-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these sta...

  14. High-resolution spectroscopic studies of ultra metal-poor stars found in LAMOST survey

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haining; Zhao, Gang; Honda, Satoshi; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H]~-4.0 including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with Subaru/HDS. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal-population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba]~-0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an AGB companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star L...

  15. The chemical evolution of the Bootes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Bootes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo I-980, with [Fe/H]=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements while Boo I-127, with [Fe/H]=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Bootes I stars, as well as those of most other Boootes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend, and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correctio...

  16. The RAVE Survey: Rich in Very Metal-poor Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-01-01

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars w

  17. The RAVE Survey : Rich in Very Metal-poor Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-01-01

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars w

  18. Supernova Nucleosynthesis and Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Maeda, Keiichi; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-01-01

    We investigate hydrodynamical and nucleosynthetic properties of the jet-induced explosion of a population III $40M_\\odot$ star and compare the abundance patterns of the yields with those of the metal-poor stars. We conclude that (1) the ejection of Fe-peak products and the fallback of unprocessed materials can account for the abundance patterns of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars and that (2) the jet-induced explosion with different energy deposition rates can explain the diversity of the abundance patterns of the metal-poor stars. Furthermore, the abundance distribution after the explosion and the angular dependence of the yield are shown for the models with high and low energy deposition rates $\\dot{E}_{\\rm dep}=120\\times10^{51} {\\rm ergs s^{-1}}$ and $1.5\\times10^{51} {\\rm ergs s^{-1}}$. We also find that the peculiar abundance pattern of a Si-deficient metal-poor star HE 1424--0241 can be reproduced by the angle-delimited yield for $\\theta=30^\\circ-35^\\circ$ of the model with $\\dot{E}_{\\rm dep}=120\\ti...

  19. Formation History of Metal-Poor Halo Stars with Hierarchical Model and the Effect of ISM accretion on the Most Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the {\\Lambda}CDM scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We demonstrate that (1) The hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function (MDF) including a break around [Fe/H]~-4. (2) A high mass IMF of peak mass ~10Msun with the contribution of binaries, derived from the statistics of carbon enhanced EMP stars (Komiya et al. 2007), predicts the frequency of low-mass survivors consistent with the number of EMP stars observed for -4~<[Fe/H]~<-2.5. (3) The stars formed from primordial gas before the first supernova explosions in their host mini-halos are assigned to the HMP stars with [Fe/H]~-5. (4) There is no indication of significant changes in the IMF and the binary contribution at metallic...

  20. Extremely metal-poor star candidates in the SDSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Yao Xu; Hua-Wei Zhang; Xiao-Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    For a sample of metal-poor stars (-3.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-2.2) that have highresolution spectroscopic abundance determinations,we have measured equivalent widths of the Ca Ⅱ K,Mg Ⅰ b and near-infrared Ca Ⅱ triplet lines using low-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS),calculated effective temperatures from (g-z)o color,deduced stellar surface gravities by fitting stellar isochrones,and determined metallicities based on the aforementioned quantities.Metallicities thus derived from the Ca Ⅱ K line are in much better agreement with the results determined from high-resolution spectra than the values given in the SDSS Data Release 7.The metallicities derived from the Mg Ⅰ b lines have a large dispersion owing to the large measurement errors,whereas those deduced from the Ca Ⅱ triplet lines are too high due to both non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) effects and measurement errors.Abundances after correction for the NLTE effect for the Mg Ⅰ b lines and Ca Ⅱ triplet lines are also presented.Following this method,we have identified six candidates of ultra-metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ~-4.0 from a sample of 166 metal-poor star candidates.One of them,SDSS J102915+172927,was recently confirmed to be an ultra-metal-poor ([Fe/H] <-4.0) star with the lowest metallicity ever measured.Follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy for the other five ultra-metal-poor stars in our sample will therefore be of great interest.

  1. Leo P: A very low-mass, extremely metal-poor, star-forming galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Leo P Team

    2017-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy just outside the Local Group with properties that make it an ideal probe of galaxy evolution at the faint-end of the luminosity function. Using combined data from 2 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing campaigns, the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space telescope, as well as ground based data, we have constructed a robust evolutionary picture of Leo P. Leo P is one the most metal-poor, gas-rich galaxies ever discovered, has a stellar mass of a 5x105 Msun, comparable gas mass, and a single HII region. The star formation history reconstructed from the resolved stellar populations in Leo P shows it is unquenched, despite its very low mass. Based on the star formation history and metallicity measurements, the galaxy has lost 95% of its oxygen produced via nucleosynthesis, presumably to outflows. The neutral gas in the galaxy shows signs of rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. Thus, Leo P bridges the gap between more massive dwarf irregular and less massive dwarf spheroidals on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Furthermore, the galaxy hosts several, extremely dusty AGB candidates which will be probed with new HST and Spitzer observations. If confirmed as AGB stars, these may be our best local proxies for studying chemically unevolved star formation and subsequent dust production in metallicity environments comparable to the early universe.

  2. CARMA CO Observations of Three Extremely Metal-Poor, Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Steven R; Cannon, John M; Bolatto, Alberto D; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katie; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We present sensitive CO (J = 1 - 0) emission line observations of three metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxies Leo P (Z ~ 3% Z_Solar), Sextans A (Z ~ 7.5% Z_Solar), and Sextans B (Z ~ 7.5% Z_Solar), all obtained with the Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer. While no CO emission was detected, the proximity of the three systems allows us to place very stringent (4 sigma) upper limits on the CO luminosity (L_CO) in these metal-poor galaxies. We find the CO luminosities to be L_CO < 2900 K km/s pc^2 for Leo P, L_CO < 12400 K km/s pc^2 for Sextans A, and L_CO < 9700 K km/s pc^2 for Sextans B. Comparison of our results with recent observational estimates of the factor for converting between L_CO and the mass of molecular hydrogen, as well as theoretical models, provides further evidence that either the CO-to-H_2 conversion factor increases sharply as metallicity decreases, or that stars are forming in these three galaxies very efficiently, requiring little molecular hydrogen.

  3. The Chemical Evolution of Very Metal-Poor Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, David; Sutherland, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    In earlier work we showed that a dark matter halo with a virial mass of $10^7$ M$_\\odot$ can survive feedback from its own massive stars and form stars for $\\gtrsim100$ Myr. We also found that our modelled systems were consistent with observations of ultrafaint dwarfs (UFDs), the least massive known galaxies. Very metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) recently identified at $z\\sim2$ may represent the gas that formed at least some of the observed stars in UFDs. We compare projected sightlines from our simulations to the observed metal-poor DLAs and find that our models can reach the densities of the observed sightlines; however the metallicities are inconsistent with the single supernova simulations, suggesting enrichment by multiple supernovae. We model two scenarios for the history of these systems. The first explains the gas abundances in DLAs by a single burst of star formation. This model can produce the observed DLA abundances, but does not provide an explanation as to why the DLAs show suppres...

  4. Observational Constraints on First-Star Nucleosynthesis. II. Spectroscopy of an Ultra metal-poor CEMP-no Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Yoon, Jinmi; Chiti, Anirudh; Heger, Alexander; Chan, Conrad; Casey, Andrew R.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of HE 0020-1741, a bright (V = 12.9), ultra metal-poor ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = -4.1), carbon-enhanced ([{{C}}/{Fe}] = +1.7) star selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. This star exhibits low abundances of neutron-capture elements ([{Ba}/{Fe}] = -1.1) and an absolute carbon abundance A(C) = 6.1 based on either criterion, HE 0020-1741 is subclassified as a carbon-enhanced metal-poor star without enhancements in neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). We show that the light-element abundance pattern of HE 0020-1741 is consistent with predicted yields from a massive (M = 21.5 {M}⊙ ), primordial-composition, supernova (SN) progenitor. We also compare the abundance patterns of other ultra metal-poor stars from the literature with available measures of C, N, Na, Mg, and Fe abundances with an extensive grid of SN models (covering the mass range 10{--}100 {M}⊙ ), in order to probe the nature of their likely stellar progenitors. Our results suggest that at least two classes of progenitors are required at [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -4.0, as the abundance patterns for more than half of the sample studied in this work (7 out of 12 stars) cannot be easily reproduced by the predicted yields. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  5. Asteroseismic modelling of the metal-poor star Tau Ceti

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yanke; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014886

    2010-01-01

    Context. Asteroseismology is an effcient tool not only for testing stellar structure and evolutionary theory but also constraining the parameters of stars for which solar-like oscillations are detected, presently. As an important southern asteroseismic target, Tau Ceti, is a metal-poor star. The main features of the oscillations and some frequencies of ? Ceti have been identified. Many scientists propose to comprehensively observe this star as part of the Stellar Observations Network Group. Aims. Our goal is to obtain the optimal model and reliable fundamental parameters for the metal-poor star Tau Ceti by combining all non-asteroseismic observations with these seismological data. Methods. Using the Yale stellar evolution code (YREC), a grid of stellar model candidates that fall within all the error boxes in the HR diagram have been constructed, and both the model frequencies and large- and small- frequency separations are calculated using the Guenther's stellar pulsation code. The \\chi2c minimization is perf...

  6. First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....

  7. 6Li/7Li estimates for metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, A E Garcia; Inoue, S; Ryan, S G; Suzuki, T K; Chiba, M

    2009-01-01

    The presence of the lithium-6 isotope in some metal-poor stars is a matter of surprise because of the high values observed. Non-standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and pre-Galactic cosmic ray fusion and spallation have been proposed to explain these values. However, the observations of this light isotope are challenging which may make some detections disputable. The goal was to determine 6Li/7Li for a sample of metal-poor stars; three of them have been previously studied and the remaining two are new for this type of study. The purpose was to increase, if possible, the number of lithium-6 detections and to confirm previously published results. Spectra of the resonance doublet line of neutral lithium Li I 670.78nm were taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2m-telescope for a sample of five metal-poor stars (-3.12 < [Fe/H] < -2.19). The contribution of lithium-6 to the total observed line profile was estimated from the 1D-LTE analysis of the line asymmetry. Observed asymmetri...

  8. Planetary companions around the metal-poor star HIP 11952

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, J.; Roccatagliata, V.; Fedele, D.; Henning, Th.; Pasquali, A.; Rodríguez-Ledesma, M. V.; Caffau, E.; Seemann, U.; Klement, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We carried out a radial-velocity survey to search for planets around metal-poor stars. In this paper we report the discovery of two planets around HIP 11952, a metal-poor star with [Fe/H] = -1.9 that belongs to our target sample. Methods: Radial velocity variations of HIP 11952 were monitored systematically with FEROS at the 2.2 m telescope located at the ESO La Silla observatory from August 2009 until January 2011. We used a cross-correlation technique to measure the stellar radial velocities (RV). Results: We detected a long-period RV variation of 290 d and a short-period one of 6.95 d. The spectroscopic analysis of the stellar activity reveals a stellar rotation period of 4.8 d. The Hipparcos photometry data shows intra-day variabilities, which give evidence for stellar pulsations. Based on our analysis, the observed RV variations are most likely caused by the presence of unseen planetary companions. Assuming a primary mass of 0.83 M⊙, we computed minimum planetary masses of 0.78 MJup for the inner and 2.93 MJup for the outer planet. The semi-major axes are a1 = 0.07 AU and a2 = 0.81 AU, respectively. Conclusions: HIP 11952 is one of very few stars with [Fe/H] < -1.0 which have planetary companions. This discovery is important to understand planet formation around metal-poor stars.

  9. The Best and Brightest Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaufman, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. The acquisition of high signal-to-noise spectra for faint EMP stars requires a major telescope time commitment, making the construction of large samples of EMP star abundances prohibitively expensive. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. We have used our selection to identify 11,916 metal-poor star candidates with V < 14, increasing the number of publicly-available candidates by more than a factor of five in this magnitude range....

  10. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame,225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Honda, Satoshi, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: tbeers@nd.edu, E-mail: honda@nhao.jp [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  11. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Chiappini, C.; Barbuy, B.; Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Depagne, E.; Cantelli, E.; Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Frischknecht, U.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ≈-1 and oversolar [α/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R ~ 45 000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N> 100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Zr, La, and Ba, and the r-element Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of five field giant stars were obtained at the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. Spectroscopic parameters were derived based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. The abundance analysis was performed with a MARCS LTE spherical model atmosphere grid and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code. Results: We confirm that the analysed stars are moderately metal-poor (-1.04 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-0.43), non-carbon-enhanced (non-CEMP) with [C/Fe] ≤ + 0.2, and α-enhanced. We find that our three most metal-poor stars are nitrogen enhanced. The α-enhancement suggests that these stars were formed from a gas enriched by core-collapse supernovae, and that the values are in agreement with results in the literature for bulge stars in the same metallicity range. No abundance anomalies (Na - O, Al - O, Al - Mg anti-correlations) were

  12. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106-107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  13. Radioactive Ages of Metal-Poor Halo Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Li; Gang Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The abundances of long-lived radioactive elements Th and U observed in metal-poor halo stars can be used as chronometers to determine the age of individual stars, and hence set a lower limit on the age of the Galaxy and hence of the universe.This radioactive dating requires the zero-decay productions of Th and U, which involves complicated r-process nucleosynthesis calculations. Several parametric rprocess models have been used to calculate the initial abundance ratios of Th/Eu and U/Th, but, due to the sharp sensitivity of these models to nuclear physics inputs, the calculations have relatively large uncertainties which lead to large uncertainties in the age determinations. In order to reduce these uncertainties, we present a simple method to estimate the initial productions of Th and U, which only depends on the solar system abundances and the stellar abundances of stable r-process elements.From our calculations of the initial abundance ratios of Th/Eu and U/Th, we reestimate the ages of those very metal-poor halo stars with published abundances of Th and U. Our age estimates are consistent, within the errors, with the other age determinations derived from r-process models, and offer useful constrains for r-process theoretical calculations. The advantages and limitations of our simple method of radioactive dating are discussed.

  14. Planetary companions around the metal-poor star HIP 11952

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, J; Fedele, D; Henning, Th; Pasquali, A; Rodríguez-Ledesma, M V; Caffau, E; Seemann, U; Klement, R J; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117826

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We carried out a radial-velocity survey to search for planets around metal-poor stars. In this paper we report the discovery of two planets around HIP 11952, a metal-poor star with [Fe/H]= -1.9 that belongs to our target sample. Methods. Radial velocity variations of HIP 11952 were monitored systematically with FEROS at the 2.2 m telescope located at the ESO La Silla observatory from August 2009 until January 2011. We used a cross-correlation technique to measure the stellar radial velocities (RV). Results. We detected a long-period RV variation of 290 d and a short-period one of 6.95 d. The spectroscopic analysis of the stellar activity reveals a stellar rotation period of 4.8 d. The Hipparcos photometry data shows intra-day variabilities, which give evidence for stellar pulsations. Based on our analysis, the observed RV variations are most likely caused by the presence of unseen planetary companions. Assuming a primary mass of 0.83 M\\odot, we computed minimum planetary masses of 0.78 MJup for the inne...

  15. Possible evidence for metal accretion onto the surfaces of metal-poor main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 NSW (Australia); Lee, Young Sun, E-mail: khattori@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parameterized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the same mass-assembly and star-formation histories. By analyzing a sample of nearby metal-poor halo and thick-disk stars on the main sequence, taken from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the median metallicity of G-type dwarfs is systematically higher (by about 0.2 dex) than that of K-type dwarfs having the same median rotational velocity about the Galactic center. If it can be confirmed, this finding may invalidate the long-accepted assumption that the atmospheric metallicities of long-lived stars are conserved over time.

  16. Discovery of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-α system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-α (DLA) system currently known, based on observations made with the Keck HIRES spectrograph. The metal paucity of this system has only permitted the determination of three element abundances: [C/H] =-3.43 ± 0.06, [O/H] =-3.05 ± 0.05, and [Si/H] =-3.21 ± 0.05, as well as an upper limit on the abundance of iron: [Fe/H] ≤-2.81. This DLA is among the most carbon-poor environment currently known with detectable metals. By comparing the abundance pattern of this DLA to detailed models of metal-free nucleosynthesis, we find that the chemistry of the gas is consistent with the yields of a 20.5 M⊙ metal-free star that ended its life as a core-collapse supernova; the abundances we measure are inconsistent with the yields of pair-instability supernovae. Such a tight constraint on the mass of the progenitor Population III star is afforded by the well-determined C/O ratio, which we show depends almost monotonically on the progenitor mass when the kinetic energy of the supernova explosion is Eexp ≳ 1.5 × 1051 erg. We find that the DLA presented here has just crossed the critical `transition discriminant' threshold, rendering the DLA gas now suitable for low mass star formation. We also discuss the chemistry of this system in the context of recent models that suggest some of the most metal-poor DLAs are the precursors of the `first galaxies', and are the antecedents of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies.

  17. SEARCHES FOR METAL-POOR STARS FROM THE HAMBURG/ESO SURVEY USING THE CH G BAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Reimers, Dieter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany); Wisotzki, Lutz, E-mail: vmplacco@astro.iag.usp.br [Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We describe a new method to search for metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES) based on identifying stars with apparently strong CH G-band strengths for their colors. The hypothesis we exploit is that large overabundances of carbon are common among metal-poor stars, as has been found by numerous studies over the past two decades. The selection was made by considering two line indices in the 4300 A region, applied directly to the low-resolution prism spectra. This work also extends a previously published method by adding bright sources to the sample. The spectra of these stars suffer from saturation effects, compromising the index calculations and leading to an undersampling of the brighter candidates. A simple numerical procedure, based on available photometry, was developed to correct the line indices and overcome this limitation. Visual inspection and classification of the spectra from the HES plates yielded a list of 5288 new metal-poor (and by selection, carbon-rich) candidates, which are presently being used as targets for medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up. Estimates of the stellar atmospheric parameters, as well as carbon abundances, are now available for 117 of the first candidates, based on follow-up medium-resolution spectra obtained with the SOAR 4.1 m and Gemini 8 m telescopes. We demonstrate that our new method improves the metal-poor star fractions found by our pilot study by up to a factor of three in the same magnitude range, as compared with our pilot study based on only one CH G-band index. Our selection scheme obtained roughly a 40% success rate for identification of stars with [Fe/H] <-1.0; the primary contaminant is late-type stars with near-solar abundances and, often, emission line cores that filled in the Ca II K line on the prism spectrum. Because the selection is based on carbon, we greatly increase the numbers of known carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars from the HES with intermediate metallicities -2

  18. Molecular bands in extremely metal-poor stars. Granulation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Spite, Monique; Plez, Bertrand; Steffen, Matthias; Spite, François

    2013-01-01

    The bands of diatomic molecules are important abundance indicators, especially in metal-poor stars, where they are still measurable in metallicity regimes where the atomic lines of their constituting metallic elements have become vanishingly small. In order to use them for abundance determinations it is imperative to understand the formation of these bands. In this contribution we report on our results obtained using CO5BOLD hydrodynamical simulations. Some effects that are qualitatively different from what found in 1D computations are highlighted. Due to the large number of lines that form the bands, their spectrum synthesis is computationally challenging. We discuss some of the computational strategies we employed to parallelise the computation and possible future developments.

  19. La and Eu Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Harrison; Burris, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Elements with atomic number greater than Z=26 (the Iron Peak) cannot be formed through fusion in a star's core; the majority of these elements are produced through one of two neutron-capture processes. Early in the history of the Galaxy, the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is believed to be responsible for the production of elements Z=56 and beyond. These elements require at least one generation of stars to have completed their life cycle in order to be synthesized. Therefore, if we observe the heavy metal abundances in what are called Population II stars (metal-poor stars), then we can begin to make inferences about the chemistry of the earliest stars in the Galaxy. To contribute to this picture of the early universe, the Lanthanum and Europium abundances of low-metallicity stars will be measured and trends in these abundances based on comparisons to existing related literature will be sought.

  20. Observational Constraints on First-Star Nucleosynthesis. II. Spectroscopy of an Ultra Metal-Poor CEMP-no Star

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Beers, Timothy C; Yoon, Jinmi; Chiti, Anirudh; Heger, Alexander; Chan, Conrad; Casey, Andrew R; Christlieb, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of HE0020-1741, a bright (V=12.9), ultra metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -4.1), carbon-enhanced ([C/Fe] = +1.7) star selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. This star exhibits low abundances of neutron-capture elements ([Ba/Fe] = -1.1), and an absolute carbon abundance A(C) = 6.1; based on either criterion, HE0020-1741 is sub-classified as a CEMP-no star. We show that the light-element abundance pattern of HE0020-1741 is consistent with predicted yields from a massive (M = 21.5 Mo), primordial composition, supernova (SN) progenitor. We also compare the abundance patterns of other ultra metal-poor stars from the literature with available measures of C, N, Na, Mg, and Fe abundances with an extensive grid of SN models (covering the mass range 10 Mo - 100 Mo), in order to probe the nature of their likely stellar progenitors. Our results suggest that at least two classes of progenitors are required at [Fe/H] < -4.0, as the abundance patterns for more than half of...

  1. Kinematics and chemistry of faint high latitude dwarf carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; Beers, Timothy C.; Dietz, Sarah; Lee, Young Sun; Placco, Vinicius M.

    2017-01-01

    The diffuse halo system of the Milky Way is complex, and has been shown to comprise at least two main components: a near-zero net rotation inner-halo and a more rapidly rotating outer-halo component. Studies of the ancient, very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo system are crucial for understanding its early formation history. The so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are an important subset of the stars in the halo system, which exhibit distinctive kinematic and chemical signatures that can be used to constrain the star-formation histories and assembly of the various Galactic components.We have examined the sample of main-sequence dwarf and other faint high Galactic latitude carbon-enhanced stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey studied by Green (2013). As noted by Green, many of these starsexhibit high proper motions, which have been later claimed to be related to possible binary ejection models Plant et al. (2016). By use of the CEMP sub-classification approach of Yoon et al. (2016), we investigate whether the kinematics of these stars might instead result from their membership in the inner/outer halo populations of the Galaxy.ReferencesGreen, P. 2013, ApJ, 765, 12Plant, K. et al. 2016, AAS 227.34115Yoon, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, in pressAcknowledgementThis work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements).

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: BOÖTES II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Geha, Marla, E-mail: alexji@mit.edu [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the four brightest confirmed red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II (Boo II). These stars all inhabit the metal-poor tail of the Boo II metallicity distribution function. The chemical abundance pattern of all detectable elements in these stars is consistent with that of the Galactic halo. However, all four stars have undetectable amounts of neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, with upper limits comparable to the lowest ever detected in the halo or in other dwarf galaxies. One star exhibits significant radial velocity variations over time, suggesting it to be in a binary system. Its variable velocity has likely increased past determinations of the Boo II velocity dispersion. Our four stars span a limited metallicity range, but their enhanced α-abundances and low neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the interpretation that Boo II has been enriched by very few generations of stars. The chemical abundance pattern in Boo II confirms the emerging trend that the faintest dwarf galaxies have neutron-capture abundances distinct from the halo, suggesting the dominant source of neutron-capture elements in halo stars may be different than in ultra-faint dwarfs.

  3. The frequency of giant planets around metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, A.; Santos, N. C.; Sozzetti, A.; Mayor, M.; Latham, D.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The discovery of about 700 extrasolar planets, so far, has lead to the first statistics concerning extrasolar planets. The presence of giant planets seems to depend on stellar metallicity and mass. For example, they are more frequent around metal-rich stars, with an exponential increase in planet occurrence rates with metallicity. Aims: We analyzed two samples of metal-poor stars (-2.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.0) to see if giant planets are indeed rare around these objects. Radial velocity datasets were obtained with two different spectrographs (HARPS and HIRES). Detection limits for these data, expressed in minimum planetary mass and period, are calculated. These produce trustworthy numbers for the planet frequency. Methods: A general Lomb-Scargle (GLS) periodogram analysis was used together with a bootstrapping method to produce the detection limits. Planet frequencies were calculated based on a binomial distribution function within metallicity bins. Results: Almost all hot Jupiters and most giant planets should have been found in these data. Hot Jupiters around metal-poor stars have a frequency lower than 1.0% at one sigma. Giant planets with periods up to 1800 days, however, have a higher frequency of fp = 2.63-0.8+2.5%. Taking into account the different metallicities of the stars, we show that giant planets appear to be very frequent (fp = 4.48-1.38+4.04%) around stars with [Fe/H] > - 0.7, while they are rare around stars with [Fe/H] ≤ - 0.7 ( ≤ 2.36% at one sigma). Conclusions: Giant planet frequency is indeed a strong function of metallicity, even in the low-metallicity tail. However, the frequencies are most likely higher than previously thought. The data presented herein are based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope (ESO runs ID 72.C-0488, 082.C-0212, and 085.C-0063) and at the W. M. Keck Observatory that is operated as a scientific partnership among the

  4. The Chemical Evolution of the Bootes I Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo-980, with {{[Fe/H]}}=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements, while Boo-127, with {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Boötes I stars, as well as those of most other Boötes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correction. We reassess the metallicity distribution functions for the CEMP stars and non-CEMP stars, and confirm earlier claims that CEMP stars might belong to a different, earlier population. Applying a set of abundance criteria to test to what extent Boötes I could be a surviving first galaxy suggests that it is one of the earliest assembled systems that perhaps received gas from accretion from other clouds in the system, or from swallowing a first galaxy or building block type object. This resulted in the two stellar populations observable today. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. Star formation in metal-poor gas clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, Simon C O

    2012-01-01

    Observations of molecular clouds in metal-poor environments typically find that they have much higher star formation rates than one would expect based on their observed CO luminosities and the molecular gas masses that are inferred from them. This finding can be understood if one assumes that the conversion factor between CO luminosity and H2 mass is much larger in these low metallicity systems than in nearby molecular clouds. However, it is unclear whether this is the only factor at work, or whether the star formation rate of the clouds is directly sensitive to the metallicity of the gas. To investigate this, we have performed numerical simulations of the coupled dynamical, chemical and thermal evolution of model clouds with metallicities ranging from 0.01 Z_solar to Z_solar. We find that the star formation rate in our model clouds has little sensitivity to the metallicity. Reducing the metallicity of the gas by two orders of magnitude delays the onset of star formation in the clouds by no more than a cloud ...

  6. Extremely metal-poor stars in SDSS fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, Piercarlo; François, Patrick; Sbordone, Luca; Ludwig, Hans-G; Spite, Monique; Molaro, Paolo; Spite, François; Cayrel, Roger; Hammer, François; Hill, Vanessa; Nonino, Mario; Randich, Sofia; Stelzer, Beate; Zaggia, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Some insight on the first generation of stars can be obtained from the chemical composition of their direct descendants, extremely metal-poor stars (EMP), with metallicity less than or equal to 1/1000 of the solar metalllicity. Such stars are exceedingly rare, the most successful surveys, for this purpose, have so far provided only about 100 stars with 1/1000 the solar metallicity and 4 stars with about 1/10000 of the solar metallicity. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has the potential to provide a large number of candidates of extremely low metallicity. X-Shooter has the unique capability of performing the necessary follow-up spectroscopy providing accurate metallicities and abundance ratios for several elements (Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Sr,...) for EMP candidates. We here report on the results for the first two stars observed in the course of our franco-italian X-Shooter GTO. The two stars were targeted to be of metallicity around -3.0, the analysis of the X-Shooter spectra showed them to be of metallicity around -...

  7. The lithium isotopic ratio in very metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt

    2013-01-01

    Un-evolved, very metal-poor stars are the most important tracers of the cosmic abundance of lithium in the early universe. Combining the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis model with Galactic production through cosmic ray spallation, these stars at [Fe/H]<-2 are expected to show an undetectably small 6Li/7Li isotopic signature. Evidence to the contrary may necessitate an additional pre-galactic production source or a revision of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We revisit the isotopic analysis of four halo stars, two with claimed 6Li-detections in the literature, to investigate the influence of improved model atmospheres and line formation treatment. For the first time, a combined 3D, NLTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) modelling technique for Li, Na, and Ca lines is utilised to constrain the intrinsic line-broadening and to determine the Li isotopic ratio. We discuss the influence of 3D NLTE effects on line profile shapes and assess the realism of our modelling using the Ca excitation...

  8. NLTE Strontium and Barium in metal poor red giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C I

    2006-01-01

    We present atmospheric models of red giant stars of various metallicities, including extremely metal poor (XMP, [Fe/H]<-3.5) models, with many chemical species, including, significantly, the first two ionization stages of Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba), treated in Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) with various degrees of realism. We conclude that 1) for all lines that are useful Sr and Ba abundance diagnostics the magnitude and sense of the computed NLTE effect on the predicted line strength is metallicity dependent, 2) the indirect NLTE effect of overlap between Ba and Sr transitions and transitions of other species that are also treated in NLTE non-negligibly enhances NLTE abundance corrections for some lines, 3) the indirect NLTE effect of NLTE opacity of other species on the equilibrium structure of the atmospheric model is not significant, 4) the computed NLTE line strengths differ negligibly if collisional b-b and b-f rates are an order of magnitude smaller or larger than those calculated wi...

  9. Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U

    2012-01-01

    The elements germanium (Ge, Z=32), arsenic (As, Z=33), and selenium (Se, Z=34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios rema...

  10. Searching for Dust around Hyper Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Venn, Kim A; Divell, Mike; Cote, Stephanie; Lambert, David L; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for metal-poor stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] $\\lesssim-5$, as well as two CEMP-no stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excess. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g. a warm debris disk ($T\\!\\le\\!290$ K), or debris disks with inner radii $\\le1$ AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-AGB spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g. a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 microns is detected at ...

  11. Abundance correlations in mildly metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jehin, E; Neuforge, C; Noels, A; Parmentier, G; Thoul, A A

    1999-01-01

    Accurate relative abundances have been obtained for a sample of 21 mildly metal-poor stars from the analysis of high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. With these accurate results, correlations between relative abundances have been searched for, with a special emphasis on the neutron capture elements. This analysis shows that the r elements are closely correlated to the alpha elements, which is in agreement with the generally accepted idea that the r-process takes place during the explosion of massive stars. The situation is more complex as far as the s elements are concerned. Their relation with the alpha elements is not linear. In a first group of stars, the relative abundance of the s elements increases only slightly with the alpha elements overabundance until the latter reaches a maximum value. For the second group, the s elements show a rather large range of enhancement and a constant (and maximum) value of the alpha elements overabundance. This peculiar behaviour leads us to distinguish betwee...

  12. Extremely Metal-Poor Star Candidates in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Siyao; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    For a sample of metal-poor stars (-3.3< [Fe/H] <-2.2) that have high-resolution spectroscopic abundance determinations, we have measured equivalent widths (EW) of the Ca II K, Mg I b and near-infrared (NIR) Ca II triplet lines using low-resolution spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), calculated effective temperatures from (g-z)0 color, deduced stellar surface gravities by fitting stellar isochrones, and determined metallicities based on the aforementioned quantities. Metallicities thus derived from the Ca II K line are in much better agreement with the results determined from high-resolution spectra than the values given in the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7). The metallicities derived from the Mg I b lines have a large dispersion owing to the large measurement errors, whereas those deduced from the Ca II triplet lines are too high due to both non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) effects and measurement errors. Abundances after corrected for the NLTE effect for the Mg I b lines and Ca II tr...

  13. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-16

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no 'metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

  14. Artificial Neural Network for search for metal poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, F; Kong, X; Chen, Y

    2013-01-01

    In order to find a fast and reliable method for selecting metal poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge database, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 9 (DR9) provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU). A two-step approach is adopted:(i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or MRGs(Metal Rich galaxies), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in an n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of star-forming galaxies, remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs. We consider several random divisions of the data into training and testing sets: for instance, for our sample, a total of 70 percent of the data are involved in training the algor...

  15. Neutron Capture Elements in s-Process-Rich, Very Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, W; Norris, J E; Beers, T C; Ando, H; Iwamoto, N; Kajino, T; Mathews, G J; Fujimoto, M; Aoki, Wako; Ryan, Sean G.; Norris, John E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Ando, Hiroyasu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.; Fujimoto, Masayuki

    2001-01-01

    We report abundance estimates for neutron-capture elements, including lead (Pb), and nucleosynthesis models for their origin, in two carbon-rich, very metal-poor stars, LP625-44 and LP706-7. These stars are subgiants whose surface abundances are likely to have been strongly affected by mass transfer from companion AGB stars that have since evolved to white dwarfs. The detections of Pb, which forms the final abundance peak of the s-process, enable a comparison of the abundance patterns from Sr (Z=38) to Pb (Z=82) with predictions of AGB models. The derived chemical compositions provide strong constraints on the AGB stellar models, as well as on s-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. The present paper reports details of the abundance analysis for 16 neutron-capture elements in LP 625-44, including the effects of hyperfine splitting and isotope shifts of spectral lines for some elements. A Pb abundance is also derived for LP706-7 by a re-analysis of a previously observed spectrum. We investigate the chara...

  16. Discovery of An Extremely Metal--Poor Galaxy Optical Spectroscopy of UGCA 292

    CERN Document Server

    Van Zee, L

    2000-01-01

    The results of optical spectroscopy of two HII regions in UGCA 292 (CVn I dwA) are presented. UGCA 292 is a nearby (D=3.1 Mpc) gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxy (M_H/L_B ~ 6.9) which was first discovered in a blind HI survey. The derived oxygen abundance is the third lowest of known star-forming galaxies [12 + log(O/H) = 7.30 +/- 0.05], making UGCA 292 one of the nearest metal-poor galaxies known. The derived N/O ratio is similar to that found in other low metallicity galaxies [log(N/O) = -1.47 +/- 0.10], and is indicative of a primary origin for nitrogen. The derived oxygen abundance is consistent with closed-box chemical evolution for this low mass galaxy. The observed blue colors, high gas mass fraction, and low metallicity suggest that UGCA 292 is relatively unevolved. The possibility that future blind HI surveys may yield similar low metallicity galaxies is discussed.

  17. Dust-to-Gas Ratio in the Extremely Metal Poor Galaxy I ZW 18

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Gordon, Karl D; Roman-Duval, Julia; Donaldson, Jessica; Meléndez, Marcio; Cannon, John M

    2012-01-01

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal poor systems known in the local Universe (12 + log(O/H) $=$ 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from {\\it Spitzer}, {\\it Herschel Space Telescope} and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both, the far infrared and the CO $J=1\\rightarrow0$ transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only M$_{dust}\\leq1.1\\times10^4$ M$_{\\odot}$ ($3\\sigma$ limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 $\\mu$m, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending upon the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of M$_{Dust}$/M$_{gas}\\leq5.0\\times10^{-5}$. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measure as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9$\\times10^{-4}$. We also show that the infrared SED is similar to that of starbursting s...

  18. DUST-TO-GAS RATIO IN THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY I Zw 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuehl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donaldson, Jessica; Melendez, Marcio [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal-poor systems known in the local universe (12+log(O/H) = 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from Spitzer, Herschel Space Telescope, and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both the far-infrared and the CO J = 1 {yields} 0 transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only M{sub dust} {<=} 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} (3{sigma} limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 {mu}m, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending on the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of M{sub Dust}/M{sub gas} {<=} 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measured as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. We also show that the infrared spectral energy distribution is similar to that of starbursting systems.

  19. Molecular opacities for low-mass metal-poor AGB stars undergoing the Third Dredge Up

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, S; Lederer, M T; Aringer, B

    2007-01-01

    The concomitant overabundances of C, N and s-process elements are commonly ascribed to the complex interplay of nucleosynthesis, mixing and mass loss taking place in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. At low metallicity, the enhancement of C and/or N may be up to 1000 times larger than the original iron content and significantly affects the stellar structure and its evolution. For this reason, the interpretation of the already available and still growing amount of data concerning C-rich metal-poor stars belonging to our Galaxy as well as to dwarf spheroidal galaxies would require reliable AGB stellar models for low and very low metallicities. In this paper we address the question of calculation and use of appropriate opacity coefficients, which take into account the C enhancement caused by the third dredge up. A possible N enhancement, caused by the cool bottom process or by the engulfment of protons into the convective zone generated by a thermal pulse and the subsequent huge third dredge up, is also considered....

  20. Artificial neural network to search for metal-poor galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Aims: To find a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge databases, an artificial neural network (ANN) method is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 9 (DR9) provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU). Methods: A two-step approach is adopted: (i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs. We consider several random divisions of the data into training and testing sets; for instance, for our sample, a total of 70 percent of the data are involved in training the algorithm, 15 percent are involved in validating the algorithm, and the remaining 15 percent are used for blind testing the resulting classifier. Results: For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition rate for MPGs of 96 percent and 92 percent for an MPGs threshold of 12 + log (O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log (O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the Matlab 2013a software environment. The ANN method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task when the physical property of the target can be expressed as a quantitative variable. The code in the paper is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com).

  1. The First Substellar Subdwarf? Discovery of a Metal-poor L Dwarf with Halo Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Burrows, A; Liebert, J; Reid, I N; Gizis, J E; McGovern, M R; Prato, L; McLean, I S; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burrows, Adam; Liebert, James; Gizis, John E.; Govern, Mark R. Mc; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2003-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first L-type subdwarf, 2MASS J05325346+8246465. This object exhibits enhanced collision-induced H$_2$ absorption, resulting in blue NIR colors ($J-K_s = 0.26{\\pm}0.16$). In addition, strong hydride bands in the red optical and NIR, weak TiO absorption, and an optical/J-band spectral morphology similar to the L7 DENIS 0205$-$1159AB imply a cool, metal-deficient atmosphere. We find that 2MASS 0532+8246 has both a high proper motion, $\\mu$ = 2$\\farcs60\\pm0\\farcs$15 yr$^{-1}$, and a substantial radial velocity, $v_{rad} = -195{\\pm}11$ km s$^{-1}$, and its probable proximity to the Sun (d = 10--30 pc) is consistent with halo membership. Comparison to subsolar-metallicity evolutionary models strongly suggests that 2MASS 0532+8246 is substellar, with a mass of 0.077 $\\lesssim$ M $\\lesssim$ 0.085 M$_{\\sun}$ for ages 10--15 Gyr and metallicities $Z = 0.1-0.01$ $Z_{\\sun}$. The discovery of this object clearly indicates that star formation occurred below the Hydrogen burning mass limit at...

  2. The rarity of dust in metal-poor galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David B; Bolatto, Alberto D; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Draine, Bruce T; Donaldson, Jessica; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin M; Leroy, Adam K; Cannon, John; Gordon, Karl

    2014-01-09

    Galaxies observed at redshift z > 6, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, thus far very rarely show evidence of the cold dust that accompanies star formation in the local Universe, where the dust-to-gas mass ratio is around one per cent. A prototypical example is the galaxy Himiko (z = 6.6), which--a mere 840 million years after the Big Bang--is forming stars at a rate of 30-100 solar masses per year, yielding a mass assembly time of about 150 × 10(6) years. Himiko is thought to have a low fraction (2-3 per cent of the Sun's) of elements heavier than helium (low metallicity), and although its gas mass cannot yet be determined its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constrained to be less than 0.05 per cent. The local dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, which has a metallicity about 4 per cent that of the Sun's and is forming stars less rapidly (assembly time about 1.6 × 10(9) years) than Himiko but still vigorously for its mass, is also very dust deficient and is perhaps one of the best analogues of primitive galaxies accessible to detailed study. Here we report observations of dust emission from I Zw 18, from which we determine its dust mass to be 450-1,800 solar masses, yielding a dust-to-stellar mass ratio of about 10(-6) to 10(-5) and a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 3.2-13 × 10(-6). If I Zw 18 is a reasonable analogue of Himiko, then Himiko's dust mass must be around 50,000 solar masses, a factor of 100 below the current upper limit. These numbers are quite uncertain, but if most high-z galaxies are more like Himiko than like the very-high-dust-mass galaxy SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 at z ≈ 6, which hosts a quasar, then our prospects for detecting the gas and dust inside such galaxies are much poorer than hitherto anticipated.

  3. Metal-Poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope I. Constraints on Progenitor Mass and Metallicity of AGB Stars Undergoing s-Process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Beers, Timothy C; Karakas, Amanda I; Kennedy, Catherine R; Rossi, Silvia; Christlieb, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly-discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if NLTE corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R ~ 2,000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R ~ 30,000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical AGB nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 Mo with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 Mo at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture materia...

  4. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars. III. Chemical analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvar, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.; Masseron, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: We present the results of an analysis of 107 extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with metallicities lower than [Fe/H] =- 3.0, identified in medium-resolution spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our analysis provides estimates of the stellar effective temperatures and surface gravities, as well as iron, calcium, and magnesium abundances. Methods: We followed the same method as in previous papers of this series. The method is based on comparisons of the observed spectra with synthetic spectra. The abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg were determined by fitting spectral regions that are dominated by lines of each element. In addition, we present a technique to determine upper limits for elements whose features are not detected in a given spectrum. We also analyzed our sample with the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline to obtain additional determinations of the atmospheric parameters and iron and alpha-element abundances, which we thend compare with ours. In addition, we used these parameters to infer [C/Fe] ratios. Results: Ca is typically the only element in these spectra with a moderate to low signal-to-noise ratio and medium resolution in this metallicity regime with lines that are sufficiently strong to reliably measure its abundance. Fe and Mg exhibit weaker features that in most cases only provide upper limits. We measured [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] for EMP stars in the SDSS spectra and conclude that most of the stars exhibit the typical enhancement level for α-elements, ~+0.4, although some stars for which only [Fe/H] upper limits could be estimated indicate higher [α/Fe] ratios. We also find that 26% of the stars in our sample can be classified as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and that the frequency of CEMP stars also increases with decreasing metallicity, as has been reported for previous samples. We identify a rare, bright (g = 11.90) EMP star, SDSS J134144.61+474128.6, with [Fe/H] =- 3.27, [C/Fe] = + 0.95, and elevated magnesium ([Mg/Fe] =+ 0

  5. Scl-1013644: a CEMP-s star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, C.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Norris, J. E.

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies of the Milky Way and its satellites have paid special attention to the importance of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars due to their involvement in Galactic formation history and their possible connection with the chemical elements originating in the first stellar generation. In an ongoing study of red giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy, we have discovered a star with extremely strong CN and CH molecular bands. This star, Scl-1013644, has previously been identified by Geisler et al. as a star with an enrichment in the heavy elements. Spectrum synthesis has been used to derive the carbon, nitrogen and barium abundances for Scl-1013644. Our findings are [C/Fe] = +0.8, [N/Fe] = -0.3 and [Ba/Fe] = +2.1 with the latter result consistent with the value found by Geisler et al. These results reveal Scl-1013644 as a CEMP-s star, the third such star discovered in this dwarf galaxy.

  6. Scl-1013644: a CEMP-s star in the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C; Yong, D; Norris, J E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the Milky Way and its satellites have paid special attention to the importance of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars due to their involvement in Galactic formation history and their possible connection with the chemical elements originating in the first stellar generation. In an ongoing study of red giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy we have discovered a star with extremely strong CN and CH molecular bands. This star, Scl-1013644, has previously been identified by Geisler et al. (2005) as a star with an enrichment in the heavy elements. Spectrum synthesis has been used to derive the carbon, nitrogen and barium abundances for Scl-1013644. Our findings are [C/Fe] = +0.8, [N/Fe] = -0.3 and [Ba/Fe] = +2.1 with the latter result consistent with the value found by Geisler et al. (2005). These results reveal Scl-1013644 as a CEMP-s star, the third such star discovered in this dwarf galaxy.

  7. Study of Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Liang, Shuai; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a study of elemental abundances for 30 metal-poor stars whose chemical abundances provide excellent information for setting constraints on models of neutron-capture processes. Based on the abundances of main r- and weak r-process stars, the abundance patterns of main r-process and weak r-process are obtained. The two r-process component coefficients are defined to determine the relative contributions from individual neutron-capture process to abundances of metal-poor stars. Based on the component coefficients, we find that metal-poor stars BD+4 2621 and HD 4306 are also weak r-process stars, which means that the abundance pattern produced by weak r-process is stable. All metal-poor star abundances contain the contributions of both main r-process and weak r-process. The elements produced by weak r-process have increased along with Fe over the polluted history. Most of the metal-poor star abundances do not follow the pattern observed in solar system, but there is a small fraction that do. Fo...

  8. The most metal-poor damped Lyα systems: insights into chemical evolution in the very metal-poor regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Nissen, Poul E.

    2011-10-01

    We present a high spectral resolution survey of the most metal-poor damped Lyα absorption systems (DLAs) aimed at probing the nature and nucleosynthesis of the earliest generations of stars. Our survey comprises 22 systems with iron abundance less than 1/100 solar; observations of seven of these are reported here for the first time. Together with recent measures of the abundances of C and O in Galactic metal-poor stars, we reinvestigate the trend of C/O in the very metal-poor (VMP) regime and we compare, for the first time, the O/Fe ratios in the most metal-poor DLAs and in halo stars. We confirm the near-solar values of C/O in DLAs at the lowest metallicities probed, and find that their distribution is in agreement with that seen in Galactic halo stars. We find that the O/Fe ratio in VMP DLAs is essentially constant, and shows very little dispersion, with a mean []=+0.39 ± 0.12, in good agreement with the values measured in Galactic halo stars when the oxygen abundance is measured from the [O I] λ6300 line. We speculate that such good agreement in the observed abundance trends points to a universal origin for these metals. In view of this agreement, we construct the abundance pattern for a typical VMP DLA and compare it to model calculations of Population II and Population III nucleosynthesis to determine the origin of the metals in VMP DLAs. Our results suggest that the most metal-poor DLAs may have been enriched by a generation of metal-free stars; however, given that abundance measurements are currently available for only a few elements, we cannot yet rule out an additional contribution from Population II stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile [VLT programme IDs 67.A-0078(A), 69.A-0613(A), 083.A-0042(A), 085.A-0109(A)], and at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of

  9. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  10. s- and r-process elements in two very metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, S G; Blake, L A J; Norris, J E; Beers, T C; Gallino, R; Busso, M; Ando, H; Ryan, Sean G.; Aoki, Wako; Blake, Lisa A. J.; Norris, John E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Gallino, Roberto; Busso, Maurizio; Ando, Hiroyasu

    2000-01-01

    New measurements of neutron-capture elements are presented for two very metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ~ -3). One (LP 625-44) has an s-process signature believed to be due to mass transfer from a now-extinct metal-poor AGB companion, and the second (CS 22897-008) is one of a number of very metal-poor stars having high [Sr/Ba] ratios which is not expected from the r-process. In the s-process star, many elements including lead have been detected, providing strong constraints on the 13C pocket in the now-extinct AGB star. In the Sr-rich star, Zn, Y, and Zr are also seen to be overabundant, and several possible nucleosynthesis mechanisms are discussed.

  11. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L; Casey, A R; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Gilmore, G; Lind, K; Worley, C; Bessell, M S; Casagrande, L; Marino, A F; Nataf, D M; Owen, C I; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Vallenari, A; Prieto, C Allende; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of the EMBLA survey (Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega), aimed at finding metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, where the oldest stars should now preferentially reside. EMBLA utilises SkyMapper photometry to pre-select metal-poor candidates, which are subsequently confirmed using AAOmega spectroscopy. We describe the discovery and analysis of four bulge giants with -2.72<=[Fe/H]<=-2.48, the lowest metallicity bulge stars studied with high-resolution spectroscopy to date. Using FLAMES/UVES spectra through the Gaia-ESO Survey we have derived abundances of twelve elements. Given the uncertainties, we find a chemical similarity between these bulge stars and halo stars of the same metallicity, although the abundance scatter may be larger, with some of the stars showing unusual [{\\alpha}/Fe] ratios.

  12. Identification of metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, S.; Goswami, A.; Kunder, A.; Muneer, S.; Selvakumar, G.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Identification of metal-poor stars among field stars is extremely useful for studying the structure and evolution of the Galaxy and of external galaxies. Aims: We search for metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network (ANN) and extend its usage to determine absolute magnitudes. Methods: We have constructed a library of 167 medium-resolution stellar spectra (R ~ 1200) covering the stellar temperature range of 4200 to 8000 K, log g range of 0.5 to 5.0, and [Fe/H] range of -3.0 to +0.3 dex. This empirical spectral library was used to train ANNs, yielding an accuracy of 0.3 dex in [Fe/H] , 200 K in temperature, and 0.3 dex in log g. We found that the independent calibrations of near-solar metallicity stars and metal-poor stars decreases the errors in Teff and log g by nearly a factor of two. Results: We calculated Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] on a consistent scale for a large number of field stars and candidate metal-poor stars. We extended the application of this method to the calibration of absolute magnitudes using nearby stars with well-estimated parallaxes. A better calibration accuracy for MV could be obtained by training separate ANNs for cool, warm, and metal-poor stars. The current accuracy of MV calibration is ±0.3 mag. Conclusions: A list of newly identified metal-poor stars is presented. The MV calibration procedure developed here is reddening-independent and hence may serve as a powerful tool in studying galactic structure.

  13. Stellar Yields of Rotating First Stars. I. Yields of Weak Supernovae and Abundances of Carbon-enhanced Hyper Metal Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Koh; Yoshida, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We perform stellar evolution simulation of first stars and calculate stellar yields from the first supernovae. The initial masses are taken from 12 to 140 Msun to cover the whole range of core-collapse supernova progenitors, and stellar rotation is included, which results in efficient internal mixing. A weak explosion is assumed in supernova yield calculations, thus only outer distributed matter, which is not affected by the explosive nucleosynthesis, is ejected in the models. We show that the initial mass and the rotation affect the explosion yield. All the weak explosion models have abundances of [C/O] larger than unity. Stellar yields from massive progenitors of > 40-60 Msun show enhancement of Mg and Si. Rotating models yield abundant Na and Al. And Ca is synthesized in non-rotating heavy massive models of > 80 Msun. We fit the stellar yields to the three most iron-deficient stars, and constrain the initial parameters of the mother progenitor stars. The abundance pattern in SMSS 0313-6708 is well explaine...

  14. Carbon Abundances of Three Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars from High-Resolution Gemini-S/bHROS Spectra of the 8727A [C I] Line

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, S C; Sivarani, T; Asplund, M; Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Beers, T C

    2008-01-01

    We present the results from an analysis of the 8727ang forbidden [C I] line in high-resolution Gemini-S/bHROS spectra of three CEMP stars. We find the [C/Fe] ratios based on the [C I] abundances of the two most Fe-rich stars in our sample (HIP 0507-1653: [Fe/H] = -1.42 and HIP 0054-2542: [Fe/H] = -2.66) to be in good agreement with previously determined CH and C_2 line-based values. For the most Fe-deficient star in our sample (HIP 1005-1439: [Fe/H] = -3.08), however, the [C/Fe] ratio is found to be 0.34 dex lower than the published molecular-based value. We have carried out 3D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) calculations for [C I], and the resulting corrections are found to be modest for all three stars, suggesting that the discrepancy between the [C I] and molecular-based C abundances of HIP 1005-1439 is due to more severe 3D effects on the molecular lines. Carbon abundances are also derived from C I high-excitation lines and are found to be 0.45-0.64 dex higher than the [C I]-based abundances. Previo...

  15. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a window on AGB nucleosynthesis and binary evolution. II. Statistical analysis of a sample of 67 CEMP-$s$ stars

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Izzard, R G; Karakas, A I

    2015-01-01

    Many observed CEMP stars are found in binary systems and show enhanced abundances of $s$-elements. The origin of the chemical abundances of these CEMP-$s$ stars is believed to be accretion in the past of enriched material from a primary star in the AGB phase. We investigate the mechanism of mass transfer and the process of nucleosynthesis in low-metallicity AGB stars by modelling the binary systems in which the observed CEMP-$s$ stars were formed. For this purpose we compare a sample of $67$ CEMP-$s$ stars with a grid of binary stars generated by our binary evolution and nucleosynthesis model. We classify our sample CEMP-$s$ stars in three groups based on the observed abundance of europium. In CEMP$-s/r$ stars the europium-to-iron ratio is more than ten times higher than in the Sun, whereas it is lower than this threshold in CEMP$-s/nr$ stars. No measurement of europium is currently available for CEMP-$s/ur$ stars. On average our models reproduce well the abundances observed in CEMP-$s/nr$ stars, whereas in C...

  16. Metal-Poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. III. New Extremely and Ultra Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE and Insights on the Formation of Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Lee, Young Sun; Jacobson, Heather R; Beers, Timothy C; Pena, Jose M; Chan, Conrad; Heger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H]<-3) and one ultra metal-poor (UMP; [Fe/H]<-4) star selected from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. These stars were identified as EMP candidates based on their medium-resolution (R~2,000) spectra, and were followed-up with high-resolution (R~35,000) spectroscopy with the Magellan-Clay Telescope. Their derived chemical abundances exhibit good agreement with those of stars with similar metallicities. We also provide new insights on the formation of the UMP stars, based on comparison with a new set of theoretical models of supernovae nucleosynthesis. The models were matched with 20 UMP stars found in the literature, together with one of the program stars (SDSS J1204+1201), with [Fe/H]=-4.34. From fitting their abundances, we find that the supernovae progenitors, for stars where carbon and nitrogen are measured, had masses ranging from 20.5 M_sun to 28 M_sun and explosion energies from 0.3 to 0.9x10^51 erg. These results are highly sensitive to the carbo...

  17. Abundances of heavy elements in ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892-052

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 张彩霞; 李冀; 梁艳春; 彭秋和

    1999-01-01

    Based on the heavy element nucleosynthesis theory, with the solar heavy-nuclide abundances and the observed abundances of three elements which are the representatives of the individul neutron-capture processes, a method to determine the relative contributions from the individul neutron-capture processes to the abundances of heavy elements in metal-poor stars is applied. With this method, the abundances of heavy elements in ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892-052 are calculated. It is found that the observed abundances of heavy elements in this star are well matched by our calculations in error limits, except for thorium.

  18. Molecular depletion times and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor in metal-poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Casasola, V; Caselli, P; Combes, F; Henkel, C; Lundgren, A; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Testi, L; Weiss, A

    2015-01-01

    Tracing molecular hydrogen content with carbon monoxide in low-metallicity galaxies has been exceedingly difficult. Here we present a new effort, with IRAM 30-m observations of 12CO(1-0) of a sample of 8 dwarf galaxies having oxygen abundances ranging from 12+logO/H=7.7 to 8.4. CO emission is detected in all galaxies, including the most metal-poor galaxy of our sample (0.1 Zsun); to our knowledge this is the largest number of 12CO(1-0) detections ever reported for galaxies with 12+logO/H<=8 (0.2 Zsun) outside the Local Group. We calculate stellar masses (Mstar) and star-formation rates (SFRs), and analyze our results by combining our observations with galaxy samples from the literature. Extending previous results for a correlation of the molecular gas depletion time, tau(dep), with Mstar and specific SFR (sSFR), we find a variation in tau(dep) of a factor of 200 or more (from <50 Myr to 10 Gyr) over a spread of 1000 in sSFR and Mstar. We exploit the variation of tau(dep) to constrain the CO-to-H2 mass c...

  19. Metallicity inhomogeneities in local star-forming galaxies as sign of recent metal-poor gas accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Munoz-Tunon, C; Elmegreen, D M; Elmegreen, B G; Mendez-Abreu, J

    2014-01-01

    We measure the oxygen metallicity of the ionized gas along the major axis of seven dwarf star-forming galaxies. Two of them, SDSSJ1647+21 and SDSSJ2238+14, show 0.5 dex metallicity decrements in inner regions with enhanced star-formation activity. This behavior is similar to the metallicity drop observed in a number of local tadpole galaxies by Sanchez Almeida et al. (2013) and interpreted as showing early stages of assembling in disk galaxies, with the star formation sustained by external metal-poor gas accretion. The agreement with tadpoles has several implications: (1) it proves that galaxies other than the local tadpoles present the same unusual metallicity pattern. (2) Our metallicity inhomogeneities were inferred using the direct method, thus discarding systematic errors usually attributed to other methods. (3) Taken together with the tadpole data, our findings suggest a threshold around one tenth the solar value for the metallicity drops to show up. Although galaxies with clear metallicity drops are ra...

  20. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: I. Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Lee, Young Sun; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroko; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Frebel, Anna; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masatuki Y; Carollo, Daniela; Sivarani, Thirupathi

    2012-01-01

    Chemical compositions are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy for 137 candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first stellar extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). High-resolution spectra with moderate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph of the Subaru Telescope. Most of the sample (approximately 80%) are main-sequence turn-off stars, including dwarfs and subgiants. Four cool main-sequence stars, the most metal-deficient such stars known, are included in the remaining sample. Good agreement is found between effective temperatures estimated by the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline, based on the SDSS/SEGUE medium-resolution spectra, and those estimated from the broadband $(V-K)_0$ and $(g-r)_0$ colors. Our abundance measurements reveal that 70 stars in our sample have [Fe/H] $ +0.7$) among the 25 giants in our sample is as high as 36%, while only a lowe...

  1. The EMBLA Survey -- Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Louise M; Keller, Stefan C; Casey, Andrew R; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F; Nataf, David M; Owen, Christopher I; Da Costa, Gary S; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8<[Fe/H]<-1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that ...

  2. Identification of metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Kunder, Andrea; Muneer, S; Selvakumar, G

    2013-01-01

    Identification of metal-poor stars among field stars is extremely useful for studying the structure and evolution of the Galaxy and of external galaxies. We search for metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network (ANN) and extend its usage to determine absolute magnitudes. We have constructed a library of 167 medium-resolution stellar spectra (R ~ 1200) covering the stellar temperature range of 4200 to 8000 K, log g range of 0.5 to 5.0, and [Fe/H] range of -3.0 to +0.3 dex. This empirical spectral library was used to train ANNs, yielding an accuracy of 0.3 dex in [Fe/H], 200 K in temperature, and 0.3 dex in log g. We found that the independent calibrations of near-solar metallicity stars and metal-poor stars decreases the errors in T_eff and log g by nearly a factor of two. We calculated T_eff, log g, and [Fe/H] on a consistent scale for a large number of field stars and candidate metal-poor stars. We extended the application of this method to the calibration of absolute magnitudes using nearby stars ...

  3. Super and massive AGB stars - III. Nucleosynthesis in metal-poor and very metal-poor stars - Z=0.001 and 0.0001

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Carolyn L; Lau, Herbert H B; Lattanzio, John C; Siess, Lionel; Campbell, Simon W

    2014-01-01

    We present a new grid of stellar models and nucleosynthetic yields for super-AGB stars with metallicities Z=0.001 and 0.0001, applicable for use within galactic chemical evolution models. Contrary to more metal rich stars where hot bottom burning is the main driver of the surface composition, in these lower metallicity models the effect of third dredge-up and corrosive second dredge-up also have a strong impact on the yields. These metal-poor and very metal-poor super-AGB stars create large amounts of He4, C13 and N14, as well as the heavy magnesium isotopes Mg25 and Mg26. There is a transition in yield trends at metallicity Z approximately 0.001, below which we find positive yields of C12, O16, N15, Al27 and Si28, which is not the case for higher metallicities. We explore the large uncertainties derived from wind prescriptions in super-AGB stars, finding approximately 2 orders of magnitude difference in yields of Ne22, Na23, Mg24,25,26, Al27 and our s-process proxy isotope g. We find inclusion of variable co...

  4. IMPROVED Co i log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J. E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jjcowan1@ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co i) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, AZ and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. Published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 898 lines. Hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co in the literature are surveyed and selected values are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co i. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ϵ(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (σ = 0.059) based on 82 Co i lines and log ϵ(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (σ = 0.065) based on 66 Co i lines, respectively. A Saha or ionization balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co ii, and good agreement is found with the Co i result in this metal-poor ([Fe i/H] = −2.32, [Fe ii/H] = −2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies.

  5. The [Fe/H], [C/Fe], and [α/Fe] Distributions of the Boötes I Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David K.; Lee, Young Sun; Bolte, Michael; Lucatello, Sara; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Rockosi, Constance M.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of a low-resolution spectral abundance study of 25 stars in the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. The data were obtained with the low resolution imaging spectrometer instrument at Keck Observatory and allow us to measure [Fe/H], [C/Fe], and [α/Fe] for each star. We find both a large spread in metallicity (2.1 dex in [Fe/H]) as well as a low average metallicity in this system, lang[Fe/H]rang = -2.59, matching previous estimates. This sample includes a newly discovered extremely metal-poor star, with [Fe/H] = -3.8, that is one of the most metal-poor stars yet found in a dSph. We compare the metallicity distribution function of Boötes I to analytic chemical evolution models. While the metallicity distribution function of Boötes I is best fit by an Extra Gas chemical evolution model, leaky-box models also provide reasonable fits. We also find that the [α/Fe] distribution and the carbon-enhanced metal-poor fraction of our sample (12%) are reasonable matches to Galactic halo star samples in the same metallicity range, indicating that at these low metallicities, systems like the Boötes I ultra-faint dSph could have been contributors to the Galactic halo. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-Poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2015-01-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to gas, in neutral, turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars could form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms, even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. The abundances of these 'promoted' stars may contain interesting signatures, as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced or fluctuate independently. Remarkably, otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well-fit by standard core-collapse SNe yields, if we al...

  7. The Extreme Overabundance of Molybdenum in Two Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Ruth C

    2011-01-01

    We report determinations of the molybdenum abundances in five mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars using five Mo II lines near 2000A. In two of the stars, the abundance of molybdenum is found to be extremely enhanced, as high or higher than the neighboring even-Z elements ruthenium and zirconium. Of the several nucleosynthesis scenarios envisioned for the production of nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind (HEW) acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of the twin aspects of a high molybdenum overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. Whatever the details of the nucleosynthesis mechanism, however, this unusual excess suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-Fe heavy elements in these cases, an unexpected result given that both are only moderately metal-poor.

  8. Chemical Abundances in 35 Metal-Poor Stars. I. Basic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Deok; Kim, Kang-Min

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a homogeneous abundance study for various elements, including $\\alpha$-elements, iron peak elements and $n$-capture elements for 35 metal-poor stars with a wide metallicity range ($-3.0\\lesssim$[Fe/H]$\\lesssim-0.5$). High-resolution ($R\\simeq30$k), high signal-to-noise($S/N\\geq110$) spectra with a wavelength range of 3800 to 10500 \\AA using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES). Equivalent widths were measured by means of the Gaussian-fitting method for numerous isolated weak lines of elements. Atmospheric parameters were determined by a self-consistent LTE analysis technique using Fe I and Fe II lines. In this study, we present the EWs of lines and atmospheric parameters for 35 metal-poor stars.

  9. The Terzan 5 puzzle: discovery of a third, metal-poor component

    CERN Document Server

    Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B

    2013-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 3 metal-poor giant stars in Terzan 5, a complex stellar system in the the Galactic bulge, known to have two populations at [Fe/H]=-0.25 and +0.3. For these 3 stars we present new echelle spectra obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck II, which confirm their radial velocity membership and provide average [Fe/H]=-0.79 dex iron abundance and [alpha/Fe]=+0.36 dex enhancement. This new population extends the metallicity range of Terzan~5 0.5 dex more metal poor, and it has properties consistent with having formed from a gas polluted by core collapse supernovae.

  10. How important are metal-poor AGB stars as cosmic dust producers?

    CERN Document Server

    Mattsson, Lars; Andersen, Anja C

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of dust formation in oxygen-rich AGB stars should (in theory) be metallicity dependent since they are not producing their own raw material for dust production. Metal-poor carbon stars may not be very efficient dust producers either, because of more radiative heating of the grains forming in their atmospheres. We have just confirmed that inefficient dust and wind formation in simulations of metal-poor carbon stars is a real physical effect, albeit within the limitations of our simulations. Taken at face value, this implies that the amount of dust supplied by low-metallicity AGB stars to the build up of the cosmic dust component is clearly limited. Consequently, one may also ask how large a contribution AGB stars can make in general, when compared to recent observations of cosmic dust, which are suggesting major contributions from other sources?

  11. Origins of the Thick Disk as Traced by the Alpha Elements of Metal-poor Giant Stars Selected from Rave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchti, G. R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-01-01

    Theories of thick-disk formation can be differentiated by measurements of stellar elemental abundances. We have undertaken a study of metal-poor stars selected from the RAVE spectroscopic survey of bright stars to establish whether or not there is a significant population of metal-poor thick-disk st

  12. CS 30322-023: an ultra metal-poor TP-AGB star?

    CERN Document Server

    Masseron, T; Famaey, B; Goriely, S; Plez, B; Siess, L; Beers, T C; Primas, F; Jorissen, A

    2006-01-01

    With [Fe/H] = -3.5, CS 30322-023 is the most metal-poor star to exhibit a clear s-process signature and the most metal-poor ``lead star'' known. CS 30322-023 is also remarkable in having the lowest surface gravity (log g <= -0.3) among the metal-poor stars studied to date. The available evidence indicates that this star is presently a thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star, with no strong indication of binarity thus far (although a signal of period 192 d is clearly present in the radial-velocity data, this is likely due to pulsation of the stellar envelope). We show that low-mass TP-AGB stars are not expected to be exceedingly rare in a magnitude-limited sample such as the HK survey, because their high luminosities make it possible to sample them over a very large volume. The strong N overabundance and the low 12C/13C ratio (4) in this star is typical of the operation of the CN cycle. Coupled with a Na overabundance and the absence of a strong C overabundance, this pattern seems to imply t...

  13. METAL-POOR STARS OBSERVED WITH THE MAGELLAN TELESCOPE. I. CONSTRAINTS ON PROGENITOR MASS AND METALLICITY OF AGB STARS UNDERGOING s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stancliffe, Richard J. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-06-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.

  14. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Soeren S

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies can have very high globular cluster specific frequencies, and the GCs are in general significantly more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars. In some dwarfs, such as Fornax, WLM, and IKN, the fraction of metal-poor stars that belong to GCs can be as high as 20%-25%, an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-2% typical of GCs in halos of larger galaxies. Given that chemical abundance anomalies appear to be present also in GCs in dwarf galaxies, this implies severe difficulties for self-enrichment scenarios that require GCs to have lost a large fraction of their initial masses. More generally, the number of metal-poor field stars in these galaxies is today less than what would originally have been present in the form of low-mass clusters if the initial cluster mass function was a power-law extending down to low masses. This may imply that the initial GC mass function in these dwarf galaxies was significantly more top-heavy than typically observed in present-day star forming environments.

  15. Accretion phenomena in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Cignoni, M.; Ciotti, L.; Cusano, F.; Nipoti, C.; Sacchi, E.; Paris, D.; Romano, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.

  16. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Conroy, Charlie

    2017-02-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in these species agrees with our simulations. Moreover, we confirm that Mg and Si are correlated in these stars the abundance ratios are similar to those in local silicate grains. Meanwhile [Mg/Ca], predicted to be nearly invariant from pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier

  17. Follow-up observations of extremely metal-poor stars identified from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, D. S.; Allende Prieto, C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Carrera, R.; Rebolo, R.; Shetrone, M.; Lambert, D. L.; Fernández-Alvar, E.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way witnessed the early phases of formation of the Galaxy, and have chemical compositions that are close to the pristine mixture from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, polluted by one or few supernovae. Aims: Only two dozen stars with ([Fe/H] cases, at high resolution on the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Stellar parameters and the abundances of magnesium, calcium, iron, and strontium have been inferred from the spectra using classical model atmospheres. We have also derived carbon abundances from the G band. Results: We find consistency between the metallicities estimated from SDSS and those from new data at the level of 0.3 dex. The analysis of medium resolution data obtained with ISIS on the WHT allows us to refine the metallicities and in some cases measure other elemental abundances. Our sample contains 11 new metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -3.0, one of them with an estimated metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -4.0. We also discuss metallicity discrepancies of some stars in common with previous works in the literature. Only one of these stars is found to be C-enhanced at about [C/Fe] ~ + 1, whereas the other metal-poor stars show C abundances at the level of [C/Fe] ~ + 0.45. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.The reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A10

  18. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zasowski, Gail [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Smith, Verne V.; Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Nidever, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400 (Brazil); and others

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  19. BD +44 493: A Ninth Magnitude Messenger from the Early Universe; Carbon Enhanced and Beryllium Poor

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hiroko; Honda, Satoshi; Beers, Timothy C

    2009-01-01

    We present a 1D LTE chemical abundance analysis of the very bright (V=9.1) Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star BD +44 493, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with Subaru/HDS. The star is shown to be a subgiant with an extremely low iron abundance ([Fe/H]=-3.7), while it is rich in C ([C/Fe]=+1.3) and O ([O/Fe]=+1.6). Although astronomers have been searching for extremely metal-poor stars for decades, this is the first star found with [Fe/H]<-3.5 and an apparent magnitude V<12. Based on its low abundances of neutron-capture elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe]=-0.59), BD +44 493 is classified as a "CEMP-no" star. Its abundance pattern implies that a first-generation faint supernova is the most likely origin of its carbon excess, while scenarios related to mass loss from rapidly-rotating massive stars or mass transfer from an AGB companion star are not favored. From a high-quality spectrum in the near-UV region, we set an very low upper limit on this star's beryllium abundance (A(Be)=lo...

  20. Signatures of intrinsic Li depletion and Li-Na anti-correlation in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC6397

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, K; Charbonnel, C; Grundahl, F; Asplund, M

    2009-01-01

    To alleviate the discrepancy between the prediction of the primordial lithium abundance in the universe and the abundances observed in Pop II dwarfs and subgiant stars, it has been suggested that the stars observable today have undergone photospheric depletion of Li. To constrain the nature of such depletion, we conduct a homogeneous analysis of a very large sample of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC6397, covering well all evolutionary phases from below the main sequence turn-off to high up the red giant branch. Non-LTE Li abundances or abundance upper limits are obtained for all stars, and for a size-able sub-set of the targets also Na abundances are obtained. The sodium abundances are used to distinguish stars formed out of pristine material from stars formed out of material affected by pollution from a previous generation of more massive stars. The dwarfs, turn-off, and early subgiant stars form a thin abundance plateau, disrupted in the middle of the subgiant branch by the lithium dilution cau...

  1. The IMF of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and the Probe into the Star-Formation Process of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the star formation history of the Galaxy, based on the observations of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP) in the Galactic halo, to gain an insight into the evolution and structure formation in the early universe. The initialmass function (IMF) of EMP stars is derived from the observed fraction of carbon-enhanced EXP (CEMP) stars among the EMP survivors, which are thought to originate from the evolution in the close binary systems with mass transfer. Relying upon the theory of the evolution of EMP stars and of their binary evolution, we find that stars of metallicity [Fe/H]<-2.5 were formed at typical mass of ~10M_sun. The top heavy IMF thus obtained is applied to study the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We construct the merging history of our Galaxy semi-analytically and derive the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of low-mass EMP stars that survive to date with taking into account the contribution of binary systems. It is shown that the resultant MDF can well reproduce the observed...

  2. Estimation of Carbon Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars. I. Application to the "Strong G-band" stars of Beers, Preston, & Shectman

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, S; Sneden, C; Sevastyanenko, T; Rhee, J; Marsteller, B; Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Timothy C.; Sneden, Chris; Sevastyanenko, Tatiana; Rhee, Jaehyon; Marsteller, Brian

    2005-01-01

    We develop and test a method for the estimation of metallicities ([Fe/H]) and carbon abundance ratios ([C/Fe]) for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, based on application of artificial neural networks, regressions, and synthesis models to medium-resolution (1-2 A) spectra and J-K colors. We calibrate this method by comparison with metallicities and carbon abundance determinations for 118 stars with available high-resolution analyses reported in the recent literature. The neural network and regression approaches make use of a previously defined set of line-strength indices quantifying the strength of the CaII K line and the CH G-band, in conjuction with J-K colors from the 2MASS Point Source Catalog. The use of near-IR colors, as opposed to broadband B-V colors, is required because of the potentially large affect of strong molecular carbon bands on bluer color indices. Using these methods we are able to reproduce the previously-measured [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] determinations with an accuracy of ~ 0.25 dex for ...

  3. Kinematics of Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies: Evidence for Stellar Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Olmo-Garcia, A; Munoz-Tunon, C; Filho, M E; Elmegreen, B G; Elmegreen, D M; Perez-Montero, E; Mendez-Abreu, J

    2016-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies analyzed in a previous paper have large star-forming regions with a metallicity lower than the rest of the galaxy. Such a chemical inhomogeneity reveals the external origin of the metal-poor gas fueling star formation, possibly indicating accretion from the cosmic web. This paper studies the kinematic properties of the ionized gas in these galaxies. Most XMPs have rotation velocity around a few tens of km/s. The star-forming regions appear to move coherently. The velocity is constant within each region, and the velocity dispersion sometimes increases within the star-forming clump towards the galaxy midpoint, suggesting inspiral motion toward the galaxy center. Other regions present a local maximum in velocity dispersion at their center, suggesting a moderate global expansion. The Halpha line wings show a number of faint emission features with amplitudes around a few percent of the main Halpha component, and wavelength shifts between 100 and 400 km/s. The components are ...

  4. Mass-loss predictions for evolved very metal-poor massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Muijres, Lianne; de Koter, A; Hirschi, R; Langer, N; Yoon, S -C

    2012-01-01

    (shortened) The first couple of stellar generations may have been massive, of order 100 Msun, and to have played a dominant role in galaxy formation and the chemical enrichment of the early Universe. Some fraction of these objects may have died as pair-instability supernovae or gamma-ray bursts. The winds if these stars may have played an important role in determining these outcomes. As the winds are driven by radiation pressure on spectral lines, their strengths are expected to vary with metallicity. Until now, most mass-loss predictions for metal-poor O-type stars have assumed a scaled-down solar-abundance pattern. However, Population III evolutionary tracks show significant surface enrichment through rotational mixing of CNO-processed material, because even metal-poor stars switch to CNO-burning early on. We address the question of whether the CNO surface enhanced self-enrichment in the first few generations of stars could impact their mass-loss properties. For this, we employ Monte Carlo simulations to es...

  5. Follow-up observations of extremely metal-poor stars identified from SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, D S; Hernández, J I González; Carrera, R; Rebolo, Rafael; Shetrone, M; Lambert, D L; Fernández-Alvar, E

    2016-01-01

    The most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way witnessed the early phases of formation of the Galaxy, and have chemical compositions that are close to the pristine mixture from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, polluted by one or few supernovae. Only two dozen stars with ([Fe/H]< -4) are known, and they show a wide range of abundance patterns. It is therefore important to enlarge this sample. We present the first results of an effort to identify new extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo. Our targets have been selected from low-resolution spectra obtained as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and followed-up with medium resolution spectroscopy on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope and, in a few cases, at high resolution on the the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Stellar parameters and the abundances of magnesium, calcium, iron, and strontium have been inferred from the spectra using classical model atmospheres. We have also derived carbon abundances from the G band. We find consistency between the metalli...

  6. Ongoing Large Surveys for Metal-Poor Stars in the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Christlieb, N; Christlieb, Norbert; Beers, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    We report on two major surveys for metal-poor stars in the galactic halo, the HK survey, and the Hamburg/ESO survey, which have been undertaken in order to provide targets for high-resolution spectroscopy with the Subaru HDS and other large telescopes. We compare basic properties of these two surveys and their current status, and add some historical remarks. The candidate selection procedures of both surveys are described in detail. We evaluate the candidate selection by comparing effective yields (EYs) of the survey techniques for the identification of metal-poor stars. It is found that EY for stars below [Fe/H]=-2.0 in the HES can be up to 80% for stars selected by automatic classification from machine-scanned unwidened plates, whereas in the HK survey, where stars are selected by visual inspection of widened survey plates, the EY is between 11% and 32%, depending on whether a pre-selection based on BV photometry has been applied. Finally, we describe techniques used for determining stellar parameters of th...

  7. Diversity of abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Misa; Aoki, Wako; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Wanajo, Shinya

    2014-05-01

    Observations of Very Metal-Poor stars indicate that there are at least two sites to r-process; "weak r-process" and "main r-process". A question is whether these two are well separated or there exists a variation in the r-process. We present the results of abundance analysis of neutron-capture elements in the two Very Metal-Poor stars HD107752 and HD110184 in the Milky Way halo observed with the Subaru Telescope HDS. The abundance patterns show overabundace at light n-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y), inferring the element yielding of weak r-process, while heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g. Ba, Eu) are deficient; however, the overabundance of light ones is not as significant as that previously found in stars representing the weak r-process (e.g. HD122563; Honda et al. 2006). Our study show diversity in the abundance patterns from light to heavy neutron-capture elements in VMP stars, suggesting a variation in r-process, which may depend on electron fraction of environment.

  8. Spectroscopic Studies of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars with Subaru/HDS:I. Observational Data

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, S; Ando, H; Izumiura, H; Kajino, T; Kambe, E; Kawanomoto, S; Noguchi, K; Okita, K; Sadakane, K; Sato, B; Takada-Hidai, M; Takeda, Y; Watanabe, E; Beers, T C; Norris, J E; Ryan, S G

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (R $\\simeq$ 50,000 or 90,000), high-quality (S/N $\\ga$ 100) spectra of 22 very metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] $\\la$ -2.5) with the High Dispersion Spectrograph fabricated for the 8.2m Subaru Telescope. The spectra cover the wavelength range from 3500 to 5100 {\\AA}; equivalent widths are measured for isolated lines of numerous elemental species, including the $\\alpha$ elements, the iron-peak elements, and the light and heavy neutron-capture elements. Errors in the measurements and comparisons with previous studies are discussed. These data will be used to perform detailed abundance analyses in the following papers of this series. Radial velocities are also reported, and are compared with previous studies. At least one moderately r-process-enhanced metal-poor star, HD 186478, exhibits evidence of a small-amplitude radial velocity variation, confirming the binary status noted previously. During the course of this initial program, we have discovered a new moderately r-process-enhanced, ...

  9. Lithium Abundances of Extremely Metal-Poor Turn-off Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C; Christlieb, Norbert; Inoue, Susumu; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Norris, John E; Carollo, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We have determined Li abundances for eleven metal-poor turn-off stars, among which eight have [Fe/H]<-3, based on LTE analyses of high-resolution spectra obtained with the HDS on the Subaru telescope. The Li abundances for four of these eight stars are determined for the first time by this study. Effective temperatures are determined by a profile analysis of H-alpha and H-beta. While seven stars have Li abundances as high as the Spite Plateau value, the remaining four objects with [Fe/H] <-3 have A(Li)=log(Li/H)+12 ~< 2.0, confirming the existence of extremely metal-poor turn-off stars having low Li abundances, as reported by previous work. The average of the Li abundances for stars with [Fe/H]<-3 is lower by 0.2 dex than that of the stars with higher metallicity. No clear constraint on the metallicity dependence or scatter of the Li abundances is derived from our measurements for the stars with [Fe/H]<-3. Correlations of the Li abundance with effective temperatures, with abundances of Na, Mg a...

  10. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Extremely Metal-Poor Star HE 1300+0157

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, A; Aoki, W; Honda, S; Bessell, M S; Takada-Hidai, M; Beers, T C; Christlieb, N; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Bessell, Michael S.; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of HE 1300+0157, a subgiant with [Fe/H]=-3.9. From a high-resolution, high-S/N Subaru/HDS spectrum we find the star to be enriched in C ([C/Fe]_1D ~ +1.4) and O ([O/Fe]_1D ~ +1.8). With the exception of these species, HE 1300+0157 exhibits an elemental abundance pattern similar to that found in many other very and extremely metal-poor stars. The Li abundance is lower than the Spite-plateau value, in agreement with expectation for its evolutionary status. Of particular interest, no neutron-capture elements are detected in HE 1300+0157. This type of abundance pattern has been found by recent studies in several other metal-poor giants. We suggest that HE 1300+0157 is an unevolved example of this group of stars, which exhibit high C abundances together with low (or absent) abundances of neutron-capture elements. Several potential enrichment scenarios are presented. The low neutron-capture elements, including Sr, Ba, and Pb, suggests that the carbon excess observed...

  11. Diversity of abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Misa; Ishimaru, Yuhri [International Christian University 10-2, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aoki, Wako; Wanajo, Shinya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    Observations of Very Metal-Poor stars indicate that there are at least two sites to r-process; “weak r-process” and “main r-process”. A question is whether these two are well separated or there exists a variation in the r-process. We present the results of abundance analysis of neutron-capture elements in the two Very Metal-Poor stars HD107752 and HD110184 in the Milky Way halo observed with the Subaru Telescope HDS. The abundance patterns show overabundace at light n-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y), inferring the element yielding of weak r-process, while heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g. Ba, Eu) are deficient; however, the overabundance of light ones is not as significant as that previously found in stars representing the weak r-process (e.g. HD122563; Honda et al. 2006). Our study show diversity in the abundance patterns from light to heavy neutron-capture elements in VMP stars, suggesting a variation in r-process, which may depend on electron fraction of environment.

  12. Detailed Iron-Group Abundances in a Very Metal-Poor Main Sequence Turnoff Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Chris; Roederer, Ian U.; Boesgaard, Ann M.; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained Keck HIRES and HST STIS high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2.9) main-sequence turnoff star BD+03 740. A detailed chemical composition analysis based on synthetic spectrum computations has been conducted. Our initial focus has been on the iron-group elements in the Z = 21-28 range. This study takes advantage of recent improvements in neutral and ionzied species transition data for all of these elements except Sc (Z = 21) by the Wisconsin atomic physics group (see a companion presentation on Cr II at this meeting). Several metal-poor abundance surveys have concluded that there are large overabundances of Co and underabundances of Cr with respect to Fe for stars with [Fe/H] synthesis in the Galaxy.This work has been supported by HST STScI Program GO-14232; and NSF grants AST-1211585 and AST-1616040 to CS; AST-1516182 to JEL and EDH; NASA grant NNX16AE96G to JEL

  13. First Stars XIV. Sulphur abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, Monique; Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Depagne, E; Spite, F; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Cayrel, R; Francois, P; Hill, V; Plez, B; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Molaro, P; Nordstrom, B; Primas, F

    2010-01-01

    Sulphur is important: the site of its formation is uncertain, and at very low metallicity the trend of [S/Fe] against [Fe/H] is controversial. Below [Fe/H]=-2.0, [S/Fe] remains constant or it decreases with [Fe/H], depending on the author and the multiplet used in the analysis. Moreover, although sulphur is not significantly bound in dust grains in the ISM, it seems to behave differently in DLAs and in old metal-poor stars. We aim to determine precise S abundance in a sample of extremely metal-poor stars taking into account NLTE and 3D effects. NLTE profiles of the lines of the multiplet 1 of SI have been computed using a new model atom for S. We find sulphur in EMP stars to behave like the other alpha-elements, with [S/Fe] remaining approximately constant below [Fe/H]=-3. However, [S/Mg] seems to decrease slightly as a function of [Mg/H]. The overall abundance patterns of O, Na, Mg, Al, S, and K are best matched by the SN model yields by Heger & Woosley. The [S/Zn] ratio in EMP stars is solar, as found a...

  14. S-process in low-mass extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Monique A; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor low-mass stars experience an ingestion of protons into the helium-rich layer during the core He-flash, resulting in the production of neutrons through the reactions ^{12}C(p,\\gamma)^{13}N(\\beta)^{13}C(\\alpha,n)^{16}O. This is a potential site for the production of s-process elements in extremely metal-poor stars not occurring in more metal-rich counterparts. Observationally, the signatures of s-process elements in the two most iron deficient stars observed to date, HE1327-2326 & HE0107-5240, still await for an explanation. We investigate the possibility that low-mass EMP stars could be the source of s-process elements observed in extremely iron deficient stars, either as a result of self-enrichment or in a binary scenario as the consequence of a mass transfer episode. We present evolutionary and post-processing s-process calculations of a 1Msun stellar model with metallicities Z=0, 10^{-8} and 10^{-7}. We assess the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis results to uncertainties in the input ...

  15. Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in the Most Metal Poor Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prestwich, A H; Zezas, A; Jackson, F E; Roberts, T P; Foltz, R; Linden, T; Kalogera, V

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULX) are X-ray binaries with Lx>1E^39 ergs/s. The most spectacular examples of ULX occur in starburst galaxies and are now understood to be young, luminous High Mass X-ray Binaries. The conditions under which ULX form are poorly understood, but recent evidence suggests they may be more common in low metallicity systems. Here we investigate the hypothesis that ULX form preferentially in low metallicity galaxies by searching for ULX in a sample of Extremely Metal Poor Galaxies (XMPG) observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. XMPG are defined as galaxies with log(O/H)+12<7.65, or less than 5% solar. These are the most metal-deficient galaxies known, and a logical place to find ULX if they favor metal poor systems. We compare the number of ULX (corrected for background contamination) per unit of star formation (Nulx) in the XMPG sample with Nulx in a comparison sample of galaxies with higher metallicities taken from the Spitzer Infrared Galaxy Sample (SINGS). We find that ULX o...

  16. HE 0557-4840 - Ultra-Metal-Poor and Carbon-Rich

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, John E; Korn, A J; Eriksson, K; Bessell, M S; Beers, Timothy C; Wisotzki, L; Reimers, D

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery and high-resolution, high S/N, spectroscopic analysis of the ultra-metal-poor red giant HE 0557-4840, which is the third most heavy-element deficient star currently known. Its atmospheric parameters are T_eff = 4900 K, log g = 2.2, and [Fe/H]= -4.75. This brings the number of stars with [Fe/H] < -4.0 to three, and the discovery of HE 0557-4840 suggests that the metallicity distribution function of the Galactic halo does not have a "gap" between [Fe/H] = -4.0, where several stars are known, and the two most metal-poor stars, at [Fe/H] ~ -5.3. HE 0557-4840 is carbon rich - [C/Fe] = +1.6 - a property shared by all three objects with [Fe/H] < -4.0, suggesting that the well-known increase of carbon relative to iron with decreasing [Fe/H] reaches its logical conclusion - ubiquitous carbon richness - at lowest abundance. We also present abundances (nine) and limits (nine) for a further 18 elements. For species having well-measured abundances or strong upper limits, HE 0557-4840 is "norm...

  17. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Detailed Abundances in the Metal-poor Globular Cluster NGC 4372

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, I San; Geisler, D; Villanova, S; Kacharov, N; Koch, A; Carraro, G; Tautvaišiene, G; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Francois, P; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 7 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372 based on UVES spectra acquired as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high resolution spectroscopy. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Y, Ba, and La. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.19 $\\pm$ 0.03 and find no evidence for a metallicity spread. This metallicity makes NGC 4372 one of the most metal-poor galactic globular clusters. We also find an {\\alpha}-enhancement typical of halo globular clusters at this metallicity. Significant spreads are observed in the abundances of light elements. In particular we find a Na-O anti-correlation. Abundances of O are relatively high compared with other globular clusters. This could indicate that NGC 4372 was formed in an environment with high O for its metallicity. A Mg-Al spread is also present which spans a range of more than 0.5 dex in Al abundances. Na is correlated wit...

  18. Abundance Profiling of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and Supernova Properties in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star and chemical evolution of the universe is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Increasing number of the EMP stars are now being discovered. This allows us to statistically constrain properties of SNe of Pop III stars (Pop III SNe). We investigate the properties of Pop III SNe by comparing their nucleosynthetic yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on the most metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] $\\lsim-3.5$ and present Pop III SN models that reproduce well their individual abundance patterns. From these models we derive relations between abundance ratios and properties of Pop III SNe: [(C+N)/Fe] vs. an ejected Fe mass, and [(C+N)/Mg] vs. a remnant mass. Using fitting formulae, distribution of the abundance ratios of EMP stars is converted to those of the properties of Pop III SNe, which can be compared with SNe in the present day. Large samples of EMP ...

  19. Lithium abundances in extremely metal-poor turn-off stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Caffau, E

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the current status of the sample of Lithium abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars collected by our group, and compare it with the available literature results. In the last years, evidences have accumulated of a progressive disruption of the Spite plateau in stars of extremely low metallicity. What appears to be a flat, thin plateau above [Fe/H]\\sim-2.8 turns, at lower metallicities, into a broader distribution for which the plateau level constitutes the upper limit, but more and more stars show lower Li abundances. The sample we have collected currently counts abundances or upper limits for 44 EMP TO stars between [Fe/H]=-2.5 and -3.5, plus the ultra-metal poor star SDSS J102915+172927 at [Fe/H]=-4.9. The "meltdown" of the Spite plateau is quite evident and, at the current status of the sample, does not appear to be restricted to the cool end of the effective temperature distribution. SDSS J102915+172927 displays an extreme Li depletion that contrasts with its otherwise quite...

  20. First stars XIII. Two extremely metal-poor RR Lyrae stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Bonifacio, P; Spite, M; Andersen, J; Beers, T C; Cayrel, R; Spite, F; Molaro, P; Barbuy, B; Depagne, E; Hill, P Francois V; Plez, B; Sivarani, T

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP stars; [Fe/H]<~ -3) is a unique tracer of early nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. As such stars are rare, we wish to find classes of luminous stars which can be studied at high resolution. We aim to determine the detailed chemical composition of the two EMP stars CS30317-056 and CS22881-039, originally thought to be red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars, and compare it to earlier results for EMP stars as well as to nucleosynthesis yields from various supernova (SN) models. In the analysis, we discovered that our targets are in fact the two most metal-poor RR Lyrae stars known. Our detailed abundance analysis, taking into account the variability of the stars, is based on VLT/UVES spectra (R~ 43000) and 1D LTE OSMARCS model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. For comparison with SN models we also estimate NLTE corrections for a number of elements. We derive LTE abundances for the 16 elements O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba, i...

  1. Metal-Poor Stars and the Chemical Enrichment of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Metal-poor stars hold the key to our understanding of the origin of the elements and the chemical evolution of the Universe. This chapter describes the process of discovery of these rare stars, the manner in which their surface abundances (produced in supernovae and other evolved stars) are determined from the analysis of their spectra, and the interpretation of their abundance patterns to elucidate questions of origin and evolution. More generally, studies of these stars contribute to other fundamental areas that include nuclear astrophysics, conditions at the earliest times, the nature of the first stars, and the formation and evolution of galaxies -- including our own Milky Way. We illustrate this with results from studies of lithium formed during the Big Bang; of stars dated to within ~1 Gyr of that event; of the most metal-poor stars, with abundance signatures very different from all other stars; and of the build-up of the elements over the first several Gyr. The combination of abundance and kinematic si...

  2. The INT Search for Metal-Poor Stars. Spectroscopic Observations and Classification via Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Allende-Prieto, C; García-López, R J; Serra-Ricart, M; Beers, T C; Rossi, S; Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P

    2000-01-01

    With the dual aims of enlarging the list of extremely metal-poor stars identified in the Galaxy, and boosting the numbers of moderately metal-deficient stars in directions that sample the rotational properties of the thick disk, we have used the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope and the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph to carry out a survey of brighter (primarily northern hemisphere) metal-poor candidates selected from the HK objective-prism/interference-filter survey of Beers and collaborators. Over the course of only three observing runs (15 nights) we have obtained medium-resolution (resolving power ~ 2000) spectra for 1203 objects (V ~ 11-15). Spectral absorption-line indices and radial velocities have been measured for all of the candidates. Metallicities, quantified by [Fe/H], and intrinsic (B-V)o colors have been estimated for 731 stars with effective temperatures cooler than roughly 6500 K, making use of artificial neural networks (ANNs), trained with spectral indices. We show that this method performs ...

  3. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  4. Mixing along the Red Giant Branch in Metal-poor Field Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carretta, E; Sneden, C; Bragaglia, A; Carretta, Eugenio; Gratton, Raffaele; Sneden, Chris; Bragaglia, Angela

    1999-01-01

    We have determined Li, C, N, O, Na, and Fe abundances, and 12C/13C isotopic ratios for a sample of 62 field metal-poor stars (plus 43 taken from the literature). This large sample was used to show that small mass lower-RGB stars (i.e., fainter than the RGB bump) have abundances of light elements in agreement with theoretical predictions from classical evolutionary models. A second, distinct mixing episode occurs just after the RGB bump, reaching regions of incomplete CNO burning. No O-Na anticorrelation, as observed in globular cluster stars, is found in field stars. This means that the mixing episode is not deep enough to reach regions where ON-burning occurs.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of bright metal-poor stars (Schlaufman+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaufman, K. C.; Casey, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    As input to our sample selection, we use the APASS DR6 Catalog, the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the AllWISE Source Catalog (Henden+ 2012JAVSO..40..430H; Skrutskie+ 2006AJ....131.1163S; Wright+ 2010AJ....140.1868W; Mainzer+ 2011ApJ...731...53M). We followed up our metal-poor star candidates with the Mayall 4m/Echelle, Gemini South/GMOS-S, and Magellan/MIKE telescopes and spectrographs. We observed 98 stars with the Mayall 4m/Echelle on 2013 June 25-27. We observed 90 stars with Gemini South/GMOS-S in service mode from 2014 March to July (R~3700). We observed 416 stars with Magellan/MIKE on 2014 June 21-23 and July 8-10 (R~41000 in the blue and R~35000 in the red). (3 data files).

  6. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  7. Modeling Mid-Ultraviolet Spectra. I. Temperatures of Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, R C; Rood, R T; Peterson, Ruth C.; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the properties of old stellar systems using evolutionary population synthesis requires a library of model stellar fluxes. The reliability of the interpretation of the observations depends to a great extent on the reliability of the flux library. The mid-ultraviolet waveband of these systems is dominated by the contribution from the main sequence turnoff stars. Here we present detailed spectral synthesis calculations which match accurately the mid-ultraviolet spectrum of a set of nearby stars with a range of metallicities. We have redetermined temperatures of our sample of eight nearby, mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars, by simultaneously analyzing mid-ultraviolet and optical echelle spectra. An attempt is made to fit all mid-UV lines individually, by modifying line parameters for lines whose energy levels have been measured in the laboratory and adding approximate identifications for the strongest missing lines. Without recourse to additional missing opacity, this suffices to reproduce ...

  8. An Elemental Assay of Very, Extremely, and Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T; Christlieb, N; Beers, T C; Yong, D; Bessell, M S; Frebel, A; Perez, A E Garcia; Placco, V M; Norris, J E; Asplund, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution elemental-abundance analysis for a sample of 23 very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] 0. The stars with [C/N] < 0 suggest a larger degree of mixing; the few CEMP-no stars that exhibit this signature are only found at [Fe/H] < -3.4, a metallicity below which we also find the CEMP-no stars with large enhancements in Na, Mg, and Al. We confirm the existence of two plateaus in the absolute carbon abundances of CEMP stars, as suggested by Spite et al. We also present evidence for a "floor" in the absolute Ba abundances of CEMP-no stars at A(Ba)~ -2.0.

  9. Testing the Asteroseismic Mass Scale Using Metal-Poor Stars Characterized with APOGEE and Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Courtney R; Johnson, Jennifer A; Shetrone, Matthew; Mosser, Benoît; Hekker, Saskia; Tayar, Jamie; Harding, Paul; Pinsonneault, Marc; Aguirre, Víctor Silva; Basu, Sarbani; Beers, Timothy C; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bedding, Timothy R; Chaplin, William J; Frinchaboy, Peter M; García, Rafael A; Pérez, Ana E García; Hearty, Fred R; Huber, Daniel; Ivans, Inese I; Majewski, Steven R; Mathur, Savita; Nidever, David; Serenelli, Aldo; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schneider, Donald P; Schönrich, Ralph; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Stassun, Keivan G; Stello, Dennis; Zasowski, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scal...

  10. Structural and Nucleosynthetic Evolution of Metal-poor & Metal-free Low and Intermediate Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Simon W.; Lattanzio, John C.

    2008-03-01

    We report on an investigation into stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis in the low and extremely low metallicity regime, including models of stars with a pure Big Bang composition (i.e. Z = 0). The metallicity range of the extremely metal- poor (EMP) models we have calculated is -6.5format. Although subject to many uncertainties these are, as far as we are aware, the only yields available in this mass and metallicity range. In this paper we briefly describe some of the results in the context of abundance observations of EMP halo stars. This work formed part of SWC's PhD thesis (completed in March 2007) and a series of subsequent papers will describe the results of the study in more detail.

  11. NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN FOUR METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  12. Wide Binaries among High-Velocity and Metal-Poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A.; Poveda, A.

    The properties of old disk and halo binaries are of interest for the understanding of the processes of formation and early dynamical evolution of the Galaxy. The luminosity function of the components of wide binaries and multiples, their mass function, the fraction of halo or old disk stars that are members of wide binaries, and the distribution of its separations are some of the basic properties that are poorly understood, mainly because of the paucity of known wide binaries among halo and old disk stars. The present work is an attempt to ameliorate this situation. We have elaborated a list of 130 halo and old disk wide binaries by searching for common proper motion companions to the high-velocity and metal-poor stars studied by Schuster and Nissen (1988, 1993). Based on Stromgren photometry, these authors have derived distances, metallicities and ages for their stars. Since each star has a large and well determined proper motion it was possible to compare this value with that of NLTT stars of its vicinity. In this way we were able to identify 130 high-velocity and metal-poor common proper motion binary systems. Each system was carefully checked to avoid misidentifications, and when possible, distances were updated using the Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes. We have determined the distribution of angular separations for our wide binaries. Reliable distances are available for all of our systems, so this distribution can be converted into a separation distribution in AU. We find that 12 systems have separations in excess of 10000 AU, and their existence poses interesting dynamical problems. Since many systems also have known radial velocities, space velocities for them can be determined, and galactic orbits have been computed and characterized. The secondaries of these wide binaries are interesting in themselves, since they represent a sampling of the faint end of the main sequence of old disk and halo stars.

  13. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Chaplin, William J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Park Road, West Midlands, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Mosser, Benoît [LESIA, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Silva Aguirre, Víctor [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Bedding, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); García, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS, Universit Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pérez, Ana E. García; Hearty, Fred R., E-mail: epstein@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M {sub ☉} level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.

  14. Kinematics of Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies: Evidence for Stellar Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo-García, A.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2017-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies analyzed in a previous paper have large star-forming regions with a metallicity lower than the rest of the galaxy. Such a chemical inhomogeneity reveals the external origin of the metal-poor gas fueling star formation, possibly indicating accretion from the cosmic web. This paper studies the kinematic properties of the ionized gas in these galaxies. Most XMPs have a rotation velocity around a few tens of km s‑1. The star-forming regions appear to move coherently. The velocity is constant within each region, and the velocity dispersion sometimes increases within the star-forming clump toward the galaxy midpoint, suggesting inspiral motion toward the galaxy center. Other regions present a local maximum in velocity dispersion at their center, suggesting a moderate global expansion. The Hα line wings show a number of faint emission features with amplitudes around a few per cent of the main Hα component, and wavelength shifts between 100 and 400 km s‑1. The components are often paired, so that red and blue emission features with similar amplitudes and shifts appear simultaneously. Assuming the faint emission to be produced by expanding shell-like structures, the inferred mass loading factor (mass loss rate divided by star formation rate) exceeds 10. Since the expansion velocity far exceeds the rotational and turbulent velocities, the gas may eventually escape from the galaxy disk. The observed motions involve energies consistent with the kinetic energy released by individual core-collapse supernovae. Alternative explanations for the faint emission have been considered and discarded.

  15. Finding the Most Metal-poor Stars of the Galactic Halo with the Hamburg/ESO Objective-Prism Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Christlieb, N

    2003-01-01

    I review the status of the search for extremely metal-poor halo stars with the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES). 2194 candidate metal-poor turn-off stars and 6133 giants in the magnitude range 14 < B < 17.5 have been selected from 329 (out of 380) HES fields, covering an effective area of 6400 square degrees in the southern extragalactic sky. Moderate-resolution follow-up observations for 3200 candidates have been obtained so far, and ~200 new stars with [Fe/H] <- 3.0 have been found, which trebles the total number of such extremely low-metallicity stars identified by all previous surveys. We use VLT-UT2/UVES, Keck/HIRES, Subaru/HDS, TNG/SARG, and Magellan/MIKE for high-resolution spectroscopy of HES metal-poor stars. I provide an overview of the scientific aims of these programs, and highlight several recent results.

  16. VIMOS Integral Field Spectroscopy of Gaseous Nebulae in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, E. V.; Gullieuszik, M.; Saviane, I.; Sabbadin, F.; Momany, Y.; Rizzi, L.; Bresolin, F.

    The study of very metal-poor dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies is fundamental to test the cosmological scenarios of galaxy formation. Among Local Group galaxies, Leo A and SagDIG are probably the most metal-poor dwarfs, as suggested by estimates of their nebular abundances based on the empirical method [I. Saviane, L. Rizzi, E.V. Held, F. Bresolin, Y. Momany in Astron. Astrophys. 390, 59 (2002); E.D. Skillman, R. Terlevich, J. Melnick in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 240, 563 (1989); L. van Zee, E.D. Skillman, M.P. Haynes in Astrophys. J. 637, 269 (2006)].

  17. Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. II. A Chemodynamical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Beers, Timothy C; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E; Dietz, Sarah; Masseron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We obtain estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters for a previously published sample of 1777 relatively bright (9 < B < 14) metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. The original Frebel et al. analysis of these stars was only able to derive estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] for a subset of the sample, due to limitations in the methodology then available. A new spectroscopic analysis pipeline has been used to obtain estimates of Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for almost the entire dataset. This sample is very local - about 90% of the stars are located within 0.5 kpc of the Sun. We consider the chemodynamical properties of these stars in concert with a similarly local sample of stars from a recent analysis of the Bidelman & MacConnell 'weak-metal' candidates by Beers et al. We use this combined sample to identify possible members of the suggested halo stream of stars by Helmi et al. and Chiba & Beers, as well as stars that may be associated with stripped debris from the putative parent d...

  18. Early-Age Evolution of the Milky Way Related by Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2009-01-01

    We exploit the recent observations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic halo and investigate the constraints on the IMF of the stellar population that left these low-mass survivors of [Fe/H]<-2.5 and the chemical evolution that they took part in. A high-mass IMF with the typical mass~10Msun and the overwhelming contribution of low-mass members of binaries to the EMP survivors are derived from the statistics of carbon-enriched EMP stars with and without the enhancement of s-process elements (Komiya et al. 2007). We first examine the analysis to confirm their results for various assumptions on the mass-ratio distribution function. As compared with the uniform distribution, the increase or decrease function of the mass ratio gives a higher- or lower-mass IMF, and a lower-mass IMF results for the independent distribution with the both members in the same IMF, but the derived ranges of typical mass differ less than by a factor of two and overlap for the extreme cases. Furthermore, we prove that t...

  19. Simulating extremely metal-poor gas and DLA metal content at redshift z=7

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto; Mueller, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We present the first theoretical study of metals in damped Ly-alpha (DLA) systems at redshift z=7. The features of cold, primordial gas are studied by means of N-body, hydro, chemistry simulations, including atomic and molecular non-equilibrium chemistry, cooling, star formation for population III and population II-I regimes, stellar evolution, cosmic metal spreading according to proper yields (for He, C, O, Si, Fe, Mg, S, etc.) and lifetimes, and feedback effects. Theoretical expectations are then compared to recently available constraints from DLA observations. We find that DLA galaxies at z=7 account for 10 per cent of the whole galaxy population and for most of the metal-poor galaxies at these epochs. About 7 per cent of these DLA galaxies contain purely pristine material and 34 per cent of them consist of very weakly polluted gas, being, therefore, suitable candidate s as population III sites. The remaining 59 per cent are enriched above ~10^{-4} Zsun. Additionally, DLA candidates appear to have: gas mas...

  20. On the dearth of ultra-faint extremely metal poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Vecchia, C Dalla; Skillman, E D

    2016-01-01

    Local extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are of particular astrophysical interest since they allow us to look into physical processes characteristic of the early Universe, from the assembly of galaxy disks to the formation of stars in conditions of low metallicity. Given the luminosity-metallicity relationship, all galaxies fainter than Mr < -13 are expected to be XMPs. Therefore, XMPs should be common in galaxy surveys. However, they are not, because several observational biases hamper their detection. This work compares the number of faint XMPs in the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic survey with the expected number, given the known biases and the observed galaxy luminosity function. The faint end of the luminosity function is poorly constrained observationally, but it determines the expected number of XMPs. Surprisingly, the number of observed faint XMPs (around 10) is over-predicted by our calculation, unless the upturn in the faint end of the luminosity function is not present in the model. The lack of an uptur...

  1. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B

    2012-01-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements hea...

  2. New Detections of Arsenic, Selenium, and Other Heavy Elements in Two Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Lawler, James E; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 to 2360 Angstrom wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range -2.8 = +0.28 +/- 0.14 (std. dev. = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, = +0.16 +/- 0.09 (std. dev. = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 = +0.56 +/- ...

  3. Chromium: NLTE abundances in metal-poor stars and nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We investigate statistical equilibrium of Cr in the atmospheres of late-type stars to show whether the systematic abundance discrepancy between Cr I and Cr II lines, as often encountered in the literature, is due to deviations from LTE. Furthermore, we attempt to interpret the NLTE trend of [Cr/Fe] with [Fe/H] using chemical evolution models for the solar neighborhood. Methods. NLTE calculations are performed for the model of Cr atom, comprising 340 levels and 6806 transitions in total. We make use of the quantum-mechanical photoionization cross-sections of Nahar (2009) and investigate sensitivity of the model to uncertain cross-sections for H I collisions. NLTE line formation is performed for the MAFAGS-ODF model atmospheres of the Sun and 10 metal-poor stars with -3.2 < [Fe/H] < -0.5, and abundances of Cr are derived by comparison of the synthetic and observed flux spectra. Results. We achieve good ionization equilibrium of Cr for the models with different stellar parameters, if inelastic collis...

  4. The primordial deuterium abundance of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Nollett, Kenneth M; Jorgenson, Regina

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system currently known, which also displays the Lyman series absorption lines of neutral deuterium. The average [O/H] abundance of this system is [O/H] = -2.804 +/- 0.015, which includes an absorption component with [O/H] = -3.07 +/- 0.03. Despite the unfortunate blending of many weak D I absorption lines, we report a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance of this system. Using the six highest quality and self-consistently analyzed measures of D/H in DLAs, we report tentative evidence for a subtle decrease of D/H with increasing metallicity. This trend must be confirmed with future high precision D/H measurements spanning a range of metallicity. A weighted mean of these six independent measures provides our best estimate of the primordial abundance of deuterium, 10^5 (D/H)_P = 2.547 +/- 0.033 (log_10 (D/H)_P = -4.5940 +/- 0.0056). We perform a series of detailed Monte Carlo calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BB...

  5. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge - a population potpourri

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Preston, George W; Thompson, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern Galactic bulge, at (l,b)$\\sim$(0$^{\\rm o}$,-11$^{\\rm o}$). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H]=-2.52 dex, and another one is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe]=1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars ...

  6. The low Sr/Ba ratio on some extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; François, P; Sbordone, L

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted that, in classical extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, the abundance ratio of Sr and Ba, is always higher than [Sr/Ba] = -0.5, the value of the solar r-only process; however, a handful of EMP stars have recently been found with a very low Sr/Ba ratio. We try to understand the origin of this anomaly by comparing the abundance pattern of the elements in these stars and in the classical EMP stars. Four stars with very low Sr/Ba ratios were observed and analyzed within LTE approximation through 1D (hydrostatic) model atmosphere, providing homogeneous abundances of nine neutron-capture elements. In CS 22950-173, the only turnoff star of the sample, the Sr/Ba ratio is, in fact, found to be higher than the r-only solar ratio, so the star is discarded. The remaining stars (CS 29493-090, CS 30322-023, HE 305-4520) are cool evolved giants. They do not present a clear carbon enrichment. The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in the three stars are strikingly similar to a theoretical s-pro...

  7. Detailed abundance analysis of a metal-poor giant in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, N; Rich, R M; Thorsbro, B; Schultheis, M; Origlia, L; Chatzopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    We report the first results from our program to examine the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster connected to SgrA*, with the goal of inferring the star formation and enrichment history of this system, as well as its connection and relationship with the central 100 pc of the bulge/bar system. We present the first high resolution (R~24,000), detailed abundance analysis of a K=10.2 metal-poor, alpha-enhanced red giant projected at 1.5 pc from the Galactic Center, using NIRSPEC on Keck II. A careful analysis of the dynamics and color of the star locates it at about 26 pc line-of-sight distance in front of the nuclear cluster. It probably belongs to one of the nuclear components (cluster or disk), not to the bar-bulge or classical disk. A detailed spectroscopic synthesis, using a new linelist in the K band, finds [Fe/H]~-1.0 and [alpha/Fe]~+0.4, consistent with stars of similar metallicity in the bulge. As known giants with comparable [Fe/H] and alpha enhancement are old, we conclude tha...

  8. Discovery of a Gas-Rich Companion to the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy DDO 68

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Alfvin, Erik D; Bailin, Jeremy; Ford, H Alyson; Girardi, Léo; Hirschauer, Alec S; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J; Van Sistine, Angela; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E C; Koribalski, Baerbel; Marigo, Paola; Rosenberg, Jessica L; Rosenfield, Philip; Skillman, Evan D; Venkatesan, Aparna; Warren, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    We present HI spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only 3% Z$_{\\odot}$, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival HI spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M$_{\\rm HI}$ $=$ 2.8$\\times$10$^{7}$ M$_{\\odot}$), recently star-forming (SFR$_{\\rm FUV}$ $=$ 1.4$\\times$10$^{-3}$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, SFR$_{\\rm H\\alpha}$ $<$ 7$\\times$10$^{-5}$ M$_{\\...

  9. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  10. Tracing the Metal-Poor M31 Stellar Halo with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Gilbert, Eric F BellKaroline M; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire; Lauer, Tod R; Seth, Anil C; Kalirai, Jason S; Rosenfield, Philip; Girardi, Leo

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed new HST/ACS and HST/WFC3 imaging in F475W and F814W of two previously-unobserved fields along the M31 minor axis to confirm our previous constraints on the shape of M31's inner stellar halo. Both of these new datasets reach a depth of at least F814W$<$27 and clearly detect the blue horizontal branch (BHB) of the field as a distinct feature of the color-magnitude diagram. We measure the density of BHB stars and the ratio of BHB to red giant branch stars in each field using identical techniques to our previous work. We find excellent agreement with our previous measurement of a power-law for the 2-D projected surface density with an index of 2.6$^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ outside of 3 kpc, which flattens to $\\alpha <$1.2 inside of 3 kpc. Our findings confirm our previous suggestion that the field BHB stars in M31 are part of the halo population. However, the total halo profile is now known to differ from this BHB profile, which suggests that we have isolated the metal-poor component. This component ...

  11. On the Dearth of Ultra-faint Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Filho, M. E.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Skillman, E. D.

    2017-02-01

    Local extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) are of particular astrophysical interest since they allow us to look into physical processes characteristic of the early universe, from the assembly of galaxy disks to the formation of stars in conditions of low metallicity. Given the luminosity–metallicity relationship, all galaxies fainter than Mr ≃ ‑13 are expected to be XMPs. Therefore, XMPs should be common in galaxy surveys. However, they are not common, because several observational biases hamper their detection. This work compares the number of faint XMPs in the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic survey with the expected number, given the known biases and the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF). The faint end of the LF is poorly constrained observationally, but it determines the expected number of XMPs. Surprisingly, the number of observed faint XMPs (∼10) is overpredicted by our calculation, unless the upturn in the faint end of the LF is not present in the model. The lack of an upturn can be naturally understood if most XMPs are central galaxies in their low-mass dark matter halos, which are highly depleted in baryons due to interaction with the cosmic ultraviolet background and to other physical processes. Our result also suggests that the upturn toward low luminosity of the observed galaxy LF is due to satellite galaxies.

  12. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Freeman, K; Ness, M; Depagne, E; Cantelli, E; Pignatari, M; Hirschi, R; Frischknecht, U; Meynet, G; Maeder, A

    2016-01-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ~ -1 and oversolar [alpha/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims. The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R~45,000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N >100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the alpha-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Z...

  13. Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and a Hierarchical Chemical Evolution Model

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Early phases of the chemical evolution and formation history of extremely metal poor (EMP) stars are investigated using hierarchical galaxy formation models. We build a merger tree of the Galaxy according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We follow the chemical evolution along the tree, and compare the model results to the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and abundance ratio distribution of the Milky Way halo. We adopt three different initial mass functions (IMFs). In a previous studies, we argue that typical mass of EMP stars should be high-mass(~10Msun) based on studies of binary origin carbon-rich EMP stars. In this study, we show that only the high-mass IMF can explain a observed small number of EMP stars. For relative element abundances, the high-mass IMF and the Salpeter IMF predict similar distributions. We also investigate dependence on nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae (SNe). The theoretical SN yields by Kobayashi et al.(2006) and Chieffi & Limonge (2004) show reasonable agreement...

  14. Granulation signatures in the spectrum of the very metal-poor red giant HD122563

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, I; Lambert, D L; Prieto, C Allende; Asplund, M

    2010-01-01

    A very high resolution (R=200,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N=340) blue-green spectrum of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.6) red giant star HD122563 has been obtained by us at McDonald Observatory. We measure the asymmetries and core wavelengths of a set of unblended FeI lines covering a wide range of line strength. Line bisectors exhibit the characteristic C-shape signature of surface convection (granulation) and they span from about 100 m/s in the strongest FeI features to 800 m/s in the weakest ones. Core wavelength shifts range from about -100 to -900 m/s, depending on line strength. In general, larger blueshifts are observed in weaker lines, but there is increasing scatter with increasing residual flux. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), we synthesize the same set of spectral lines using a state-of-the-art three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation for a stellar atmosphere of fundamental parameters similar to those of HD122563. We find good agreement between model predictions and observa...

  15. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Spite, M; Spite, F; Beers, T C; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; François, P; Schatz, H; Wanajo, S

    2014-01-01

    Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is(are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph. The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. We have derived abundances of light elements Li, C, and N, alpha-elements, odd-Z elements, iron-...

  16. C, N, O Abundances in the Most Metal-Poor Damped Lyman alpha Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C; Chaffee, Fred H

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on some of the most metal-poor damped Lyman alpha absorbers known in the spectra of high redshift QSOs, using new and archival observations obtained with UV-sensitive echelle spectrographs on the Keck and VLT telescopes. The weakness and simple velocity structure of the absorption lines in these systems allows us to measure the abundances of several elements, and in particular those of C, N, and O, a group that is difficult to study in DLAs of more typical metallicities. We find that when the oxygen abundance is less than about 1/100 of solar, the C/O ratio in high redshift DLAs and sub-DLAs matches that of halo stars of similar metallicity and shows higher values than expected from galactic chemical evolution models based on conventional stellar yields. Furthermore, there are indications that at these low metallicities the N/O ratio may also be above simple expectations and may exhibit a minimum value, as proposed by Centurion and her collaborators in 2003. Both results can be interpreted ...

  17. Evidence for a metal-poor population in the inner Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Schultheis, M; Zasowski, G; Pérez, A E García; Sellgren, K; Smith, V; García-Hernández, D A; Zamora, O; Fritz, T K; Anders, F; Prieto, C Allende; Bizyaev, D; Kinemuchi, K; Pan, K; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Shetrone, M D

    2015-01-01

    The inner Galactic Bulge has, until recently, been avoided in chemical evolution studies due to extreme extinction and stellar crowding. Large, near-IR spectroscopic surveys, such as APOGEE, allow for the first time the measurement of metallicities in the inner region of our Galaxy. We study metallicities of 33 K/M giants situated in the Galactic Center region from observations obtained with the APOGEE survey. We selected K/M giants with reliable stellar parameters from the APOGEE/ASPCAP pipeline. Distances, interstellar extinction values, and radial velocities were checked to confirm that these stars are indeed situated in the inner Galactic Bulge. We find a metal-rich population centered at [M/H] = +0.4 dex, in agreement with earlier studies of other bulge regions, but also a peak at low metallicity around $\\rm [M/H] = -1.0\\,dex$, suggesting the presence of a metal-poor population which has not previously been detected in the central region. Our results indicate a dominant metal-rich population with a metal...

  18. Beryllium and Alpha-Element Abundances in a Large Sample of Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Levesque, Emily M; Bowler, Brendan P

    2011-01-01

    The light elements, Li, Be, and B, provide tracers for many aspects of astronomy including stellar structure, Galactic evolution, and cosmology. We have taken spectra of Be in 117 metal-poor stars ranging in metallicity from [Fe/H] = -0.5 to -3.5 with Keck I + HIRES at a resolution of 42,000 and signal-to-noise ratios of near 100. We have determined the stellar parameters spectroscopically from lines of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I and Ti II. The abundances of Be and O were derived by spectrum synthesis techniques, while abundances of Fe, Ti, and Mg were found from many spectral line measurements. There is a linear relationship between [Fe/H] and A(Be) with a slope of +0.88 +-0.03 over three orders of magnitude in [Fe/H]. We fit the relationship between A(Be) and [O/H] with both a single slope and with two slopes. The relationship between [Fe/H] and [O/H] seems robustly linear and we conclude that the slope change in Be vs. O is due to the Be abundance. Although Be is a by-product of CNO, we have used Ti and Mg abundanc...

  19. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), II. Discovery of Metal-poor Dusty AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, P; Bonanos, A Z; Gehrz, R D; Gordon, K D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D; Marengo, M; McDonald, I; Meixner, M; Skillman, E; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, G; van Loon, J Th; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called "extreme" or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5]>0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of approximately 30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, one star in IC 1613, and one star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirms tha...

  20. 2MASS J18082002-5104378: The brightest (V=11.9) ultra metal-poor star

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge; Tucci-Maia, Marcelo; Ramirez, Ivan; Li, Ting S; Perez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Context. The most primitive metal-poor stars are important for studying the conditions of the early galaxy and are also relevant to big bang nucleosynthesis. Aims. Our objective is to find the brightest (V<14) most metal-poor stars. Methods. Candidates were selected using a new method, which is based on the mismatch between spectral types derived from colors and observed spectral types. They were observed first at low resolution with EFOSC2 at the NTT/ESO to obtain an initial set of stellar parameters. The most promising candidate, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 (V=11.9), was observed at high resolution (R=50 000) with UVES at the VLT/ESO, and a standard abundance analysis was performed. Results. We found that 2MASS J18082002-5104378 is an ultra metal-poor star with stellar parameters Teff = 5440 K, log g = 3.0 dex, vt = 1.5 km/s, [Fe/H] = -4.1 dex. The star has [C/Fe]<+0.9 in a 1D analysis, or [C/Fe]<=+0.5 if 3D effects are considered; its abundance pattern is typical of normal (non-CEMP) ultra metal-poor ...

  1. The Effect of Scattering on the Temperature Stratification of 3D Model Atmospheres of Metal-Poor Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Remo; Hayek, Wolfgang; Asplund, Martin

    2011-08-01

    We study the effects of different approximations of scattering in 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations on the photospheric temperature stratification of metal-poor red giant stars. We find that assuming a Planckian source function and neglecting the contribution of scattering to extinction in optically thin layers provides a good approximation of the effects of coherent scattering on the photospheric temperature balance.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH COMPANION TO THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY DDO 68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Alfvin, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Johnson, Megan; Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, NSW 1710, Epping (Australia); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Ford, H. Alyson [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Elson, E. C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Marigo, Paola; Rosenfield, Philip [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Warren, Steven R., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Bldg., Rm. 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z {sub ☉}, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M{sub H} {sub I} = 2.8 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}), recently star-forming (SFR{sub FUV} = 1.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, SFR{sub Hα} < 7 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V {sub sys} = 506 km s{sup –1}; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects.

  3. A support vector machine to search for metal-poor galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhong-Hua; Zhi, Shu-Teng

    2014-10-01

    To develop a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge data bases, a support vector machine (SVM) supervized learning algorithms is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (http://www.sdss3.org/dr9/spectro/spectroaccess.php). A two-step approach is adopted: (i) the SVM must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal-rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After training on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition accuracy for MPGs of ˜96 and ˜95 per cent for an MPG threshold of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log(O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the MATLAB 2013a software environment. The code in the Letter is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com). The SVM method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task and can be regarded as an efficient classification method particularly suitable for modern large surveys.

  4. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-Poor Gas-Rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschauer, Alec S; Skillman, Evan D; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Cannon, John M; Gordon, Alex J R; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L; Pogge, Richard W; Croxall, Kevin V; Aver, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 10$^{6}$-10$^{7.2}$~M$_{\\odot}$ discovered by the ALFALFA survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone HII region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5-m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 $\\pm$ 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind HI surv...

  5. Chemical composition and constraints on mass loss for globular clusters in dwarf galaxies: WLM and IKN

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S; Forbes, D A; Strader, J

    2014-01-01

    We determine the metallicities for globular clusters (GCs) in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies, using VLT/UVES and Keck/ESI spectroscopy. For the WLM GC we also measure detailed abundance ratios for a number of light, alpha, Fe-peak and n-capture elements. We find low metallicities of [Fe/H]=-2.0 and -2.1 for the WLM GC and the GC IKN-5, respectively. We estimate that 17%-31% of the metal-poor stars in WLM belong to the GC, and IKN-5 may even contain a similar number of metal-poor stars as the whole of the IKN dwarf itself. These high ratios of metal-poor GCs to field stars are in tension with GC formation scenarios that require GCs to have lost a very large fraction of their initial mass. The GCs in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies resemble those in the Fornax dSph by being significantly more metal-poor than a typical halo GC in the Milky Way and other large galaxies. They are also substantially more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars in their parent galaxies. The overall abundance patterns in the WLM G...

  6. The Primordial Deuterium Abundance of the Most Metal-poor Damped Lyman-α System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Nollett, Kenneth M.; Jorgenson, Regina

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyα (DLA) system currently known, which also displays the Lyman series absorption lines of neutral deuterium. The average [O/H] abundance of this system is [O/H] = -2.804 ± 0.015, which includes an absorption component with [O/H] = -3.07 ± 0.03. Despite the unfortunate blending of many weak D i absorption lines, we report a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance of this system. Using the six highest-quality and self-consistently analyzed measures of D/H in DLAs, we report tentative evidence for a subtle decrease of D/H with increasing metallicity. This trend must be confirmed with future high-precision D/H measurements spanning a range of metallicity. A weighted mean of these six independent measures provides our best estimate of the primordial abundance of deuterium, 105 (D/H)P = 2.547 ± 0.033 ({{log}}10 {{{(D/H)}}}{{P}}=-4.5940+/- 0.0056). We perform a series of detailed Monte Carlo calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) that incorporate the latest determinations of several key nuclear reaction cross-sections, and propagate their associated uncertainty. Combining our measurement of (D/H)P with these BBN calculations yields an estimate of the cosmic baryon density, 100 ΩB,0 h 2(BBN) = 2.156 ± 0.020, if we adopt the most recent theoretical determination of the d{(p,γ )}3{He} reaction rate. This measure of ΩB,0 h 2 differs by ˜2.3σ from the Standard Model value estimated from the Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background. Using instead a d{(p,γ )}3{He} reaction rate that is based on the best available experimental cross-section data, we estimate 100 ΩB,0 h 2(BBN) = 2.260 ± 0.034, which is in somewhat better agreement with the Planck value. Forthcoming measurements of the crucial d{(p,γ )}3{He} cross-section may shed further light on this discrepancy. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern

  7. WASP-37b: a 1.7 MJ exoplanet transiting a metal-poor star

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, E K; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Hebb, L; Pollacco, D; Smalley, B; Todd, I; Butters, O W; Hebrard, G; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Santerne, A; Street, R A; Skillen, I; Triaud, A H M J; Anderson, D R; Bento, J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Enoch, B; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K; Keenan, F P; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Stempels, H C; Udry, S; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a mv = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577471 +/- 0.00001 d, transit epoch T0 = 2455338.6189 +/- 0.0006 (HJD), and a transit duration 0.1307 +/- 0.0019 d. The planetary companion has a mass Mp = 1.696(+0.123)(-0.128) MJ and radius Rp = 1.136(+0.060){-0.051} RJ, yielding a mean density of 1.169(+0.119)(-0.152) times that of Jupiter. From a spectral analysis and comparisons with stellar models, we find the host star has M* = 0.849(+0.067)(-0.040) Msun, R* = 0.977(+0.045)(-0.042) Rsun, Teff = 5800 +/- 150 K and [Fe/H] = -0.40 +/- 0.12. WASP-37 is therefore one of the lowest metallicity stars to host a transiting planet.

  8. WASP-37b: a 1.8 MJ exoplanet transiting a metal-poor star

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, E. K.; Faedi, F.; Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hebb, L.; Pollacco, D.; Smalley, B.; Todd, I.; Butters, O. W.; Hebrard, G.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Santerne, A.; Street, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a mv = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577471 \\pm 0.00001 d, transit epoch T0 = 2455338.6188 \\pm 0.0006 (HJD), and a transit duration 0.1304 \\pm 0.0018 d. The planetary companion has a mass Mp = 1.80 \\pm 0.17 MJ and radius Rp = 1.16 \\pm 0.07 RJ, yielding a mean density of 1.15 \\pm 0.15 times that of Jupiter. From a spectral analysis and comparisons with stellar models, we find the host star has M* = 0.925 \\pm 0.1...

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of a sample of metal-poor solar-type stars from the HARPS planet search program

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Sérgio G; Israelian, Garik; Lovis, C; Mayor, Michel; Silva, Pedro B; Udry, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Stellar metallicity strongly correlates with the presence of planets and their properties. To check for new correlations between stars and the existence of an orbiting planet, we determine precise stellar parameters for a sample of metal-poor solar-type stars. This sample was observed with the HARPS spectrograph and is part of a program to search for new extrasolar planets. The stellar parameters were determined using an LTE analysis based on equivalent widths (EW) of iron lines and by imposing excitation and ionization equilibrium. The ARES code was used to allow automatic and systematic derivation of the stellar parameters. Precise stellar parameters and metallicities were obtained for 97 low metal-content stars. We also present the derived masses, luminosities, and new parallaxes estimations based on the derived parameters, and compare our spectroscopic parameters with an infra-red flux method calibration to check the consistency of our method in metal poor stars. Both methods seems to give the same effect...

  10. PopIII-star siblings in IZw18 and metal-poor WR galaxies unveiled from integral field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Brinchmann, J.; Crowther, P. A.; Durret, F.; Kunth, D.

    Here, we highlight our recent results from the IFS study of Mrk178, the closest metal-poor WR galaxy, and of IZw18, the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy known in the local Universe. The IFS data of Mrk178 show the importance of aperture effects on the search for WR features, and the extent to which physical variations in the ISM properties can be detected. Our IFS data of IZw18 reveal its entire nebular HeIIλ4686-emitting region, and indicate for the very first time that peculiar, hot (nearly) metal-free ionizing stars (called here PopIII-star siblings) might hold the key to the HeII-ionization in IZw18.

  11. PopIII-star siblings in IZw18 and WRs in metal-poor galaxies unveiled from integral field spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kehrig, Carolina; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Iglesias-Paramo, Jorge; Brinchmann, Jarle; Crowther, Paul A; Durret, Florence; Kunth, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Here we highlight our recent results from the IFS study of Mrk178, the closest metal-poor WR galaxy, and of IZw18, the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy known in the local Universe. The IFS data of Mrk178 show the importance of aperture effects on the search for WR features, and the extent to which physical variations in the ISM properties can be detected. Our IFS data of IZw18 reveal its entire nebular HeII4686-emitting region, and indicate for the first time that peculiar, very hot (nearly) metal-free ionizing stars (called here PopIII-star siblings) might hold the key to the HeII-ionization in IZw18.

  12. A Search for Stars of Very Low Metal Abundance. VI. Detailed Abundances of 313 Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Thompson, Ian B; Shectman, Stephen A; Sneden, Christopher; Burley, Gregory S; Kelson, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10-year observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coude Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several ab...

  13. Constraints on mass loss of globular clusters in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S; Brodie, J P

    2013-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is well known for its very high globular cluster specific frequency, SN=26. Furthermore, while the field star metallicity distribution peaks at [Fe/H]=-1, four of the five GCs have [Fe/H]<-2. Only about 5 percent of the field stars have such low metallicities. Hence, a very large fraction of about 1/5-1/4 of the most metal-poor stars belong to the four most metal-poor GCs. This implies that these clusters could, at most, have been a factor of 4-5 more massive initially. A second, even more extreme case may be the IKN dwarf galaxy where SN=124. Although metallicities are not accurately known, the GCs account for about 13 percent of the total V-band luminosity of IKN.

  14. Ultra-faint dwarfs: The living fossils of the first galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the faintest dwarf galaxies and their connection with the recently discovered very metal-poor Damped Lyα Absorption systems (DLAs) is investigate in the context of the Milky Way formation. By using a cosmological model I will discuss the theoretical implications of the observed Fe-Lumi

  15. Clear evidence for the presence of second-generation asymptotic giant branch stars in metal-poor Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Monelli, M; Cassisi, S; Stetson, P B; Zamora, O; Shetrone, M; Lucatello, S

    2015-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are known to host multiple stellar populations: a first generation with a chemical pattern typical of halo field stars and a second generation (SG) enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. Both stellar generations are found at different evolutionary stages (e.g., the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch). The non detection of SG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in several metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs suggests that not all SG stars ascend the AGB phase, and that failed AGB stars may be very common in metal-poor GCs. This observation represents a serious problem for stellar evolution and GC formation/evolution theories. We report fourteen SG-AGB stars in four metal-poor GCs (M 13, M 5, M 3, and M 2) with different observational properties: horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. By combining the H-band Al abundances obtained by the APOGEE survey with ground-based optical photometry, we identify SG Al-rich AGB stars in...

  16. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XL. Searching for Neptunes around metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J P; Figueira, P; Mortier, A; Dumusque, X; Boisse, I; Curto, G Lo; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Melo, C; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Ségransan, D; Sousa, S G; Sozzetti, A; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    Stellar metallicity -- as a probe of the metallicity of proto-planetary disks -- is an important ingredient for giant planet formation, likely through its effect on the timescales in which rocky/icy planet cores can form. Giant planets have been found to be more frequent around metal-rich stars, in agreement with predictions based on the core-accretion theory. In the metal-poor regime, however, the frequency of planets, especially low-mass planets, and how it depends on metallicity are still largely unknown. As part of a planet search programme focused on metal-poor stars, we study the targets from this survey that were observed with HARPS on more than 75 nights. The main goals are to assess the presence of low-mass planets and provide a first estimate of the frequency of Neptunes and super-Earths around metal-poor stars. We perform a systematic search for planetary companions, both by analysing the periodograms of the radial-velocities and by comparing, in a statistically-meaningful way, models with an incre...

  17. Three-dimensional surface convection simulations of metal-poor stars -- The effect of scattering on the photospheric temperature stratification

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, R; Asplund, M; Nordlund, Å; Trampedach, R; Gudiksen, B

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic model atmospheres of metal-poor late-type stars are characterized by cooler upper photospheric layers than their 1D counterparts. This property of 3D models can dramatically affect elemental abundances derived from temperature-sensitive spectral lines. We investigate whether the cool surface temperatures predicted by metal-poor 3D models can be ascribed to the approximated treatment of scattering in the radiative transfer. We use the Bifrost code to test three different ways to handle scattering in 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars. First, we solve self-consistently the radiative transfer equation for a source function with a coherent scattering term. Second, we solve the radiative transfer equation for a Planckian source function, neglecting the contribution of continuum scattering to extinction in the optically thin layers; this has been the default mode in previous models of ours. Third, we treat scattering as pure absorption everywhere, which is the sta...

  18. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N@TNG II: No giant planets around the metal-poor star HIP 11952

    CERN Document Server

    Desidera, S; Bonomo, A S; Gratton, R; Poretti, E; Claudi, R; Latham, D W; Affer, L; Cosentino, R; Damasso, M; Esposito, M; Giacobbe, P; Malavolta, L; Nascimbeni, V; Piotto, G; Rainer, M; Scardia, M; Schmid, V S; Lanza, A F; Micela, G; Pagano, I; Bedin, L; Biazzo, K; Borsa, F; Carolo, E; Covino, E; Faedi, F; Hebrard, G; Lovis, C; Maggio, A; Mancini, L; Marzari, F; Messina, S; Molinari, E; Munari, U; Pepe, F; Santos, N; Scandariato, G; Shkolnik, E; Southworth, J

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the program Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), we have performed radial velocity monitoring of the metal-poor star HIP 11952 on 35 nights over about 150 days using the newly installed high resolution spectrograph HARPS-N at the TNG and HARPS at ESO 3.6m telescope. The radial velocities show a scatter of 7 m/s, compatible with the measurement errors for such a moderately warm metal-poor star (Teff = 6040+-120K; [Fe/H] =-1.9+-0.1). We then exclude the presence of the two giant planets with periods of 6.95+-0.01 d and 290.0+-16.2 d and radial velocity semi-amplitudes of 100.3+-19.4 m/s and 105.2+-14.7 m/s, respectively, which had recently been announced. This result is important considering that HIP 11952 was thought to be the most metal-poor star hosting a planetary system with giant planets, thus challenging some models of planet formation.

  19. Improved Cr II log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Nave, G.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Emrahoğlu, N.; Cowan, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    New emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr ii) and new radiative lifetime measurements from laser-induced fluorescence for 8 levels of Cr+ are reported. The goals of this study are to improve transition probability measurements in Cr ii and reconcile solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr i and Cr ii lines. Eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high-resolution echelle spectrometer are used in the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from this study and earlier publications are used to convert the BFs into absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log ε in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is = 5.624 ± 0.009 compared to = 5.644 ± 0.006 on a scale with the hydrogen abundance log ε(H) = 12 and with the uncertainty representing only line-to-line scatter. A Saha (ionization balance) test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is also performed, yielding = 3.417 ± 0.006 and 0 eV)> = 3.374 ± 0.011 for this dwarf star. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V, and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history—other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr.

  20. Three-dimensional surface convection simulations of metal-poor stars. The effect of scattering on the photospheric temperature stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, R.; Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Nordlund, Å.; Trampedach, R.; Gudiksen, B.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic model atmospheres of metal-poor late-type stars are characterized by cooler upper photospheric layers than their one-dimensional counterparts. This property of 3D model atmospheres can dramatically affect the determination of elemental abundances from temperature-sensitive spectral features, with profound consequences on galactic chemical evolution studies. Aims: We investigate whether the cool surface temperatures predicted by 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars can be ascribed to approximations in the treatment of scattering during the modelling phase. Methods: We use the Bifrost code to construct 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars and test three different ways to handle scattering in the radiative transfer equation. As a first approach, we solve iteratively the radiative transfer equation for the general case of a source function with a coherent scattering term, treating scattering in a correct and consistent way. As a second approach, we solve the radiative transfer equation in local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation, neglecting altogether the contribution of continuum scattering to extinction in the optically thin layers; this has been the default mode in our previous 3D modelling as well as in present Stagger-Code models. As our third and final approach, we treat continuum scattering as pure absorption everywhere, which is the standard case in the 3D modelling by the CO5BOLD collaboration. Results: For all simulations, we find that the second approach produces temperature structures with cool upper photospheric layers very similar to the case in which scattering is treated correctly. In contrast, treating scattering as pure absorption leads instead to significantly hotter and shallower temperature stratifications. The main differences in temperature structure between our published models computed with the Stagger- and Bifrost codes and those generated with the CO5BOLD code can be traced

  1. Possible Evidence for Metal Accretion onto the Surfaces of Metal-Poor Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Kohei; Beers, Timothy C; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-01-01

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parametrized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the ...

  2. The metal-poor end of the Spite plateau. 1: Stellar parameters, metallicities and lithium abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Behara, N T; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Steffen, M; Cayrel, R; Freytag, B; Veer, C Van't; Molaro, P; Plez, B; Sivarani, T; Spite, M; Spite, F; Beers, T C; Christlieb, N; Francois, P; Hill, V

    2010-01-01

    We present VLT-UVES Li abundances for 28 halo dwarf stars between [Fe/H]=-2.5 and -3.5, 10 of which have [Fe/H]<-3. Four different T_eff scales have been used. Direct Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) has been used on the basis of 2MASS infrared photometry. H_alpha wings have been fitted against synthetic grids computed by means of 1D LTE atmosphere models, assuming different self-broadening theories. Finally, a grid of H_alpha profiles has been computed by means of 3D hydrodynamical atmosphere models. The Li I doublet at 670.8 nm has been used to measure A(Li) by means of 3D hydrodynamical NLTE spectral syntheses. An analytical fit of A(Li)(3D, NLTE) as a function of equivalent width, T_eff, log g, and [Fe/H] has been derived and is made available. A(Li) does not exhibit a plateau below [Fe/H]=-3. A strong positive correlation with [Fe/H] appears, not influenced by the choice of the T_eff estimator. From a linear fit, we obtain a strong slope of about 0.30 dex in A(Li) per dex in [Fe/H], significant to 2-3 sigm...

  3. Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, A V; Kniazev, A Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine eXtremely Metal-Deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the SAO 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12+log(O/H) < 7.65, or Zo/35 < Z < Zo/10) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allow us the robu...

  4. Seeking footprints of the primeval Universe in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the star formation histories (SFHs) of four isolated dwarf galaxies, Cetus, Tucana, LGS-3, and Phoenix, as a function of galactocentric radius. Our results suggest that beyond some distance from the center, there are no significative differences in fundamental properties of these galaxies, such as the star formation rate (SFR) or age-metallicity relation (AMR). The stellar content of this region would be composed of old (>~ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars only. In the innermost regions, dwarf galaxies appear to have formed stars during time intervals which duration varies from galaxy to galaxy. This extended star formation produces the dichotomy between dwarf spheroidal (dSph) and dwarf Transition (dTr) galaxy types.

  5. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  6. A Deep Study of the Dwarf Satellites Andromeda XXVIII & Andromeda XXIX

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Colin T; Martin, Nicolas F; Tollerud, Erik J; Ho, Nhung

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a deep study of the isolated dwarf galaxies Andromeda XXVIII and Andromeda XXIX with Gemini/GMOS and Keck/DEIMOS. Both galaxies are shown to host old, metal-poor stellar populations with no detectable recent star formation, conclusively identifying both of them as dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). And XXVIII exhibits a complex horizontal branch morphology, which is suggestive of metallicity enrichment and thus an extended period of star formation in the past. Decomposing the horizontal branch into blue (metal poor, assumed to be older) and red (relatively more metal rich, assumed to be younger) populations shows that the metal rich are also more spatially concentrated in the center of the galaxy. We use spectroscopic measurements of the Calcium triplet, combined with the improved precision of the Gemini photometry, to measure the metallicity of the galaxies, confirming the metallicity spread and showing that they both lie on the luminosity-metallicity relation for dwarf satellites. ...

  7. CU Comae a new field double-mode RR Lyrae, the most metal poor discovered to date

    CERN Document Server

    Clementini, G; Fabrizio, L D; Bragaglia, A; Merighi, R; Tosi, M P; Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; Ivans, I I; Kinard, A; Marconi, M; Smith, H A; Wilhelm, R; Woodruff, T; Sneden, C

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new double-mode RR Lyrae variable (RRd) in the field of our Galaxy: CU Comae. CU Comae is the sixth such RRd identified to date and is the most metal-poor RRd ever detected. Based on BVI CCD photometry spanning eleven years of observations, we find that CU Comae has periods P0=0.5441641 +/-0.0000049d and P1=0.4057605 +/-0.0000018d. The amplitude of the primary (first-overtone) period of CU Comae is about twice the amplitude of the secondary (fundamental) period. The combination of the fundamental period of pulsation P0 and the period ratio of P1/P0=0.7457 places the variable on the metal-poor side of the Petersen diagram, in the region occupied by M68 and M15 RRd's. A mass of 0.83 solar masses is estimated for CU Comae using an updated theoretical calibration of the Petersen diagram. High resolution spectroscopy (R=30,000) covering the full pulsation cycle of CU Comae was obtained with the 2.7 m telescope of the Mc Donald Observatory, and has been used to build up the radial veloc...

  8. On the use of the index N2 to derive the metallicity in metal-poor galaxie

    CERN Document Server

    Morales-Luis, A B; Almeida, J Sanchez; Tunon, C Munoz

    2014-01-01

    The N2 index ([N II]6584/Ha) is used to determine emission line galaxy metallicities at all redshifts, including high redshift, where galaxies tend to be metal-poor. The initial aim of the work was to improve the calibrations used to infer oxygen abundance from N2 employing updated low-metallicity galaxy databases. We compare N2 and the metallicity determined using the direct method for the set of extremely metal-poor galaxies compiled by Morales-Luis et al. (2011). To our surprise, the oxygen abundance presents a tendency to be constant with N2, with a very large scatter. Consequently, we find that the existing N2 calibrators overstimate the oxygen abundance for most low metallicity galaxies, and then they can be used only to set upper limits to the true metallicity in low-metallicity galaxies. An explicit expression for this limit is given. In addition, we try to explain the observed scatter using photoionization models. It is mostly due to the different evolutionary state of the HII regions producing the e...

  9. ON THE USE OF THE INDEX N2 TO DERIVE THE METALLICITY IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pérez-Montero, E., E-mail: anabelen1516@gmail.com, E-mail: cmt@iac.es, E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: epm@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Apdo. de correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2014-12-20

    The N2 index ([N II] λ6584/Hα) is used to determine emission line galaxy metallicities at all redshifts, including high redshift, where galaxies tend to be metal-poor. The initial aim of this work was to improve the calibrations used to infer oxygen abundance from N2 by employing updated low-metallicity galaxy databases. We compare N2 and the metallicity determined using the direct method for the set of extremely metal-poor galaxies compiled by Morales-Luis et al. To our surprise, the oxygen abundance presents a tendency to be constant with N2, with a very large scatter. Consequently, we find that the existing N2 calibrators overestimate the oxygen abundance for most low-metallicity galaxies, and can therefore only be used to set upper limits to the true metallicity in low-metallicity galaxies. An explicit expression for this limit is given. In addition, we try to explain the observed scatter using photoionization models. It is mostly due to the different evolutionary state of the H II regions producing the emission lines, but it also arises due to differences in N/O among the galaxies.

  10. MUSE searches for galaxies near very metal-poor gas clouds at z~3: new constraints for cold accretion models

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Dekel, Avishai; Morris, Simon L; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for galaxies in the proximity of two very metal-poor gas clouds at z~3 towards the quasar Q0956+122. With a 5-hour MUSE integration in a ~500x500 kpc^2 region centred at the quasar position, we achieve a >80% complete spectroscopic survey of continuum-detected galaxies with m3e41 erg/s. We do not identify galaxies at the redshift of a z~3.2 Lyman limit system (LLS) with log Z/Zsun = -3.35 +/- 0.05, placing this gas cloud in the intergalactic medium or circumgalactic medium of a galaxy below our sensitivity limits. Conversely, we detect five Ly{\\alpha} emitters at the redshift of a pristine z~3.1 LLS with log Z/Zsun < -3.8, while ~0.4 sources were expected given the z~3 Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function. Both this high detection rate and the fact that at least three emitters appear aligned in projection with the LLS suggest that this pristine cloud is tracing a gas filament that is feeding one or multiple galaxies. Our observations uncover two different environments for metal-poor LLSs,...

  11. A wide-field photometric survey for extratidal tails around five metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Sangmo T; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Wide-field deep gri images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular cluster M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3 degree. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of ...

  12. Spectroscopic Studies of Extremly Metal-Poor Stars with Subaru/HDS:II.The r-process Elements, Including Thorium

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, S; Kajino, T; Ando, H; Beers, T C; Izumiura, H; Sadakane, K; Takada-Hidai, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the abundance analyses for the neutron-capture elements, and discuss the observed abundance distributions in very metal-poor stars with excesses of r-process elements. As has been found by previous abundance studies, the star-to-star scatter in the abundances of neutron-capture elements are very large. The abundance patterns of the heavy neutron-capture elements (56 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 70) in seven objects with moderate to large excesses of the neutron-capture elements are similar to that of the solar system r-process component. These results strongly suggest that the heavy neutron-capture elements in these objects are primarily synthesized by the r-process. On the other hand, the abundance ratios of the light neutron-capture elements (38 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 46) exhibit a rather large dispersion. Our inspection of the correlation between Sr and Ba abundances in very metal-poor stars reveals that the dispersion of the Sr abundances clearly decreases with increasing Ba abundance. This results support previou...

  13. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF VERY METAL-POOR STARS HD 122563 AND HD 140283: A VIEW FROM THE INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afşar, Melike [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Sneden, Christopher; Kim, Hwihyun, E-mail: melike.afsar@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: dtj@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: hwihyun@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: mace@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2016-03-10

    From high resolution (R ≃ 45,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 400) spectra gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) in the H and K photometric bands, we have derived elemental abundances of two bright, well-known metal-poor halo stars: the red giant HD 122563 and the subgiant HD 140283. Since these stars have metallicities approaching [Fe/H] = −3, their absorption features are generally very weak. Neutral-species lines of Mg, Si, S and Ca are detectable, as well as those of the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. The derived IR-based abundances agree with those obtained from optical-wavelength spectra. For Mg and Si the abundances from the infrared transitions are improvements to those derived from shorter wavelength data. Many useful OH and CO lines can be detected in the IGRINS HD 122563 spectrum, from which derived O and C abundances are consistent to those obtained from the traditional [O i] and CH features. IGRINS high resolutions H- and K-band spectroscopy offers promising ways to determine more reliable abundances for additional metal-poor stars whose optical features are either not detectable, or too weak, or are based on lines with analytical difficulties.

  14. Molybdenum, Ruthenium, and the Heavy r-process Elements in Moderately Metal-Poor Main-Sequence Turnoff Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of elemental abundances observed in metal-poor stars of the Galactic halo provide a unique present-day record of the nucleosynthesis products of its earliest stars. While the heaviest elements were synthesized by the r- and s-processes, dominant production mechanisms of light trans-ironic elements were obscure until recently. This work investigates further our 2011 conclusion that the low-entropy regime of a high-entropy wind (HEW) produced molybdenum and ruthenium in two moderately metal-poor turnoff stars that showed extreme overabundances of those elements with respect to iron. Only a few, rare nucleosynthesis events may have been involved. Here we determine abundances for Mo, Ru, and other trans-Fe elements for 28 similar stars by matching spectral calculations to well-exposed near-UV Keck HIRES spectra obtained for beryllium abundances. In each of the 26 turnoff stars with Mo or Ru line detections and no evidence for s-process production (therefore old), we find Mo and Ru to be three to six ti...

  15. Discovery of a strongly r-process enhanced extremely metal-poor star LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haining; Honda, Satoshi; Zhao, Gang; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor (EMP) giant, LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8, which exhibits large excess of r-process elements with [Eu/Fe] ~ +1.16. The star is one of the newly discovered EMP stars identified from LAMOST low-resolution spectroscopic survey and the high-resolution follow-up observation with the Subaru Telescope. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances have been determined from the Subaru spectrum. Accurate abundances for a total of 23 elements including 11 neutron-capture elements from Sr through Dy have been derived for LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8. The abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 in the range of C through Zn is in line with the "normal" population of EMP halo stars, except that it shows a notable underabundance in carbon. The heavy element abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 is in agreement with other well studied cool r-II metal-poor giants such as CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. The abundances of elements in the range from Ba through Dy well...

  16. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (II): high electron temperature objects

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Morales-Luis, A B; Munoz-Tunon, C; Garcia-Benito, R; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F S

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12 + log[O/H] < 7.69). They are uncommon, chemically and possibly dynamically primitive, with physical conditions characteristic of earlier phases of the Universe. We search for new XMPs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in a work that complements Paper I. This time high electron temperature objects are selected; since metals are a main coolant of the gas, metal- poor objects contain high-temperature gas. Using the algorithm k-means, we classify 788677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies having particularly intense [OIII]4363 with respect to [OIII]5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample have mean stell...

  17. Detailed Chemical Abundances in NGC 5824: Another Metal-Poor Globular Cluster with Internal Heavy Element Abundance Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.94+/-0.02 (statistical) +/-0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anti-correlated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/F...

  18. NLTE strontium abundance in a sample of extremely metal poor stars and the Sr/Ba ratio in the early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Francois, P; Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V

    2011-01-01

    Heavy element abundances in extremely metal-poor stars provide strong constraints on the processes of forming these elements in the first stars. We attempt to determine precise abundances of strontium in a homogeneous sample of extremely metal-poor stars. The abundances of strontium in 54 very or extremely metal-poor stars, was redetermined by abandoning the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis, and fitting non-LTE (NLTE) profiles to the observed spectral lines. The corrected Sr abundances and previously obtained NLTE Ba abundances are compared to the predictions of several hypothetical formation processes for the lighter neutron-capture elements. Our NLTE abundances confirm the previously determined huge scatter of the strontium abundance in low metallicity stars. This scatter is also found (and is even larger) at very low metallicities (i. e. early in the chemical evolution). The Sr abundance in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars is compatible with the main r-process involved in other processe...

  19. Manganese Abundances In Three Metal-poor Stars Using Improved log(gf) Data For Mn I And Mn II Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, J. S.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.; Truran, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present accurate Mn abundances for three very metal-poor stars using new log(gf) measurements [Den Hartog et al. 2011] for transitions of Mn I and Mn II spanning a wavelength range from 2300 to 6050 Å. The three metal-poor ([Fe/H] Hartog, E A, Lawler J E, Sobeck J S, Sneden C, and Cowan J J 2011, ApJS 194, 35

  20. The 2MASS Wide-Field T Dwarf Search. III. Seven New T Dwarfs and Other Cool Dwarf Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D; McElwain, M W; Reid, I N; Tinney, C G; Burgasser, Adam J.; Elwain, Michael W. Mc; Cruz, Kelle L.; Tinney, Chris G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven new T dwarfs identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Low-resolution (R$\\sim$150) 0.8--2.5 micron spectroscopy obtained with the IRTF SpeX instrument reveal the characteristic H$_2$O and CH$_4$ bands in the spectra of these brown dwarfs. Comparison to spectral standards observed with the same instrument enable us to derive classifications of T3 to T7 for the objects in this sample. Moderate-resolution (R$\\sim$1200) near-infrared spectroscopy for a subset of these discoveries reveal K I line strengths consistent with previously observed trends with spectral type. Follow-up imaging observations provide proper motion measurements for these sources, ranging from $<$ 0$\\farcs$1 to 1$\\farcs$55 yr$^{-1}$. One object, 2MASS 0034+0523, has a spectrophotometric distance placing it within 10 pc of the Sun. This source also exhibits a depressed K-band peak reminiscent of the peculiar T dwarf 2MASS 0937+2931, and may be a metal-poor or old, high-mass brown dwarf. We also present lo...

  1. OPTICAL–NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF M DWARF METALLICITY AND ITS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, N.; Robertis, M. M. De [Physics and Astronomy Department, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Dawson, P. C., E-mail: nedahej@yorku.ca, E-mail: mmdr@yorku.ca, E-mail: pdawson@trentu.ca [Physics Department, Trent University, Peterborough, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Based on a carefully constructed sample of dwarf stars, a new optical–near-infrared photometric calibration to estimate the metallicity of late-type K and early-to-mid-type M dwarfs is presented. The calibration sample has two parts; the first part includes 18 M dwarfs with metallicities determined by high-resolution spectroscopy and the second part contains 49 dwarfs with metallicities obtained through moderate-resolution spectra. By applying this calibration to a large sample of around 1.3 million M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2MASS, the metallicity distribution of this sample is determined and compared with those of previous studies. Using photometric parallaxes, the Galactic heights of M dwarfs in the large sample are also estimated. Our results show that stars farther from the Galactic plane, on average, have lower metallicity, which can be attributed to the age–metallicity relation. A scarcity of metal-poor dwarf stars in the metallicity distribution relative to the Simple Closed Box Model indicates the existence of the “M dwarf problem,” similar to the previously known G and K dwarf problems. Several more complicated Galactic chemical evolution models which have been proposed to resolve the G and K dwarf problems are tested and it is shown that these models could, to some extent, mitigate the M dwarf problem as well.

  2. The Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archeology (SAGA) Database - Compilation of the Characteristics of Known Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suda, Takuma; Yamada, Shimako; Suwa, Tamon; Ishizuka, Chikako; Komiya, Yutaka; Sorai, Kazuo; Aikawa, Masayuki; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a database of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic halo whose elemental abundances have been determined. Our database contains detailed elemental abundances, reported equivalent widths, atmospheric parameters, photometry, and binarity status, compiled from papers in the recent literature that report studies of EMP halo stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5. The compilation procedures for this database have been designed to assemble the data effectively from electronic tables available from online journals. We have also developed a data retrieval system that enables data searches by various criteria, and permits the user to explore relationships between the stored variables graphically. Currently, our sample includes 1212 unique stars (many of which are studied by more than one group) with more than 15000 individual reported elemental abundances, covering all of the relevant papers published by December 2007. We discuss the global characteristics of the present database, as re...

  3. Detection of low Eu abundances in extremely metal-poor stars and the origin of r-process elements

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Y; Aoki, W; Ryan, S G; Aoki, Wako; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Ryan, Sean G.; Wanajo, Shinya

    2003-01-01

    We report detailed abundance analyses for three extremely metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] lesssim -3 in the Galactic halo, using the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS). All these stars are found to have sub-solar relative abundances of [Eu/Fe], and exhibit the lowest [Eu/H] values at their metallicities. Comparison of these low Eu abundances with our chemical evolution model of the Galactic halo implies the dominant source of Eu to be the low-mass end of the Type II supernova mass range. This suggests that collapsing O-Ne-Mg cores resulting from 8-10 Msun stars are the major r-process site.

  4. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sneden, Christopher, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  5. MOLYBDENUM, RUTHENIUM, AND THE HEAVY r-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN MODERATELY METAL-POOR MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Ruth C. [Astrophysical Advances, 607 Marion Place, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The ratios of elemental abundances observed in metal-poor stars of the Galactic halo provide a unique present-day record of the nucleosynthesis products of its earliest stars. While the heaviest elements were synthesized by the r- and s-processes, dominant production mechanisms of light trans-ironic elements were obscure until recently. This work investigates further our 2011 conclusion that the low-entropy regime of a high-entropy wind (HEW) produced molybdenum and ruthenium in two moderately metal-poor turnoff stars that showed extreme overabundances of those elements with respect to iron. Only a few, rare nucleosynthesis events may have been involved. Here we determine abundances for Mo, Ru, and other trans-Fe elements for 28 similar stars by matching spectral calculations to well-exposed near-UV Keck HIRES spectra obtained for beryllium abundances. In each of the 26 turnoff stars with Mo or Ru line detections and no evidence for s-process production (therefore old), we find Mo and Ru to be three to six times overabundant. In contrast, the maximum overabundance is reduced to factors of three and two for the neighboring elements zirconium and palladium. Since the overproduction peaks sharply at Mo and Ru, a low-entropy HEW is confirmed as its origin. The overabundance level of the heavy r-process elements varies significantly, from none to a factor of four, but is uncorrelated with Mo and Ru overabundances. Despite their moderate metallicity, stars in this group trace the products of different nucleosynthetic events: possibly very few events, possibly events whose output depended on environment, metallicity, or time.

  6. Mass Fraction of 13C-Pocket in Metal-Poor AGB Stars and the Primary Nature of Neutron Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Dong-Nuan; GENG Yuan-Yuan; CUI Wen-Yuan; ZHANG Bo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical abundances of very metal-poor s-rich stars contain excellent information to set new constraints on models of neutron-capture processes at low metalficity.Using the parametric approach based on the radiative s-process nucleosynthesis model,we obtain the mass fraction q of 13 C-pocket,the overlap factor r,the neutron exposure per interpulse △r,and the component coefficients of the s-process and the r-process for 25 s-rich stars,respectively. We find that q deduced for the lead stars is comparable to the overlap factor r,which is larger than the standard case (hereafter ST case) of the AGB model (q~0.05) about 10 times,and △r are about 10 times smaller than the ST case (△r = 7.0 mbarn-1).Although the two parameters obtained for the lead stars are very different from the ST case of the AGB stellar model,it is worth noting that the total amounts of 13C in metal-poor condition are close to the ST case.The above relation is a significant evidence for the primary nature of the neutron source and the lead stars could be polluted by low-mass AGB stars.Because interpulse period declines with increasing stellar mass,for high-mass A GB star,the neutron irradiation may be terminated due to their shorter interpulse period.Thus the neutron exposure per interpulse of the larger AGB stars should be about 10 times smaller than the ST case.In this case,the primary nature of the neutron source also exists.

  7. The Color-Magnitude Relation for Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in M87: Confirmation From Deep HST/ACS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Eric W; Blakeslee, John P; Mieske, Steffen; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Harris, William E; Madrid, Juan P; Meurer, Gerhardt R

    2009-01-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) are our local link to the earliest epochs of star formation and galaxy building. Studies of extragalactic GC systems using deep, high-quality imaging have revealed a small but significant slope to the color-magnitude relation for metal-poor GCs in a number of galaxies. We present a study of the M87 GC system using deep, archival HST/ACS imaging with the F606W and F814W filters, in which we find a significant color-magnitude relation for the metal-poor GCs. The slope of this relation in the I vs. V-I color-magnitude diagram ($\\gamma_I=-0.024\\pm0.006$) is perfectly consistent with expectations based on previously published results using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. The relation is driven by the most luminous GCs, those with $M_I<-10$, and its significance is largest when fitting metal-poor GCs brighter than $M_I=-7.8$, a luminosity which is ~1 mag fainter than our fitted Gaussian mean for the luminosity function (LF) of blue, metal-poor GCs (~0.8 mag fainter than...

  8. The extremely low-metallicity tail of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Starkenburg, Else; Tolstoy, Eline; Francois, Patrick; Irwin, Mike J; Boschman, Leon; Venn, Kim A; de Boer, Thomas J L; Lemasle, Bertrand; Jablonka, Pascale; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex

    2012-01-01

    We present abundances for seven stars in the (extremely) low-metallicity tail of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, from spectra taken with X-shooter on the ESO VLT. Targets were selected from the Ca II triplet (CaT) survey of the Dwarf Abundances and Radial Velocities Team (DART) using the latest calibration. Of the seven extremely metal-poor candidates, five stars are confirmed to be extremely metal-poor (i.e., [Fe/H]<-3 dex), with [Fe/H]=-3.47 +/- 0.07 for our most metal-poor star. All are around or below [Fe/H]=-2.5 dex from the measurement of individual Fe lines. These values are in agreement with the CaT predictions to within error bars. None of the seven stars is found to be carbon-rich. We estimate a 2-13% possibility of this being a pure chance effect, which could indicate a lower fraction of carbon-rich extremely metal-poor stars in Sculptor compared to the Milky Way halo. The [alpha/Fe] ratios show a range from +0.5 to -0.5, a larger variation than seen in Galactic samples although typically ...

  9. Insights into the chemical composition of the metal-poor Milky Way halo globular cluster NGC 6426

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M.; Koch, A.; Hansen, C. J.; McWilliam, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present our detailed spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of four red giant stars in the halo globular cluster NGC 6426. We obtained high-resolution spectra using the Magellan2/MIKE spectrograph, from which we derived equivalent widths and subsequently computed abundances of 24 species of 22 chemical elements. For the purpose of measuring equivalent widths, we developed a new semi-automated tool, called EWCODE. We report a mean Fe content of [Fe/H] =-2.34 ± 0.05 dex (stat.) in accordance with previous studies. At a mean α-abundance of [(Mg, Si, Ca)/3 Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.03 dex, NGC 6426 falls on the trend drawn by the Milky Way halo and other globular clusters at comparably low metallicities. The distribution of the lighter α-elements as well as the enhanced ratio [Zn/Fe] = 0.39 dex could originate from hypernova enrichment of the pre-cluster medium. We find tentative evidence for a spread in the elements Mg, Si, and Zn, indicating an enrichment scenario, where ejecta of evolved massive stars of a slightly older population have polluted a newly born younger one. The heavy element abundances in this cluster fit well into the picture of metal-poor globular clusters, which in that respect appear to be remarkably homogeneous. The pattern of the neutron-capture elements heavier than Zn points toward an enrichment history governed by the r-process with little, if any, sign of s-process contributions. This finding is supported by the striking similarity of our program stars to the metal-poor field star HD 108317. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Equivalent widths and full Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A97

  10. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  11. A Subaru/HDS study of Lead (Pb) abundances in eight s-process-element-rich, metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, W; Norris, J E; Beers, T C; Ando, H

    2002-01-01

    We report the abundances of neutron-capture elements in eight carbon-rich, metal-poor (-2.7=<[Fe/H]=<-1.9) stars observed with the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph. The derived abundance patterns indicate that the neutron-capture elements in these objects primarily originated from s-process nucleosynthesis, although the [Ba/Eu] abundance ratios in some objects are lower than that of the solar-system s-process component. The present analysis has yielded the Pb abundances for seven objects, as well as an upper limit for one object, from use of the Pb I 4057A and 3683A lines. The values of [Pb/Ba] in these objects cover a wide range, between -0.3 and +1.2. Theoretical studies of s-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity are required to explain this large dispersion of the [Pb/Ba] values. Variations in radial velocity have been found for two of the eight objects, suggesting that, at least in these instances, the observed excess of s-process elements is due to the transfer of material across ...

  12. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, L; Molliere, P; Southworth, J; Brahm, R; Ciceri, S; Henning, Th

    2016-01-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multi-band photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g,r,i,z), using the telescope-defocussing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, Fe/H]=-0.49, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H]=-0.60. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multi-band light curves were used to cons...

  13. On the necessity of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in metal-poor AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Constantino, Thomas; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Lattanzio, John

    2014-01-01

    The vital importance of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in low-mass (M 0.001 has recently been demonstrated (e.g. Marigo 2002; Ventura & Marigo 2010). Its significance to more metal-poor, intermediate mass (M > 2.5Msun) models has yet to be investigated. We show that its inclusion in lower-metallicity models ([Fe/H] < -2) is essential, and that there exists no threshold metallicity below which composition-dependent molecular opacity may be neglected. We find it to be crucial in all intermediate-mass models investigated ([Fe/H] < -2 and 2.5 < M/Msun < 5), because of the evolution of the surface chemistry, including the orders of magnitude increase in the abundance of molecule-forming species. Its effect on these models mirrors that previously reported for higher-metallicity models - increase in radius, decrease in Teff, faster mass loss, shorter thermally pulsing AGB lifetime, reduced enrichment in third dredge-up products (by a factor of three to ten), and an increase in the mas...

  14. Detection of Elements at All Three r-process Peaks in the Metal-Poor Star HD 160617

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; 10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/76

    2012-01-01

    We report the first detection of elements at all three r-process peaks in the metal-poor halo star HD 160617. These elements include arsenic and selenium, which have not been detected previously in halo stars, and the elements tellurium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, which have been detected previously. Absorption lines of these elements are found in archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We present up-to-date absolute atomic transition probabilities and complete line component patterns for these elements. Additional archival spectra of this star from several ground-based instruments allow us to derive abundances or upper limits of 45 elements in HD 160617, including 27 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. The average abundances of the elements at the three r-process peaks are similar to the predicted solar system r-process residuals when scaled to the abundances in the rare earth element domain. This result for arsenic and selen...

  15. Discovery of a Metal-Poor Field Giant with a Globular Cluster Second-Generation Abundance Pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Trincado, J G; Moreno, E; Schiavon, R P; Peréz, A E García; Vieira, K; Cunha, K; Zamora, O; Sneden, C; Carrera, R; Johnson, J A; Shetrone, M; Zasowski, G; García-Hernándes, D A; Majewski, S R; Reylé, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Martinez-Medina, L A; Pérez-Villegas, A; Valenzuela, O; Pichardo, B; Meza, A; Mészáros, Sz; Sobeck, J; Geisler, D; Anders, F; Schultheis, M; Tang, B; Roman-Lopes, A; Mennickent, R E; Pan, K; Nitschelm, C; Allard, F

    2016-01-01

    We report on the direct detection from observations obtained with the APOGEE survey of a metal-poor ([Fe/H]$=-1.3$) field giant star in the Milky Way, with an extreme Mg-Al abundance ([Mg/Fe]$=$-0.31; [Al/Fe]$=$1.49) seen only among the secondary population of globular clusters. This star, 2M16011638-1201525 found using SDSSIII/APOGEE data also shows particularly atypical light-element patterns not seen among Galactic disk field stars, indicating that it could have been born in a globular cluster. We explore several explanations, in particular studying the orbit of the star to check the probability of it being related to known globular clusters. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we performed simple orbital integrations assuming the estimated distance of 2M16011638-1201525 and the available six-dimensional phase-space coordinates of 63 globular clusters, looking for close encounters in the past with a minimum distance approach within the tidal radius for each cluster. We found a very low probability that 2...

  16. The Chemical Compositions of Very Metal-Poor Stars HD 122563 and HD 140283; A View From the Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Afşar, Melike; Frebel, Anna; Kim, Hwihyun; Mace, Gregory N; Kaplan, Kyle F; Lee, Hye-In; Oh, Hee-Young; Oh, Jae Sok; Pak, Soojong; Park, Chan; Pavel, Michael D; Yuk, In-Soo; Jaffe, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    From high resolution (R = 45,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N > 400) spectra gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) in the H and K photometric bands, we have derived elemental abundances of two bright, well-known metal-poor halo stars: the red giant HD 122563 and the subgiant HD 140283. Since these stars have metallicities approaching [Fe/H] = -3, their absorption features are generally very weak. Neutral-species lines of Mg, Si, S and Ca are detectable, as well as those of the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. The derived IR-based abundances agree with those obtained from optical-wavelength spectra. For Mg and Si the abundances from the infrared transitions are improvements to those derived from shorter wavelength data. Many useful OH and CO lines can be detected in the IGRINS HD 122563 spectrum, from which derived O and C abundances are consistent to those obtained from the traditional [O I] and CH features. IGRINS high resolutions H- and K-band spectroscopy offers promising ways to...

  17. The visitor from an ancient galaxy: A planetary companion around an old, metal-poor red horizontal branch star

    CERN Document Server

    Klement, Rainer J; Henning, Thomas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rochau, Boyke; Rodmann, Jens; Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Heidelberg, MPIA; ESTEC,

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a metal-poor red horizontal branch star belonging to a stellar halo stream that results from the disruption of an ancient Milky Way satellite galaxy. The detection is based on radial velocity observations with FEROS at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope. The periodic radial velocity variation of P=16.2 days can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. We computed a minimum planetary mass of 1.25 Jupiter masses and an orbital semimajor axis of 0.116 AU for the planet. This discovery is unique in three aspects: First, it is the first planet detection around a star with a metallicity much lower than few percent of the solar value; second, the planet host star resides in a stellar evolutionary stage that is still unexplored in the exoplanet surveys; third, the planetary system HIP 13044 most likely has an extragalactic origin in a disrupted former satellite of the Milky Way.

  18. Deep SDSS Optical Spectroscopy of Distant Halo Stars. III. Chemical analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Alvar, E; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S; Masseron, T; Schneider, D P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis for 107 extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with metallicities less than [Fe/H] = -3.0, identified from medium-resolution spectra in SDSS. We follow a methodology based on comparisons of the observed spectra with synthetic spectra. The abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg are determined by fitting spectral regions dominated by lines of each element. In addition, we present a technique to determine upper limits for elements whose features are not detected in a given spectrum. We also analyse our sample with the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline, in order to obtain additional determinations of the atmospheric parameters, iron and alpha-element abundances, to compare with ours, and to infer [C/Fe] ratios. We find that, in these moderate to low signal-to-noise and medium-resolution spectra in this metallicity regime, Ca is usually the only element that exhibits lines that are sufficiently strong to reliably measure its abundance. Fe and Mg exhibit weaker features that, in most cases, onl...

  19. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury IX. Constraining asymptotic giant branch evolution with old metal-poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, Leo; Gilbert, Karoline M; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A G; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratio between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). This database provides HST optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color--magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models...

  20. Rest-frame ultraviolet-to-optical spectral characteristics of extremely metal-poor and metal-free galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Akio K

    2011-01-01

    Finding the first generation of galaxies in the early Universe is the greatest step forward for understanding galaxy formation and evolution. For strategic survey of such galaxies and interpretation of the obtained data, this paper presents an ultraviolet-to-optical spectral model of galaxies with a great care of the nebular emission. In particular, we present a machine-readable table of intensities of 119 nebular emission lines from Ly$\\alpha$ to the rest-frame 1 $\\mu$m as a function of metallicity from zero to the Solar one. Based on the spectral model, we present criteria of broad-band colours and equivalent widths of Ly$\\alpha$, He {\\sc ii} $\\lambda1640$, H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$, [O {\\sc iii}] $\\lambda5007$ to select extremely metal-poor and metal-free galaxies although these criteria have uncertainty caused by the Lyman continuum escape fraction and the star formation duration. The criteria of broad-band colours will be useful to select candidates for spectroscopic follow-up from drop-out galaxies. We propos...

  1. Origins of the thick disk of the galaxy as traced by metal-poor stars selected from RAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchti G.R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Models of the formation of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy make specific predictions about the chemical abundance properties of the metal-weak (and oldest stellar population in the thick disk. We have undertaken the study of the elemental abundances and kinematic properties of a sample of 319 candidate metal-poor thick-disk stars selected from the RAVE spectroscopic survey of bright stars. Our aim is to differentiate among the present scenarios of the formation of the thick disk. In this study, we measured the abundances of several alpha-elements and found that the thick-disk [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced, implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. Further, the sample probes distances ranging out to about 2 kpc from the Sun, allowing for the investigation of the gradients in the thick disk. I will discuss the results from these investigations and how they compare to the predictions made by present models of the formation of the thick disk.

  2. Non-LTE Analysis of the Sodium Abundance of Metal-Poor Stars in the Galactic Disk and Halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoichi Takeda; Gang Zhao; Masahide Takada-Hidai; Yu-Qin Chen; Yu-ji Saito; Hua-Wei Zhang

    2003-01-01

    We performed an extensive non-LTE analysis of the neutral sodiumlines of Na I 5683/5688, 5890/5896, 6154/6161, and 8183/8195 in disk/halo starsof types F-K covering a wide metallicity range (-4 [Fe/H] +0.4), using ourown data as well as data collected from the literature. For comparatively metal-rich disk stars (-1 [Fe/H] +0.4) where the weaker 6154/6161 lines are thebest abundance indicators, we confirmed [Na/Fe] ~ 0 with an "upturn" (i.e., ashallow/broad dip around -0.5 [Fe/H] 0) as already reported in previousstudies. For the metal-deficient halo stars, where the much stronger 5890/5896 or8183/8195 lines subject to considerable (negative) non-LTE corrections amountingto 0.5 dex have to be used, our analysis suggests mildly "subsolar" [Na/Fe] valuesdown to ~ -0.4 (with a somewhat large scatter of ~±0.2 dex) on the average at thetypical halo metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -2, followed by a rise again to a near-solar ratioof [Na/Fe] ~ 0 at the very metal-poor regime [Fe/H] ~ -3 to -4. These resultsare discussed in comparison with the previous observational studies along with thetheoretical predictions from the available chemical evolution models.

  3. Probing the Site for r-Process Nucleosyntheis with Abundances of Barium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, T; Yoshii, Y; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2000-01-01

    We suggest that if the astrophysical site for r-process nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy is confined to a narrow mass range of Type II supernova (SN II) progenitors, with a lower mass limit of Mms = 20 Msun, a unique feature in the observed distribution of [Ba/Mg] vs.[Mg/H] for extremely metal-poor stars can be adequately reproduced. We associate this feature, a bifurcation of the observed elemental ratios into two branches in the Mg abundance interval -2.7 20 Msun. The second branch, which we call the ``i''-branch, is associated with the elemental abundance ratios of stars which were formed in the dense shells of the interstellar medium swept up by SNe II with Mms < 20 Msun that do not synthesize r-process elements, and applies to stars with observed Mg abundances in the range [Mg/H] < -2.7. The Ba abundances in these stars reflect those of the interstellar gas at the (later) time of their formation. The existence of a [Ba/Mg] i-branch strongly suggests that SNe II which are associated with stars o...

  4. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu; Boesgaard, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    The low [alpha/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]= -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetessimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low alpha-element ...

  5. Predictions of the extent of self-enrichment in oxygen of giant metal-poor HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wofford, Aida

    2009-01-01

    In general, HII regions do not show clear signs of self-enrichment in products from massive stars (M > 8 M_sun). In order to explore why, I modeled the contamination with Wolf-Rayet star ejecta of metal-poor (Z=0.001) HII regions, ionised either by a 10^6 M_sun cluster of coeval stars (cluster 1), or a cluster resulting from continuous star formation at a rate of 1 M_sun yr^-1 (cluster 2). The clusters have Z=0.001 and a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) from 0.1 to 120 M_sun. Independent one dimensional constant density simulations of the emission-line spectra of unenriched HII regions were computed at the discrete ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Myr, with the photoionisation code CLOUDY, using as input, radiative and mechanical stellar feedbacks predicted by the evolutionary synthesis code STARBURST99. Each HII region was placed at the outer radius of the adiabatically expanding superbubble of Mac Low and McCray (1988). For models with thermal and ionisation balance time-scales of less than 1 Myr, and with oxygen...

  6. First stars XII. Abundances in extremely metal-poor turnoff stars,and comparison with the giants

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V; Spite, F; François, P; Plez, B; Ludwig, H -G; Caffau, E; Molaro, P; Depagne, E; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT:The detailed chemical abundances of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are key guides to understanding the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Most existing data are, however, for giant stars which may have experienced internal mixing later. AIMS: We aim to compare the results for giants with new, accurate abundances for all observable elements in 18 EMP turnoff stars. METHODS:VLT/UVES spectra at R ~45,000 and S/N~ 130 per pixel (330-1000 nm) are analysed with OSMARCS model atmospheres and the TURBOSPECTRUM code to derive abundances for C, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, and Ba. RESULTS: For Ca, Ni, Sr, and Ba, we find excellent consistency with our earlier sample of EMP giants, at all metallicities. However, our abundances of C, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn and Co are ~0.2 dex larger than in giants of similar metallicity. Mg and Si abundances are ~0.2 dex lower (the giant [Mg/Fe] values are slightly revised), while Zn is again ~0.4 dex higher than in giants of similar [Fe/H] (6 stars only). CONCLUSIO...

  7. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Koch, A; McWilliam, A; Sneden, C S

    2016-01-01

    Blue metal-poor stars (BMPs) are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts. Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator as to their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity, a...

  8. An interferometric-spectroscopic orbit for the binary HD 195987 Testing models of stellar evolution for metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, G; Latham, D W; Pan, M; Stefanik, R P; Torres, Guillermo; Boden, Andrew F.; Latham, David W.; Pan, Margaret; Stefanik, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    We report spectroscopic and interferometric observations of the moderately metal-poor double-lined binary system HD 195987, with an orbital period of 57.3 days. By combining our radial-velocity and visibility measurements we determine the orbital elements and derive absolute masses for the components of M(A) = 0.844 +/- 0.018 Msun and M(B) = 0.6650 +/- 0.0079 Msun, with relative errors of 2% and 1%, respectively. We also determine the orbital parallax, pi(orb) = 46.08 +/- 0.27 mas, corresponding to a distance of 21.70 +/- 0.13 pc. The parallax and the measured brightness difference between the stars in V, H, and K yield the component absolute magnitudes in those bands. We also estimate the effective temperatures of the stars as Teff(A) = 5200 +/- 100 K and Teff(B) = 4200 +/- 200 K. Together with detailed chemical abundance analyses from the literature giving [Fe/H] approximately -0.5 (corrected for binarity) and [alpha/Fe] = +0.36, we use these physical properties to test current models of stellar evolution f...

  9. The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES)VII. Thorium abundances in metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Jin; Zhao, Gang

    2011-01-01

    We report thorium abundances for 77 metal-poor stars in the metallicity range of -3.5<[Fe/H]}<-1.0, based on "snapshot" spectra obtained with VLT-UT2/UVES during the HERES Survey. We were able to determine the thorium abundances with better than 1-sigma confidence for 17 stars, while for 60 stars we derived upper limits. For five stars common with previous studies, our results were in good agreement with the literature results. The thorium abundances span a wide range of about 4.0 dex, and scatter exists in the distribution of log(Th/Eu) ratios for lower metallicity stars, supporting previous studies suggesting the r-process is not universal. We derived ages from the log(Th/Eu) ratios for 12 stars, resulting in large scattered ages, and two stars with significant enhancement of Th relative to Eu are found, indicating the "actinide boost" does not seem to be a rare phenomenon and thus highlighting the risk in using log(Th/Eu) to derive stellar ages.

  10. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Metal-Poor Stars: New Detections of Phosphorus, Germanium, Arsenic, Selenium, Cadmium, Tellurium, Lutetium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, Gold, and More!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy with HST/STIS provides a 30% increase in the number of elements that can be detected in metal-poor stars. Although nearly every element from hydrogen through bismuth is probably present in most metal-poor stars, not all elements can be detected. The resonance lines of the dominant species of some elements are only found in the UV in late-type stars. The chemical compositions of these stars reflect the history of stellar nucleosynthesis from the first stars to today. Here, I present a summary of recent work that has expanded the chemical inventory in metal-poor stars using UV spectroscopy conducted using HST/STIS. The highlights include new detections of phosphorus, germanium, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold in metal-poor stars. These detections reveal new insights into stellar nucleosynthesis in the earliest generations of massive stars, provide new constraints on the r-process, and open new channels for chemically-tagging stars that have assembled to form the Milky Way stellar halo.

  11. Metal-poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-10-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N_{{H}^0}=10^{19.50+/- 0.16}\\, cm^{-2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z/Z ⊙) = -2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM. .

  12. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.;

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D...

  13. Purple dwarfs: New L subdwarfs from UKIDSS and SDSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marocco F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The first L subdwarf was a discovered only ten years ago. Less than ten L subdwarfs been published in the literature to date. Metal-poor ultracool atmospheres has not been well understood. Halo mass function cross substellar limit has not been measured. We used UKIDSS and SDSS to search for L subdwarfs. We have confirmed some new L subdwarfs and are following up more candidates with ground based large telescopes. We discussed spectral features of L subdwarfs and halo brown dwarfs.

  14. Is the scatter in nitrogen/oxygen of metal-poor systems real? Do H II regions become significantly self-enriched in oxygen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Aida Hortensia

    In this dissertation, I addressed two independent problems. Problem 1 was to determine the extent of intrinsic scatter in the log(N/O) versus 12+log(O/H) diagram of dwarf emission-line galaxies with 12+log(O/H) work. The analysis of the 24 models shows that: (a) the uncertainties in the log(O/H) and log(N/O) derived from collisionally excited forbidden lines are reduced if the temperatures T e (N + ) and T e (O + ), used for deriving N + /H + and O + /H + respectively, are independent parameterizations of T e (O +2 ) [in general, T e (N + ) = T e (O + ) is assumed, but I show that T e (N + ) and T e (O + ) significantly diverge at low metallicity]; and (b) that the ionization correction factor (ICF) for obtaining N/O from N + /O + , is [left angle bracket]ICF[right angle bracket] = 1.08 ± 0.09 (in general, N/O=N + /O + is assumed). Adopting T e (N + ) != T e (O + ), the above ICF, and published de-reddened emission-line strengths, I re-derived the O/H and N/O ratios for a carefully selected sample of 68 metal-poor systems. For these systems: (1) the largest group of objects forms the well- known N/O plateau, with a value for the mean (and its statistical error) of - 1.43 (+.0084/-.0085); (2) the objects are distributed within a range in log(N/ O) of -1.54 to -1.27 in Gaussian fashion around the mean, with a standard deviation of s = +.071/-.084; and (3) a h-square analysis suggests that only a small amount of the observed scatter in log(N/O) is intrinsic. Further modeling of the N/O plateau that is not part of this thesis, but that is based on results (1)-(3), shows that the properties of the plateau cannot be explained in terms of intermediate mass stars, as the main production site of primary N. Problem 2 was to predict the extent of self-enrichment in O that multiple-star HIIRs with initial metallicities of Z =0.020 and Z =0.001 can achieve during their lifetimes ( t <= 10^7 yr). For this problem, I computed a grid of 14 HIIR simulations with CLOUDY, using

  15. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 < 1.08 ± 0.03, while BMP stars that are not binaries lie above this cut in two thirds of the cases. This cut can help classify stars that lack radial velocities from follow-up observations. We then trace the origin of two BMP stars from the photometric sample by conducting a full chemical analysis using new high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from

  16. The extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68: the luminous blue variable, Hα shells and the most luminous stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.; Makarova, L. N.; Perepelitsyna, Y. A.; Moiseev, A. V.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents new results from the ongoing study of the unusual Lynx-Cancer void galaxy DDO 68, which has star-forming regions of record low metallicity [12+log (O/H) ∼7.14]. The results include the following. (i) A new spectrum and photometry have been obtained with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (BTA) for the luminous blue variable (LBV = DDO68-V1). Photometric data sets were complemented with others based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive images. (ii) We performed an analysis of the DDO 68 supergiant shell (SGS) and the prominent smaller Hα arcs/shells visible in the HST image coupled with kinematic maps in Hα obtained with the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the BTA. (iii) We compiled a list of about 50 of the most luminous stars (-9.1 mag science to be investigated with the next generation of giant telescopes. We have confirmed earlier hints of significant variation of the LBV optical light, deriving its amplitude as ΔV ≳ 3.7 mag for the first time. New data suggest that in 2008-2010 the LBV reached MV = -10.5 mag and probably underwent a giant eruption. We argue that the structure of star-forming complexes along the SGS ('Northern Ring') perimeter provides evidence for sequential induced star-formation episodes caused by the shell gas instabilities and gravitational collapse. The variability of some luminous extremely metal-poor stars in DDO 68 can currently be monitored with medium-size telescopes at sites with superb seeing.

  17. Discovery of a Metal-poor Field Giant with a Globular Cluster Second-generation Abundance Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Moreno, E.; Schiavon, R. P.; García Pérez, A. E.; Vieira, K.; Cunha, K.; Zamora, O.; Sneden, C.; Souto, Diogo; Carrera, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Shetrone, M.; Zasowski, G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Majewski, S. R.; Reylé, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pérez-Villegas, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.; Meza, A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Sobeck, J.; Geisler, D.; Anders, F.; Schultheis, M.; Tang, B.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Mennickent, R. E.; Pan, K.; Nitschelm, C.; Allard, F.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the detection, from observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment spectroscopic survey, of a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.3 dex) field giant star with an extreme Mg-Al abundance ratio ([Mg/Fe] = -0.31 dex; [Al/Fe] = 1.49 dex). Such low Mg/Al ratios are seen only among the second-generation population of globular clusters (GCs) and are not present among Galactic disk field stars. The light-element abundances of this star, 2M16011638-1201525, suggest that it could have been born in a GC. We explore several origin scenarios, studying the orbit of the star in particular to check the probability of its being kinematically related to known GCs. We performed simple orbital integrations assuming the estimated distance of 2M16011638-1201525 and the available six-dimensional phase-space coordinates of 63 GCs, looking for close encounters in the past with a minimum distance approach within the tidal radius of each cluster. We found a very low probability that 2M16011638-1201525 was ejected from most GCs; however, we note that the best progenitor candidate to host this star is GC ω Centauri (NGC 5139). Our dynamical investigation demonstrates that 2M16011638-1201525 reaches a distance | {Z}\\max | \\lt 3 {kpc} from the Galactic plane and minimum and maximum approaches to the Galactic center of R min < 0.62 kpc and R max < 7.26 kpc in an eccentric (e ˜ 0.53) and retrograde orbit. Since the extreme chemical anomaly of 2M16011638-1201525 has also been observed in halo field stars, this object could also be considered a halo contaminant, likely to have been ejected into the Milky Way disk from the halo. We conclude that 2M16011638-20152 is also kinematically consistent with the disk but chemically consistent with halo field stars.

  18. Naming Disney's Dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Disney's version of the folkloric dwarfs in his production of "Snow White" and weighs the Disney rendition of the dwarf figure against the corpus of traits and behaviors pertaining to dwarfs in traditional folklore. Concludes that Disney's dwarfs are "anthropologically true." (HOD)

  19. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Giordano, M.; Mollière, P.; Southworth, J.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.

    2016-09-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multiband photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98 b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g', r', i', z'), using the telescope-defocusing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, [Fe/H] = -0.49 ± 0.10, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.19. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multiband light curves were used to construct an optical transmission spectrum of WASP-98 b and probe the characteristics of its atmosphere at the terminator. We measured a lower radius at z' compared with the other three passbands. The maximum variation is between the r' and z' bands, has a confidence level of roughly 6σ and equates to 5.5 pressure scale heights. We compared this spectrum to theoretical models, investigating several possible types of atmospheres, including hazy, cloudy, cloud-free, and clear atmospheres with titanium and vanadium oxide opacities. We could not find a good fit to the observations, except in the extreme case of a clear atmosphere with TiO and VO opacities, in which the condensation of Ti and V was suppressed. As this case is unrealistic, our results suggest the presence of an additional optical-absorbing species in the atmosphere of WASP-98 b, of unknown chemical nature.

  20. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 3115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P., E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54 kpc from its center—corresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ∼ –0.5 to –0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < –0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ∼54 kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ∼ –1.3 and with total mass 2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} ∼ 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC 3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC 3115 of 30.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.5{sub sys} Mpc)

  1. Dependence of the Sr-to-Ba and Sr-to-Eu Ratio on the Nuclear Equation of State in Metal Poor Halo Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Famiano, M A; Aoki, W; Suda, T

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed in which the light r-process element enrichment in metal-poor stars is explained via enrichment from a truncated r-process, or "tr-process." The truncation of the r-process from a generic core-collapse event followed by a collapse into an accretion-induced black hole is examined in the framework of a galactic chemical evolution model. The constraints on this model imposed by observations of extremely metal-poor stars are explained, and the upper limits in the [Sr/Ba] distributions are found to be related to the nuclear equation of state in a collapse scenario. The scatter in [Sr/Ba] and [Sr/Eu] as a function of metallicity has been found to be consistent with turbulent ejection in core collapse supernovae. Adaptations of this model are evaluated to account for the scatter in isotopic observables. This is done by assuming mixing in ejecta in a supernova event.

  2. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: neilcrighton@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  3. Metal-Poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-Forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, Neil H M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fuelled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R_perp = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen [N(HI) = 10^(19.50 +/- 0.16) cm^-2] we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z / Zsolar) = -2.0 +/- 0.17, or (7-15) x 10^-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, ten times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool,...

  4. The Explosive Yields Produced by the First Generation of Core Collapse Supernovae and the Chemical Composition of Extremely Metal Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chieffi, A; Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison between an extended set of elemental abundances observed in some of the most metal poor stars presently known and the ejecta produced by a generation of primordial core collapse supernovae. We used five stars which form our initial database and define a "template" ultra metal poor star which is then compared to the theoretical predictions. Our main findings are as follows: a) the fit to [Si/Mg] and [Ca/Mg] of these very metal poor stars seems to favor the presence of a rather large C abundance at the end of the central He burning; in a classical scenario in which the border of the convective core is strictly determined by the Schwarzschild criterion, such a large C abundance would imply a rather low C12(alpha,gamma)O16 reaction rate; b) a low C abundance left by the central He burning would imply a low [Al/Mg] (<-1.2 dex) independently on the initial mass of the exploding star while a rather large C abundance would produce such a low [Al/Mg] only for the most massive stella...

  5. Choirs H I galaxy groups: The metallicity of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Drinkwater, Michael J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Meurer, Gerhardt; Bekki, Kenji [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Kilborn, Virginia, E-mail: sarah@sarahsweet.com.au [Swinburne University of Technology, Mail number H30, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2014-02-10

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M{sub R} ∼ –13. We use the Dopita et al. metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all the data in this analysis. In metallicity-luminosity space, we find two subpopulations within a sample of high-confidence Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 star-forming galaxies: 52% are metal-rich giants and 48% are metal-medium galaxies. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M{sub R} = –16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity, indicating that there is an approximate floor to the metallicity of low-luminosity galaxies. Our hydrodynamical simulations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M{sub R} ∼ –16, our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 H I gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes, there is an increase in dispersion of the metallicity of our sample, suggestive of a wide range of H I content and environment. In our sample, we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6) and four (21%) very metal-poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation.

  6. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  7. Prolate rotation and metallicity gradient in the transforming dwarf galaxy Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, Nikolay; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Rejkuba, Marina; Cole, Andrew A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Fraternali, Filippo; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Gallart, Carme G.; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2017-04-01

    Transition type dwarf galaxies are thought to be systems undergoing the process of transformation from a star-forming into a passively evolving dwarf, which makes them particularly suitable to study evolutionary processes driving the existence of different dwarf morphological types. Here we present results from a spectroscopic survey of ∼200 individual red giant branch stars in the Phoenix dwarf, the closest transition type with a comparable luminosity to 'classical' dwarf galaxies. We measure a systemic heliocentric velocity Vhelio = -21.2 ± 1.0 km s-1. Our survey reveals the clear presence of prolate rotation that is aligned with the peculiar spatial distribution of the youngest stars in Phoenix. We speculate that both features might have arisen from the same event, possibly an accretion of a smaller system. The evolved stellar population of Phoenix is relatively metal-poor ( = -1.49 ± 0.04 dex) and shows a large metallicity spread (σ[Fe/H] = 0.51 ± 0.04 dex), with a pronounced metallicity gradient of -0.13 ± 0.01 dex arcmin-1 similar to luminous, passive dwarf galaxies. We also report a discovery of an extremely metal-poor star candidate in Phoenix and discuss the importance of correcting for spatial sampling when interpreting the chemical properties of galaxies with metallicity gradients. This study presents a major leap forward in our knowledge of the internal kinematics of the Phoenix transition type dwarf galaxy and the first wide area spectroscopic survey of its metallicity properties. A table containing the measured velocities, metallicities, and CaT equivalent widths of all spectroscopic targets is available online at the CDS.

  8. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.

    2017-03-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e. galaxies with population. In 2014, we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ∼150 'blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here, we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43 population synthesis models and estimated to be in the range log (M*/M⊙) ≃ 5-9. Unlike other low-metallicity star-forming galaxies, BDDs are in agreement with the mass-metallicity relation at low masses, suggesting that they are not accreting large amounts of pristine gas relative to their stellar mass. BDD galaxies appear to be a population of actively star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies which fall within the class of low-surface-brightness dIrr galaxies. Their ongoing star formation and irregular morphology make them excellent analogues for galaxies in the early Universe.

  9. PS1-10bzj: A FAST, HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA IN A METAL-POOR HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Milisavljevic, D.; Drout, M.; Sanders, N. E.; Challis, P. M.; Czekala, I.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Leibler, C.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huber, M. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Roth, K. C. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Scolnic, D., E-mail: rlunnan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-07-10

    We present observations and analysis of PS1-10bzj, a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey at a redshift z = 0.650. Spectroscopically, PS1-10bzj is similar to the hydrogen-poor SLSNe 2005ap and SCP 06F6, though with a steeper rise and lower peak luminosity (M{sub bol} {approx_equal} -21.4 mag) than previous events. We construct a bolometric light curve, and show that while PS1-10bzj's energetics were less extreme than previous events, its luminosity still cannot be explained by radioactive nickel decay alone. We explore both a magnetar spin-down and circumstellar interaction scenario and find that either can fit the data. PS1-10bzj is located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South and the host galaxy is imaged in a number of surveys, including with the Hubble Space Telescope. The host is a compact dwarf galaxy (M{sub B} Almost-Equal-To -18 mag, diameter {approx}< 800 pc), with a low stellar mass (M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }), young stellar population ({tau}{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 5 Myr), and a star formation rate of {approx}2-3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The specific star formation rate is the highest seen in an SLSN host so far ({approx}100 Gyr{sup -1}). We detect the [O III] {lambda}4363 line, and find a low metallicity: 12 + (O/H) = 7.8 {+-} 0.2 ({approx_equal} 0.1 Z{sub Sun }). Together, this indicates that at least some of the progenitors of SLSNe come from young, low-metallicity populations.

  10. Optical - Near Infrared Photometric Calibration of M-dwarf Metallicity and Its Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hejazi, Neda; Dawson, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Based on a carefully constructed sample of dwarf stars, a new optical-near infrared photometric calibration to estimate the metallicity of late-type K and early-to-mid-type M dwarfs is presented. The calibration sample has two parts; the first part includes 18 M dwarfs with metallicities determined by high-resolution spectroscopy and the second part contains 49 dwarfs with metallicities obtained through moderate-resolution spectra. By applying this calibration to a large sample of around 1.3 million M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, the metallicity distribution of this sample is determined and compared with those of previous studies. Using photometric parallaxes, the Galactic heights of M dwarfs in the large sample are also estimated. Our results show that stars farther from the Galactic plane, on average, have lower metallicity, which can be attributed to the age-metallicity relation. A scarcity of metal-poor dwarf stars in the metallicity distribution relative to ...

  11. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, R; Althaus, L G; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for such purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, like the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spher...

  12. Investigating Dwarf Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Sachithra; Dunn, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have proposed that dwarf elliptical / spheroidal galaxies form through the transformation of dwarf irregular galaxies. Early and late type dwarfs resemble each other in terms of their observed colors and light distributions (each can often be represented by exponential disks), providing reason to propose an evolutionary link between the two types. The existence of dwarf spirals has been largely debated. However, more and more recent studies are using the designation of dwarf spiral to describe their targets of interest. This project seeks to explore where dwarf spirals fit into the above mentioned evolutionary sequence, if at all. Optical colors will be compared between a sample of dwarf irregular, dwarf elliptical, and dwarf spiral galaxies. The dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical samples have previously been found to overlap in both optical color and surface brightness profile shape when limiting the samples to their fainter members. A preliminary comparison including the dwarf spiral sample will be presented here, along with a comparison of available ultraviolet and near-infrared data. Initial results indicate a potential evolutionary link that merits further investigation.

  13. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectroscopy with 1D and 3D models - II. Chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor disk and the halo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations....../Fe] ratios close to solar even at [Fe/H] ~ -2. This is at variance with results of classical abundance analyses based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and 1D model stellar atmospheres, which argue for a constant elevated [Mg/Fe] in metal-poor stars of the Galactic thick disk and halo....

  14. THE EATING HABITS OF MILKY WAY-MASS HALOS: DESTROYED DWARF SATELLITES AND THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETED STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: adeason@stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (M{sub vir} ∼ 10{sup 12.1} M{sub ⊙}) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M{sub star} ∼ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙}. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M{sub star} < 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −2. Dwarfs with masses 10{sup 5} < M{sub star}/M{sub ⊙} < 10{sup 8} provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with M{sub star} > 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙} can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil”; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  15. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. V. Oxygen abundance in the metal-poor giant HD 122563 from OH UV lines

    CERN Document Server

    Prakapavičius, D; Dobrovolskas, V; Klevas, J; Steffen, M; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M

    2016-01-01

    Although oxygen is an important tracer of the early Galactic evolution, its abundance trends with metallicity are still relatively poorly known at [Fe/H] < -2.5. This is in part due to a lack of reliable oxygen abundance indicators in the metal-poor stars, in part due to shortcomings in 1D LTE abundance analyses. In this study we determined the oxygen abundance in the metal-poor halo giant HD 122563 using a 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmosphere. Our main goal was to understand whether a 3D LTE analysis may help to improve the reliability of oxygen abundances determined from OH UV lines in comparison to those obtained using standard 1D LTE methodology. The oxygen abundance in HD 122563 was determined using 71 OH UV lines located in the wavelength range between 308-330 nm. The analysis was done using a high-resolution VLT UVES spectrum with a 1D LTE spectral line synthesis performed using the SYNTHE package and classical ATLAS9 model atmosphere. Subsequently, a 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD, and 1D hydrosta...

  16. Metal-poor stars observed with the Magellan telescope. II. Discovery of four stars with [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kennedy, Catherine R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael M. [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2014-01-20

    We report on the discovery of seven low-metallicity stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, six of which are extremely metal-poor (EMP, [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0), with four having [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5. Chemical abundances or upper limits are derived for these stars based on high-resolution (R ∼ 35,000) Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy, and are in general agreement with those of other very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature. Accurate metallicities and abundance patterns for stars in this metallicity range are of particular importance for studies of the shape of the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way's halo system, in particular for probing the nature of its low-metallicity tail. In addition, taking into account suggested evolutionary mixing effects, we find that six of the program stars (with [Fe/H] ≤ –3.35) possess atmospheres that were likely originally enriched in carbon, relative to iron, during their main-sequence phases. These stars do not exhibit overabundances of their s-process elements, and hence may be, within the error bars, additional examples of the so-called CEMP-no class of objects.

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. V. TOWARD AN EMPIRICAL METAL-POOR MASS–LUMINOSITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Van Altena, William F.; Demarque, Pierre [Department of Astronomy, Yale University P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teske, Johanna K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Carnegie Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G., E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: pierre.demarque@yale.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: everett@noao.edu, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: thenry@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: winters@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal-poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and six stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. The mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Yale isochrones as a function of metal abundance. These data suggest that metal-poor main-sequence stars are less massive at a given color than their solar-metallicity analogues in a manner consistent with that predicted from the theory.

  18. Observations of Binary Stars with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument. V. Toward an Empirical Metal-Poor Mass-Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, Elliott P.; van Altena, William F.; Demarque, Pierre; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal-poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and six stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. The mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Yale isochrones as a function of metal abundance. These data suggest that metal-poor main-sequence stars are less massive at a given color than their solar-metallicity analogues in a manner consistent with that predicted from the theory.

  19. Chemical composition of carbon-rich, very metal-poor subgiant LP625-44 observed with the Subaru/HDS

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, W; Honda, S; Iye, M; Izumiura, H; Kajino, T; Kambe, E; Kawanomoto, S; Noguchi, K; Okita, K; Sadakane, K; Sato, B; Shelton, I; Takada-Hidai, M; Takeda, Y; Watanabe, E; Yoshida, M

    2002-01-01

    We have obtained a high resolution (R~90,000) spectrum of the carbon- and s-process-element-rich, very metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.7) subgiant LP625-44, as well as that of HD140283 (a metal-poor subgiant with normal abundance ratio) for comparison, with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) for the Subaru Telescope for detailed abundance study. The oxygen abundance derived from the O I triplet around 7770A is uncertain, but the excess of oxygen in LP625-44 seems remarkable (perhaps by nearly a factor 10), in comparison with that of HD140283 derived from the same lines. The Na enhancement in LP625-44 is by about a factor 50, suggesting hydrogen burning in the 22Ne-rich layer in an asymptotic giant branch star which produces the abundance pattern of this object. In our new spectrum of LP625-44, the Pb I lambda 3683A line has been detected, as well as the Pb I lambda 4057A line which has already been studied, confirming the Pb abundance (log epsilon(Pb)~1.9) derived by the previous work. The abundance ratio of s-proc...

  20. First stars IX -Mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Variation of the 12C/13C, [Na/Mg] and [Al/Mg] ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Hill, V; Spite, F; François, P; Plez, B; Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P; Depagne, E; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2006-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars preserve a fossil record of the composition of the ISM when the Galaxy formed. It is crucial, however, to verify whether internal mixing has modified their surface. We aim to understand the CNO abundance variations found in some, but not all EMP field giants analysed earlier. Mixing beyond the first dredge-up of standard models is required, and its origin needs clarification.The 12C/13C ratio is the most robust diagnostic of deep mixing, because it is insensitive to the adopted stellar parameters and should be uniformly high in near-primordial gas. We have measured 12C and 13C abundances in 35 EMP giants from high-quality VLT/UVES spectra. Correlations with other abundance data are used to study the depth of mixing.The 12C/13C ratio is found to correlate with [C/Fe] (and Li/H), and clearly anti-correlate with [N/Fe]. Evidence for such deep mixing is observed in giants above log L/Lsolar = 2.6, brighter than in less metal-poor stars, but matching the bump in the luminosity func...

  1. Using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics demonstrator RAVEN to observe metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Masen; Andersen, David; Oya, Shin; Shetrone, Matthew; Fattahi, Azadeh; Howes, Louise; Asplund, Martin; Lardiere, Olivier; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ono, Yoshito; Terada, Hiroshi; Hayano, Yutaka; Suzuki, Genki; Blain, Celia; Jackson, Kathryn; Correia, Carlos; Youakim, Kris; Bradley, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The chemical abundances for five metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic bulge have been determined from H-band infrared spectroscopy taken with the RAVEN multi-object adaptive optics science demonstrator and the IRCS spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. Three of these stars are in the Galactic bulge and have metallicities between -2.1 < [Fe/H] < -1.5, and high [alpha/Fe] ~+0.3, typical of Galactic disk and bulge stars in this metallicity range; [Al/Fe] and [N/Fe] are also high, whereas [C/Fe] < +0.3. An examination of their orbits suggests that two of these stars may be confined to the Galactic bulge and one is a halo trespasser, though proper motion values used to calculate orbits are quite uncertain. An additional two stars in the globular cluster M22 show [Fe/H] values consistent to within 1 sigma, although one of these two stars has [Fe/H] = -2.01 +/- 0.09, which is on the low end for this cluster. The [alpha/Fe] and [Ni/Fe] values differ by 2 sigma, with the most metal-poor star sho...

  2. Construction and compression of Dwarf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Long-gang; FENG Yu-cai; GUI Hao

    2005-01-01

    There exists an inherent difficulty in the original algorithm for the construction of Dwarf, which prevents it from constructing true Dwarfs. We explained when and why it introduces suffix redundancies into the Dwarf structure. To solve this problem, we proposed a completely new algorithm called PID. It bottom-up computes partitions of a fact table, and inserts them into the Dwarf structure. Ifa partition is an MSV partition, coalesce its sub-Dwarf; otherwise create necessary nodes and cells. Our performance study showed that PID is efficient. For further condensing of Dwarf, we proposed Condensed Dwarf, a more compressed structure, combining the strength of Dwarf and Condensed Cube. By eliminating unnecessary stores of "ALL" cells from the Dwarf structure, Condensed Dwarf could effectively reduce the size of Dwarf, especially for Dwarfs of the real world, which was illustrated by our experiments. Its query processing is still simple and, only two minor modifications to PID are required for the construction of Condensed Dwarf.

  3. Antlia B: A faint dwarf galaxy member of the NGC 3109 association

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Crnojević, D; Hargis, J R; Willman, B; Strader, J; Grillmair, C J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of Antlia B, a faint dwarf galaxy at a projected distance of $\\sim$72 kpc from NGC 3109 ($M_{V}$$\\sim$$-$15 mag), the primary galaxy of the NGC 3109 dwarf association at the edge of the Local Group. The tip of the red giant branch distance to Antlia B is $D$=1.29$\\pm$0.10 Mpc, which is consistent with the distance to NGC 3109. A qualitative analysis indicates the new dwarf's stellar population has both an old, metal poor red giant branch ($\\gtrsim$10 Gyr, [Fe/H]$\\sim$$-$2), and a younger blue population with an age of $\\sim$200-400 Myr, analogous to the original Antlia dwarf, another likely satellite of NGC 3109. Antlia B has \\ion{H}{1} gas at a velocity of $v_{helio,HI}$=376 km s$^{-1}$, confirming the association with NGC 3109 ($v_{helio}$=403 km s$^{-1}$). The HI gas mass (M$_{HI}$=2.8$\\pm$0.2$\\times$10$^{5}$ M$_{\\odot}$), stellar luminosity ($M_{V}$=$-$9.7$\\pm$0.6 mag) and half light radius ($r_{h}$=273$\\pm$29 pc) are all consistent with the properties of dwarf irregular and dwarf ...

  4. PAndAS' progeny: extending the M31 dwarf galaxy cabal

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Jenny C; McConnachie, Alan W; Martin, Nicolas F; Dotter, Aaron; Ferguson, Annette M N; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Chapman, Scott; Lewis, Geraint F; Tanvir, Nial R; Rich, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of five new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXIII-XXVII, located in the outer halo of M31. These galaxies were found in the second year of data from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) of the M31/M33 subgroup. This survey now provides an almost complete panoramic view of the M31 halo out to an average projected radius of ~150 kpc. The metal-poor stellar density map for this whole region serves, not only as an illustration of the discovery space for satellite galaxies, but also gives a birds-eye view of the ongoing assembly process of an L* disk galaxy. Four of the new dwarfs appear as well-defined spatial over-densities of stars lying on the expected locus of metal-poor red giant branch stars at the distance of M31. The fifth over-density, And XXVII, is embedded in an extensive stream of such stars and is possibly the remnant of a strong tidal disruption event. All five satellites have metallicities and luminosities typical of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and continue the trend wh...

  5. A tidally disrupting dwarf galaxy in the halo of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Toloba, Elisa; Spekkens, Kristine; Crnojevic, Denija; Simon, Joshua; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson; McLeod, Brian; Seth, Anil

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of Scl-MM-Dw2, a new dwarf galaxy at a projected separation of $\\sim$50 kpc from NGC 253, as part of the PISCeS (Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor) project. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance of $3.12\\pm0.30$ Mpc, suggesting that Scl-MM-Dw2 is likely a satellite of NGC 253. We qualitatively compare the distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the color-magnitude diagram with theoretical isochrones and find that it is consistent with an old, $\\sim$12 Gyr, and metal poor, $-2.3<$[Fe/H]$<-1.1$, stellar population. We also detect a small number of asymptotic giant branch stars consistent with a metal poor $2-3$ Gyr population in the center of the dwarf. Our non-detection of HI in a deep Green Bank Telescope spectrum implies a gas fraction $M_{HI}/L_V<0.02$ Msun/Lsun. The stellar and gaseous properties of Scl-MM-Dw2 suggest that it is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Scl-MM-Dw2 has a luminosity of $M_V=-12.1\\pm0.5$ mag and a half-light radius of $r_...

  6. Kepler-445, Kepler-446 and the Occurrence of Compact Multiples Orbiting Mid-M Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, Philip S; Vanderburg, Andrew; Morton, Timothy D; Kraus, Adam; Ireland, Michael; Swift, Jonathan J; Feiden, Gregory A; Gaidos, Eric; Gazak, J Zachary

    2015-01-01

    We confirm and characterize the exoplanetary systems Kepler-445 and Kepler-446: two mid-M dwarf stars, each with multiple, small, short-period transiting planets. Kepler-445 is a metal-rich ([Fe/H]=+0.25 $\\pm$ 0.10) M4 dwarf with three transiting planets, and Kepler-446 is a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-0.30 $\\pm$ 0.10) M4 dwarf also with three transiting planets. Kepler-445c is similar to GJ 1214b: both in planetary radius and the properties of the host star. The Kepler-446 system is similar to the Kepler-42 system: both are metal-poor with large galactic space velocities and three short-period, likely-rocky transiting planets that were initially assigned erroneously large planet-to-star radius ratios. We independently determined stellar parameters from spectroscopy and searched for and fitted the transit light curves for the planets, imposing a strict prior on stellar density in order to remove correlations between the fitted impact parameter and planet-to-star radius ratio for short-duration transits. Combining Kep...

  7. The Illusive ISM of Dwarf Galaxies: Excess Submillimetre Emission and CO-Dark Molecular Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Madden, Suzanne C; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Remy, Aurelie; Sauvage, Marc; Contursi, Alessandra; Sturm, Eckhard; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Pohlen, Michael; Smith, M W L; Bendo, George; O'Halloran, Brian; 2, The SPIRE SAG; consortia., PACS

    2011-01-01

    The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey investigates the interplay of star formation activity and the the metal-poor gas and dust of dwarf galaxies using FIR and submillimetre imaging spectroscopic and photometric observations in the 50 to 550mu window of the Herschel Space Observatory. The dust SEDs are well constrained with the new Herschel and MIR Spitzer data. A submillimetre excess is often found in low metallicity galaxies, which,if tracing very cold dust, would highlight large dust masses not easily reconciled in some cases, given the low metallicities and expected gas-to-dust mass ratios. The galaxies are also mapped in the FIR fine-structure lines (63 and 145mu OI, 158mu CII, 122 and 205mu NII, 88mu OIII) probing the low density ionised gas, the HII regions and photodissociation regions. While still early in the Herschel mission we can already see, along with earlier studies, that line ratios in the metal-poor ISM differ remarkably from those in the metal-rich starburst environments. In dwarf galaxies, L[CI...

  8. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ˜ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ˜ 108-1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108-109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (˜20%-60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  9. On the formation of dwarf galaxies and stellar haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J. I.; Pontzen, A. P.; Viel, M.

    2006-09-01

    Using analytic arguments and a suite of very high resolution (~103Msolar per particle) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we argue that high-redshift, z ~ 10, M ~ 108Msolar haloes, form the smallest `baryonic building block' (BBB) for galaxy formation. These haloes are just massive enough to efficiently form stars through atomic line cooling and to hold on to their gas in the presence of supernova (SN) winds and reionization. These combined effects, in particular that of the SN feedback, create a sharp transition: over the mass range 3-10 × 107Msolar, the BBBs drop two orders of magnitude in stellar mass. Below ~2 × 107Msolar, galaxies will be dark with almost no stars and no gas. Above this scale is the smallest unit of galaxy formation: the BBB. We show that the BBBs have stellar distributions which are spheroidal, of low rotational velocity, old and metal poor: they resemble the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) of the Local Group (LG). Unlike the LG dSphs, however, they contain significant gas fractions. We connect these high-redshift BBBs to the smallest dwarf galaxies observed at z = 0 using linear theory. A small fraction (~100) of these gas-rich BBBs at high redshift fall in to a galaxy the size of the Milky Way (MW). We suggest that 10 per cent of these survive to become the observed LG dwarf galaxies at the present epoch. This is consistent with recent numerical estimates. Those infalling haloes on benign orbits which keep them far away from the MW or Andromeda manage to retain their gas and slowly form stars - these become the smallest dwarf irregular galaxies; those on more severe orbits lose their gas faster than they can form stars and become the dwarf spheroidals. The remaining 90 per cent of the BBBs will be accreted. We show that this gives a metallicity and total stellar mass consistent with the MW old stellar halo.

  10. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  11. Mergers and the outside-in formation of dwarf spheroidals

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G; Gottloeber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group to explore the origin of age and metallicity gradients in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We find that a number of simulated dwarfs form "outside-in", with an old, metal-poor population that surrounds a younger, more concentrated metal-rich component, reminiscent of dwarf spheroidals like Sculptor or Sextans. We focus on a few examples where stars form in two populations distinct in age in order to elucidate the origin of these gradients. The spatial distributions of the two components reflect their diverse origin; the old stellar component is assembled through mergers, but the young population forms largely in situ. The older component results from a first episode of star formation that begins early but is quickly shut off by the combined effects of stellar feedback and reionization. The younger component forms when a late accretion event adds gas and reignites star formation. The effect of mergers is to disperse the old stellar population, incr...

  12. 中等贫金属星的元素丰度分析%Abundance Analysis in the Mildly Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱红梅; 赵刚; 新宇; 李宗伟

    2000-01-01

    We present here some observed data on 11 mildly metal-poor stars with -1.3 [Fe/H] -0.6. The model parameters and the abundances of 14 elements are determined. We also discuss the relation between the abundance ratio and the metallicity. The elements (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) are overabundant relative to Fe with a varying scatter at each given metallicity. Most of the iron-peak elements (V, Cr, Ni, Cu) are also overabundant relative to Fe by amounts that are independent of [Fe/H], while [Mn/Fe] increases with increasing metallicity. [Na/Al] is overabundant in the sample with [Fe/H]>-1.1 and definitely overdeficient in the sample with [Fe/H]-1.1的样本星中表现超丰,在[Fe/H]<-1.1的样本中却明显过贫.

  13. Improved V II log($gf$) Values, Hyperfine Structure Constants, and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Hartog, E A Den; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2014-01-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Use of two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used t...

  14. Improved Ni I log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2014-01-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  15. Improved Ti II log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/...

  16. Enhanced methods for computing spectra from CO5BOLD models using Linfor3D. Molecular bands in metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, A J; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Freytag, B

    2016-01-01

    Molecular features such as the G-band, CN-band and NH-band are important diagnostics for measuring a star's carbon and nitrogen abundances, especially in metal-poor stars where atomic lines are no longer visible in stellar spectra. Unlike atomic transitions, molecular features tend to form in bands, which cover large wavelength regions in a spectrum. While it is a trivial matter to compute carbon and nitrogen molecular bands under the assumption of 1D, it is extremely time consuming in 3D. In this contribution to the 2016 CO5BOLD workshop we review the improvements made to the 3D spectral synthesis code Linfor3D, and discuss the new challenges found when computing molecular features in 3D.

  17. The Colors of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems, Nuclei and Stellar Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Jennifer M.; Miller, Bryan W.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 F555W and F814W survey of 69 dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters and Leo Group. The $V-I$ colors of the dE globular clusters, nuclei, and underlying field star populations are used to trace the dE star-formation histories. We find that the dE globular cluster candidates are as blue as the metal-poor globular clusters of the Milky Way. The observed correlation of the dE globular cluster systems' $V-I$ color w...

  18. Dynamical models for the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal in a Lambda CDM universe

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy contains two distinct stellar populations: one metal-rich and the other metal-poor. Several authors have argued that in order for these two populations to reside in the same gravitational potential, the dark matter halo must have a core similar to that observed in the stellar count profile. This would rule out the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profiles predicted for halos and subhalos by dark matter only simulations of the Lambda Cold Dark Matter...

  19. A search for metal-poor stars pre-enriched by pair-instability supernovae I.A pilot study for target selection from Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Norbert Christlieb; Gang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    We report on a pilot study on identifying metal-poor stars pre-enriched by Pair-Instability Supernovae (PISNe).Very massive,first generation (Population Ⅲ) stars (140 M⊙ ≤ M ≤ 260 M⊙) end their lives as PISNe,which have been predicted by theories,but no relics of PISNe have been observed yet.Among the distinct characteristics of the yields of PISNe,as predicted by theoretical calculations,are a strong odd-even effect,and a strong overabundance of Ca with respect to iron and the solar ratio.We use the latter characteristic to identify metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo that have been pre-enriched by PISNe,by comparing metallicites derived from strong,co-added Fe lines detected in low-resolution (i.e.,R = λ/Δλ ~ 2000) spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS),with metallicities determined by the SDSS Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP).The latter are based on the strength of the Ca Ⅱ K line and assumptions on the Ca/Fe abundance ratio.Stars are selected as candidates if their metallicity derived from Fe lines is significantly lower than the SSPP metallicities.In a sample of 12 300 stars for which SDSS spectroscopy is available,we have identified 18 candidate stars.Higher resolution and signal-to-noise ratio spectra of these candidates are being obtained with the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory and the XSHOOTER spectrograph,to determine their abundance patterns,and to verify our selection method.We plan to apply our method to the database of several million stellar spectra to be acquired with the Guo Shou Jing Telescope (LAMOST) in the next five years.

  20. On the necessity of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in models of metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantino, Thomas; Campbell, Simon; Lattanzio, John [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gil-Pons, Pilar, E-mail: thomas.constantino@monash.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, 08860 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-20

    The vital importance of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in low-mass (M ≤ 3 M {sub ☉}) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models of metallicity Z ≥ 0.001 has recently been demonstrated. Its significance to more metal-poor, intermediate-mass (M ≥ 2.5 M {sub ☉}) models has yet to be investigated. We show that its inclusion in lower-metallicity models ([Fe/H] ≤–2) is essential and that there exists no threshold metallicity below which composition-dependent molecular opacity may be neglected. We find it to be crucial in all intermediate-mass models investigated ([Fe/H] ≤–2 and 2.5 ≤ M/M {sub ☉} ≤ 5), because of the evolution of the surface chemistry, including the orders of magnitude increase in the abundance of molecule-forming species. Its effect on these models mirrors that previously reported for higher-metallicity models—increase in radius, decrease in T {sub eff}, faster mass loss, shorter thermally pulsing AGB lifetime, reduced enrichment in third dredge-up products (by a factor of 3-10), and an increase in the mass limit for hot bottom burning. We show that the evolution of low-metallicity models with composition-dependent low-temperature opacity is relatively independent of initial metal abundance because its contribution to the opacity is far outweighed by changes resulting from dredge-up. Our results imply a significant reduction in the expected number of nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars, which may help explain their observed paucity. We note that these findings are partially a product of the macrophysics adopted in our models, in particular, the Vassiliadis and Wood mass loss rate which is strongly dependent on radius.

  1. THE X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES, THEIR METAL-RICH, AND METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E., E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We present the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the globular clusters (GCs) and fields of seven early-type galaxies. These galaxies are selected to have both deep Chandra observations, which allow their LMXB populations to be observed to X-ray luminosities of 10{sup 37}–10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}, and Hubble Space Telescope optical mosaics that enable the X-ray sources to be separated into field LMXBs, GC LMXBs, and contaminating background and foreground sources. We find that at all luminosities the number of field LMXBs per stellar mass is similar in these galaxies. This suggests that the field LMXB populations in these galaxies are not effected by the GC specific frequency, and that properties such as binary fraction and the stellar initial mass function are either similar across the sample or change in a way that does not affect the number of LMXBs. We compare the XLF of the field LMXBs to that of the GC LMXBs and find that they are significantly different with a p-value of 3 × 10{sup −6} (equivalent to 4.7σ for a normal distribution). The difference is such that the XLF of the GC LMXBs is flatter than that of the field LMXBs, with the GCs hosting relatively more bright sources and fewer faint sources. A comparison of the XLF of the metal-rich and metal-poor GCs hints that the metal-poor clusters may have more bright LMXBs, but the difference is not statistically significant.

  2. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  3. The Mid-Infrared Properties of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yanling Wu; Houck, J R; Bernasrd-Salas, J; Lebouteiller, V

    2008-01-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity of the Spitzer Space Telescope has enabled us for the first time to detect a large sample of Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs), which are intrinsically faint in the infrared. In the present paper we present a summary of our findings which providing essential information on the presence/absence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon features in metal-poor environments. In addition, using Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectroscopy, we study the elemental abundances of neon and sulfur in BCDs and compare with the results from optical studies. Finally, we present an analysis of the mid- and far-infrared to radio correlation in low luminosity low metallicity galaxies.

  4. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    CERN Document Server

    James, Bethan L; Stark, Daniel P; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W; McQuinn, Kristen B W

    2016-01-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e., galaxies with <1/10 solar metallicity. However, due to the bright emission line based search criteria traditionally used to find XMPs, we may not be sampling the full XMP population. In 2014 we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ~150 `blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their SDSS photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43<12+log(O/H)<8.01), with ~20% of our sample classified as being XMP galaxies, and find they are actively forming stars at rates ...

  5. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  6. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  7. Large-scale environmental dependence of gas-phase metallicity in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the Universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [OIII] and [SII] transitions, provide estimates of a region's electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [OII] 3727, [OIII] 4363, and [OIII] 4959,5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the Direct Te method. We estimate the metallicity of 37 void dwarf galaxies and 75 dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as re-processed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are equally abundant in both voids...

  8. Dust origin in late-type dwarf galaxies: ISM growth vs. type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the roles of different dust sources in dust production as a function of metallicity in late-type dwarf galaxies, with the goal of understanding the relation between dust content and metallicity. The dust content ol late-type dwarf galaxies with episodic star formation is studied with a multicomponent model of dust evolution, which includes dust input from AGB stars, type II SNe and dust growth by accretion of atoms in the ISM. Dust growth in the ISM becomes an important dust source in dwarf galaxies, on the timescale of 0.1 - a few Gyrs. It increases the dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) during post-burst evolution, unlike type II SNe, which eject grains to the ISM only during starbursts. Before the dust growth in the ISM overtakes the dust production, AGB stars can be major sources of dust in metal-poor dwarf galaxies. Our models reproduce the relation between the DGR and oxygen abundance, derived from observations of a large sample of dwarf galaxies. The steep decrease in the DGR at low O values is exp...

  9. THE DIVERSE ORIGINS OF NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 94028: POSSIBLE DETECTION OF PRODUCTS OF i-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Pignatari, Marco [E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Herwig, Falk, E-mail: iur@umich.edu, E-mail: amanda.karakas@monash.edu, E-mail: mpignatari@gmail.com, E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE) (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = −0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy.

  10. The Magellan PFS Planet Search Program: Radial Velocity and Stellar Abundance Analyses of the 360 au, Metal-poor Binary “Twins” HD 133131A & B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Johanna K.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Vogt, Steve S.; Díaz, Matías; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian B.; Arriagada, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    We present a new precision radial velocity (RV) data set that reveals multiple planets orbiting the stars in the ˜360 au, G2+G2 “twin” binary HD 133131AB. Our six years of high-resolution echelle observations from MIKE and five years from the Planet Finder Spectrograph (PFS) on the Magellan telescopes indicate the presence of two eccentric planets around HD 133131A with minimum masses of 1.43 ± 0.03 and 0.63 ± 0.15 {{ M }}{{J}} at 1.44 ± 0.005 and 4.79 ± 0.92 au, respectively. Additional PFS observations of HD 133131B spanning five years indicate the presence of one eccentric planet of minimum mass 2.50 ± 0.05 {{ M }}{{J}} at 6.40 ± 0.59 au, making it one of the longest-period planets detected with RV to date. These planets are the first to be reported primarily based on data taken with the PFS on Magellan, demonstrating the instrument’s precision and the advantage of long-baseline RV observations. We perform a differential analysis between the Sun and each star, and between the stars themselves, to derive stellar parameters and measure a suite of 21 abundances across a wide range of condensation temperatures. The host stars are old (likely ˜9.5 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.30), and we detect a ˜0.03 dex depletion in refractory elements in HD 133131A versus B (with standard errors ˜0.017). This detection and analysis adds to a small but growing sample of binary “twin” exoplanet host stars with precise abundances measured, and represents the most metal-poor and likely oldest in that sample. Overall, the planets around HD 133131A and B fall in an unexpected regime in planet mass-host star metallicity space and will serve as an important benchmark for the study of long-period giant planets. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  11. A Deep Study of the Dwarf Satellites Andromeda XXVIII and Andromeda XXIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Ho, Nhung

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of a deep study of the isolated dwarf galaxies Andromeda XXVIII and Andromeda XXIX with Gemini/GMOS and Keck/DEIMOS. Both galaxies are shown to host old, metal-poor stellar populations with no detectable recent star formation, conclusively identifying both of them as dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). And XXVIII exhibits a complex horizontal branch morphology, which is suggestive of metallicity enrichment and thus an extended period of star formation in the past. Decomposing the horizontal branch into blue (metal-poor, assumed to be older) and red (relatively more metal-rich, assumed to be younger) populations shows that the metal-rich are also more spatially concentrated in the center of the galaxy. We use spectroscopic measurements of the calcium triplet, combined with the improved precision of the Gemini photometry, to measure the metallicity of the galaxies, confirming the metallicity spread and showing that they both lie on the luminosity-metallicity relation for dwarf satellites. Taken together, the galaxies exhibit largely typical properties for dSphs despite their significant distances from M31. These dwarfs thus place particularly significant constraints on models of dSph formation involving environmental processes such as tidal or ram pressure stripping. Such models must be able to completely transform the two galaxies into dSphs in no more than two pericentric passages around M31, while maintaining a significant stellar population gradient. Reproducing these features is a prime requirement for models of dSph formation to demonstrate not just the plausibility of environmental transformation but the capability of accurately recreating real dSphs.

  12. A DEEP STUDY OF THE DWARF SATELLITES ANDROMEDA XXVIII AND ANDROMEDA XXIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Tollerud, Erik J.; Ho, Nhung [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present the results of a deep study of the isolated dwarf galaxies Andromeda XXVIII and Andromeda XXIX with Gemini/GMOS and Keck/DEIMOS. Both galaxies are shown to host old, metal-poor stellar populations with no detectable recent star formation, conclusively identifying both of them as dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). And XXVIII exhibits a complex horizontal branch morphology, which is suggestive of metallicity enrichment and thus an extended period of star formation in the past. Decomposing the horizontal branch into blue (metal-poor, assumed to be older) and red (relatively more metal-rich, assumed to be younger) populations shows that the metal-rich are also more spatially concentrated in the center of the galaxy. We use spectroscopic measurements of the calcium triplet, combined with the improved precision of the Gemini photometry, to measure the metallicity of the galaxies, confirming the metallicity spread and showing that they both lie on the luminosity–metallicity relation for dwarf satellites. Taken together, the galaxies exhibit largely typical properties for dSphs despite their significant distances from M31. These dwarfs thus place particularly significant constraints on models of dSph formation involving environmental processes such as tidal or ram pressure stripping. Such models must be able to completely transform the two galaxies into dSphs in no more than two pericentric passages around M31, while maintaining a significant stellar population gradient. Reproducing these features is a prime requirement for models of dSph formation to demonstrate not just the plausibility of environmental transformation but the capability of accurately recreating real dSphs.

  13. The Abundance Evolution of Oxygen, Sodium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-Poor Intermediate Mass Stars: Implications for the Self-Polution Scenario in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, P A

    2003-01-01

    We present full stellar evolution and parametric models of the surface abundance evolution of O16, Ne22, Na23 and the magnesium isotopes in an extremely metal-poor intermediate mass star M_ZAMS=5M_sun, Z=0.0001. O16 and Ne22 are injected into the envelope by the third dredge-up following thermal pulses on the asymptotic giant branch. These species and the initially present Mg24 are depleted by hot bottom burning (HBB) during the interpulse phase. As a result, Na23, Mg25 and Mg26 are enhanced. If the HBB temperatures are sufficiently high for this process to deplete oxygen efficiently, Na23 is first produced and then depleted during the interpulse phase. Although the simultaneous depletion of O16 and enhancement of Na23 is possible, the required fine tuning of the dredge-up and HBB casts some doubt on the robustness of this process as the origin of the O-Na anti-correlation observed in globular cluster stars. However, a very robust prediction of our models are low Mg24/Mg25 and Mg24/Mg26 ratios whenever signif...

  14. Low Energy Population III Supernovae and the Origin of the Extremely Metal-Poor Star SMSS J031300.36-670839.3

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Whalen, Daniel J; Moriya, Takashi J; Bromm, Volker; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Ancient, dim metal-poor stars may have formed in the ashes of the first supernovae. If their chemical abundances can be reconciled with the nucleosynthetic yields of specific Pop III explosions, they could reveal the properties of primordial stars. But simulations of such explosions must be multidimensional because dynamical instabilities can dredge material up from deep in the ejecta that would be predicted to fall back onto the compact remnant and be lost in one-dimensional models. We have performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of two low-energy Pop III supernovae, a 12.4 Msun explosion and a 60 Msun explosion, and find that they have elemental yields that are a good fit to those measured in the most iron-poor star discovered to date, SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 (J031300). Fallback onto the compact remnant in these weak explosions accounts for the lack of measurable iron in J031300 and its low iron-group abundances in general. The low energies of these dim events will prevent their detection in the ne...

  15. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Collet, R.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe I/Fe II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within modelling uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is overestimated by 0.5 dex. Using a 3D non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the 3D model atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS model atmospheres; these differences go in the same direction as the non-LTE effects themselves. We make available grids of departure coefficients, equivalent widths and abundance corrections, calculated on 1D MARCS model atmospheres and horizontally and temporally averaged 3D STAGGER model atmospheres.

  16. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Amarsi, A M; Asplund, M; Barklem, P S; Collet, R

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D hydrodynamic Stagger model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe i/Fe ii excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within modelling uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is over-estimated by 0.5 dex. Using a 3D non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the 3D model atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS model atmos...

  17. The Binary Frequency of r-Process-Element Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars and its Implications: Chemical Tagging in the Primitive Halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Terese; Nordström, Birgitta; Buchhave, Lars A; Beers, Timothy C

    2011-01-01

    A few rare halo giants in the range [Fe/H] $\\simeq -2.9\\pm0.3$ exhibit {\\it r}-process element abundances that vary as a group by factors up to [$r$/Fe] $\\sim80$, relative to those of the iron peak and below. Yet, the astrophysical production site of these {\\it r}-process elements remains unclear. We report initial results from four years of monitoring the radial velocities of 17 {\\it r}-process-enhanced metal-poor giants to detect and characterise binaries in this sample. We find three (possibly four) spectroscopic binaries with orbital periods and eccentricities that are indistinguishable from those of Population I binaries with giant primaries, and which exhibit no signs that the secondary components have passed through the AGB stage of evolution or exploded as supernovae. The other 14 stars in our sample appear to be single -- including the prototypical $r$-process-element enhanced star CS 22892-052, which is also enhanced in carbon, but not in {\\it s}-process elements. We conclude that the {\\it r}-proces...

  18. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  19. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  20. Improved Laboratory Transition Probabilities for Er II and Applications to the Erbium Abundances of the Sun and Five r-Process Rich, Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Cowan, J J; Wyart, J -F; Ivans, I I; Sobeck, J S; Stockett, M H; Hartog, E A Den

    2008-01-01

    Recent radiative lifetime measurements accurate to +/- 5% (Stockett et al. 2007, J. Phys. B 40, 4529) using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on 8 even-parity and 62 odd-parity levels of Er II have been combined with new branching fractions measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to determine transition probabilities for 418 lines of Er II. This work moves Er II onto the growing list of rare earth spectra with extensive and accurate modern transition probability measurements using LIF plus FTS data. This improved laboratory data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Er abundance, log epsilon = 0.96 +/- 0.03 (sigma = 0.06 from 8 lines), a value in excellent agreement with the recommended meteoric abundance, log epsilon = 0.95 +/- 0.03. Revised Er abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, HD 221170, HD 115444, and CS 31082-001. For these five stars the average Er/Eu abundance ratio, = 0.42, is in very good agreement ...

  1. Investigation for the puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements in the ultra metal-poor star: CS 30322-023

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, W Y; Ma, K; Zhang, L

    2007-01-01

    The s-enhanced and very metal-poor star CS 30322-023 shows a puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements, i.e. several neutron-capture elements such as Ba, Pb etc. show enhancement, but other neutron-capture elements such as Sr, Eu etc. exhibit deficient with respect to iron. The study to this sample star could make people gain a better understanding of s- and r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Using a parametric model, we find that the abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements could be best explained by a star that was polluted by an AGB star and the CS 30322-023 binary system formed in a molecular cloud which had never been polluted by r-process material. The lack of r-process material also indicates that the AGB companion cannot have undergone a type-1.5 supernova, and thus must have had an initial mass below 4.0M$_\\odot$, while the strong N overabundance and the absence of a strong C overabundance indicate that the companion's initial mass was larger than 2.0M$_\\odot$. Th...

  2. Keck Observations of the Young Metal-Poor Host Galaxy of the Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass Type Ia Supernova SN 2007if

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Hsiao, E Y; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Thomas, R C; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy and $g$-band photometry of the metal-poor, low-luminosity host galaxy of the super-Chandrasekhar mass Type Ia supernova SN 2007if. Deep imaging of the host reveals its apparent magnitude to be $m_g=23.15\\pm0.06$, which at the spectroscopically-measured redshift of $z_{helio}=0.07450\\pm0.00015$ corresponds to an absolute magnitude of $M_g=-14.45\\pm0.06$. Galaxy $g-r$ color constrains the mass-to-light ratio, giving a host stellar mass estimate of $\\log(M_*/M_\\odot)=7.32\\pm0.17$. Balmer absorption in the stellar continuum, along with the strength of the 4000\\AA\\ break, constrain the age of the dominant starburst in the galaxy to be $t_\\mathrm{burst}=123^{+165}_{-77}$ Myr, corresponding to a main-sequence turn-off mass of $M/M_\\odot=4.6^{+2.6}_{-1.4}$. Using the R$_{23}$ method of calculating metallicity from the fluxes of strong emission lines, we determine the host oxygen abundance to be $12+\\log(O/H)_\\mathrm{KK04}=8.01\\pm0.09$, significantly lower than any previously reported...

  3. First stars VI - Abundances of C, N, O, Li, and mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Galactic evolution of the light elements

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Plez, B; Hill, V; Spite, F; Depagne, E; François, P; Bonifacio, P; Barbuy, B; Beers, T; Andersen, J; Molaro, P; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the poorly-understood origin of nitrogen in the early Galaxy by determining N abundances in 35 extremely metal-poor halo giants (22 stars have [Fe/H]<-3.0) using the C and O abundances determined in Paper V. Because any dredge-up of CNO processed material to the surface may complicate the interpretation of CNO abundances in giants, we have also measured the surface abundance of lithium. Our sample shows a clear dichotomy between two groups of stars. The first group shows evidence of C to N conversion through CN cycling and strong Li dilution, a signature of mixing. The second group shows no evidence for C to N conversion, and Li is only moderately diluted, and we conclude that their C and N abundances are very close to those of the gas from which they formed in the early Galaxy. These "unmixed" stars reflect the abundances in the early Galaxy: the [C/Fe] ratio is constant (about +0.2 dex) and the [C/Mg] ratio is close to solar at low metallicity, favouring a high C production by massiv...

  4. Evolution and nucleosynthesis of extremely metal-poor and metal-free low- and intermediate-mass stars II. s-process nucleosynthesis during the core He flash

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Simon W; Karakas, Amanda I

    2010-01-01

    Models of primordial and hyper-metal-poor stars with masses similar to the Sun experience an ingestion of protons into the hot core during the core helium flash phase at the end of their red giant branch evolution. This produces a concurrent secondary flash powered by hydrogen burning that gives rise to further nucleosynthesis in the core. We perform post-process nucleosynthesis calculations on a one-dimensional stellar evolution calculation of a star of 1 solar mass and metallicity [Fe/H] = -6.5 that suffers a proton ingestion episode. Our network includes 320 nuclear species and 2,366 reactions and treats mixing and burning simultaneously. The mixing and burning of protons into the hot convective core leads to the production of 13C, which then burns via the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction releasing a large number of free neutrons. During the first two years of neutron production the neutron poison 14N abundance is low, allowing the prodigious production of heavy elements such as strontium, barium, and lead via slo...

  5. Oxygen and light element synthesis by neutron-capture reactions in metal-free and extremely metal-poor AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Takanori; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2009-01-01

    The metal-free (Pop. III) and extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars of low- and intermediate-masses experience mixing of hydrogen into the helium convection during the early TP-AGB phase, differently from the meal-rich stars. We study the nucleosynthesis in the helium convective zone with 13C formed from mixed protons as neutron source by using a nuclear network from H through S. In the absence or scarcity of the pristine metals, the neutron-recycling reactions, 12C(n,g)13C(a,n)16O and also 16O(n,g)17O(a,n)20Ne promote the synthesis of O and light elements, including their neutron-rich isotopes and the odd atomic number elements. Based on the results, we demonstrate that the peculiar abundance patterns of C through Al observed for the three most iron-deficient, carbon-rich stars can be reproduced in terms of the nucleosynthesis in Pop. III, AGB stars in the different mass range. We argue that these three stars were born as the low-mass members of Pop. III binaries and later subject to the surface pollution by the ...

  6. Observations of Binary Stars with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument. V. Toward an Empirical Metal-Poor Mass-Luminosity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Horch, Elliott P; Demarque, Pierre; Howell, Steve B; Everett, Mark E; Ciardi, David R; Teske, Johanna K; Henry, Todd J; Winters, Jennifer G

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and 6 stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. Mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Ya...

  7. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordstrøm, B; Beers, T C; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later mass transfer of processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. ...

  8. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-Capture Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.62+/-0.09) star HD94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process; e.g., [Pb/Fe]=+0.79+/-0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r-process; e.g., [Eu/Fe]=+0.22+/-0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe]=+0.97+/-0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe]=+0.69+/-0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe]=-0.06+/-0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process pa...

  9. Abundance analysis of SDSS J134338.67+484426.6; an extremely metal-poor star from the MARVELS pre-survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, A Susmitha; Beers, T C; Fleming, S; Mahadevan, S; Ge, J

    2016-01-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis of an extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) star, SDSS J134338.67+484426.6, identified during the course of the MARVELS spectroscopic pre-survey of some 20000 stars to identify suitable candidates for exoplanet searches. This star, with an apparent magnitude V = 12.14, is the lowest metallicity star found in the pre-survey, and is one of only ~20 known EMP stars that are this bright or brighter. Our high-resolution spectroscopic analysis shows that this star is a subgiant with [Fe/H] = -3.42, having "normal" carbon and no enhancement of neutron-capture abundances. Strontium is under-abundant, [Sr/Fe] =-0.47, but the derived lower limit on [Sr/Ba] indicates that Sr is likely enhanced relative to Ba. This star belongs to the sparsely populated class of alpha-poor EMP stars that exhibit low ratios of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] compared to typical halo stars at similar metallicity. The observed variations in radial velocity from several epochs of (low- and high...

  10. KELT-6b: A P~7.9 d Hot Saturn Transiting a Metal-Poor Star with a Long-Period Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Karen A; Beatty, Thomas G; Siverd, Robert J; Gaudi, B Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Kielkopf, John F; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Fischer, Debra A; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W; Fulton, Benjamin J; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A; Jensen, Eric L N; Stassun, Keivan G; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R; Hinkley, Sasha; Street, Rachel A; Cargile, Phillip; Mack, Claude E; Oberst, Thomas E; Avril, Ryan L; Mellon, Samuel N; McLeod, Kim K; Penny, Matthew T; Stefanik, Robert P; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Mao, Qingqing; Richert, Alexander J W; DePoy, Darren L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L; Oelkers, Ryan J; Pogge, Richard W; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly-inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was confirmed using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V=10.38 host star (TYC 2532-556-1) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T_eff=6102 \\pm 43 K, log(g_*)=4.07_{-0.07}^{+0.04} and [Fe/H]=-0.28 \\pm 0.04, with an inferred mass M_*=1.09 \\pm 0.04 M_sun and radius R_*=1.58_{-0.09}^{+0.16} R_sun. The planetary companion has mass M_p=0.43 \\pm 0.05 M_Jup, radius R_p=1.19_{-0.08}^{+0.13} R_Jup, surface gravity log(g_p)=2.86_{-0.08}^{+0.06}, and density rho_p=0.31_{-0.08}^{+0.07} g cm^{-3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a=0.079 \\pm 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22_{-0.10}^{+0.12}, which is rough...

  11. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Collet, R.

    2016-08-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe I/Fe II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within modelling uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is overestimated by 0.5 dex. Using a 3D non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the 3D model atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS model atmospheres; these differences go in the same direction as the non-LTE effects themselves.We make available grids of departure coefficients, equivalent widths and abundance corrections, calculated on 1D MARCS model atmospheres and horizontally- and temporally-averaged 3D STAGGER model atmospheres.

  12. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrovolskas, V; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O I] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O I] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Aims. We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O I] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Methods. We used high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH...

  13. Abundance analysis of SDSS J134338.67+484426.6; an extremely metal-poor star from the MARVELS pre-survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha Rani, A.; Sivarani, T.; Beers, T. C.; Fleming, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Ge, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis of an extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] EMP stars that are this bright or brighter. Our high-resolution spectroscopic analysis shows that this star is a subgiant with [Fe/H] = -3.42, having `normal' carbon and no enhancement of neutron-capture abundances. Strontium is underabundant, [Sr/Fe] = -0.47, but the derived lower limit on [Sr/Ba] indicates that Sr is likely enhanced relative to Ba. This star belongs to the sparsely populated class of α-poor EMP stars that exhibit low ratios of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] compared to typical halo stars at similar metallicity. The observed variations in radial velocity from several epochs of (low- and high-resolution) spectroscopic follow-up indicate that SDSS J134338.67+484426.6 is a possible long-period binary. We also discuss the abundance trends in EMP stars for r-process elements, and compare with other magnesium-poor stars.

  14. Extremely Metal-Poor Stars. VIII. High-Resolution, High-Signal-To-Noise Analysis of Five Stars with [Fe/H] < -3.5

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, J E; Beers, T C; Norris, John E.; Ryan, Sean G.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution, high-signal-to-noise ( = 85) spectra have been obtained for five stars -- CD-24:17504, CD-38:245, CS 22172-002, CS 22885-096, and CS 22949-037 -- having [Fe/H] < -3.5 according to previous lower S/N material. LTE model-atmosphere techniques are used to determine [Fe/H] and relative abundances, or their limits, for some 18 elements, and to constrain more tightly the early enrichment history of the Galaxy than is possible based on previous analyses. We compare our results with high-quality higher-abundance literature data for other metal-poor stars and with the canonical Galactic chemical enrichment results of Timmes et al. (1995) and obtain the following basic results: (1) Large supersolar values of [C/Fe] and [N/Fe], not predicted by the canonical models, exist at lowest abundance. For C at least, the result is difficult to attribute to internal mixing effects; (2) We confirm that there is {\\it no upward trend} in [$\\alpha$/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H], in contradistinction to some reports ...

  15. Quenched Cold Accretion of a Large Scale Metal-Poor Filament due to Virial Shocking in the Halo of a Massive z=0.7 Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, Christopher W; Steidel, Charles C; Spitler, Lee R; Holtzman, Jon; Nielsen, Nikole M; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Using HST/COS/STIS and HIRES/Keck high-resolution spectra, we have studied a remarkable HI absorbing complex at z=0.672 toward the quasar Q1317+277. The HI absorption has a velocity spread of 1600 km/s, comprises 21 Voigt profile components, and resides at an impact parameter of D=58 kpc from a bright, high mass [log(M_vir/M_sun) ~ 13.7] elliptical galaxy that is deduced to have a 6 Gyr old, solar metallicity stellar population. Ionization models suggest the majority of the structure is cold gas surrounding a shock heated cloud that is kinematically adjacent to a multi-phase group of clouds with detected CIII, CIV and OVI absorption, suggestive of a conductive interface near the shock. The deduced metallicities are consistent with the moderate in situ enrichment relative to the levels observed in the z ~ 3 Ly-alpha forest. We interpret the HI complex as a metal-poor filamentary structure being shock heated as it accretes into the halo of the galaxy. The data support the scenario of an early formation period (...

  16. CoRoT\\,102699796, the first metal-poor Herbig Ae pulsator: a hybrid $\\delta$ Sct-$\\gamma$ Dor variable?

    CERN Document Server

    Ripepi, V; Di Criscienzo, M; Catanzaro, G; Palla, F; Marconi, M; Ventura, P; Neiner, C; Catala, C; Bernabei, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the time series observations of CoRoT\\,102699796 obtained by the CoRoT satellite that show the presence of five independent oscillation frequencies in the range 3.6-5 c/d. Using spectra acquired with FLAMES@VLT, we derive the following stellar parameters: spectral type F1V, T$_{\\rm eff}$=7000$\\pm$200 K, log(g)=$3.8\\pm0.4$, [M/H]=$-1.1\\pm0.2$, $v$sin$i$=$50\\pm5$ km/s, L/L$_{\\odot}$=21$^{+21}_{-11}$. Thus, for the first time we report the existence of a metal poor, intermediate-mass PMS pulsating star. Ground-based and satellite data are used to derive the spectral energy distribution of CoRoT\\,102699796 extending from the optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. The SED shows a significant IR excess at wavelengths greater than $\\sim5 \\mu$. We conclude that CoRoT\\,102699796 is a young Herbig Ae (F1Ve) star with a transitional disk, likely associated to the HII region [FT96]213.1-2.2. The pulsation frequencies have been interpreted in the light of the non-radial pulsation theory, using the...

  17. An Internal Second Parameter Problem in the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S R; Patterson, R J; Rood, R T; Patterson, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    We present BV photometry of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy to V=22. These data give evidence for a bimodality in Sculptor's metallicity distribution based on a discontinuity in the luminosities of horizontal branch (HB) stars and by the presence of two distinct red giant branch (RGB) bumps. A consistent picture of the evolved stars in Sculptor is given by the presence of (1) a metal-poor population of [Fe/H] ~ -2.3 with an exclusively blue HB and that corresponds to the blueward side of the Sculptor RGB and the more luminous RGB bump, and (2) a less metal-poor population of [Fe/H] ~ -1.5 required to explain the less luminous red HB, the red side of the RGB, and a second, less luminous RGB bump. Best fits to the HB populations are obtained with enhanced oxygen abundances, [O/Fe] ~ +0.5. Variations in the global HB and RGB morphology of Sculptor can be explained by differences in the radial distribution of these two populations. The presence of these two populations shows that the Sculptor dwarf galaxy has an intern...

  18. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, Alis J; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW) mass M_vir ~ 10^12.1 M_sun) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in, dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z=0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M_star ~ 10^8-10^10 M_sun. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10^8-10^9 M_sun), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M_star 10^8 M_sun can contribute a considerable fraction (~20-60 %) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surv...

  19. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  20. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  1. Chemical composition and constraints on mass loss for globular clusters in dwarf galaxies: WLM and IKN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Søren S.; Brodie, Jean P.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We determine the metallicities of globular clusters (GCs) in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies, using VLT/UVES and Keck/ESI spectroscopy. These measurements are combined with literature data for field stars to constrain GC formation scenarios. For the WLM GC, we also measure detailed abundance ratios for a number of light, α, Fe-peak, and n-capture elements, which are compared with literature data for the Fornax dSph and the Milky Way. Methods: The abundances are derived by computing synthetic integrated-light model spectra and adjusting the input composition until the best fits to the observed spectra are obtained. Results: We find low metallicities of [Fe/H] = -2.0 and -2.1 for the WLM GC and the GC IKN-5, respectively. We estimate that 17%-31% of the stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -2 in WLM belong to the GC, and IKN-5 may even contain a similar number of metal-poor stars as the whole of the IKN dwarf itself. While these fractions are much higher than in the Milky Way halo, we have previously found a similarly high ratio of metal-poor GCs to field stars in the Fornax dSph. The overall abundance patterns in the WLM GC are similar to those observed for GCs in the Fornax dSph: the [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] ratios are super-Solar at about +0.3 dex, while [Mg/Fe] is less elevated than [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe]. The [Na/Fe] ratio is similar to the averaged [Na/Fe] ratios in Milky Way GCs, but higher (by ~2σ) than those of Milky Way halo stars. Iron-peak (Mn, Sc, Cr) and heavy elements (Ba, Y, La) generally follow the trends seen in the Milky Way halo. Conclusions: The GCs in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies resemble those in the Fornax dSph by being significantly more metal-poor than a typical halo GC in the Milky Way and other large galaxies. They are also substantially more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars in their parent galaxies. It appears that only a small fraction of the Milky Way GC system could have been accreted from galaxies similar to these dwarfs. The relatively

  2. The early days of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Jablonka, P; Mashonkina, L; Hill, V; Revaz, Y; Shetrone, M; Starkenburg, E; Irwin, M; Tolstoy, E; Battaglia, G; Venn, K; Helmi, A; Primas, F; Francois, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the high resolution spectroscopic study of five -3.9<=[Fe/H]<=-2.5 stars in the Local Group dwarf spheroidal, Sculptor, thereby doubling the number of stars with comparable observations in this metallicity range. We carry out a detailed analysis of the chemical abundances of alpha, iron peak, light and heavy elements, and draw comparisons with the Milky Way halo and the ultra faint dwarf stellar populations. We show that the bulk of the Sculptor metal-poor stars follows the same trends in abundance ratios versus metallicity as the Milky Way stars. This suggests similar early conditions of star formation and a high degree of homogeneity of the interstellar medium. We find an outlier to this main regime, which seems to miss the products of the most massive of the TypeII supernovae. In addition to its value to help refining galaxy formation models, this star provides clues to the production of cobalt and zinc. Two of our sample stars have low odd-to-even barium isotope abundance ratios, suggesti...

  3. Inside the whale: the structure and dynamics of the isolated Cetus dwarf spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Chapman, S C; McConnachie, A; Irwin, M J; Tolstoy, E; Tanvir, N R

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the Cetus dwarf, an isolated dwarf galaxy within the Local Group. A matched-filter analysis of the INT/WFC imaging of this system reveals no evidence for significant tidal debris that could have been torn from the galaxy, bolstering the hypothesis that Cetus has never significantly interacted with either the Milky Way or M31. Additionally, Keck/Deimos spectroscopic observations identify this galaxy as a distinct kinematic population possessing a systematic velocity of $-87\\pm2{\\rm km\\ s^{-1}}$ and with a velocity dispersion of $17\\pm2{\\rm km s^{-1}}$; while tentative, these data also suggest that Cetus possesses a moderate rotational velocity of $\\sim8{\\rm km s^{-1}}$. The population is confirmed to be relatively metal-poor, consistent with ${\\rm [Fe/H]\\sim-1.9}$, and, assuming virial equilibrium, implies that the Cetus dwarf galaxy possesses a $M/L\\sim70$. It appears, therefore, that Cetus may represent a primordial dwarf galaxy, retaining the kinematic and structural propertie...

  4. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  5. Atomic diffusion in metal poor stars. The influence on the Main Sequence fitting distance scale, subdwarfs ages and the value of Delta Y/ Delta Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaris, M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Weiss, A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of atomic diffusion on the Main Sequence (MS) of metal-poor low mass stars is investigated. Since diffusion alters the stellar surface chemical abundances with respect to their initial values, one must ensure - by calibrating the initial chemical composition of the theoretical models - that the surface abundances of the models match the observed ones of the stellar population under scrutiny. When properly calibrated, our models with diffusion reproduce well within the errors the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of Hipparcos subdwarfs with empirically determined T_eff values and high resolution spectroscopical [Fe/H] determinations. Since the observed surface abundances of subdwarfs are different from the initial ones due to the effect of diffusion, while the globular clusters stellar abundances are measured in Red Giants, which have practically recovered their initial abundances after the dredge-up, the isochrones to be employed for studying globular clusters and Halo subdwarfs with the same observational value of [Fe/H] are different and do not coincide. This is at odds with the basic assumption of the MS-fitting technique for distance determinations. However, the use of the rather large sample of Hipparcos lower MS subdwarfs with accurate parallaxes keeps at minimum the effect of these differences, for two reasons. First, it is possible to use subdwarfs with observed [Fe/H] values close to the cluster one; this minimizes the colour corrections (which are derived from the isochrones) needed to reduce all the subdwarfs to a mono-metallicity sequence having the same [Fe/H] than the cluster. Second, one can employ objects sufficiently faint so that the differences between the subdwarfs and cluster MS with the same observed value of [Fe/H] are small (they increase for increasing luminosity). We find therefore that the distances based on standard isochrones are basically unaltered when diffusion is taken properly into account. On the other hand, the absolute ages

  6. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  7. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. D.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Li, T. S.; Nord, B.; Geha, M.; Bechtol, K.; Balbinot, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Marshall, J.; Santiago, B.; Strigari, L.; Wang, M.; Wechsler, R. H.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T.; Bauer, A. H.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dodelson, S.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8+/- 0.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a velocity dispersion of 3.3+/- 0.7 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470+/- 210 {M}⊙ /{L}⊙ , demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 {km} {{{s}}}-1, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with {{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65+/- 0.07, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is {{log}}10(J)=18.8+/- 0.6 {GeV}{ }2 {{cm}}-5 within 0.°2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 157689.

  8. WASP-37b: A 1.8 M J exoplanet transiting a metal-poor star

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, E. K.; Faedi, F.; Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hebb, L.; Pollacco, D.; Smalley, B.; Todd, I.; Butters, O. W.; Hébrard, G.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Santerne, A.; Street, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting an m v = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577469 ± 0.000011 d, transit epoch T 0 = 2455338.6188 ± 0.0006 (HJD; dates throughout the paper are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and a transit duration 0.1304+0.0018,sub>0.0017 d. The planetary companion has a mass M p = 1.80 ± 0.17 M J and radius R p = 1.16+0.070.06 R J, yielding a mean density of 1.15+0.120.15 ρJ. From a spectral analysis, we find that the...

  9. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  10. First results from the MADCASH Survey: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Companion to the Low Mass Spiral Galaxy NGC 2403 at 3.2 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Jeffrey L; Price, Paul; Willman, Beth; Karunakaran, Ananthan; Spekkens, Kristine; Bell, Eric F; Brodie, Jean P; Crnojević, Denija; Forbes, Duncan A; Hargis, Jonathan; Kirby, Evan; Lupton, Robert; Peter, Annika H G; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep imaging with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. MADCASH J074238+652501-dw lies $\\sim$35 kpc in projection from NGC 2403, a dwarf spiral galaxy at $D$$\\approx$3.2 Mpc. This new dwarf has $M_{g} = -7.4\\pm0.4$ and a half-light radius of $168\\pm70$ pc, at the calculated distance of $3.39\\pm0.41$ Mpc. The color-magnitude diagram reveals no evidence of young stellar populations, suggesting that MADCASH J074238+652501-dw is an old, metal-poor dwarf similar to low luminosity dwarfs in the Local Group. The lack of either detected HI gas ($M_{\\rm HI}/L_{V} < 0.69 M_\\odot/L_\\odot$, based on Green Bank Telescope observations) or $GALEX$ NUV/FUV flux enhancement is consistent with a lack of young stars. This is the first result from the MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey, which is conducting a census of the stellar substructure and faint satellites in the halos...

  11. The white dwarf luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2016-06-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ∼ 10 Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other relevant ingredients are needed to compare theory and observations. In this review we summarize the recent attempts to empirically determine the white dwarf luminosity function for the different Galactic populations. We also discuss the biases that may affect its interpretation. Finally, we elaborate on the theoretical ingredients needed to model the white dwarf luminosity function, paying special attention to the remaining uncertainties, and we comment on some applications of the white dwarf cooling theory. Astrophysical problems for which white dwarf stars may provide useful leverage in the near future are also discussed.

  12. HAT-P-24b: An inflated hot-Jupiter on a 3.36d period transiting a hot, metal-poor star

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, D M; Hartman, J; Torres, G; Shporer, A; Latham, D W; Kovacs, Geza; Noyes, R W; Howard, A W; Fischer, D A; Johnson, J A; Marcy, G W; Beky, B; Perumpilly, G; Esquerdo, G A; Sasselov, D D; Stefanik, R P; Lazar, J; Papp, I; Sari, P

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-24b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V=11.818 F8 dwarf star GSC 0774-01441, with a period P = 3.3552464 +/- 0.0000071 d, transit epoch Tc = 2455216.97669 +/- 0.00024 (BJD_UTC), and transit duration 3.653 +/- 0.025 hours. The host star has a mass of 1.186 +/- 0.042 Msun , radius of 1.294 +/- 0.071 Rsun , effective temperature 6373 +/- 80 K, and a low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.16 +/- 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.681 +/- 0.031 MJ , and radius of 1.243 +/- 0.072 RJ yielding a mean density of 0.439 +/- 0.069 g cm-3 . By repeating our global fits with different parameter sets, we have performed a critical investigation of the fitting techniques used for previous HAT planetary discoveries. We find that the system properties are robust against the choice of priors. The effects of fixed versus fitted limb darkening are also examined. HAT-P-24b probably maintains a small eccentricity of e = 0.052 +0.022 -0.017, which is accepted over the c...

  13. M Dwarf Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Irwin, Jonathan; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer; RECONS Team

    2017-01-01

    During RECONS' 17-year (so far) astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m, we have observed thousands of the ubiquitous red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. During this reconnaissance, a few mysterious characters have emerged ...The Case of the Mercurial Stars: One M dwarf has been fading steadily for more than a decade, at last measure 6% fainter than when it was first observed. Another has grown brighter by 7% over 15 years. Are these brightness changes part of extremely long stellar cycles, or something else entirely?The Case of Identical Stellar Twins that Aren't: Two M dwarfs seem at first to be identical siblings traveling together through the Galaxy. They have virtually identical spectra at optical wavelengths and identical colors throughout the VRIJHK bands. Long-term astrometry indicates that they are, indeed, at the same distance via parallax measurements, and their proper motions match precisely. Yet, one of the twins is FOUR times brighter than the other. Followup work has revealed that the brighter component is a very close spectroscopic double, but no other stars are seen. So, the mystery may be half solved, but why do the close stars remain twice as bright as their widely-separated twin?The Case of the Great Kaboom!: After more than 1000 nights of observing on the reliable 0.9m telescope, with generally routine frames reading out upon the screen, one stellar system comprised of five red dwarfs flared in stunning fashion. Of the two distinct sources, the fainter one (an unresolved double) surpassed the brightness of the brighter one (an unresolved triple), increasing by more than three full magnitudes in the V filter. Which component actually flared? Is this magnificent outburst an unusual event, or in fact typical for this system and other M dwarfs?At the AAS meeting, we hope to probe the cognoscenti who study the Sun's smaller cousins to solve these intriguing M Dwarf Mysteries.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants

  14. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  15. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  16. A comparative analysis of the observed white dwarf cooling sequence from globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, Fabíola; Romero, A D; Kepler, S O; Ourique, G; Costa, J E S; Bonatto, C J; Winget, D E; Montgomery, M H; Pacheco, T A; Bedin, L R

    2015-01-01

    We report our study of features at the observed red end of the white dwarf cooling sequences for three Galactic globular clusters: NGC\\,6397, 47\\,Tucanae and M\\,4. We use deep colour-magnitude diagrams constructed from archival Hubble Space Telescope (ACS) to systematically investigate the blue turn at faint magnitudes and the age determinations for each cluster. We find that the age difference between NGC\\,6397 and 47\\,Tuc is 1.98$^{+0.44}_{-0.26}$\\,Gyr, consistent with the picture that metal-rich halo clusters were formed later than metal-poor halo clusters. We self-consistently include the effect of metallicity on the progenitor age and the initial-to-final mass relation. In contrast with previous investigations that invoked a single white dwarf mass for each cluster, the data shows a spread of white dwarf masses that better reproduce the shape and location of the blue turn. This effect alone, however, does not completely reproduce the observational data - the blue turn retains some mystery. In this contex...

  17. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Hill, V; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M; Jablonka, P; Venn, K; Battaglia, G; Starkenburg, E; Shetrone, M; Letarte, B; Francois, P; Helmi, A; Primas, F; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2014-01-01

    Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H]>-1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Similar to other dwarf spheroid...

  18. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pierre; Valenzuela, O; Gottlöber, S

    2003-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study properties of dwarf halos with virial masses in the range 10^7-10^9 Msun/h. Unlike recent reported results, we find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the NFW profile and do not have cores. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in mass range that covers six orders of magnitude from 10^7 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. (2001). We predict that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~ 35. For halos with masses that range from 4.6 x 10^9 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h we measure the subhalo circular velocity function and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth and Tormen model while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with lambda...

  19. Discovery of Super-Li Rich Red Giants in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Deng, Licai

    2012-01-01

    Stars destroy lithium (Li) in their normal evolution. The convective envelopes of evolved red giants reach temperatures of millions of K, hot enough for the 7Li(p,alpha)4He reaction to burn Li efficiently. Only about 1% of first-ascent red giants more luminous than the luminosity function bump in the red giant branch exhibit A(Li) > 1.5. Nonetheless, Li-rich red giants do exist. We present 15 Li-rich red giants--14 of which are new discoveries--among a sample of 2054 red giants in Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of low-mass, metal-poor ([Fe/H] <~ -0.7) Li-rich red giants, and it includes the most-metal poor Li-enhanced star known ([Fe/H] = -2.82, A(Li)_NLTE = 3.15). Because most of these stars have Li abundances larger than the universe's primordial value, the Li in these stars must have been created rather than saved from destruction. These Li-rich stars appear like other stars in the same galaxies in every measurable regard other than Li abundance. We consider ...

  20. Chemical Diversity in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Tucana II

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Ezzeddine, Rana; Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Tucana II based on high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of four red giant stars. The metallicity of these stars ranges from [Fe/H] = -3.2 to -2.6, and all stars are low in neutron-capture abundances ([Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] < -1). However, a number of anomalous chemical signatures are present. Three stars are carbon-enhanced, including the most metal-rich star. This star ([Fe/H]=-2.6) shows [Na,$\\alpha$,Sc/Fe] < 0, suggesting an extended star formation history with contributions from AGB stars and Type Ia supernovae. The other carbon-enhanced stars have [Fe/H] < -3 and may be consistent with enrichment by faint supernovae, if such supernovae can produce neutron-capture elements. A fourth star with [Fe/H] = -3 is carbon-normal, and exhibits distinct light element abundance ratios from the carbon-enhanced stars. The carbon-normal star implies that at least two distinct nucleosynthesis sources, both possibly associated w...

  1. Chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies: The origin of r-process elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y.; Ishimaru, Y.; Saitoh, T. R.; Fujii, M. S.; Hidaka, J.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    The r-process elements such as Au, Eu, and U are observed in the extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo and the Local Group dwarf galaxies. However, the origin of r-process elements has not yet been identified. The abundance of r-process elements of stars in the Local Group galaxies provides clues to clarify early evolutionary history of galaxies. It is important to understand the chemical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies which would be building blocks of the Milky Way. In this study, we perform a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies. We show that neutron star mergers can reproduce the observation of r-process elements. We find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ¥sim 10-100 pc play significant roles in the early chemical enrichment of dwarf galaxies. We also find that the star formation rate of ˜ 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr^{-1} in early epoch (<1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for these results. Our results suggest that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  2. HAT-P-24b: An Inflated Hot Jupiter on a 3.36 Day Period Transiting a Hot, Metal-poor Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, D. M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Shporer, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, Géza; Noyes, R. W.; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Béky, B.; Perumpilly, G.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-24b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.818 F8 dwarf star GSC 0774-01441, with a period P = 3.3552464 ± 0.0000071 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455216.97669 ± 0.00024 (BJD)11, and transit duration 3.653 ± 0.025 hr. The host star has a mass of 1.191 ± 0.042 M sun, radius of 1.317 ± 0.068 R sun, effective temperature 6373 ± 80 K, and a low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.16 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.681 ± 0.031 M J and radius of 1.243 ± 0.072 R J yielding a mean density of 0.439 ± 0.069 g cm-3. By repeating our global fits with different parameter sets, we have performed a critical investigation of the fitting techniques used for previous Hungarian-made Automated Telescope planetary discoveries. We find that the system properties are robust against the choice of priors. The effects of fixed versus fitted limb darkening are also examined. HAT-P-24b probably maintains a small eccentricity of e = 0.052+0.022 -0.017, which is accepted over the circular orbit model with false alarm probability 5.8%. In the absence of eccentricity pumping, this result suggests that HAT-P-24b experiences less tidal dissipation than Jupiter. Due to relatively rapid stellar rotation, we estimate that HAT-P-24b should exhibit one of the largest known Rossiter-McLaughlin effect amplitudes for an exoplanet (ΔV RM ~= 95 m s-1) and thus a precise measurement of the sky-projected spin-orbit alignment should be possible. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO and NASA.

  3. 极贫金属环境下超新星爆发的中子俘获元素核合成产量%Nucleosynthetic yield of neutron-capture elements from extremely metal-poor stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文娟; 单勇; 张波

    2011-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]< -2. 5)was formed in the early universe. Studies on the nucleosynthesis yield of the extremely metal-poor stars play a key role in the exploration of the formation of the solar system, the chemical evolution of galaxies and the fundamental issues in the nuclear astrophysics. In this paper, the neutron-capture element's nucleosynthesis yields of the extremely metal-poor stars are calculated on the basis of the observed correlations between the neutron-capture process elements Sr, Y, Ba and Si elements and the theoretical yields of Si.%极贫金属环境下超新星爆发([Fe/H]<-2.5)形成于星系演化的早期,研究极贫金属环境下超新星爆发的重元素丰度分布及核合成,对于探索星系形成及化学演化和核天体物理学中的基本问题都起着关键作用.分析了大量极贫金属环境下超新星爆发的元素丰度的观测数据,得出中子俘获元素Sr,Y和Ba与元素Si的相关性规律,计算了极贫金属环境下超新星爆发的元素Sr,Y和Ba的核合成产量.

  4. Metals Removed by Outflows from Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Finlator, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The stars in the dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way are significantly more metal-poor than would be expected from a closed box model of chemical evolution. Gas outflows likely carried away most of the metals produced by the dSphs. Based on previous Keck/DEIMOS observations and models, we calculate the mass in Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe expelled from each of eight dSphs. Essentially, these masses are the differences between the observed amount of metals present in the dSphs' stars today and the inferred amount of metals produced by supernovae. We conclude that the dSphs lost 96% to >99% of the metals their stars manufactured. We apply the observed mass function of Milky Way dSphs to the ejected mass function to determine that a single large dSph, like Fornax, lost more metals over 10 Gyr than all smaller dSphs combined. Therefore, small galaxies like dSphs are not significant contributors to the metal content of the intergalactic medium. Finally, we compare our ejected mass function to previo...

  5. Search for Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies During Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Amorin, R; Aguerri, J A; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2008-01-01

    Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies are metal poor systems going through a major starburst that cannot last for long. We have identified galaxies which may be BCDs during quiescence (QBCD), i.e., before the characteristic starburst sets in or when it has faded away. These QBCD galaxies are assumed to be like the BCD host galaxies. The SDSS/DR6 database provides ~21500 QBCD candidates. We also select from SDSS/DR6 a complete sample of BCD galaxies to serve as reference. The properties of these two galaxy sets have been computed and compared. The QBCD candidates are thirty times more abundant than the BCDs, with their luminosity functions being very similar except for the scaling factor, and the expected luminosity dimming associated with the end of the starburst. QBCDs are redder than BCDs, and they have larger HII region based oxygen abundance. QBCDs also have lower surface brightness. The BCD candidates turn out to be the QBCD candidates with the largest specific star formation rate (actually, with the largest...

  6. Bubble-Induced Star Formation in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Barnes, David J; Grand, Robert J J; Rahimi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to WLM. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae (SNe) feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor inter-stellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from lar...

  7. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  8. PAndAS' Progeny: Extending the M31 Dwarf Galaxy Cabal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jenny C.; Irwin, Mike J.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Chapman, Scott C.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Rich, R. Michael

    2011-05-01

    We present the discovery of five new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXIII-XXVII, located in the outer halo of M31. These galaxies were discovered during the second year of data from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), a photometric survey of the M31/M33 subgroup conducted with the MegaPrime/MegaCam wide-field camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The current PAndAS survey now provides an almost complete panoramic view of the M31 halo out to an average projected radius of ~150 kpc. Here we present for the first time the metal-poor stellar density map for this whole region, not only as an illustration of the discovery space for satellite galaxies, but also as a birds-eye view of the ongoing assembly process of an L * disk galaxy. Four of the newly discovered satellites appear as well-defined spatial overdensities of stars lying on the expected locus of metal-poor (-2.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.3) red giant branch stars at the distance of M31. The fifth overdensity, And XXVII, is embedded in an extensive stream of such stars and is possibly the remnant of a strong tidal disruption event. Based on distance estimates from horizontal branch magnitudes, all five have metallicities typical of dwarf spheroidal galaxies ranging from [Fe/H] =-1.7 ± 0.2 to [Fe/H] =-1.9 ± 0.2 and absolute magnitudes ranging from MV = -7.1 ± 0.5 to MV = -10.2 ± 0.5. These five additional satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 25 and continue the trend whereby the brighter dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31 generally have much larger half-light radii than their Milky Way counterparts. With an extended sample of M31 satellite galaxies, we also revisit the spatial distribution of this population and in particular we find that, within the current projected limits of the PAndAS survey, the surface density of satellites is essentially constant out to 150 kpc. This corresponds to a radial density distribution of satellites varying as r -1, a result

  9. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS AND THE INHOMOGENEOUS CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE CARINA DWARF GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venn, Kim A.; Divell, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Shetrone, Matthew D. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, HC75 Box 1337-McD, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Irwin, Mike J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB03 0HA (United Kingdom); Hill, Vanessa [Laboratoire Cassiopee UMR 6202, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur (France); Jablonka, Pascale [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8111, Universite Paris Diderot, F-92125, Meudon, Cedex (France); Tolstoy, Eline; Lemasle, Bertrand; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Letarte, Bruno [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7935 Observatory (South Africa); Baldner, Charles [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Battaglia, Giuseppina; Primas, Francesca [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kaufer, Andreas, E-mail: kvenn@uvic.ca [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-06-01

    The detailed abundances of 23 chemical elements in nine bright red giant branch stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy are presented based on high-resolution spectra gathered at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Magellan telescopes. A spherical model atmospheres analysis is applied using standard methods (local thermodynamic equilibrium and plane-parallel radiative transfer) to spectra ranging from 380 to 680 nm. Stellar parameters are found to be consistent between photometric and spectroscopic analyses, both at moderate and high resolution. The stars in this analysis range in metallicity from -2.9 < [Fe/H] <-1.3, and adopting the ages determined by Lemasle et al., we are able to examine the chemical evolution of Carina's old and intermediate-aged populations. One of the main results from this work is the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in Carina and therefore for a poor statistical sampling of the supernova contributions when forming stars; a large dispersion in [Mg/Fe] indicates poor mixing in the old population, an offset in the [{alpha}/Fe] ratios between the old and intermediate-aged populations (when examined with previously published results) suggests that the second star formation event occurred in {alpha}-enriched gas, and one star, Car-612, seems to have formed in a pocket enhanced in SN Ia/II products. This latter star provides the first direct link between the formation of stars with enhanced SN Ia/II ratios in dwarf galaxies to those found in the outer Galactic halo (Ivans et al.). Another important result is the potential evidence for SN II driven winds. We show that the very metal-poor stars in Carina have not been enhanced in asymptotic giant branch or SN Ia products, and therefore their very low ratios of [Sr/Ba] suggests the loss of contributions from the early SNe II. Low ratios of [Na/Fe], [Mn/Fe], and [Cr/Fe] in two of these stars support this scenario, with additional evidence from the low [Zn/Fe] upper limit for one star. It is

  10. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  11. Non-LTE abundances of Mg and K in extremely metal-poor stars and the evolution of [O/Mg], [Na/Mg], [Al/Mg] and [K/Mg] in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Spite, F; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; François, P; Hill, V

    2010-01-01

    LTE abundances of light elements in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars have been previously derived from high quality spectra. New derivations, free from the NLTE effects, will better constrain the models of the Galactic chemical evolution and the yields of the very first supernovae. The NLTE profiles of the magnesium and potassium lines have been computed in a sample of 53 extremely metal-poor stars with a modified version of the program MULTI and adjusted to the observed lines in order to derive the abundances of these elements. The NLTE corrections for magnesium and potassium are in good agreement with the works found in the literature. The abundances are slightly changed, reaching a better precision: the scatter around the mean of the abundance ratios has decreased. Magnesium may be used with confidence as reference element. Together with previously determined NLTE abundances of sodium and aluminum, the new ratios are displayed, for comparison, along the theoretical trends proposed by some models of the che...

  12. Improved Laboratory Transition Probabilities for Ce II, Application to the Cerium Abundances of the Sun and Five r-process Rich, Metal-Poor Stars, and Rare Earth Lab Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I; Hartog, E A Den

    2009-01-01

    Recent radiative lifetime measurements accurate to +/- 5% using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on 43 even-parity and 15 odd-parity levels of Ce II have been combined with new branching fractions measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to determine transition probabilities for 921 lines of Ce II. This improved laboratory data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Ce abundance, log epsilon = 1.61 +/- 0.01 (sigma = 0.06 from 45 lines), a value in excellent agreement with the recommended meteoritic abundance, log epsilon = 1.61 +/- 0.02. Revised Ce abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars BD+17 3248, CS 22892-052, CS 31082-001, HD 115444 and HD 221170. Between 26 and 40 lines were used for determining the Ce abundance in these five stars, yielding a small statistical uncertainty of 0.01 dex similar to the Solar result. The relative abundances in the metal-poor stars of Ce and Eu, a nearly pure r-process element in the Sun, matches r-process ...

  13. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bdwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  14. PROPERTIES OF THE COOLEST DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAUMON, DIDIER [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LEGGETT, SANDY K. [NON LANL; FREEDMAN, RICHARD S. [NON LANL; GEBALLE, THOMAS R. [NON LANL; GOLIMOWSKI, DAVID A. [NON LANL; LODIEU, NICOLAS [NON LANL; MARLEY, MARK S. [NON LANL; STEPHENS, DENISE [NON LANL; PINFIELD, DAVID J. [NON LANL; WARREN, STEPHEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-18

    Eleven years after the discovery of the first T dwarf, we have a population of ultracool L and T dwarfs that is large enough to show a range of atmospheric properties, as well as model atmospheres advanced enough to study these properties in detail. Since the last Cool Stars meeting, there have been observational developments which aid in these studies. they present recent mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope which confirms the prevalence of vertical mixing in the atmospheres of L and T dwarfs. Hence, the 700 K to 2200 K L and t dwarf photspheres require a large number of parameters for successful modeling: effective temperature, gravity, metallicity, grain sedimentation and vertical mixing efficiency. They also describe initial results of a search for ultracool dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and present the latest T dwarf found to date. They conclude with a discussion of the definition of the later-than-T spectral type, the Y dwarf.

  15. A CANDIDATE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE LOW-METALLICITY DWARF GALAXY PAIR MRK 709

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reines, Amy E.; Condon, James J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Russell, Thomas D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Mezcua, Mar [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Sivakoff, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Johnson, Kelsey E., E-mail: areines@nrao.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These data reveal spatially coincident hard X-ray and radio point sources with luminosities suggesting the presence of an accreting massive BH (M {sub BH} ∼ 10{sup 5-7} M {sub ☉}). Based on imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that Mrk 709 consists of a pair of compact dwarf galaxies that appear to be interacting with one another. The position of the candidate massive BH is consistent with the optical center of the southern galaxy (Mrk 709 S), while no evidence for an active BH is seen in the northern galaxy (Mrk 709 N). We derive stellar masses of M {sub *} ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and M {sub *} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} for Mrk 709 S and Mrk 709 N, respectively, and present an analysis of the SDSS spectrum of the BH host Mrk 709 S. At a metallicity of just ∼10% solar, Mrk 709 is among the most metal-poor galaxies with evidence for an active galactic nucleus. Moreover, this discovery adds to the growing body of evidence that massive BHs can form in dwarf galaxies and that deep, high-resolution X-ray and radio observations are ideally suited to reveal accreting massive BHs hidden at optical wavelengths.

  16. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  17. Pluto and other dwarf planets

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    The reclassification of Pluto in 2006 not only decreased the number of planets in our solar system by one but also introduced the new category of dwarf planet. Readers will come to understand what separates a dwarf planet from a planet-or for that matter from any of the other bodies found within the solar system. They'll learn about Pluto itself, as well as its fellow dwarf planets, Ceres, Makemake, Haumea, and Eris. Full of recent information, this title is sure to inspire an interest in space science among young readers.

  18. THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF A RELIC STAR CLUSTER IN THE SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY-IMPLICATIONS FOR NEAR-FIELD COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Torgny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Freeman, Ken C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Silk, Joe, E-mail: torgny.karlsson@physics.uu.se [Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-10

    We present tentative evidence for the existence of a dissolved star cluster at [Fe/H] = -2.7 in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use the technique of chemical tagging to identify stars that are highly clustered in a multi-dimensional chemical abundance space (C-space). In a sample of six stars, three, possibly four, stars are identified as potential cluster stars. The initial stellar mass of the parent cluster is estimated from two independent observations to be M{sub *,init}=1.9{sup +1.5}{sub -0.9}(1.6{sup +1.2}{sub -0.8}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, assuming a Salpeter (Kroupa) initial mass function. If corroborated by follow-up spectroscopy, this star cluster is the most metal-poor system identified to date. Chemical signatures of remnant clusters in dwarf galaxies like Sextans provide us with a very powerful probe to the high-redshift universe. From available observational data, we argue that the average star cluster mass in the majority of the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies was notably lower than it is in the Galaxy today and possibly lower than in the more luminous, classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Furthermore, the mean cumulative metallicity function of the dwarf spheroidals falls below that of the ultra-faints, which increases with increasing metallicity as predicted from our stochastic chemical evolution model. These two findings, together with a possible difference in the ([Mg/Fe]) ratio suggest that the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy population, or a significant fraction thereof, and the dwarf spheroidal population were formed in different environments and would thus be distinct in origin.

  19. The initial mass spectrum of old globular clusters in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2011-01-01

    We test whether the masses of old globular clusters (GCs) in dwarf galaxies are consistent with the same initial mass spectrum as young massive clusters (YMCs) in nearby star-forming galaxies. The most massive GCs of dwarf galaxies are compared to their expected masses when drawing from the Schechter-type ICMF of YMCs. It is found that the most massive GCs of galaxies in the stellar mass range M_*,gal=10^7-10^9 Msun are consistent with the same initial mass spectrum as YMCs in about 90% of the cases, suggesting that their formation mechanisms were the same. For the remaining 10%, the most massive clusters are nuclear GCs, which have been able to grow to higher masses through further merging after their initial formation ended. Because the effects of cluster disruption are weaker for more massive clusters, we estimate that up to one third of the metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way may have a nuclear origin, while the remaining two thirds formed through the same process as YMCs in the local universe. A log-normal I...

  20. The Composition of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and Implications for Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, A; William, Andrew Mc; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2004-01-01

    We outline the results of a study of the chemical composition of 14 stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). For the Sgr dSph stars with [Fe/H]>-1 the abundances are highly unusual, showing a striking enhancement in heavy s-process elements, increasing with [Fe/H], deficiencies of the alpha- elements (O, Si, Ca, and Ti), deficiencies of Al and Na, and deficiencies of the iron-peak elements Mn and Cu. Our abundances suggest that the composition of the metal-rich Sgr dSph stars is dominated by the ejecta of an old, metal-poor population, including products of AGB stars and type Ia supernovae (SN). We suggest two scenarios to explain the observations: Prolonged chemical evolution in a galaxy experiencing significant mass-loss, and chemical enrichment with episodic bursts of star formation. The Galactic globular cluster Omega Cen, and the Fornax dwarf galaxy show similar abundance patterns, which suggests that those systems evolved similar to the Sgr dSph.

  1. A deep Large Binocular Telescope view of the Canes Venatici I dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; De Jong, Jelte T A; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F; Sand, David J; Hill, John M; Kochanek, Christopher S; Thompson, David; Burwitz, Vadim; Giallongo, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Gasparo, Federico; Grazian, Andrea; Pedichini, Fernando; Bechtold, Jill

    2007-01-01

    We present the first deep color-magnitude diagram of the Canes Venatici I (CVnI) dwarf galaxy from observations with the wide field Large Binocular Camera of the Large Binocular Telescope. Reaching down to the main-sequence turnoff of the oldest stars, it reveals a dichotomy in the stellar populations of CVnI: it harbors an old (>~ 10 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2.0) and spatially extended population along with a much younger (~1.4-2.0 Gyr), 0.5 dex more metal-rich, and spatially more concentrated population. These young stars are also offset by ~100 pc to the East of the center of the galaxy. The data suggest that this young population should be identified with the kinematically cold stellar component found by Ibata et al. (2006). CVnI therefore follows the behavior of the other remote MW dwarf spheroidals which all contain intermediate age and/or young populations: a complex star formation history is possible in extremely low-mass galaxies.

  2. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART CaII triplet survey

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Irwin, M; Parisi, P; Hill, V; Jablonka, P

    2010-01-01

    We use VLT/FLAMES intermediate resolution (R~6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared CaII triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). Our final sample consists of 174 probable members of Sextans with accurate line-of-sight velocities (+- 2 km/s) and CaT [Fe/H] measurements (+- 0.2 dex). We use the MgI line at 8806.8 \\AA\\, as an empirical discriminator for distinguishing between probable members of the dSph (giant stars) and probable Galactic contaminants (dwarf stars). Sextans shows a similar chemo-dynamical behaviour to other Milky Way dSphs, with its central regions being more metal rich than the outer parts and with the more metal-rich stars displaying colder kinematics than the more metal-poor stars. Hints of a velocity gradient are found along the projected major axis and along an axis at P.A.=191 deg, however a larger and more spatially extended sample may be necessary to p...

  3. Superoutburst of WZ Sge-type dwarf nova below the period minimum: ASASSN-15po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Kosuke; Isogai, Keisuke; Kato, Taichi; Littlefield, Colin; Matsumoto, Katsura; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Uto, Yusuke; Fukushima, Daiki; Tatsumi, Taiki; Yamada, Eiji; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; de Miguel, Enrique; Stein, William L.; Sabo, Richard; Andreev, Maksim V.; Morelle, Etienne; Pavlenko, E. P.; Babina, Julia V.; Baklanov, Alex V.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Antonyuk, Okasana I.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Golysheva, Polina Yu.; Gladilina, Natalia G.; Miller, Ian; Neustroev, Vitaly V.; Chavushyan, Vahram; Valdés, José R.; Sjoberg, George; Maeda, Yutaka; Itoh, Hiroshi; Masi, Gianluca; Michel, Raúl; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Tordai, Tamás; Oksanen, Arto; Ruiz, Javier; Nogami, Daisaku

    2017-02-01

    We report on a superoutburst of a WZ Sge-type dwarf nova (DN), ASASSN-15po. The light curve showed the main superoutburst and multiple rebrightenings. In this outburst, we observed early superhumps and growing (stage A) superhumps with periods of 0.050454(2) and 0.051809(13) d, respectively. We estimated that the mass ratio of secondary to primary (q) is 0.0699(8) by using Porb and a superhump period PSH of stage A. ASASSN-15po [Porb ˜ 72.6 min] is the first DN with an orbital period between 67-76 min. Although the theoretical predicted period minimum Pmin of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variables (CVs) is about 65-70 min, the observational cut-off of the orbital period distribution at 80 min implies that the period minimum is about 82 min, and the value is widely accepted. We suggest the following four possibilities: the object is (1) a theoretical period minimum object, (2) a binary with a evolved secondary, (3) a binary with a metal-poor (Popullation II) seconday, or (4) a binary which was born with a brown-dwarf donor below the period minimum.

  4. Detailed Chemical Abundances in the r-Process-Rich Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Song, Yingyi; Bell, Eric F; Crane, Jeffrey D; Loebman, Sarah; Nidever, David L; Olszewski, Edward W; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Valluri, Monica; Walker, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum 2 (Ret 2) was recently discovered in images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. We have observed the four brightest red giants in Ret 2 at high spectral resolution using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System. We present detailed abundances for as many as 20 elements per star, including 12 elements heavier than the Fe group. We confirm previous detection of high levels of r-process material in Ret 2 (mean [Eu/Fe]=+1.69+/-0.05) found in three of these stars (mean [Fe/H]=-2.88+/-0.10). The abundances closely match the r-process pattern found in the well-studied metal-poor halo star CS22892-052. Such r-process-enhanced stars have not been found in any other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy, though their existence has been predicted by at least one model. The fourth star in Ret 2 ([Fe/H]=-3.42+/-0.20) contains only trace amounts of Sr ([Sr/Fe]=-1.73+/-0.43) and no detectable heavier elements. One r-process enhanced star is also enhanced in C (natal [C/Fe]=+1.1). This is only the third s...

  5. THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF SEGUE G AND K DWARFS: CONSTRAINTS FOR DISK CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, Katharine J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Schoenrich, Ralph [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Tombaugh Fellow, Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 408A Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chiappini, Cristina; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio; Santiago, Basilio X. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Minchev, Ivan [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-12-20

    We present the metallicity distribution function (MDF) for 24,270 G and 16,847 K dwarfs at distances from 0.2 to 2.3 kpc from the Galactic plane, based on spectroscopy from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey. This stellar sample is significantly larger in both number and volume than previous spectroscopic analyses, which were limited to the solar vicinity, making it ideal for comparison with local volume-limited samples and Galactic models. For the first time, we have corrected the MDF for the various observational biases introduced by the SEGUE target-selection strategy. SEGUE is particularly notable for its sample of K dwarfs, which are too faint to examine spectroscopically far from the solar neighborhood. The MDF of both spectral types becomes more metal-poor with increasing |Z|, which reflects the transition from a sample with small [{alpha}/Fe] values at small heights to one with enhanced [{alpha}/Fe] above 1 kpc. Comparison of our SEGUE distributions to those of two different Milky Way models reveals that both are more metal-rich than our observed distributions at all heights above the plane. Our unbiased observations of G and K dwarfs provide valuable constraints over the |Z|-height range of the Milky Way disk for chemical and dynamical Galaxy evolution models, previously only calibrated to the solar neighborhood, with particular utility for thin- and thick-disk formation models.

  6. Hydra II: a faint and compact Milky Way dwarf galaxy found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R; Vivas, A Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A; Muñoz, Ricardo R; Blum, Robert D; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C; Bell, Eric F; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; de Boer, Thomas J L; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E D; Olszewski, Edward W; Stringfellow, Guy S; van der Marel, Roeland P; Zaritsky, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (r_h = 68 +/- 11 pc) and faint (M_V = -4.8 +/- 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of HydraII in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 +/- 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  7. The relation between stellar populations, structure and environment for dwarf elliptical galaxies from the MAGPOP-ITP

    CERN Document Server

    Michielsen, D; Conselice, C J; Toloba, E; Whiley, I M; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Balcells, M; Cardiel, N; Cenarro, A J; Gorgas, J; Peletier, R F; Vazdekis, A

    2007-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies, as the most numerous type of galaxy, offer the potential to study galaxy formation and evolution in detail in the nearby Universe. Although they seem to be simple systems at first view, they remain poorly understood. In an attempt to alleviate this situation, the MAGPOP EU Research and Training Network embarked on a study of dwarf galaxies named MAGPOP-ITP (Peletier et al., 2007). In this paper, we present the analysis of a sample of 24 dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster and in the field, using optical long-slit spectroscopy. We examine their stellar populations in combination with their light distribution and environment. We confirm and strengthen previous results that dEs are, on average, younger and more metal-poor than normal elliptical galaxies, and that their [alpha/Fe] abundance ratios scatter around solar. This is in accordance with the downsizing picture of galaxy formation where mass is the main driver for the star formation history. We also find new correlations be...

  8. A discrete chemo-dynamical model of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor: mass profile, velocity anisotropy and internal rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ling; Watkins, Laura L; Posti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new discrete chemo-dynamical axisymmetric modeling technique, which we apply to the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor. The major improvement over previous Jeans models is that realistic chemical distributions are included directly in the dynamical modelling of the discrete data. This avoids loss of information due to spatial binning and eliminates the need for hard cuts to remove contaminants and to separate stars based on their chemical properties. Using a combined likelihood in position, metallicity and kinematics, we find that our models naturally separate Sculptor stars into a metal-rich and a metal-poor population. Allowing for non-spherical symmetry, our approach provides a central slope of the dark matter density of $\\gamma = 0.5 \\pm 0.3$. The metal-rich population is nearly isotropic (with $\\beta_r^{red} = 0.0\\pm0.1$) while the metal-poor population is tangentially anisotropic (with $\\beta_r^{blue} = -0.2\\pm0.1$) around the half light radius of $0.26$ kpc. A weak internal rotation of the m...

  9. White dwarfs, red dwarfs and halo dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Berro, E; Torres, S; Camacho, J [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. del Canal Olimpic, s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Isern, J, E-mail: garcia@fa.upc.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    The nature of the microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the LMC still remains controversial. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than approx 1M{sub o-dot} have been ruled out, while stars of approx 0.5 M{sub o-dot} are the most probable candidates. This means that the microlenses should be either red or white dwarfs. Consequently, we assess jointly the relative contributions of both types of stars to the mass budget of the Galactic halo. We use a Monte Carlo code that incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs as well as detailed descriptions of both our Galaxy and the LMC and we compare the synthetic populations obtained with our simulator with the results obtained by the MACHO and EROS experiments. We find that the contribution of the red dwarf population is not enough to explain the number of events measured by the MACHO team. Even though, the optical depth obtained in our simulations almost doubles that obtained when taking into account the white dwarf population alone. Finally, we also find that the contribution to the halo dark matter of the entire population under study is smaller than 10%, at the 95% confidence level.

  10. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies III. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around M83

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2011-01-01

    We study the resolved stellar populations of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A/M83 group of galaxies. Our goal is to characterize their evolutionary history and to investigate eventual similarities or differences with the dwarf population in other group environments. This work presents the analysis of five late-type (irregular) dwarfs found in the vicinity of the giant spiral M83. Using archival HST/ACS data, we perform synthetic color-magnitude diagram modeling to derive the star formation histories of these late-type dwarfs. The target objects show heterogeneous star formation histories, with average star formation rates of 0.08 to 0.70x10^{-2} M_odot/yr. Some of them present prolonged, global bursts of star formation (~300-500 Myr). The studied galaxies are all metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~-1.4). We further investigate the spatial extent of different stellar populations, finding that the young stars show a clumpy distribution, as opposed to the smooth, broad extent of the old ones. The actively star forming ...

  11. Chemo-orbital evidence from SDSS/SEGUE G dwarf stars for a mixed origin of the Galactic thick disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Ven G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available About 13,000 G dwarf within 7metal-poor population with enhanced α-abundance, higher scale height, and disperse kinematical properties, is difficult to explain with radial migration but might have originated from gas-rich mergers. The thick disk of the Milky Way seems to have a mixed origin.

  12. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Black, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties.

  13. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  14. Discovery of a close pair of faint dwarf galaxies in the halo of Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; McLeod, B; Seth, A; Simon, J; Strader, J; Toloba, E

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS) we report the discovery of a pair of faint dwarf galaxies (CenA-MM-Dw1 and CenA-MM-Dw2) at a projected distance of $\\sim$90 kpc from the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC5128 (CenA). We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to each dwarf, finding $D=3.63 \\pm 0.41$ Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and $D=3.60 \\pm 0.41$ Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw2, both of which are consistent with the distance to NGC5128. A qualitative analysis of the color magnitude diagrams indicates stellar populations consisting of an old, metal-poor red giant branch ($\\gtrsim 12$ Gyr, [Fe/H]$\\sim-1.7$ to -1.9). In addition, CenA-MM-Dw1 seems to host an intermediate-age population as indicated by its candidate asymptotic giant branch stars. The derived luminosities ($M_V=-10.9\\pm0.3$ for CenA-MM-Dw1 and $-8.4\\pm0.6$ for CenA-MM-Dw2) and half-light radii ($r_{h}=1.4\\pm0.04$ kpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and $0.36\\pm0.08$ kpc for CenA-MM-Dw2) are consistent with those of Local Group dwarfs. Cen...

  15. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  16. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  17. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  18. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  19. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  20. Satellite Dwarf Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe: The Prevalence of Dwarf-Dwarf Major Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, Alis; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2014-01-01

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ~10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M_star > 10^6 M_sun that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased towards larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger ...

  1. First Results from the MADCASH Survey: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Companion to the Low-mass Spiral Galaxy NGC 2403 at 3.2 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Price, Paul; Willman, Beth; Karunakaran, Ananthan; Spekkens, Kristine; Bell, Eric F.; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojević, Denija; Forbes, Duncan A.; Hargis, Jonathan; Kirby, Evan; Lupton, Robert; Peter, Annika H. G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group (LG), based on deep imaging with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos (MADCASH) J074238+652501-dw lies ˜35 kpc in projection from NGC 2403, a dwarf spiral galaxy at D ≈ 3.2 Mpc. This new dwarf has {M}g=-7.4+/- 0.4 and a half-light radius of 168 ± 70 pc, at the calculated distance of 3.39 ± 0.41 Mpc. The color-magnitude diagram reveals no evidence of young stellar populations, suggesting that MADCASH J074238+652501-dw is an old, metal-poor dwarf similar to low-luminosity dwarfs in the LG. The lack of either detected HI gas ({M}{HI}/{L}V\\lt 0.69 {M}⊙ /{L}⊙ , based on Green Bank Telescope observations) or GALEX NUV/FUV flux enhancement is consistent with a lack of young stars. This is the first result from the MADCASH survey, which is conducting a census of the stellar substructure and faint satellites in the halos of Local Volume LMC analogs via resolved stellar populations. Models predict a total of ˜4-10 satellites at least as massive as MADCASH J074238+652501-dw around a host with the mass of NGC 2403, with 2-3 within our field of view, slightly more than the one such satellite observed in our footprint. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  2. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  3. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) provide excellent laboratories to study the effect that the accretion of matter, energy and angular momentum has on the structure of white dwarfs, with important implications on the evolution of these compact binaries, the ignition of thermonuclear surface burning, and potentially their explosion as SNIa. I will provide an overview of our current understanding of CV white dwarfs, with a particular emphasis on the results of a recent large HST program. I will review our knowledge regarding the mass distribution of CV white dwarfs, as well as the secular mean accretion rates that can be inferred from their effective temperatures, and compare those statistics with predictions from CV population models. I will also discuss a sub-set of CVs which underwent thermal-time scale mass transfer, one of the channels that is often discussed as a pathway to SN Ia, and I will illustrate how the study of these "failed SNIa" can contribute to the discussion of SNIa progenitors. Finally, I will discuss the occurrence of non-radial pulsations in white dwarfs, both in CVs and their detached progenitors.

  4. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 (India); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2012-10-01

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 Multiplication-Sign faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R{sub Sun} (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M{sub Sun }. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R{sub Sun} (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%{sub -0.05%}{sup +0.10%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at

  5. AR Sco: A White Dwarf Synchronar

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2016-01-01

    The emission of the white dwarf-M dwarf binary AR Sco is driven by the rapid synchronization of its white dwarf, rather than by accretion. This requires a comparatively large magnetic field $\\sim 100$ gauss at the M dwarf and $\\sim 10^8$ gauss on the white dwarf, larger than the fields of most intermediate polars but within the range of fields of known magnetic white dwarfs. The spindown power is dissipated in the atmosphere of the M dwarf by magnetic reconnection, accelerating particles that produce the observed synchrotron radiation. The displacement of the optical maximum from conjunction may be explained either by dissipation in a bow wave as the white dwarf's magnetic field sweeps past the M dwarf or by a misaligned white dwarf's rotation axis and oblique magnetic moment. In the latter case the rotation axis precesses with a period of decades, predicting a drift in the orbital phase of maximum. Binaries whose emission is powered by synchronization may be termed synchronars, in analogy to magnetars.

  6. Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

    CERN Document Server

    Chyzy, Krzysztof T; Beck, Rainer; Bomans, Dominik J

    2011-01-01

    We clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and what is the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 and 4.85GHz. Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are three times weaker than in the normal spirals (6muG) are observed only in dwarfs of extreme characteristics while typical LG dwarfs are not suitable objects for efficient supply of magnetic fields to the intergalactic medium.

  7. Dark matter in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Matts

    2017-01-01

    Although the cusp-core controversy for dwarf galaxies is seen as a problem, I argue that the cored central profiles can be explained by flattened cusps because they suffer from conflicting measurements and poor statistics and because there is a large number of conventional processes that could have flattened them since their creation, none of which requires new physics. Other problems, such as "too big to fail", are not discussed.

  8. Parametric Dwarf Spheroidal Tidal Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fleck, J J; Fleck, Jean-Julien; Kuhn, Jeff R.

    2003-01-01

    The time dependent tidal interaction of the Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal (dS) Galaxies with the Milky Way (MW) can fundamentally affect their dynamical properties. The model developed here extends earlier numerical descriptions of dS-MW tidal interactions. We explore the dynamical evolution of dS systems in circular or elliptical MW orbits in the framework of a parametric oscillator. An analytic model is developed and compared with more general numerical solutions and N-body simulation experiments.

  9. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo P. V. Neutral Gas Dynamics and Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Elson, Edward C; Warren, Steven R; Chengalur, Jayaram; Skillman, Evan D; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bolatto, Alberto D; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Pardy, Stephen A; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J

    2014-01-01

    We present new HI spectral line imaging of the extremely metal-poor, star-forming dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P. Our HI images probe the global neutral gas properties and the local conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). The HI morphology is slightly elongated along the optical major-axis. We do not find obvious signatures of interaction or infalling gas at large spatial scales. The neutral gas disk shows obvious rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. The rotation amplitude is estimated to be V_c = 15 +/- 5 km/s. Within the HI radius probed by these observations, the mass ratio of gas to stars is roughly 2:1, while the ratio of the total mass to the baryonic mass is ~15:1. We use this information to place Leo P on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, testing the baryonic content of cosmic structures in a sparsely populated portion of parameter space that has hitherto been occupied primarily by dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We detect the signature of two temperature ...

  10. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  11. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, A B; Almoznino, E; Van Zee, L; Salzer, J J; Heller, Ana B.; Brosch, Noah; Almoznino, Elchanan; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.

    2000-01-01

    We quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angular asymmetry index, and the concentration of star forming regions, as represented by the distribution of the H$\\alpha$ emission, in a sample of 78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies in two groups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution is analysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details in the light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of the underlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations, is relatively small, the H$\\alpha$ emission is very asymmetric and is correlated in position angle with the continuum light. We test a model of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulating HII regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. The implication is that random star formation over the full extent of a galaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf-irregular galaxies but not in BCD galaxies.

  12. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  13. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  14. Dynamical Masses of Accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, A. F.; Gänsckie, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    The mass retention efficiency is a key question in both the theoretical and observational study of accreting white dwarfs in interacting binaries, with important implications for their potential as progenitors for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Canonical wisdom is that classical nova eruptions erode the white dwarf mass, and consequently, cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been excluded from the SN Ia progenitor discussion. However the average mass of white dwarfs in CVs is substantially higher (≃ 0.83 M⊙) than that of single white dwarfs (≃ 0.64 M ⊙), in stark contrast to expectations based on current classical nova models. This finding is based on a sample of ≃ 30 CV white dwarfs with accurate mass measurements, most of them in eclipsing systems. Given the fundamental importance of the mass evolution of accreting white dwarfs, it is necessary to enlarge this sample and to diversify the methods used for measuring masses. We have begun a systematic study of 27 CVs to almost double the number of CV white dwarfs with an accurate mass measurement. Using VLT/X-shooter phase-resolved observations, we can measure the white dwarf masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV white dwarfs grow in mass.

  15. The Blue Straggler Population in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momany, Yazan

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter I review the recent developments regarding the study of Blue Stragglers (BSS) in dwarf galaxies. The loose density environment of dwarf galaxies resembles that of the Galactic Halo, hence it is natural to compare their common BSS properties. At the same time, it is unescapable to compare with the BSS properties in Galactic Globular clusters, which constitute the reference point for BSS studies. Admittedly, the literature on BSS in dwarf galaxies is not plentiful. The limitation is mostly due to the large distance to even the closest dwarf galaxies. Nevertheless, recent studies have allowed a deeper insight on the BSS photometric properties that are worth examining.

  16. White Dwarf Critical Tests for Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2015-01-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can lead to modifications of the gravitational force inside astrophysical objects. We exhibit that compact stars such as white dwarfs provide a unique set-up to test such deviations from Newtonian gravitational physics inside the stars. We obtain stringent and independent constraints on the parameter $\\Upsilon$ characterizing the deviations from gravity using the mass-radius relation, the Chandrasekhar mass limit and the maximal rotational frequency of white dwarfs. We find that white dwarfs impose stronger constraints on $\\Upsilon$ than the red and brown dwarfs.

  17. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quality of the theoretical models of evolution of white dwarfs allow to feed the hope that in a near future it will be possible to reconstruct the history of the different Galactic populations.

  18. DISCOVERY OF A NEW FAINT DWARF GALAXY ASSOCIATED WITH NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, D. J.; Crnojević, D. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Strader, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Caldwell, N.; McLeod, B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seth, A. C., E-mail: david.sand@ttu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, which we dub Scl-MM-Dw1, at a projected distance of ∼65 kpc from the spiral galaxy NGC 253. The discovery results from the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), a program with the Magellan/Megacam imager to study faint substructure in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to Scl-MM-Dw1 of D = 3.9 ± 0.5 Mpc, consistent with that of NGC 253, making their association likely. The new dwarf's stellar population is complex, with an old, metal-poor red giant branch (≳10 Gyr, [Fe/H] ∼ –2), and an asymptotic giant branch with an age of ∼500 Myr. Scl-MM-Dw1 has a half-light radius of r{sub h} = 340 ± 50 pc and an absolute magnitude of M{sub V}  = –10.3 ± 0.6 mag, comparable to the Milky Way's satellites at the same luminosity. Once complete, our imaging survey of NGC 253 and other nearby massive galaxies will provide a census of faint substructure in halos beyond the Local Group, both to put our own environment into context and to confront models of hierarchical structure formation.

  19. Evidence That Hydra I is a Tidally Disrupting Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hargis, Jonathan R; Willman, B; Caldwell, N; Walker, M G; Strader, J; Sand, D J; Grillmair, C J; Yoon, J H

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Banded Structure (EBS) and Hydra~I halo overdensity are very nearby (d $\\sim$ 10 kpc) objects discovered in SDSS data. Previous studies of the region have shown that EBS and Hydra I are spatially coincident, cold structures at the same distance, suggesting that Hydra I may be the EBS's progenitor. We combine new wide-field DECam imaging and MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopic observations of Hydra I with SDSS archival spectroscopic observations to quantify Hydra I's present-day chemodynamical properties, and to infer whether it originated as a star cluster or dwarf galaxy. While previous work using shallow SDSS imaging assumed a standard old, metal-poor stellar population, our deeper DECam imaging reveals that Hydra~I has a thin, well-defined main sequence turnoff of intermediate age ($\\sim 5-6$ Gyr) and metallicity ([Fe/H] = $-0.9$ dex). We measure statistically significant spreads in both the iron and alpha-element abundances of $\\sigma_{[Fe/H]} = 0.13 \\pm 0.02$ dex and $\\sigma_{[\\alpha/{\\rm Fe}]} = 0...

  20. Chemical Feature of Eu abundance in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Aoki, Wako

    2015-01-01

    Chemical abundance of r-process elements in nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is a powerful tool to probe the site of r-process since their small-mass scale can sort out individual events producing r-process elements. A merger of binary neutron stars is a promising candidate of this site. In faint, or less massive dSph galaxies such as the Draco, a few binary neutron star mergers are expected to have occurred at most over the whole past. We have measured chemical abundances including Eu and Ba of three red giants in the Draco dSph by Subaru/HDS observation. The Eu detection for one star with [Fe/H]=-1.45 confirms a broadly constant [Eu/H] of ~-1.3 for stars with [Fe/H]>-2. This feature is shared by other dSphs with similar masses, i.e., the Sculptor and the Carina, and suggests that neutron star merger is the origin of r-process elements in terms of its rarity. In addition, two very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]=-2.12 and -2.51 are found to exhibit very low Eu abundances such as [Eu/H]<-2 with an impl...