WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon-based hydrogen storage

  1. Thermogravimetric measurement of hydrogen storage in carbon-based materials: promise and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, F.E.; Wicke, B.G.; Olk, C.H.; Tibbetts, G.G.; Meisner, G.P.; Meyer, M.S.; Herbst, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to measure the hydrogen absorption capacity of a variety of carbon-based storage materials, including Li- and K-intercalated graphite and Li-doped multi-wall nanotubes. The TGA uses weight gain/loss as a function of time and temperature to monitor hydrogen absorption/desorption in flowing hydrogen gas. Creating and maintaining a contaminant-free atmosphere is critical to the accurate TGA measurement of hydrogen absorption in carbon-based materials; even low concentrations of impurity gases such as O 2 or H 2 O are sufficient to masquerade as hydrogen absorption. We will discuss examples of this effect relevant to recent reports of hydrogen storage appearing in the literature. The precautions required are non-trivial. In our TGA, for instance, about 16% of the original atmosphere remains after a two-hour purge; at least 15 hours is required to fully purge the apparatus. Furthermore, we cover the TGA with a protective atmosphere enclosure during sample loading to minimize the introduction of impurity gases. With these precautions it is possible to unambiguously measure hydrogen storage. For example, we have determined the hydrogen absorption capacity of our K-intercalated graphite samples to be 1.3 wt% total hydrogen absorption above 50 o C, of which 0.2 wt% can be reproducibly recovered with temperature cycling. With due care, TGA measurements provide complementary information to that obtained from standard pressure techniques for measuring hydrogen sorption, which rely on measuring the loss of gas pressure in a known volume. Taken together, TGA and pressure measurements provide a powerful combination for determining verifiable hydrogen storage capacity. (author)

  2. Review of theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage in carbon-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meregalli, V.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we review the existing theoretical literature on hydrogen storage in single-walled nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The reported calculations indicate a hydrogen uptake smaller than some of the more optimistic experimental results. Furthermore the calculations suggest that a variety of complex chemical processes could accompany hydrogen storage and release. (orig.)

  3. New Carbon-Based Porous Materials with Increased Heats of Adsorption for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2014-11-03

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a promising alternative to internal combustion engines that burn gasoline. A significant challenge in developing fuel cell vehicles is to store enough hydrogen on-board to allow the same driving range as current vehicles. One option for storing hydrogen on vehicles is to use tanks filled with porous materials that act as “sponges” to take up large quantities of hydrogen without the need for extremely high pressures. The materials must meet many requirements to make this possible. This project aimed to develop two related classes of porous materials to meet these requirements. All materials were synthesized from molecular constituents in a building-block approach, which allows for the creation of an incredibly wide variety of materials in a tailorable fashion. The materials have extremely high surface areas, to provide many locations for hydrogen to adsorb. In addition, they were designed to contain cations that create large electric fields to bind hydrogen strongly but not too strongly. Molecular modeling played a key role as a guide to experiment throughout the project. A major accomplishment of the project was the development of a material with record hydrogen uptake at cryogenic temperatures. Although the ultimate goal was materials that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen at room temperature, this achievement at cryogenic temperatures is an important step in the right direction. In addition, there is significant interest in applications at these temperatures. The hydrogen uptake, measured independently at NREL was 8.0 wt %. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest validated excess hydrogen uptake reported to date at 77 K. This material was originally sketched on paper based on a hypothesis that extended framework struts would yield materials with excellent hydrogen storage properties. However, before starting the synthesis, we used molecular modeling to assess the performance of the material for hydrogen uptake

  4. Hybrid Carbon-Based Clathrates for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwai S. Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid carbon–silicon, carbon–nitrogen, and carbon–boron clathrates are new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si, N, and/or B atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by embedding appropriate guest atoms within the cavities of the cage structure. Series of hybrid carbon–silicon, carbon–boron, carbon–nitrogen, and carbon-silicon-nitrogen clathrates have been shown to exhibit small positive values for the energy of formation, indicating that they may be metastable compounds and amenable to fabrication. In this overview article, the energy of formation, elastic properties, and electronic properties of selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are summarized. Theoretical calculations that explore the potential applications of hybrid carbon-based clathrates as energy storage materials, electronic materials, or hard materials are presented. The computational results identify compositions of hybrid carbon–silicon and carbon–nitrogen clathrates that may be considered as candidate materials for use as either electrode materials for Li-ion batteries or as hydrogen storage materials. Prior processing routes for fabricating selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are highlighted and the difficulties encountered are discussed.

  5. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  6. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  7. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Separation of a solution from the pure solvent by a porous partition that is impermeable to the solute leads to ... important in quantitative analysis of colligative properties such. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage. The van 't Hoff ... Hydrogen as a source of energy offers an attractive solution. Future cars could be fuelled by ...

  8. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  9. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast at tempe......A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...

  10. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage - The van't Hoff Connection. C S Sunandana. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 31-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  12. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  13. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  14. Release of hydrogen isotopes from carbon based fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the annealing behavior of hydrogen isotopes in carbon based materials. Also, the density of the material and structural changes after thermal treatment and ion irradiation are examined. The study of hydrogen diffusion in diamondlike carbon films revealed an activation energy of 2.0 eV, while the deuterium diffusion, due to better measuring sensitivity, is found to be concentration dependent with the effective diffusion coefficient becoming smaller with decreasing deuterium concentration. To explain the experimentally observed profiles, a model according to which atomic deuterium diffuses and deuterium in clusters is immobile is developed. The concentration of immobile D was assumed to be an analytical function of the total D concentration. To describe the annealing behavior of D incorporated in diamondlike carbon films during the deposition process, a model taking into account diffusion of free D and thermal detrapping and trapping of D was developed. The difference in the analysis explains the disagreement of activation energy (1.5 ± 0.2 eV) with the value of 2,9± 0.1 eV obtained for D implanted samples earlier. The same model was applied to describe the experimental profiles in Si doped diamondlike carbon films. Si affects the retention of D in diamondlike carbon films. The amount of D depends on Si content in the co-deposited but not implanted samples. Besides, Si incorporation into carbon coating decreases to some extent the graphitization of the films and leads to formation of a structure which is stable under thermal treatment and ion irradiation. Hydrogen migration in the hydrogen and methane co-deposited films was also studied. In samples produced in methane atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures, the hydrogen concentration level decreases in the bulk, with more pronounced release at the surface region. In the case of coatings deposited by a methane ion beam, the H level also decreases with increasing

  15. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  16. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  17. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  18. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  19. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  20. The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunita Satyapal; Carole Read; Grace Ordaz; John Petrovic; George Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is being considered by many countries as a potential energy carrier for vehicular applications. In the United States, hydrogen-powered vehicles must possess a driving range of greater than 300 miles in order to meet customer requirements and compete effectively with other technologies. For the overall vehicular fleet, this requires that a range of 5-13 kg of hydrogen be stored on-board. The storage of such quantities of hydrogen within vehicular weight, volume, and system cost constraints is a major scientific and technological challenge. The targets for on-board hydrogen storage were established in the U.S. through the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnership, a partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and major energy companies. In order to achieve these long-term targets, the Department of Energy established a National Hydrogen Storage Project to develop the areas of metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, carbon-based and high-surface-area sorbent materials, and new hydrogen storage materials and concepts. The current status of vehicular hydrogen storage is reviewed and hydrogen storage research associated with the National Hydrogen Storage Project is discussed. (authors)

  1. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  2. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -how” The hydrogen storage challenge Hydrogen: • Lightest element, lowest density • Strong covalent bond • Low polarisation ability → Weak interaction between H2 molecules • At room temp and atm pressure: 5 kg H2 occupies vessel of ≈ 5 m diameter (5 kg... and manufacturing methods to improve the characteristics of hydrogen storage tanks • Composite = Carbon fibre + resin + fillers • Resin modification (improve mechanical properties) • Finite element modelling (design capabilities) http...

  3. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  4. Measurements of Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2004-03-01

    The many sensational claims of vast quantities of hydrogen (H) stored in carbon materials reported since 1996 have resulted in the H storage and carbon scientific literature now being cluttered with misinformation and some genuinely bad science. H storage experiments are not trivial, and they are prone to error and misinterpretation. For example, volumetric experiments use equilibrium gas pressures (P) and temperatures (T) measured in calibrated volumes to determine the number of moles of gas, and changes in P without changes in T (or leakage) are then interpreted as sorption. A typical mistake is measuring P vs. time after pressurizing a sample chamber and interpreting a drop in P as sorption. This is difficult to interpret as real absorption because all confounding effects (leaks, T drifts, thermal inhomogeneities, etc.) are nearly impossible to eliminate. Moreover, the basic thermodynamic properties of gas flow systems tell us that high-P gases filling evacuated chambers experience non-negligible rises in T. Another example of misinterpretation arises in gravimetric experiments that use weight (W) measurements corrected for large T-dependent buoyancy effects to determine gas sorption. Here a typical mistake is interpreting the actual sorption of heavy residual impurity gases as H sorption. These and other techniques for measuring H sorption must be performed and interpreted with great care due to difficulties associated with small sample sizes, high gas pressures, very reactive materials, contamination, low signal-to-noise, poor experimental design, and, in some cases, bad science. Good science respects the difference between measurement precision (the number of significant digits of P or W measurements) and experimental accuracy (the degree of certainty that P or W changes really represent H sorption). At General Motors, we endeavor to understand, conduct, and promote reliable H storage measurements on new materials and routinely use both volumetric

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  6. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...

  7. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  8. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  9. Materials demands for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Stanciu, V.; Armeanu, A.; Sandru, C.

    2006-01-01

    In a future sustainable energy system based on renewable energy, environmentally harmless energy carriers like hydrogen, will be of crucial importance. One of the major impediments for the transition to a hydrogen-based energy system is the lack of satisfactory hydrogen storage facility. In the last years the possibility to store the hydrogen in various materials was extensively studied. This paper is a preliminary study with the fucus on advanced nanostructured materials such as solids of large surface areas based on carbon structures, metals and different types of metal alloys, other intermetallic compounds, etc, as possibilities for hydrogen storage. The newest materials used for hydrogen storage are light metal alloys. We have so far focus in this review almost extensively on experimental studies. Also there are presented the most important characteristics of these materials such as mechanical strength, porosity and affinity to hydrogen, and also the recent developments in the search for innovative materials with high hydrogen - storage capacity as well as our own contribution to this field. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  11. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  12. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  13. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  14. Theory of Hydrogen Storage: A New Strategy within Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng

    2006-03-01

    As one of the most vigorous fields in modern chemistry, organometallic chemistry has made vast contributions to a broad variety of technological fields including catalysis, light emitters, molecular devices, liquid crystals, and even superconductivity. Here we show that organometallic chemistry in nanoscale could be the frontier in hydrogen storage. Our study is based on the notion that the 3d transition metal (TM) atoms are superb absorbers for H storage, as their empty d orbital can bind dihydrogen ligands (elongated but non-dissociated H2) with high capacity at nearly ideal binding energy for reversible hydrogen storage. By embedding the TM atoms into a carbon-based nanostructures, high H capacity can be maintained. This presentation contains four parts. First, by comparing the conventional hydrogen storage media, e.g., metal hydrides and carbon-based materials, the general principles for designing hydrogen storage materials are outlined. Second, organometallic buckyballs are studied to demonstrate the novel strategy. The amount of H2 adsorbed on a Sc-coated fullerene, C48B12 [ScH]12, could approach 9 wt%, with binding energies of 30-40 kJ/mol. Third, the method is applied to the transition-metal carbide nanoparticles that have been synthesized experimentally. The similar non-dissociative H2 binding is revealed in our calculation, thereby demonstrating the resilience of the overall mechanism. Moreover, a novel self-catalysis process is identified. In the fourth part, transition-metal functionalization of highly porous carbon-based materials is discussed heuristically to foresee macroscopic media for hydrogen storage. Finally follows the summary and discussion of the remaining challenges to practical hydrogen storage. Work in collaboration with A. C. Dillon, Y.-H. Kim, M. Heben & S. B. Zhang and supported by the U.S. DOE/EERE under contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337.

  15. An international multi-laboratory investigation of carbon-based hydrogen sorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Katherine E.; Parilla, Philip A.; O'Neill, Kevin J.; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    New materials are needed to achieve the hydrogen storage targets set out by the US Department of Energy for fuel cell vehicular applications. In order to enable the pathway toward this discovery, precise and accurate characterization of the hydrogen storage performance of these materials is needed. Determining the precise and accurate hydrogen storage capacity of materials requires rigorous attention to detailed experimental parameters and methodology. Slight errors in even small experimental details can result in a large deviation in the determination of the material's true characteristics. Here, we compare measurements of the gravimetric excess hydrogen uptake capacities for two different carbon sorbent materials measured by different laboratories at ambient and liquid N2 temperatures. The participants for this study consist of research laboratories led by experienced scientists in the hydrogen storage field. This collaborative evaluation of standard sorbents illustrated considerable reproducibility over a broad range of materials' hydrogen sorption gravimetric capacities.

  16. Performance of carbon-based hot frit substrates: I, Low pressure helium and hydrogen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, R.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.; Powell, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    The performance of various carbon-based materials in flowing, high-temperature helium and hydrogen is described. These materials which are candidate hot frit substrates for possible application in a PBR include various grades of graphite, carbon-carbon and vitreous carbon. Vitreous carbon showed extremely good performance in helium, while that of the various graphite grades was quite variable and, in some cases, poor. Purified grades performed better than unpurified grades, but in all cases large sample-to-sample variations in weight loss were observed. For carbon-carbon samples, the performance was intermediate. Since the weight loss in these samples was in large measure due to the loss of the densification media, improvements in the performance of carbon-carbon may be possible. With respect to the performance in hydrogen, high weight losses were observed, re-enforcing the need for coating carbon-based materials for service in a flowing hydrogen environment

  17. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  20. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  1. Hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Filiou, C.; Peteves, S.D.; Veyret, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    are: compressed hydrogen; liquid hydrogen; metal hydrides; carbon-based materials/porous structures

  2. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  3. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  4. Modelling of stationary bulk hydrogen storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R.D.; Pucher, G. [Centre for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The employment of bulk hydrogen storage systems within industry appears increasingly to be a near-term prospect given the steadily increasing levels of hydrogen production. The current study defines and outlines a cost model through which comparative and informative assessments of different stationary bulk hydrogen storage reservoir types can be made. The reservoir types investigated include: mined salt caverns, depleted natural gas reservoirs and liquid vessels. Using the model, cost of storage for these potential bulk hydrogen containment technologies is estimated and compared in qualitative terms. for similar storage applications. (Author)

  5. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  6. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...... ammonia and benefits from the properties of ammonia as a fuel. The system can be used as a safe, reversible, low-cost hydrogen carrier....

  7. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  8. Effective hydrogen storage: a strategic chemistry challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, William I F

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current status and future potential of hydrogen storage from a chemistry perspective and is based on the concluding presentation of the Faraday Discussion 151--Hydrogen Storage Materials. The safe, effective and economical storage of hydrogen is one of the main scientific and technological challenges in the move towards a low-carbon economy. One key sector is transportation where future vehicles will most likely be developed around a balance of battery-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell electric technologies. Although there has been a very significant research effort in solid-state hydrogen storage, high-pressure gas storage combined with conventional metal hydrides is still seen as the current intermediate-term candidate for car manufacturers. Significant issues have arisen in the search for improved solid-state hydrogen storage materials; for example, facile reversibility has been a major challenge for many recently studied complex hydrides while physisorption in porous structures is still restricted to cryogenic temperatures. However, many systems fulfil the majority of necessary criteria for improved hydrogen storage--indeed, the discovery of reversibility in multicomponent hydride systems along with recent chemistry breakthroughs in off-board and solvent-assisted regeneration suggest that the goal of both improved on-board reversible and off-board regenerated hydrogen storage systems can be achieved.

  9. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  10. From Carbon-Based Nanotubes to Nanocages for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-02-21

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been the focus of research interests in the past 30 years due to their abundant microstructures and morphologies, excellent properties, and wide potential applications, as landmarked by 0D fullerene, 1D nanotubes, and 2D graphene. With the availability of high specific surface area (SSA), well-balanced pore distribution, high conductivity, and tunable wettability, carbon-based nanomaterials are highly expected as advanced materials for energy conversion and storage to meet the increasing demands for clean and renewable energies. In this context, attention is usually attracted by the star material of graphene in recent years. In this Account, we overview our studies on carbon-based nanotubes to nanocages for energy conversion and storage, including their synthesis, performances, and related mechanisms. The two carbon nanostructures have the common features of interior cavity, high conductivity, and easy doping but much different SSAs and pore distributions, leading to different performances. We demonstrated a six-membered-ring-based growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with benzene precursor based on the structural similarity of the benzene ring to the building unit of CNTs. By this mechanism, nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) with homogeneous N distribution and predominant pyridinic N were obtained with pyridine precursor, providing a new kind of support for convenient surface functionalization via N-participation. Accordingly, various transition-metal nanoparticles were directly immobilized onto NCNTs without premodification. The so-constructed catalysts featured high dispersion, narrow size distribution and tunable composition, which presented superior catalytic performances for energy conversions, for example, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation in fuel cells. With the advent of the new field of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts, we first extended ORR catalysts from the electron-rich N-doped to the

  11. Metal ammine complexes for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Johannessen, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The hopes of using hydrogen as an energy carrier are severely dampened by the fact that there is still no safe, high-density method available for storing hydrogen. We investigate the possibility of using metal ammine complexes as a solid form of hydrogen storage. Using Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2 as the example......, we show that it can store 9.1% hydrogen by weight in the form of ammonia. The storage is completely reversible, and by combining it with an ammonia decomposition catalyst, hydrogen can be delivered at temperatures below 620 K....

  12. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  13. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  14. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  15. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  16. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  17. Metal–organic frameworks for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has received increasing attention worldwide because they possess versatile structures, high surface areas, large free volumes, ultrahigh porosities, and tunable pore...

  18. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  19. Hydrogen storage by polylithiated molecules and nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Er, S.; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study polylithiated molecules as building blocks for hydrogen storage materials, using first-principles calculations. CLi4 and OLi2 bind 12 and 10 hydrogen molecules, respectively, with an average binding energy of 0.10 and 0.13 eV, leading to gravimetric densities of 37.8 and 40.3 wt % of H2.

  20. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  1. LIGHT-WEIGHT NANOCRYSTALLINE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; B. Zande; R.T. Obermyer; S. Simizu

    2005-11-21

    During Phase I of this SBIR Program, Advanced Materials Corporation has addressed two key issues concerning hydrogen storage: 1. We have conducted preliminary studies on the effect of certain catalysts in modifying the hydrogen absorption characteristics of nanocrystalline magnesium. 2. We have also conducted proof-of-concept design and construction of a prototype instrument that would rapidly screen materials for hydrogen storage employing chemical combinatorial technique in combination with a Pressure-Composition Isotherm Measurement (PCI) instrument. 3. Preliminary results obtained in this study approach are described in this report.

  2. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One Li

  3. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will be the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to lie the most promising. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and higher

  4. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will lie the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio[l]. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to be the most promising [2]. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and

  5. Solid Aluminum Borohydrides for Prospective Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Safin, Damir A; Tumanov, Nikolay A; Morelle, Fabrice; Moulai, Adel; Černý, Radovan; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2017-12-08

    Metal borohydrides are intensively researched as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. Aluminum is a cheap, light, and abundant element and Al 3+ can serve as a template for reversible dehydrogenation. However, Al(BH 4 ) 3 , containing 16.9 wt % of hydrogen, has a low boiling point, is explosive on air and has poor storage stability. A new family of mixed-cation borohydrides M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], which are all solid under ambient conditions, show diverse thermal decomposition behaviors: Al(BH 4 ) 3 is released for M=Li + or Na + , whereas heavier derivatives evolve hydrogen and diborane. NH 4 [Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], containing both protic and hydridic hydrogen, has the lowest decomposition temperature of 35 °C and yields Al(BH 4 ) 3 ⋅NHBH and hydrogen. The decomposition temperatures, correlated with the cations' ionic potential, show that M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ] species are in the most practical stability window. This family of solids, with convenient and versatile properties, puts aluminum borohydride chemistry in the mainstream of hydrogen storage research, for example, for the development of reactive hydride composites with increased hydrogen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  7. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  8. Thermodynamics study of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lifang; Wang Shuang; Jiao Chengli; Si Xiaoliang; Li Zhibao; Liu Shuang; Liu Shusheng; Jiang Chunhong; Li Fen; Zhang Jian; Sun Lixian; Xu Fen; Huang Fenglei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemical modification is an effective way to improve the thermodynamics. ► Nanodispersion can improve the thermodynamics of chemical storage system. ► Hybridization is an practicable strategy to improve the thermodynamics. ► Nanoconfinement is feasible to improve thermodynamics of chemical storage system. ► MOFs materials possess suitable interaction with H 2 molecule should be investigated. - Abstract: The growing use of conventional energy such as fossil fuels results in problems degrading our environment. Hydrogen is frequently discussed as a clean energy in the future without pollution. However, efficient and safe storage of hydrogen constitute a key challenge and unresolved problem. One of the main options is solid-state storage technology. A successful solid-state reversible storage material should meet the requirements of high storage capacity, suitable thermodynamic properties, reversibility and fast adsorption and desorption kinetics. This feature article focuses mainly on the development of thermodynamic improvement of hydrogen storage materials in the past few years including the complex hydride, ammonia borane, and metal-organic frameworks.

  9. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  10. Categorization of hydrogen storage with reference to natural gas storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R. D.; Selim, M. A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    This poster session presentation proposes a categorization scheme of hydrogen storage systems based on energy content of the stored hydrogen. The presentation is based on data about various liquid and gaseous hydrogen storage installations and analogous data on storage systems for natural gas. The proposed system would serve to define and differentiate terms such as bulk storage, industrial storage and small storage systems, and would enable the comparison of existing and developing infrastructure requirements in the emerging context of hydrogen storage.

  11. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  12. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  13. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  14. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: (1) Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen; (2) Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure; (3) Hydrogen storage material made from activated PEEK

  15. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials’ properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: • Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen. • Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure. • Hydrogen storage material made from

  16. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  17. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  18. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  19. CO2-based hydrogen storage: CO2 hydrogenation to formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The storage of hydrogen via hydrogenation of CO2 to small organic molecules can be attractive for mobile applications. In this article, the state of the art regarding hydrogen storage in Methanol, Formic Acid as well as Formaldehyde and derivates based on CO2 hydrogenation is summarized. The reverse reaction, the release of hydrogen from these molecules is also crucial and described in the articles together with possible concepts for the use of hydrogen storage by CO2 hydrogenation.

  20. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage - New perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten B.; Jepsen, Lars H.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, hydrogen has been considered as a possible energy carrier for the storage of renewable energy. The main focus has been on addressing the ultimate challenge: developing an environmentally friendly successor for gasoline. This very ambitious goal has not yet been fully reached...

  1. Electrospun MOF nanofibers as hydrogen storage media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zr-MOF and Cr-MOF were chosen as representatives of the developed MOFs in our laboratory and were incorporated into electrospun nanofibers. The obtained MOF nanofibers composites were evaluated as hydrogen storage media. The results...

  2. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1973-01-01

    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  3. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  4. Hydrogen storage properties of metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, energy needs are mainly covered by fossil energies leading to pollutant emissions mostly responsible for global warming. Among the different possible solutions for greenhouse effect reduction, hydrogen has been proposed for energy transportation. Indeed, H 2 can be seen as a clean and efficient energy carrier. However, beside the difficulties related to hydrogen production, efficient high capacity storage means are still to be developed. Many metals and alloys are able to store large amounts of hydrogen. This latter solution is of interest in terms of safety, global yield and long term storage. However, to be suitable for applications, such compounds must present high capacity, good reversibility, fast reactivity and sustainability. In this paper, we will review the structural and thermodynamic properties of metallic hydrides. (authors)

  5. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  6. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  7. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  8. Combined Solid State and High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Jensen, Torben René

    Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia.......Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia....

  9. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  10. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg were studied at 593 K under 12 bar H2. In order to increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive mechanical grinding, RMG) and its hydrogen storage properties were subsequently investigated. Pure Mg absorbed hydrogen ...

  11. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  12. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jeffrey R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The design and characterization of new materials for hydrogen storage is an important area of research, as the ability to store hydrogen at lower pressures and higher temperatures than currently feasible would lower operating costs for small hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. In particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent promising materials for use in storing hydrogen in this capacity. MOFs are highly porous, three-dimensional crystalline solids that are formed via linkages between metal ions (e.g., iron, nickel, and zinc) and organic molecules. MOFs can store hydrogen via strong adsorptive interactions between the gas molecules and the pores of the framework, providing a high surface area for gas adsorption and thus the opportunity to store hydrogen at significantly lower pressures than with current technologies. By lowering the energy required for hydrogen storage, these materials hold promise in rendering hydrogen a more viable fuel for motor vehicles, which is a highly desirable outcome given the clean nature of hydrogen fuel cells (water is the only byproduct of combustion) and the current state of global climate change resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. The work presented in this report is the result of collaborative efforts between researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and General Motors Corporation (GM) to discover novel MOFs promising for H2 storage and characterize their properties. Described herein are several new framework systems with improved gravimetric and volumetric capacity to strongly bind H2 at temperatures relevant for vehicle storage. These materials were rigorously characterized using neutron diffraction, to determine the precise binding locations of hydrogen within the frameworks, and high-pressure H2 adsorption measurements, to provide a comprehensive picture of H2 adsorption at all relevant pressures. A

  13. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  14. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  15. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  16. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  18. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  19. Optimization of a solar hydrogen storage system: Exergetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.; Isorna, F.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. S. Juan-Matalascanas, km.34, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    From production to end-users, the choice of suitable hydrogen delivery and storage systems will be essential to assure the adequate introduction and development of these facilities. This article describes the main options for hydrogen storage when produced from renewable energy, and explains different criteria to be considered in the design and building-up of stationary hydrogen storage systems, with special attention to exergy issues. An example of exergy analysis is done using data from the solar hydrogen storage facility of the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). As expected, the main conclusions of this analysis show the advantage of low pressure hydrogen in comparison with other available methods to store hydrogen. Another interesting option, from the exergy efficiency point of view, is the storage of hydrogen in metal hydride systems. The last option, and the most inefficient, is the high pressure hydrogen storage. (author)

  20. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  1. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  2. Hydrogen Storage using Physisorption : Modified Carbon Nanofibers and Related Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Marije Gessien

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes our research on adsorbent systems for hydrogen storage for small scale, mobile application. Hydrogen storage is a key element in the change-over from the less efficient and polluting internal combustion engine to the pollution-free operating hydrogen fuel cell. In general,

  3. Synthesis of zeolite-templated carbons for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage has been a key bottle-neck in the actualization of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The new field of hydrogen storage in templated carbonaceous materials has excited many researchers and considerable effort is being directed...

  4. A model of hydrogen impact induced chemical erosion of carbon based on elementary reaction steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, M.; Kueppers, J.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the elementary reaction steps for chemical erosion of carbon by hydrogen a model is developed which allows to calculate the amount of carbon erosion at a hydrogenated carbon surface under the impact of hydrogen ions and neutrals. Hydrogen ion and neutral flux energy distributions prevailing at target plates in the ASDEX upgrade experiment are chosen in the present calculation. The range of hydrogen particles in the target plates is calculated using TRIDYN code. Based upon the TRIDYN results the extent of the erosion reaction as a function of depth is estimated. The results show that both, target temperature and impinging particle flux energy distribution, determine the hydrogen flux density dependent erosion yield and the location of the erosion below the surface. (orig.)

  5. Hydrogen Storage Studies of Palladium-Cobalt alloy nanoparticles dispersed Nitrogen Doped Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullamsetty, Ashok; Sundara, Ramaprabhu

    Solid state hydrogen storage has significant importance in the present scenario of depleting conventional energy sources. Recent studies reveal that nanomaterials can play a significant role in the performance enhancement of energy conversion and storage device. Carbon based nanomaterials are considered as suitable candidates for hydrogen storage due to their high porosity, large surface area and high chemical stability. The two dimensional graphene, which has been discovered recently, consists of a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, exhibits surface area. In the present work, we have been studied the hydrogen storage properties of Palladium-Cobalt alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped graphene (Pd3Co/NG). Graphitic oxide was prepared by Hummers method and mixed with Palladium Cobalt and melamine precursors. The compound was reduced in hydrogen atmosphere at 500 °C for 5 h. Structural and micro-structural characterization of these samples has been carried out by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo electro spectroscopy (XPS). The hydrogen adsorption measurements were carried out for NG as well as Pd3Co/NG at different temperatures (25-100 °C) and pressures (5-40 bar) using a high pressure Sieverts apparatus. The material Pd3Co/NG exhibits high storage capacity compared to NG due to spillover mechanism and the results have been discussed.

  6. Hydrogen storage in spherical nanoporous carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrés, E.; Panella, B.; Hayashi, T.; Kim, Y. A.; Endo, M.; Dominguez, J. M.; Hirscher, M.; Terrones, H.; Terrones, M.

    2005-02-01

    We report H 2 storage capacities up to 2.7 wt% at 77 K in spherical nanoporous carbons exhibiting periodic arrays of pores and surface areas between 946 and 1646 m 2/g. The materials were produced via the pyrolysis of sucrose (C 12H 22O 11) embedded inside a spherical form of MCM-48 at 1000 °C in an inert atmosphere. Our results open up new possibilities for producing carbon nanomaterials with large surface areas, which are able to store hydrogen with attractive yields.

  7. Hydrogen storage in carbon materials—preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörissen, Ludwig; Klos, Holger; Lamp, Peter; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Trapp, Victor

    1998-08-01

    Recent developments aiming at the accelerated commercialization of fuel cells for automotive applications have triggered an intensive research on fuel storage concepts for fuel cell cars. The fuel cell technology currently lacks technically and economically viable hydrogen storage technologies. On-board reforming of gasoline or methanol into hydrogen can only be regarded as an intermediate solution due to the inherently poor energy efficiency of such processes. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibers may lead to an efficient solution to the above described problems.

  8. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C.

  9. Compressorless Gas Storage and Regenerative Hydrogen Purification, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microwave regenerative sorption media gas storage/delivery techniques are proposed to address both compressed gas management and hydrogen purification requirements...

  10. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  11. TDS Investigation of Hydrogen Retention in Graphites and Carbon Based Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begrambekov, L.; Gordeev, A.; Miljaeva, E.; Leikin, P.; Shigin, P. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Inst. (State Univ.) (Russian Federation); Buzhinsky, O. [Troitsk Inst. of Innovations and Thermonuclear Researches (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-01

    Retention of 200 eV H{sub 2}{sup +} ions > (Ei = 100 eV/nucl) in fine grain graphite of MPG-8 type, graphite of RGT type (C + 3.5% TiC), CFC of N11 type, crystalline boron carbide and hydrocarbon films was investigated by means of thermal desorption spectrometry. The implantation dose varied between 5 x 1021 and 6 x 1024 H/m{sup 2}. Temperature of the samples during implantation was 470 {+-} 10 K. The measurements showed that hydrogen retention at high fluences increased in the following order: B{sub 4}C, MPG-8 and CFC, RGT, CH-films. The main part of trapped hydrogen and CH{sub 4} molecules are collected in deep layers beyond the kinetic ion range. Slowing down of the retention rate in graphites at fluences around 5 x 10{sup 23} H/m{sup 2} may account for the approach of the hydrogen trapping rate and the rate of the hydrogen release from the sputtered surface. Hydrogen retention in B{sub 4}C saturates near the fluence 10{sup 24} H/m{sup 2}. Saturation of the CH{sub 4} release was observed in all graphites and in boron carbide at fluences around 10{sup 24} H/m{sup 2}. The features of the hydrogen retention in deep layers of materials under low energy ion implantation are discussed.

  12. Nanostructured polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Yu, Luping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of hydrogen storage adsorbent, nanostructured porous organic polymers (POPs), through collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. POPs have excellent thermal stability and tolerance to gas contaminants such as moisture. They also have low skeleton density and high intrinsic porosity via covalent bonds, capable of maintaining specific surface area (SSA) during high pressure pelletizing for better volumetric density. Furthermore, they can be produced at a commercial scale with the existing industrial infrastructure. The team’s approach focused on improving hydrogen uptake capacity and the heat of adsorption by enhancing SSA, porosity control, and framework-adsorbate interactions through rational design and synthesis at the molecular level. The design principles aim at improving the following attributes of the polymers: (a) high SSA to provide sufficient interface with H2; (b) narrow pore diameter to enhance van der Waals interactions in the confined space; and (c) “metallic” features, either through π- conjugation or metal doping, to promote electronic orbital interactions with hydrogen.

  13. Comparative study of reversible hydrogen storage in alkali-doped fulleranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teprovich, Joseph A.; Knight, Douglas A.; Peters, Brent; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic effect of alkali metals of fullerane formation. ► Hydrogen storage properties of alkali metal hydrides and fullerene composites. ► Novel intercalation of Na and Li in the fullerene lattice. ► Reversible phase transformation of C 60 from fcc to bcc upon de/rehydrogenation. ► Potential to enable to the formation of other carbon based hydrogen storage systems. -- Abstract: In this report we describe and compare the hydrogen storage properties of lithium and sodium doped fullerenes prepared via a solvent-assisted mixing process. For the preparation of these samples either NaH or LiH was utilized as the alkali metal source to make material based on either a Na 6 C 60 or Li 6 C 60 . Both of the alkali-doped materials can reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen at much milder conditions than the starting materials used to make them (decomposition temperatures of NaH > 420 °C, LiH > 670 °C, and fullerane > 500 °C). The hydrogen storage properties of the materials were compared by TGA, isothermal desorption, and XRD analysis. It was determined that the sodium-doped material can reversibly store 4.0 wt.% H 2 while the lithium doped material can reversibly store 5.0 wt.% H 2 through a chemisorption mechanism indicated by the formation and measurement of C–H bonds. XRD analysis of the material demonstrated that a reversible phase transition between fcc and bcc occurs depending on the temperature at which the hydrogenation is performed. In either system the active hydrogen storage material resembles a hydrogenated fullerene (fullerane)

  14. Hydrogen storage in Chabazite zeolite frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Laura; Zecchina, Adriano; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Carlo; Lillerud, Karl P; Olsbye, Unni; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-09-07

    We have recently highlighted that H-SSZ-13, a highly siliceous zeolite (Si/Al = 11.6) with a chabazitic framework, is the most efficient zeolitic material for hydrogen storage [A. Zecchina, S. Bordiga, J. G. Vitillo, G. Ricchiardi, C. Lamberti, G. Spoto, M. Bjørgen and K. P. Lillerud, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 6361]. The aim of this new study is thus to clarify both the role played by the acidic strength and by the density of the polarizing centers hosted in the same framework topology in the increase of the adsorptive capabilities of the chabazitic materials towards H2. To achieve this goal, the volumetric experiments of H2 uptake (performed at 77 K) and the transmission IR experiment of H2 adsorption at 15 K have been performed on H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34 (the isostructural silico-aluminophosphate material with the same Brønsted site density) and H-CHA (the standard chabazite zeolite: Si/Al = 2.1) materials. We have found that a H2 uptake improvement has been obtained by increasing the acidic strength of the Brønsted sites (moving from H-SAPO-34 to H-SSZ-13). Conversely, the important increase of the Brønsted sites density (moving from H-SSZ-13 to H-CHA) has played a negative role. This unexpected behavior has been explained as follows. The additional Brønsted sites are in mutual interaction via H-bonds inside the small cages of the chabazitic framework and for most of them the energetic cost needed to displace the adjacent OH ligand is higher than the adsorption enthalpy of the OH...H2 adduct. From our work it can be concluded that proton exchanged chabazitic frameworks represent, among zeolites, the most efficient materials for hydrogen storage. We have shown that a proper balance between available space (volume accessible to hydrogen), high contact surface, and specific interaction with strong and isolated polarizing centers are the necessary characteristics requested to design better materials for molecular H2 storage.

  15. Properties of thermoplastic polymers used for hydrogen storage under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousse, F.; Mazabraud, P.; Icard, B.; Mosdale, R.; Serre-Combe, P.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development of industrial applications of fuel cells of type PEMFC ( Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Developing an effective system of storage remains major. Ameliorations concerning the storage density of energy, the cost and facilities and the storage must be considered especially for the mobile applications. Among different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seem the most promising way. The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the simplest technical solution, the most advanced and the most economic solution. However, the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  16. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Magnesium has many advantages as a hydrogen storage material in terms of hydrogen storage capacity, cost and reserves in the earth's crust. However, the reaction rate of. Mg with H2 is very low (Hong et al 2013a). Extensive research has been conducted to improve the hydriding and dehydriding rates of magnesium by ...

  17. Economical Aspects of Sodium Borohydride for Hydrogen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ture, I. Engin; Tabakoglu, F. Oznur; Kurtulus, Gulbahar

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the cause to global warming. Turkey has an important location with respect to hydrogen energy applications. Moreover, Turkey has 72.2% of the world's total boron reserves. Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) which can be produced from borax has high hydrogen storage capacity. Hence, it is important for Turkey to lead studies about sodium borohydride to make it one of the most feasible hydrogen storage methods. In this paper an approximate process cost analysis of a NaBH 4 -H 2 system is given, starting with NaBH 4 production till recycling of it. It is found that, the usage of NaBH 4 as hydrogen storage material is relatively an expensive method but after improving reactions and by-product removal in the system and reducing the energy and reactant costs, sodium borohydride is one of the best candidates among hydrogen storage technologies. (authors)

  18. Hydriding and dehydriding rates and hydrogen-storage capacity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incorporation of hydrogen into the world economy has a number of difficulties to be solved. When compared to oil and natural gas, hydrogen has no large-scale infrastructure supporting its transportation. Hydrogen is largely used by chemical and refining industries. However, the cost of hydro- gen storage and delivery is too ...

  19. Spark Discharge Generated Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest obstacles to the large scale application of hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles is the absence of hydrogen storage methods suitable for application on-board of these vehicles. Metal hydrides are materials in which hydrogen is reversibly absorbed by one or more metals or

  20. Ageing of Mg-Ni-H hydrogen storage alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, OCT (2012), s. 14257-14264 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA106/09/0814; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Magnesium alloys * Hydrogen desorption * Hydrogen storage * Hydrogen-storage materials * Ageing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  1. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  2. Innovative hydrogen storage in hollow glass-microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keding, M.; Schmid, G.; Tajmar, M. [Austrian Research Centers, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen storage technologies are becoming increasingly important for a number of future applications. The Austrian Research Centers (ARC) are developing a unique hydrogen storage system that combines the advantages of both hollow glass microsphere and chemical compound hydrogen storage, but eliminates their respective drawbacks. Water is utilized as a functional liquid to carry the hollow glass microspheres that are loaded with up to 700 bar of hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is then injected together with the glass microspheres into a reaction chamber where the water reacts catalytically with the NaBH{sub 4} producing hydrogen and heat. The heat is then utilized to release the hydrogen from the hollow glass microspheres providing a double hydrogen generation process without any external energy or heat during storage or gas release. The paper described this hydrogen storage system with particular reference to microspheres, the coating process, the experimental facility and NaBH{sub 4} test results. It was concluded that hydrogen storage and production on demand is possible with microspheres and sodium borohydride solution. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Linehan, Sue [Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lipiecki, Frank [Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Christopher, Aardahl L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-05-12

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen storage targets.

  4. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  5. Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, John E.; Gogotsi, Yury; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-01-07

    On-board hydrogen storage is a key requirement for fuel cell-powered cars and trucks. Porous carbon-based materials can in principle adsorb more hydrogen per unit weight at room temperature than liquid hydrogen at -176 oC. Achieving this goal requires interconnected pores with very high internal surface area, and binding energies between hydrogen and carbon significantly enhanced relative to H2 on graphite. In this project a systematic study of carbide-derived carbons, a novel form of porous carbon, was carried out to discover a high-performance hydrogen sorption material to meet the goal. In the event we were unable to improve on the state of the art in terms of stored hydrogen per unit weight, having encountered the same fundamental limit of all porous carbons: the very weak interaction between H2 and the carbon surface. On the other hand we did discover several strategies to improve storage capacity on a volume basis, which should be applicable to other forms of porous carbon. Further discoveries with potentially broader impacts include • Proof that storage performance is not directly related to pore surface area, as had been previously claimed. Small pores (< 1.5 nm) are much more effective in storing hydrogen than larger ones, such that many materials with large total surface areas are sub-par performers. • Established that the distribution of pore sizes can be controlled during CDC synthesis, which opens the possibility of developing high performance materials within a common family while targeting widely disparate applications. Examples being actively pursued with other funding sources include methane storage, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors with record high specific capacitance, and perm-selective membranes which bind cytokines for control of infections and possibly hemodialysis filters.

  6. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  7. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  8. Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States); Muto, Andrew [Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Southern Research has developed a thermochemical energy storage (TCES) technology that utilizes the endothermic-exothermic reversible carbonation of calcium oxide (lime) to store thermal energy at high-temperatures, such as those achieved by next generation concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities. The major challenges addressed in the development of this system include refining a high capacity, yet durable sorbent material and designing a low thermal resistance low-cost heat exchanger reactor system to move heat between the sorbent and a heat transfer fluid under conditions relevant for CSP operation (e.g., energy density, reaction kinetics, heat flow). The proprietary stabilized sorbent was developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). A factorial matrix of sorbent compositions covering the design space was tested using accelerated high throughput screening in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Several promising formulations were selected for more thorough evaluation and one formulation with high capacity (0.38 g CO2/g sorbent) and durability (>99.7% capacity retention over 100 cycles) was chosen as a basis for further development of the energy storage reactor system. In parallel with this effort, a full range of currently available commercial and developmental heat exchange reactor systems and sorbent loading methods were examined through literature research and contacts with commercial vendors. Process models were developed to examine if a heat exchange reactor system and balance of plant can meet required TCES performance and cost targets, optimizing tradeoffs between thermal performance, exergetic efficiency, and cost. Reactor types evaluated included many forms, from microchannel reactor, to diffusion bonded heat exchanger, to shell and tube heat exchangers. The most viable design for application to a supercritical CO2 power cycle operating at 200-300 bar pressure and >700°C was determined to be a combination of a diffusion bonded heat

  9. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  10. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  11. Hydrogen Storage in Nanostructured Light Metal Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The global energy issues can be solved by the abundantly available hydrogen on earth. Light metals are a compact and safe medium for storing hydrogen. This makes them attractive for vehicular use. Unfortunately, hydrogen uptake and release is slow in light metals at practical temperature and

  12. Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  13. Palladium Coated Kieselghuhr for Simultaneous Separation and Storage of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss characteristics of the palladium-coated kieselguhr or diatomaceous earth, design and operation of the FTB, and results of performance tests such as separation efficiency, hydrogen storage capacity and system heat transfer characteristics

  14. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  15. Storage of hydrogen on carbons; Stockage de l'hydrogene sur les carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS-CRMD, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)

    2000-07-01

    The storage of hydrogen on carbons, with densities above 10% hydrogen weight, can be used in the sector of transport. However, only the physical-sorption of this gas (which is almost perfect and boils at 20 K under atmospheric pressure) cannot explain this performance. A study of the possible sites for one hydrogen, which can take very different forms, is presented, in order to better understand the rational development of this storage mode which could reach about ten weight %. (O.M.)

  16. Recent Progress in Metal Borohydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the development of new materials that can safely store it at high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal borohydrides M(BH4n (n is the valence of metal M, in particular, have high hydrogen density, and are therefore regarded as one such potential hydrogen storage material. For fuel cell vehicles, the goal for on-board storage systems is to achieve reversible store at high density but moderate temperature and hydrogen pressure. To this end, a large amount of effort has been devoted to improvements in their thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. This review provides an overview of recent research activity on various M(BH4n, with a focus on the fundamental dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation properties and on providing guidance for material design in terms of tailoring thermodynamics and promoting kinetics for hydrogen storage.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  18. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  19. Nanoconfined Alkali-metal borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has been identified as a promising energy carrier. Its combustion is not associated with pollution when generated from renewable energy sources like solar and wind. The large-scale use of hydrogen for intermittent energy storage and as a fuel for cars can contribute to the realization of a

  20. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  1. Opportunities and limitations of hydrogen storage in zeolitic clathrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, A.W.C.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using zeolites, and more specifically the clathrasil subgroup, for hydrogen storage has been investigated by comparing their H2 loading rate and storage capacity to the technically required values. The uptake rate and capacity are determined by means of computational modelling for

  2. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  3. Modification of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, A.M.; Nouralishahi, A.; Karimi, A.; Kashefi, K. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran); Khodadadi, A.A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Chemical engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Due to unique structural, mechanical and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs, they have been proposed as promising hydrogen storage materials especially in automotive industries. This research deals with investing of CNT's and some activated carbons hydrogen storage capacity. The CNT's were prepared through natural gas decomposition at a temperature of 900 C over cobalt-molybdenum nanoparticles supported by nanoporous magnesium oxide (Co-Mo/MgO) during a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effects of purity of CNT (80-95%wt.) on hydrogen storage were investigated here. The results showed an improvement in the hydrogen adsorption capacity with increasing the purity of CNT's. Maximum adsorption capacity was 0.8%wt. in case of CNT's with 95% purity and it may be raised up with some purification to 1%wt. which was far less than the target specified by DOE (6.5%wt.). Also some activated carbons were manufactured and the results compared to CNTs. There were no considerable H{sub 2}-storage for carbon nanotubes and activated carbons at room-temperature due to insufficient binding between H{sub 2} molecules carbon nanostructures. Therefore, hydrogen must be adsorbed via interaction of atomic hydrogen with the storage environment in order to achieve DOE target, because the H atoms have a very stronger interaction with carbon nanostructures. (author)

  4. Complex metal hydrides for hydrogen, thermal and electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....

  5. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....

  6. Enhanced hydrogen storage by using lithium decoration on phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Wan, Neng, E-mail: wn@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: lsy@seu.edu.cn; Lei, Shuangying, E-mail: wn@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: lsy@seu.edu.cn; Yu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Microelectromechanical Systems of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-07-14

    The hydrogen storage characteristics of Li decorated phosphorene were systematically investigated based on first-principle density functional theory. It is revealed that the adsorption of H{sub 2} on pristine phosphorene is relatively weak with an adsorption energy of 0.06 eV. While this value can be dramatically enhanced to ∼0.2 eV after the phosphorene was decorated by Li, and each Li atom can adsorb up to three H{sub 2} molecules. The detailed mechanism of the enhanced hydrogen storage was discussed based on our density functional theory calculations. Our studies give a conservative prediction of hydrogen storage capacity to be 4.4 wt. % through Li decoration on pristine phosphorene. By comparing our calculations to the present molecular dynamic simulation results, we expect our adsorption system is stable under room temperature and hydrogen can be released after moderate heating.

  7. Carbon compound used in hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work it is studied the activated carbon of mineral origin for the sorption of hydrogen. The carbon decreased of particle size by means of the one alloyed mechanical. The time of mill was of 10 hours. The characterization one carries out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrogen sipped in the carbon material it was determined using the Thermal gravimetric method (TGA). The conditions of hydrogenation went at 10 atm of pressure and ambient temperature during 18 hours. They were also carried out absorption/desorption cycles of hydrogen in the same one system of thermal gravimetric analysis. The results showed percentages of sorption of 2% approximately in the cycles carried out in the system TGA and of 4.5% in weight of hydrogen at pressure of 10 atmospheres and ambient temperature during 18 hours. (Author)

  8. A single-component liquid-phase hydrogen storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Campbell, Patrick G; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2011-12-07

    The current state-of-the-art for hydrogen storage is compressed H(2) at 700 bar. The development of a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material has the potential to take advantage of the existing liquid-based distribution infrastructure. We describe a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material that is a liquid under ambient conditions (i.e., at 20 °C and 1 atm pressure), air- and moisture-stable, and recyclable; releases H(2) controllably and cleanly at temperatures below or at the proton exchange membrane fuel cell waste-heat temperature of 80 °C; utilizes catalysts that are cheap and abundant for H(2) desorption; features reasonable gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity; and does not undergo a phase change upon H(2) desorption. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Storage of hydrogen by high pressure microencapsulation in glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, K. L.; Sellars, B. G.; Lo, J.; Johar, S.; Murthy, M. K.

    The storage of compressed hydrogen gas in cylindrical glass microcapsules is a new concept that offers potential merits of lightweight, low cost, and simplicity in system design. The strongly temperature dependent permeability of candidate glass materials to hydrogen gas allows compressed hydrogen gas to be stored and retrieved from microcapsules at required rates by appropriate temperature adjustments. The major emphasis of work has been placed on developing the processes and techniques for hollow fibre drawing, fabrication of microcapsules and test modules, evaluation of microcapsule properties, and laboratory-scale hydrogen charge and discharge trials. These development efforts were followed by those for refinement and optimization, with particular interest in improving microcapsule strength and dimensional consistency. Recently, axial tensile strengths of over 700 MPa were achieved for microcapsules with aspect ratios higher than 25:1. Hydrogen storage capacity of over 2 wt percent has been demonstrated in laboratory trials.

  10. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  11. Study of the storage of hydrogen in carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Cossement, D.; Tessier, A.; Belanger, M.; Bose, T.K.; Dodelet, J-P.; Dellero, T.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development in industrial applications of fuel cells (CAP) of type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). An effective system of storage would be a major step in the large scale utilization of this energy source. Process improvements concerning the storage density of energy, the cost, and facilities and the reliability of the storage must be sought in particular for the mobile applications. Among the different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seems the most promising way.The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the technical solution simplest, more advanced and more economic. However the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  12. Ballmilling of metal borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    is to hydrogenate simple compounds such as metalborides and hydrides with the intention of forming a new and more hydrogen rich borohydride. In contrast to mainstream research, the method of synthesis has been based on reactants that are expected to be found in the metal borohydride’s dehydrogenated state....... Specifically, the research undertaken targets CaB6 whose boron is in a octahedral network, or AlB2 whose boron is layered. These compounds were then reactive ball milled with alkali and alkaline earth metal under hydrogen pressure, with the intention of forming metal borohydrides. For CaB6, no clear sign...

  13. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of hydrogen storage systems utilising solid state H storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: mlototskyy@uwc.ac.za [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Yartys, V.A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of H stores with various solid H storage materials was done. • Volumetric and gravimetric H storage densities and energy consumption were evaluated. • Effects of H storage containment and heat exchanger were estimated. • Pressure–temperature conditions of H storage strongly affect the overall performance. • Material’s packing density influences safety of operation and efficiency of H stores. - Abstract: Evaluation of the performances of hydrogen storage systems accommodating solid H storage materials should include characteristics on their reversible hydrogen storage capacity, operating pressures and temperatures, packing densities, and heat effects of hydrogen uptake and release. We have conducted a performance evaluation of the systems accumulating 5 kg of hydrogen in a containment of cylindrical geometry filled with a solid H storage material including such hydrides and reactive hydride composites as AlH{sub 3}, MgH{sub 2}, “low-temperature” (inter)metallic hydrides, NaAlH{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}, LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2}, and MOFs. The analysis yielded gravimetric and volumetric H storage capacities, and energy efficiencies of hydrogen stores. We conclude that the weight efficiency of hydrogen stores, apart from the gravimetric H storage capacity of the material, is greatly affected by its packing density, and by the pressure–temperature conditions which determine type and dimensions of the containment. The materials with low heat effects of H exchange, operating close to the ambient conditions, should be targeted in the course of the development of new hydrogen stores as offering the best energy efficiency of their operation.

  14. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Snow, Clark S.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  15. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  18. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  19. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  20. Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Puszkiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed.

  1. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  2. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Several recent experiments designed to produce and store macroscopic quantities of atomic hydrogen are discussed. The bulk, ground state properties of atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium systems are calculated assuming that all pair interactions occur via the atomic triplet potential. The conditions required to obtain this system, including inhibition of recombination through the energetically favorable singlet interaction, are discussed. The internal energy, pressure, and compressibility are calculated applying the Monte Carlo technique with a quantum mechanical variational wavefunction. The system studied consisted of 32 atoms in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Results show that atomic triplet hydrogen and deuterium remain gaseous at 0 K; i.e., the internal energy is positive at all molar volumes considered.

  3. Hydrogen storage materials at INCDTIM Cluj - Napoca. Achievements and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A.R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Introducing hydrogen fuel to the transportation area poses key challenges for research on hydrogen storage materials. As one of the most promising alternative fuels for transport, hydrogen offers the long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and can be based on renewable energy sources. The Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission fosters research for safe methods for storing hydrogen, for use in fuel cells or modified combustion engines in cars and other road vehicles. Hydrogen storage materials focused, in the last 30 years, the attention of the research programs in the many countries. Due to the fast development of the fuel cell technologies, the subject is much more stringent now. For mobile applications to fuel cell powered vehicles, on-board storage materials with hydrogen absorption/desorption capacities of at least 6.5%H are needed. For an efficient storage system the goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of H 2 gas (1 kg of gas has a volume of 11 m 3 at ambient temperature and pressure). To reach the high volumetric and gravimetric density suitable for mobile applications, basically six reversible storage methods are known today according to A. Zuettel: 1) high-pressure gas cylinders, 2) liquid in cryogenic tanks, 3) physisorbed on a solid surface e.g. carbon-nanotubes 4) metal hydrides of the metals or intermetallic compounds. 5) complex hydrides of light elements such as alanates and boranates, 6) storage via chemical reactions. Recently, the storage as hydrogen hydrates at 50 bar using promoters has been reported by F. Peetom. The paper discusses the feasibility of each of these storing alternatives. The authors presents their experience and results of the work in the field of metal hydrides and application obtained since 1975. All classes of hydrogen absorbing intermetallic compounds were studied: LaNi 5 , FeTi, Ti

  4. Towards a hydrogen-driven society? Calculations and neutron scattering on potential hydrogen storage materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmel, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable development, the resources of the earth need to be maintained and carbon dioxide emission should be avoided. In particular, we need to find an alternative for the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. Since long, hydrogen has been recognised as the fuel of the future because it exhausts only water when used in fuel cells and hardly any pollutants when used in conventional internal combustion engines. However, the storage of hydrogen onboard vehicles is a major concern. Hydrogen is ...

  5. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  6. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  7. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  8. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  9. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  10. Theory of molecular hydrogen sorption for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengbai

    2011-03-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) sorption has the advantage of fast kinetics and high reversibility. However, the binding strength is often too weak to be operative at near room temperatures. Research into such hydrogen sorption materials has branched into the study of pure van der Waals (vdW) physisorption and that of weak chemisorption (known to exist in the so-called Kubas complexes). In either case, however, theoretical tools to describe such weak interactions are underdeveloped with error bars that often exceed the strength of the interaction itself. We have used quantum-chemistry (QC) based approaches to benchmark the various available DFT methods for four classes of weak chemisorption systems [Sun et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 073401 (2010)]. These involve complexes containing Li, Ca, Sc, and Ti with increased strength of H2 binding from predominantly vdW to mostly Kubas-like. The study reveals that most of the DFT functionals within the generalized gradient approximation underestimate the binding energy, oppose to overestimating it. The functionals that are easy to use yet yielding results reasonably close to those of accurate QC are the PBE and PW91. I will also discuss the effort of implementing vdW interaction into the currently available density functional methods [Sun, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 154102 (2008)]. The rationale is that while the true vdW is an electron-electron correlation, a DFT plus classical dispersion approach may be too simple and unnecessary within the DFT. A local pseudopotential approach has been developed to account for the core part of the polarizability of the elements. Applications to a number of benchmark systems yield good agreement with QC calculations. The application of this method and the QC methods to vdW hydrogen binding will also be discussed. Work supported by DOE/BES and DOE/EERE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence under RPI subcontracts No. J30546/J90336.

  11. Modeling of vehicular storage and supply systems for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, J.; Venter, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bose, T.; Benard, P. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene

    2002-07-01

    In order for fuel cells to reach widespread commercial use to power vehicles, improvements need to be made in the area of hydrogen storage because of the low energy density of hydrogen. Several options exist for storing hydrogen, each being at a different stage of development. The main challenge, however, lies in the required infrastructure to supply the fuel. This paper defines the groundwork for the development of a complete model that defines the characteristics in vehicles and in various stages in the supply of fuel. This model considers the consequences involved when making the choice of a hydrogen storage method for on-board storage applications with particular attention to issues of safety. The model tabulates the parameters that are considered to be critical to both the vehicle and necessary support systems depending on the choice of hydrogen storage technology. The overall requirements are analyzed in a separate subsystem, and the model can then build a relationship between those subsystems. Interpretations are performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  13. Energy conversion, storage and transportation by means of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlmeier, G; Mateos, P; Bolcich, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Data concerning the present consumption of energy indicate that the industrialized countries (representing 25% of the world's population) consume almost 75% of the world's energy production, while the need for energy aimed at maintaining the growth of non-industrialized countries increases day after day. Since estimations indicate that the fossil reverses will exhaust within frightening terms, the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels and, fundamentally, from renewable sources constitute a response to future energy demand. The production of hydrogen from water is performed by four different methods: direct thermal, thermochemical, electrolysis and photolysis. Finally, different ways of storaging and using hydrogen are proposed. (Author)

  14. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  15. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S.; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  16. Hydriding and dehydriding rates and hydrogen-storage capacity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fe2O3 (expected to increase hydriding rate) was selected as an oxide to be added. Ti was also selected since, it was considered to increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates by forming Ti hydride. A sample, Mg–14Ni–3Fe2O3–3Ti, was prepared by reactive mechanical grinding and its hydrogen storage properties were ...

  17. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, N [Department of Physics, Mersin University, 33342 Mersin (Turkey); Durgun, E [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, T [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Ciraci, S [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-10-18

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti{sub 8}C{sub 12} met-car can bind up to 16 H{sub 2} molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H{sub 2} storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H{sub 2} into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H{sub 2} molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H{sub 2} storage capacity of a Ti{sub 8}C{sub 12} cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H{sub 2}-adsorbed Ti{sub 8}C{sub 12} met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature.

  18. Carbon Matrix Confined Sodium Alanate for Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, J.

    2012-01-01

    H2 is considered as an attractive fuel for both stationary and mobile applications in future energy scenarios. One of challenges we are facing is how to store H2 in a compact and safe way. Complex light metal hydrides are promising solid-state hydrogen storage candidates, as they have the potential

  19. Closed-cell polymeric foam for hydrogen separation and storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pientka, Zbyněk; Pokorný, P.; Bélafi-Bakó, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 304, 1-2 (2007), s. 82-87 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymeric foam * gas separation * hydrogen storage Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.432, year: 2007

  20. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  1. Capacity recovery after storage negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, John E.

    1993-02-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate the recovery of capacity lost during open circuit storage of negatively precharged nickel hydrogen batteries. Four Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells were used in the tests. Recovery procedures and test results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  2. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  3. The storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Jonville, P.

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells [fr

  4. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted how complex metal hydrides may act in an integrated setup with a fuel cell. This review focuses on the unique properties of light element complex metal hydrides mainly based on boron, nitrogen and aluminum, e.g., metal borohydrides and metal alanates. Our hope is that this review can provide new inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy.

  5. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-10

    An integration of CO 2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH 4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taljan, Gregor; Fowler, Michael; Canizares, Claudio; Verbic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    A novel methodology for the economic evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new aspects such as residual heat and oxygen utilization is applied in this work. This analysis is completed in the context of a hydrogen economy and competitive electricity markets. The simulation of the operation of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity, the selling of excess hydrogen and oxygen, and the selling of heat are optimized to maximize profit to the energy producer. The simulation is performed in two phases: in a pre-dispatch phase, the system model is optimized to obtain optimal hydrogen charge levels for the given operational horizons. In the second phase, a real-time dispatch is carried out on an hourly basis to optimize the operation of the system as to maximize profits, following the hydrogen storage levels of the pre-dispatch phase. Based on the operation planning and dispatch results, an economic evaluation is performed to determine the feasibility of the proposed scheme for investment purposes; this evaluation is based on calculations of modified internal rates of return and net present values for a realistic scenario. The results of the present studies demonstrate the feasibility of a hydrogen storage and production system with oxygen and heat utilization for existent nuclear and wind power generation facilities. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Day, K.; Brooker, A.

    2010-05-01

    This poster presentation demonstrates an approach to evaluate trade-offs among hydrogen storage system characteristic across several vehicle configurations and estimates the sensitivity of hydrogen storage system improvements on vehicle viability.

  8. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Lozano-Castello, D.; Suarez-Garcia, F.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Linares-Solano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ) [1]. A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous cartons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  9. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, Kevin [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jovanovic, Goran [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Paul, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  10. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  11. Hydrogen storage and delivery: the carbon dioxide - formic acid couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenczy, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and the carbonates, the available natural C1 sources, can be easily hydrogenated into formic acid and formates in water; the rate of this reduction strongly depends on the pH of the solution. This reaction is catalysed by ruthenium(II) pre-catalyst complexes with a large variety of water-soluble phosphine ligands; high conversions and turnover numbers have been realised. Although ruthenium(II) is predominant in these reactions, the iron(II) - tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)-ethyl]phosphine (PP3) complex is also active, showing a new perspective to use abundant and inexpensive iron-based compounds in the CO2 reduction. In the catalytic hydrogenation cycles the in situ formed metal hydride complexes play a key role, their structures with several other intermediates have been proven by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In the other hand safe and convenient hydrogen storage and supply is the fundamental question for the further development of the hydrogen economy; and carbon dioxide has been recognised to be a viable H2 vector. Formic acid--containing 4.4 weight % of H2, that is 53 g hydrogen per litre--is suitable for H2 storage; we have shown that in aqueous solutions it can be selectively decomposed into CO-free (CO formic acid cleavage, in environmentally friendly propylene carbonate solution, opening the way to use cheap, non-noble metal based catalysts for this reaction, too.

  12. Ice XVII as a Novel Material for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo del Rosso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage is one of the most addressed issues in the green-economy field. The latest-discovered form of ice (XVII, obtained by application of an annealing treatment to a H 2 -filled ice sample in the C 0 -phase, could be inserted in the energy-storage context due to its surprising capacity of hydrogen physisorption, when exposed to even modest pressure (few mbars at temperature below 40 K, and desorption, when a thermal treatment is applied. In this work, we investigate quantitatively the adsorption properties of this simple material by means of spectroscopic and volumetric data, deriving its gravimetric and volumetric capacities as a function of the thermodynamic parameters, and calculating the usable capacity in isothermal conditions. The comparison of ice XVII with materials with a similar mechanism of hydrogen adsorption like metal-organic frameworks shows interesting performances of ice XVII in terms of hydrogen content, operating temperature and kinetics of adsorption-desorption. Any application of this material to realistic hydrogen tanks should take into account the thermodynamic limit of metastability of ice XVII, i.e., temperatures below about 130 K.

  13. Hydrogen storage by reaction between metallic amides and imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, J.B.; Cahen, S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Janot, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details the various metal-N-H systems reported in the literature as possible hydrogen storage materials. In a first part, we discuss the hydrogen storage performances of the Li-N-H system and the desorption mechanism of the LiH-LiNH 2 mixture is especially presented. The possibility of storing hydrogen using two other binary systems (Mg-N-H and Ca-N-H) is described in a second part. In the third part of the paper, we discuss about the performances of the highly promising Li-Mg-N-H system, for which a nice reversibility is obtained at 200 C with an experimental hydrogen capacity of about 5.0 wt.%. Other ternary systems, as Li-B-N-H and Li-Al-N-H, are presented in the last part of this review paper. We especially emphasize the performances obtained in our Laboratory at Amiens with a LiAl(NH 2 ) 4 -LiH mixture able to desorb around 6.0 wt.% of hydrogen at only 130 C. (authors)

  14. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  15. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  16. Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H2) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H2 storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H2 tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H2 by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H2 per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H2 at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H2 molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank

  17. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  18. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2004-09-07

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  19. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  20. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  1. Experiment of hydrogen embrittlement of tritium storage vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hai Yong; Lee, Kun Jai; Chung, H.; Paek, S.

    2000-01-01

    The tritium storage is one of the most important problems for the safety of tritium removal facility. In current, many researches for tritium immobilization have been carried out. The research for tritium storage could be divided into two parts, one is for the metal getter of tritium and another is for the integrity of tritium storage vessel. Especially, the integrity of tritium storage vessel is up to the tritium embrittlement of vessel material, for tritium vessel is mostly made of metal material. In this work, the evaluation of the tritium embrittlement for the tritium storage vessel material is performed with the equipment that is made for high temperature and high vacuum. However, tritium is the radioactivity material, so hydrogen is used for this work. In this work, three metals were chosen for the vessel candidate material, carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS) 304 and 316L. The experiment was carried out for the several conditions of temperature and pressure. The property change of metal was investigated through the tensile test. Austenitic stainless steel has a high resistance for the hydrogen embrittlement from the result. But the obvious gap between SUS 304 and SUS 316L is not revealed, because the experiment condition may be not sufficient to show the difference between SUS 304 and SUS 316L

  2. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  3. Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence Metal Hydride Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-05-31

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) was established in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles. The overall objective of the HSECoE is to develop complete, integrated system concepts that utilize reversible metal hydrides, adsorbents, and chemical hydrogen storage materials through the use of advanced engineering concepts and designs that can simultaneously meet or exceed all the DOE targets. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during Phase 1 of the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE, which lasted 30 months from February 2009 to August 2011. A complete list of all the HSECoE partners can be found later in this report but for the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE work the major contributing organizations to this effort were the United Technology Research Center (UTRC), General Motors (GM), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Specific individuals from these and other institutions that supported this effort and the writing of this report are included in the list of contributors and in the acknowledgement sections of this report. The efforts of the HSECoE are organized into three phases each approximately 2 years in duration. In Phase I, comprehensive system engineering analyses and assessments were made of the three classes of storage media that included development of system level transport and thermal models of alternative conceptual storage configurations to permit detailed comparisons against the DOE performance targets for light-duty vehicles. Phase 1 tasks also included identification and technical justifications for candidate storage media and configurations that should be capable of reaching or exceeding the DOE targets. Phase 2 involved bench-level testing and

  4. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA; Linehan, John C [Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Zheng, Feng [Richland, WA

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  5. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  6. Hydrogen storage and evolution catalysed by metal hydride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-07

    The storage and evolution of hydrogen are catalysed by appropriate metal hydride complexes. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hydrogen is catalysed by a [C,N] cyclometalated organoiridium complex, [Ir(III)(Cp*)(4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))benzoic acid-κC(3))(OH(2))](2)SO(4) [Ir-OH(2)](2)SO(4), under atmospheric pressure of H(2) and CO(2) in weakly basic water (pH 7.5) at room temperature. The reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from formate, is also catalysed by [Ir-OH(2)](+) in acidic water (pH 2.8) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between hydrogen and formic acid in water at ambient temperature and pressure has been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst in both directions depending on pH. The Ir complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses regioselective hydrogenation of the oxidised form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to produce the 1,4-reduced form (NADH) under atmospheric pressure of H(2) at room temperature in weakly basic water. In weakly acidic water, the complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses the reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from NADH to produce NAD(+) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between NADH (and H(+)) and NAD(+) (and H(2)) has also been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst and by changing pH. The iridium hydride complex formed by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) by H(2) and NADH is responsible for the hydrogen evolution. Photoirradiation (λ > 330 nm) of an aqueous solution of the Ir-hydride complex produced by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) with alcohols resulted in the quantitative conversion to a unique [C,C] cyclometalated Ir-hydride complex, which can catalyse hydrogen evolution from alcohols in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.9). The catalytic mechanisms of the hydrogen storage and evolution are discussed by focusing on the reactivity of Ir-hydride complexes.

  7. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kittrell, Carter [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  8. Hydrogen Storage Enhancement Attained by Fixation of Ti on MWNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Pérez-Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hydrogen has a preponderant position among the potentially sustainable energy sources. Due to its power density, its storage is of main concern when considering a broad use in practical applications. Carbon nanotubes constitute promising candidates for the design and construction of hydrogen storage devices. This work explores the use of some procedures involving electrochemistry, aimed to bond atomic Ti on the outer surface of MWNTs. Each titanium atom has the potential of hosting two hydrogen molecules and relinquishing them by heating. Nevertheless, nanotubes are difficult to handle due to electrostatic charge and agglomeration, and in this context, two routes were tested as procedures to spread and stick nanotubes on an electrode: (1 a functionalization capable of attaching gold was tested in two forms, as either using 4 nm particles or a flat gold electrode. The fixation of Au particles was confirmed by HRTEM. (2 A simpler route that consisted on drying a CH2Cl2/nanotubes solution previously spread on a glassy carbon flat electrode. CH2Cl2 was selected as the medium and TiCl4 as the precursor for attaching atomic Ti to the nanotubes. The results revealed that hydrogen adsorption, estimated from voltamperometry, was five times higher on Ti-MWNTs than on bare nanotubes.

  9. Design and integration of a hydrogen storage on metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a hydrogen storage system using metal hydrides for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. Hydride storage technology has been chosen due to project specifications: high volumetric capacity, low pressures (≤ 3.5 bar) and low temperatures (≤ 75 C: fuel cell temperature). During absorption, heat from hydride generation is dissipated by fluid circulation. An integrated plate-fin type heat exchanger has been designed to obtain good compactness and to reach high absorption/desorption rates. At first, the storage system has been tested in accordance with project specifications (absorption 3.5 bar, desorption 1.5 bar). Then, the hydrogen charge/discharge times have been decreased to reach system limits. System design has been used to simulate thermal and mass comportment of the storage tank. The model is based on the software Fluent. We take in consideration heat and mass transfers in the porous media during absorption/desorption. The hydride thermal and mass behaviour has been integrated in the software. The heat and mass transfers experimentally obtained have been compared to results calculated by the model. The influence of experimental and numerical parameters on the model behaviour has also been explored. (author) [fr

  10. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  11. An experimental study of ammonia borane based hydrogen storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kedaresh A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogen is a promising fuel for the future, capable of meeting the demands of energy storage and low pollutant emission. Chemical hydrides are potential candidates for chemical hydrogen storage, especially for automobile applications. Ammonia borane (AB) is a chemical hydride being investigated widely for its potential to realize the hydrogen economy. In this work, the yield of hydrogen obtained during neat AB thermolysis was quantified using two reactor systems. First, an oil bath heated glass reactor system was used with AB batches of 0.13 gram (+/- 0.001 gram). The rates of hydrogen generation were measured. Based on these experimental data, an electrically heated steel reactor system was designed and constructed to handle up to 2 grams of AB per batch. A majority of components were made of stainless-steel. The system consisted of an AB reservoir and feeder, a heated reactor, a gas processing unit and a system control and monitoring unit. An electronic data acquisition system was used to record experimental data. The performance of the steel reactor system was evaluated experimentally through batch reactions of 30 minutes each, for reaction temperatures in the range from 373 K to 430 K. The experimental data showed exothermic decomposition of AB accompanied by rapid generation of hydrogen during the initial period of the reaction. 90% of the hydrogen was generated during the initial 120 seconds after addition of AB to the reactor. At 430 K, the reaction produced 12 wt.% of hydrogen. The heat diffusion in the reactor system and the process of exothermic decomposition of AB were coupled in a two-dimensional model. Neat AB thermolysis was modeled as a global first order reactions based on Arrhenius theory. The values of equation constants were derived from curve fit of experimental data. The pre-exponential constant and the activation energy were estimated to be 4 s-1 (+/- 0.4 s-1) and 13000 J mol -1 s-1 (+/- 1050 J mol-1 s -1) respectively. The model was solved

  12. A Critical Review of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of cost-efficient hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen capacity and light weight, Mg-based alloys have attracted much attention. This review introduces an effective technique in producing bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG Mg alloys and promoting its hydrogen storage property, namely, equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP. This paper briefly describes the technical principle of ECAP and reviews the research progress on hydrogen storage properties of ECAP-processed Mg alloys. Special attention is given to their hydrogen storage behaviors including hydrogen storage dynamics, capacity, and cycling stability. Finally, it analyzes the factors that affect the hydrogen storage properties of ECAP-processed Mg alloys, such as the grain sizes, lattice defects, catalysts, and textures introduced by ECAP process.

  13. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  14. Hydrogen storage in lithium hydride: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    First principles calculations have been carried out to analyze structural stability of lithium hydride (LiH) in NaCl phase using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations have been extended to physiosorbed H-atom compounds LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2. The obtained results are discussed in the paper. The results for LiH are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data. The obtained direct energy band gap of LiH is 3.0 eV which is in excellent agreement with earlier reported theoretical band gap. The electronic band structure plots of the hydrogen adsorbed compounds show metallic behavior. The elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and cohesive energies of all the compounds are calculated. Calculation of the optical spectra such as the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss are performed for the energy range 0-15 eV. The obtained results for LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2, are reported for the first time. This study has been made in search of materials for hydrogen storage. It is concluded that LiH is a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  15. Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanev, Dimitre; Pupkevich, Victor; Penev, Kalin; Glibin, Vassili; Gohil, Jay; Vajihinejad, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is currently one of the most significant problems associated with mass-scale usage of renewable (i.e. wind and solar) power sources. The use of hydrogen as an energy storage medium is very promising, but is hampered by the lack of commercially available hydrogen-to-electricity (H2e) converters. Here we are presenting the first commercially viable, biologically based technology for H2e conversion named the BioGenerator. It is a microbial fuel cell based on electron consumption resulting from the respiration of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. The results obtained during the scale-up study of the BioGenerator showed a maximum specific current of 1.35 A/cm 2 , maximum power density of 1800 W/m 2 and stable electricity generation over a period spanning longer than four years. The largest unit studied so far has a volume of 600 L and a power output of 0.3 kW. - Highlights: • A commercially viable biological convertor of H 2 to electricity (BioGenerator) is proposed. • It has a short-term commercial potential and its economic analysis is quite promising. • The BioGenerator is the first commercially viable bio-technology for energy storage. • It is a power generation technology of which has a negative CO 2 emission.

  16. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  17. Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, David A.; Arduengo, Anthony J. III

    2010-01-01

    Replacing combustion of carbon-based fuels with alternative energy sources that have minimal environmental impact is one of the grand scientific and technological challenges of the early 21st century. Not only is it critical to capture energy from new, renewable sources, it is also necessary to store the captured energy efficiently and effectively for use at the point of service when and where it is needed, which may not be collocated with the collection site. There are many potential storage media but we focus on the storage of energy in chemical bonds. It is more efficient to store energy on a per weight basis in chemical bonds. This is because it is hard to pack electrons into small volumes with low weight without the use of chemical bonds. The focus of the project was the development of new chemistries to enable DOE to meet its technical objectives for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen storage systems. We provided computational chemistry support in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, and properties prediction in support of the experimental efforts of the DOE Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage. The goal of the Center is to store energy in chemical bonds involving hydrogen atoms. Once the hydrogen is stored in a set of X-H/Y-H bonds, the hydrogen has to be easily released and the depleted fuel regenerated very efficiently. This differs substantially from our current use of fossil fuel energy sources where the reactant is converted to energy plus CO 2 (coal) or CO 2 and H 2 O (gasoline, natural gas), which are released into the atmosphere. In future energy storage scenarios, the spent fuel will be captured and the energy storage medium regenerated. This places substantial additional constraints on the chemistry. The goal of the computational chemistry work was to reduce the time to design new materials and develop materials that meet the 2010 and 2015 DOE objectives in terms of weight percent, volume, release time, and regeneration ability

  18. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    Replacing combustion of carbon-based fuels with alternative energy sources that have minimal environmental impact is one of the grand scientific and technological challenges of the early 21st century. Not only is it critical to capture energy from new, renewable sources, it is also necessary to store the captured energy efficiently and effectively for use at the point of service when and where it is needed, which may not be collocated with the collection site. There are many potential storage media but we focus on the storage of energy in chemical bonds. It is more efficient to store energy on a per weight basis in chemical bonds. This is because it is hard to pack electrons into small volumes with low weight without the use of chemical bonds. The focus of the project was the development of new chemistries to enable DOE to meet its technical objectives for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen storage systems. We provided computational chemistry support in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, and properties prediction in support of the experimental efforts of the DOE Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage. The goal of the Center is to store energy in chemical bonds involving hydrogen atoms. Once the hydrogen is stored in a set of X-H/Y-H bonds, the hydrogen has to be easily released and the depleted fuel regenerated very efficiently. This differs substantially from our current use of fossil fuel energy sources where the reactant is converted to energy plus CO2 (coal) or CO2 and H2O (gasoline, natural gas), which are released into the atmosphere. In future energy storage scenarios, the spent fuel will be captured and the energy storage medium regenerated. This places substantial additional constraints on the chemistry. The goal of the computational chemistry work was to reduce the time to design new materials and develop materials that meet the 2010 and 2015 DOE objectives in terms of weight percent, volume, release time, and regeneration ability. This

  19. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Hydrate Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2012-02-16

    First principles electronic structure calculations of the gas phase pentagonal dodecahedron (H2O)20 (D-cage) and tetrakaidecahedron (H2O)24 (T-cage), which are building blocks of structure I (sI) hydrate lattice, suggest that these can accommodate up to a maximum of 5 and 7 guest hydrogen molecules, respectively. For the pure hydrogen hydrate, Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations of periodic (sI) hydrate lattices indicate that the guest molecules are released into the vapor phase via the hexagonal phases of the larger T-cages. An additional mechanism for the migration between neighboring D- and T-cages was found to occur through a shared pentagonal face via the breaking and reforming of a hydrogen bond. This molecular mechanism is also found for the expulsion of a CH4 molecule from the D-cage. The presence of methane in the larger T-cages was found to block this release, therefore suggesting possible scenarios for the stabilization of these mixed guest clathrate hydrates and the potential enhancement of their hydrogen storage capacity.

  20. Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility (Building 878). Consequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This consequence analysis documents the impact that a hydrogen accident could have to employees, the general public, and nearby facilities. The computer model ARCHIE was utilized to determine discharge rates, toxic vapor dispersion analyses, flammable vapor cloud hazards, explosion hazards, and flame jets for the Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility located at Building 878. To determine over pressurization effects, hand calculations derived from the Department of the Air Force Manual, ``Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions,`` were utilized. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce the Lower Flammability and the Lower Detonation Levels are 1,721 feet and 882 feet, respectively. The greatest distance at which 10.0 psi overpressure (i.e., total building destruction) is reached is 153 feet.

  1. Kinetics with deactivation of methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, G.; Marin, A.; Wyss, C.; Mueller, S.; Newson, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation step to recycle toluene and release hydrogen is being studied as part of a hydrogen energy storage project. The reaction is performed catalytically in a fixed bed reactor, and the efficiency of this step significantly determines overall system economics. The fresh catalyst kinetics and the deactivation of the catalyst by coke play an important role in the process analysis. The main reaction kinetics were determined from isothermal experiments using a parameter sensitivity analysis for model discrimination. An activation energy for the main reaction of 220{+-}11 kJ/mol was obtained from a two-parameter model. From non-isothermal deactivation in PC-controlled integral reactors, an activation energy for deactivation of 160 kJ/mol was estimated. A model for catalyst coke content of 3-17 weight% was compared with experimental data. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  2. Multifunctional Carbon-Based Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Simultaneous Oxygen Reduction, Oxygen Evolution, and Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Dai, Liming

    2017-03-01

    Rationally designed N, S co-doped graphitic sheets with stereoscopic holes (SHG) act as effective tri-functional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, and oxygen evolution reaction, simultaneously. The multifunctional electrocatalytic activities originate from a synergistic effect of the N, S heteroatom doping and unique SHG architecture, which provide a large surface area and efficient pathways for electron and electrolyte/reactant transports. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, Enrique J. (University of California, Davis); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D. (Whithworth University, Spokane, WA)

    2011-08-01

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  4. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  5. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  6. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  7. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  8. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  9. Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.

    2005-01-01

    For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics andthermodynamics the Materials Research...

  10. Modeling hydrogen storage in boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tokarev, A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms was considered as a novel material for hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations were used to model key properties of the material, such as geometry, hydrogen packing...

  11. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, M.; Johnson, N.; Strubegger, M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have noted the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies for enabling large-scale variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment in long-term climate change mitigation scenarios. However, global studies, which typically use integrated assessment models, assume a fixed cost trajectory for storage and hydrogen technologies; thereby ignoring the sensitivity of VRE deployment and/or mitigation costs to uncertainties in future storage and hydrogen technology costs. Y...

  12. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials – Structure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Ian M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Lab., Iowa

    2014-06-21

    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  13. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  14. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, Mike [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Purewal, Justin [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Xu, Chunchuan [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Yang, Jun [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Blaser, Rachel [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Sudik, Andrea [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Siegel, Don [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ming, Yang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Dong' an [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chi, Hang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gaab, Manuela [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Arnold, Lena [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Muller, Ulrich [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  15. Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabal, Yves

    2009-03-01

    To develop a hydrogen-based energy technology, several classes of materials are being considered to achieve the DOE targets for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities for hydrogen storage, including liquids (e.g. ammonium borohydrides), clathrate structures, complex metal hydrides, nanostructured (e.g. carbon) an nanoporous materials. Fundamental studies are necessary to determine the ultimate hydrogen capacity of each system. Nanoporous Metal-organic Framework (MOF) materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because the chemical nature and size of their unit cell can be tailored to weakly attract and incorporate H2 molecules, with good volumetric and mass density. In this talk, we consider the structure M2(BDC)2(TED), where M is a metal atom (Zn, Ni, Cu), BDC is benzenedicarboxylate and TED triethylenediamine, to determine the location and interaction of H2 molecules within the MOF. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the tetragonal phase (space group P4/ncc), they construct 3D porous structures with relatively large pore size (˜7-8 A ), pore volume (˜0.63-0.84 cc/g) and BET surface area (˜1500-1900 m^2/g). At high pressures (300-800 psi), the perturbation of the H-H stretching mode can be measured with IR absorption spectroscopy, showing a 35 cm-1 redshift from the unperturbed ortho (4155 cm-1 ) and para (4161 cm-1 ) frequencies. Using a newly developed non empirical van der Waals DFT method vdW-DFT),ootnotetextJ.Y. Lee, D.H. Olson, L. Pan, T.J. Emge, J. Li, Adv. Func. Mater. 17, 1255 (2007) it can be shown that the locus of the deepest H2 binding positions lies within to types of narrow channels. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms, and heat of adsorption) data.ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Ryberg, E. Schroder, D. C. Langreth, B.I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004). Importantly, the

  16. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  17. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  18. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  19. Prediction of hydrogen storage on Y-decorated graphene: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Rongguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • Rare earth metal Y has an excellent performance on hydrogen storage. • After decoration, each Y can attach six hydrogen molecules without dissociation. • The Y atoms disperse uniformly and stably on B/graphene. • The enhancement of H binding is caused by hybridization and electrostatic attraction. - Abstract: Yttrium decorated graphene has been investigated as a potential carrier for high density hydrogen storage. The adsorption energy and optimized geometry for yttrium on pristine and boron doped graphene have been studied by DFT calculations. The clustering and stability of isolated yttrium atoms on graphene has also been considered. For yttrium decorated boron doped graphene, each yttrium can attach six hydrogen molecules with average adsorption energy of −0.568 eV per hydrogen molecule and the hydrogen storage capacity of this material is 5.78 wt.%, indicating yttrium decorated boron doped graphene as a promising hydrogen storage candidate

  20. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliermans,; Carl, B [Augusta, GA

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  1. Hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrates: Current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veluswamy, Hari Prakash; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is looked upon as the next generation clean energy carrier, search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been pursued relentlessly. Improving hydrogen storage capacity to meet DOE targets has been challenging and research efforts are continuously put forth to achieve the set targets and to make hydrogen storage a commercially realizable process. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art experimental work conducted on the storage of hydrogen as hydrogen clathrates both at the molecular level and macroscopic level. It identifies future directions and challenges for this exciting area of research. Hydrogen storage capacities of different clathrate structures – sI, sII, sH, sVI and semi clathrates have been compiled and presented. In addition, promising new approaches for increasing hydrogen storage capacity have been described. Future directions for achieving increased hydrogen storage and process scale up have been outlined. Despite few limitations in storing hydrogen in the form of clathrates, this domain receives prominent attention due to more environmental-friendly method of synthesis, easy recovery of molecular hydrogen with minimum energy requirement, and improved safety of the process

  2. Uranium for hydrogen storage applications : a materials science perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Tewell, Craig R.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-08-01

    Under appropriate conditions, uranium will form a hydride phase when exposed to molecular hydrogen. This makes it quite valuable for a variety of applications within the nuclear industry, particularly as a storage medium for tritium. However, some aspects of the U+H system have been characterized much less extensively than other common metal hydrides (particularly Pd+H), likely due to radiological concerns associated with handling. To assess the present understanding, we review the existing literature database for the uranium hydride system in this report and identify gaps in the existing knowledge. Four major areas are emphasized: {sup 3}He release from uranium tritides, the effects of surface contamination on H uptake, the kinetics of the hydride phase formation, and the thermal desorption properties. Our review of these areas is then used to outline potential avenues of future research.

  3. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  4. Computational investigation and design of coordination compounds for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    it into a layered structure which is expected to improve the kinetics. Iodine doping could also be used for improving ion conduction in lithium tetrahydroborate, which is useful for batteries. Only the high temperature phase of lithium tetrahydroborate show a high ion conduction, and it was shown that doping......Two classes of high capacity hydrogen storage materials, the metal tetrahydroborates and the metal ammines, were investigated at the atomic scale using density functional theory simulations. It was shown that simple model structures could be used to asses the stabilities of complex systems. Trends...... lithium tetrahydroborate with iodine stabilizes the high temperature phase, in agreement with experiment. Finally, examples on how systematic structural studies of metal halides and hydrides can aid the design of new materials were given....

  5. Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Norman L. [Hexagon Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Hexagon Lincoln started this DOE project as part of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) contract on 1 February 2009. The purpose of the HSECoE was the research and development of viable material based hydrogen storage systems for on-board vehicular applications to meet DOE performance and cost targets. A baseline design was established in Phase 1. Studies were then conducted to evaluate potential improvements, such as alternate fiber, resin, and boss materials. The most promising concepts were selected such that potential improvements, compared with the baseline Hexagon Lincoln tank, resulted in a projected weight reduction of 11 percent, volume increase of 4 percent, and cost reduction of 10 percent. The baseline design was updated in Phase 2 to reflect design improvements and changes in operating conditions specified by HSECoE Partners. Evaluation of potential improvements continued during Phase 2. Subscale prototype cylinders were designed and fabricated for HSECoE Partners’ use in demonstrating their components and systems. Risk mitigation studies were conducted in Phase 3 that focused on damage tolerance of the composite reinforcement. Updated subscale prototype cylinders were designed and manufactured to better address the HSECoE Partners’ requirements for system demonstration. Subscale Type 1, Type 3, and Type 4 tanks were designed, fabricated and tested. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate vacuum insulated systems for cooling the tanks during fill, and maintaining low temperatures during service. Full scale designs were prepared based on results from the studies of this program. The operating conditions that developed during the program addressed adsorbent systems operating at cold temperatures. A Type 4 tank would provide the lowest cost and lightest weight, particularly at higher pressures, as long as issues with liner compatibility and damage tolerance could be resolved. A Type 1 tank might be the choice if the

  6. Improvement of hydrogen storage kinetics in ball-milled magnesium doped with antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír; Roupcová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2017), s. 6144-6151 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Hydrogen * Hydrogen storage * Storage capacity * Magnesium alloys * Antimony Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  7. The impact of carbon materials on the hydrogen storage properties of light metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelhelm, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313907854; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2011-01-01

    The safe and efficient storage of hydrogen is still one of the remaining challenges towards fuel cell powered cars. Metal hydrides are a promising class of materials as they allow the storage of large amounts of hydrogen in a small volume at room temperature and low pressures. However, usually the

  8. Modulated synthesis of Cr-MOF (MIL 101) for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Segakweng, T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available as a fuel into fuel cell technologies is only possible when safe and effective hydrogen storage systems become available. Complete usage of hydrogen is only possible if proper and effective storage systems with fast kinetics becomes available. Porous...

  9. Hydrogen Storage Activities at HySA from (Nano)materials to Systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Workshop, Hydrogen – A competitive Energy Storage Medium for large scale integration of renewable electricity, Seville, Spain 15-16 November 2012 Hydrogen Storage Activities at HySA from (Nano)materials to Systems Langmi, H, Ren, J, North, B...

  10. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  11. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Thanh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, Matt [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, Stephen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, Karen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  12. Temporal and spatial imaging of hydrogen storage materials: watching solvent and hydrogen desorption from aluminium hydride by transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Shane D; Humphries, Terry; Weaver, Louise; McGrady, G Sean

    2008-10-07

    An in situ thermal desorption study of solvated aluminum hydride (alane) by transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction has permitted characterisation of the structural and morphological changes during desorption of solvent and hydrogen in real-time; this powerful technique for studying hydrogen storage materials complements several others already employed.

  13. Novel optimization technique of isolated microgrid with hydrogen energy storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Hassan Beshr

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs, Diesel Generator (DG, a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG, Photovoltaic (PV arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results. The Pros and cons of the two optimization techniques are compared and evaluated. An isolated microgrid is modelled using MATLAB software package, dispatch of active/reactive power, optimal load flow analysis with slack bus selection are carried out to be able to minimize fuel cost and line losses under realistic constraints. The performance of the system is studied and analyzed during both summer and winter conditions and three case studies are presented for each condition. The modified IEEE 15 bus system is used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  14. Novel optimization technique of isolated microgrid with hydrogen energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshr, Eman Hassan; Abdelghany, Hazem; Eteiba, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), Photovoltaic (PV) arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results. The Pros and cons of the two optimization techniques are compared and evaluated. An isolated microgrid is modelled using MATLAB software package, dispatch of active/reactive power, optimal load flow analysis with slack bus selection are carried out to be able to minimize fuel cost and line losses under realistic constraints. The performance of the system is studied and analyzed during both summer and winter conditions and three case studies are presented for each condition. The modified IEEE 15 bus system is used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  15. Novel optimization technique of isolated microgrid with hydrogen energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, Hazem; Eteiba, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), Photovoltaic (PV) arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results. The Pros and cons of the two optimization techniques are compared and evaluated. An isolated microgrid is modelled using MATLAB software package, dispatch of active/reactive power, optimal load flow analysis with slack bus selection are carried out to be able to minimize fuel cost and line losses under realistic constraints. The performance of the system is studied and analyzed during both summer and winter conditions and three case studies are presented for each condition. The modified IEEE 15 bus system is used to validate the proposed algorithm. PMID:29466433

  16. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  17. Hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications: Challenges, opportunities and prospects for metal-organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe, efficient hydrogen storage and distribution is widely regarded as one of the major challenges facing the transition to the Hydrogen Economy. Conventionally, hydrogen is stored as compressed gas or cryogenically as a liquid. In order to meet...

  18. Chemical bridges for enhancing hydrogen storage by spillover and methods for forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwei; Qi, Gongshin; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2012-12-25

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a source of hydrogen atoms, a receptor, and a chemical bridge formed between the source and the receptor. The chemical bridge is formed from a precursor material. The receptor is adapted to receive hydrogen spillover from the source.

  19. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  20. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004; GAT 4 procduction et stockage de l'hydrogene. Rapport juillet 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  1. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  2. Ab-initio study of hydrogen technology materials for hydrogen storage and proton conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luduena, Guillermo Andres

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation deals with two specific aspects of a potential hydrogen-based energy economy, namely the problems of energy storage and energy conversion. In order to contribute to the solution of these problems, the structural and dynamical properties of two promising materials for hydrogen storage (lithium imide/amide) and proton conduction (poly[vinyl phosphonic acid]) are modeled on an atomistic scale by means of first principles molecular dynamics simulation methods. In the case of the hydrogen storage system lithium amide/imide (LiNH{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}NH), the focus was on the interplay of structural features and nuclear quantum effects. For these calculations, Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics (PIMD) simulations were used. The structures of these materials at room temperature were elucidated; in collaboration with an experimental group, a very good agreement between calculated and experimental solid-state {sup 1}H-NMR chemical shifts was observed. Specifically, the structure of Li{sub 2}NH features a disordered arrangement of the Li lattice, which was not reported in previous studies. In addition, a persistent precession of the NH bonds was observed in our simulations. We provide evidence that this precession is the consequence of a toroid-shaped effective potential, in which the protons in the material are immersed. This potential is essentially flat along the torus azimuthal angle, which might lead to important quantum delocalization effects of the protons over the torus. On the energy conversion side, the dynamics of protons in a proton conducting polymer (poly[vinyl phosphonic acid], PVPA) was studied by means of a steered ab-initio Molecular Dynamics approach applied on a simplified polymer model. The focus was put on understanding the microscopic proton transport mechanism in polymer membranes, and on characterizing the relevance of the local environment. This covers particularly the effect of water molecules, which participate in the hydrogen bonding

  3. Zirconium-Based metal organic framework (Zr-MOF) material with high hydrostability for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Material-based solutions, such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs), continue to attract increasing attention as viable options for hydrogen storage applications. MOFs are widely regarded as promising materials for hydrogen storage due to their high...

  4. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  5. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  6. Conversion rate of para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen: implications for PHIP gas storage and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    To determine the storability of para-hydrogen before reestablishment of the room temperature thermal equilibrium mixture. Para-hydrogen was produced at near 100% purity and mixed with different oxygen quantities to determine the rate of conversion to the thermal equilibrium mixture of 75: 25% (ortho: para) by detecting the ortho-hydrogen (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance using a 9.4 T imager. The para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen velocity constant, k, near room temperature (292 K) was determined to be 8.27 ± 1.30 L/mol · min(-1). This value was calculated utilizing four different oxygen fractions. Para-hydrogen conversion to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen can be minimized for long term storage with judicious removal of oxygen contamination. Prior calculated velocity rates were confirmed demonstrating a dependence on only the oxygen concentration.

  7. Testing facility for hydrogen storage materials designed to simulate application based conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerwaal, R.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; Haije, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    For the daily use of hydrogen storage materials, not only their intrinsic storage properties are important, but also equally important is the performance under practical conditions. Besides the techniques already available for the fundamental characterization of storage materials, there is a growing

  8. Performance Improvement of V-Fe-Cr-Ti Solid State Hydrogen Storage Materials in Impure Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Ulrich; Oertel, Daria; Diemant, Thomas; Bonatto Minella, Christian; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Dittmeyer, Roland; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2018-01-17

    Two approaches of engineering surface structures of V-Ti-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys are presented, which enable improved tolerance toward gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) impurities in hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. Surface modification is achieved through engineering lanthanum (La)- or nickel (Ni)-rich surface layers with enhanced cyclic stability in an H 2 /O 2 mixture. The formation of a Ni-rich surface layer does not improve the cycling stability in H 2 /O 2 mixtures. Mischmetal (Mm, a mixture of La and Ce) agglomerates are observed within the bulk and surface of the alloy when small amounts of this material are added during arc melting synthesis. These agglomerates provide hydrogen-transparent diffusion pathways into the bulk of the V-Ti-Cr-Fe hydrogen storage alloy when the remaining oxidized surface is already nontransparent for hydrogen. Thus, the cycling stability of the alloy is improved in an O 2 -containing hydrogen environment as compared to the same alloy without addition of Mm. The obtained surface-engineered storage material still absorbs hydrogen after 20 cycles in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture, while the original material is already deactivated after 4 cycles.

  9. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS PART II: DETAILED MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    There is significant interest in hydrogen storage systems that employ a media which either adsorbs, absorbs or reacts with hydrogen in a nearly reversible manner. In any media based storage system the rate of hydrogen uptake and the system capacity is governed by a number of complex, coupled physical processes. To design and evaluate such storage systems, a comprehensive methodology was developed, consisting of a hierarchical sequence of models that range from scoping calculations to numerical models that couple reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer for both the hydrogen charging and discharging phases. The scoping models were presented in Part I [1] of this two part series of papers. This paper describes a detailed numerical model that integrates the phenomena occurring when hydrogen is charged and discharged. A specific application of the methodology is made to a system using NaAlH{sub 4} as the storage media.

  10. Review of Solid State Hydrogen Storage Methods Adopting Different Kinds of Novel Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renju Zacharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of advances in the technology of solid state hydrogen storage methods applying different kinds of novel materials is provided. Metallic and intermetallic hydrides, complex chemical hydride, nanostructured carbon materials, metal-doped carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, metal-doped metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks (COFs, and clathrates solid state hydrogen storage techniques are discussed. The studies on their hydrogen storage properties are in progress towards positive direction. Nevertheless, it is believed that these novel materials will offer far-reaching solutions to the onboard hydrogen storage problems in near future. The review begins with the deficiencies of current energy economy and discusses the various aspects of implementation of hydrogen energy based economy.

  11. Hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles decorated halloysite clay nanotubes as a potential hydrogen storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthu, R. Naresh, E-mail: rnaresh7708@gmail.com; Rajashabala, S. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindigul-624622 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca 14850, New York (United States)

    2016-05-23

    The light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite for the carbon free hydrogen fuel cell technology. In this work, the hydrogen storage performance of acid treated halloysite clay nanotubes (A-HNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles decorated acid treated halloysite nanoclay composite (A-HNT-h-BN) are demonstrated, where facile ultrasonic technique is adopted for the synthesis of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. Hydrogen storage studies were carried out using Sieverts-like hydrogenation setup. The A-HNTs and A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, EDX, CHNS-elemental analysis and TGA. The A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite shows superior storage capacity of 2.19 wt% at 50 °C compared to the A-HNTs (0.58 wt%). A 100% desorption of stored hydrogen is noted in the temperature range of 138–175 °C. The average binding energy of hydrogen was found to be 0.34 eV for the prepared A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. The excellent storage capability of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite towards hydrogen at ambient temperature may find bright perspective in hydrogen fuel cell technology in near future.

  12. Hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles decorated halloysite clay nanotubes as a potential hydrogen storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2016-01-01

    The light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite for the carbon free hydrogen fuel cell technology. In this work, the hydrogen storage performance of acid treated halloysite clay nanotubes (A-HNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles decorated acid treated halloysite nanoclay composite (A-HNT-h-BN) are demonstrated, where facile ultrasonic technique is adopted for the synthesis of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. Hydrogen storage studies were carried out using Sieverts-like hydrogenation setup. The A-HNTs and A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, EDX, CHNS-elemental analysis and TGA. The A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite shows superior storage capacity of 2.19 wt% at 50 °C compared to the A-HNTs (0.58 wt%). A 100% desorption of stored hydrogen is noted in the temperature range of 138–175 °C. The average binding energy of hydrogen was found to be 0.34 eV for the prepared A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. The excellent storage capability of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite towards hydrogen at ambient temperature may find bright perspective in hydrogen fuel cell technology in near future.

  13. Hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles decorated halloysite clay nanotubes as a potential hydrogen storage medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2016-05-01

    The light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite for the carbon free hydrogen fuel cell technology. In this work, the hydrogen storage performance of acid treated halloysite clay nanotubes (A-HNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles decorated acid treated halloysite nanoclay composite (A-HNT-h-BN) are demonstrated, where facile ultrasonic technique is adopted for the synthesis of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. Hydrogen storage studies were carried out using Sieverts-like hydrogenation setup. The A-HNTs and A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, EDX, CHNS-elemental analysis and TGA. The A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite shows superior storage capacity of 2.19 wt% at 50 °C compared to the A-HNTs (0.58 wt%). A 100% desorption of stored hydrogen is noted in the temperature range of 138-175 °C. The average binding energy of hydrogen was found to be 0.34 eV for the prepared A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite. The excellent storage capability of A-HNT-h-BN nanoclay composite towards hydrogen at ambient temperature may find bright perspective in hydrogen fuel cell technology in near future.

  14. Modeling of an Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Navin Kodange

    2010-12-01

    Scope and Method of Study. The purpose of the study was to consider the integration of hydrogen storage technology as means of energy storage with renewable sources of energy. Hydrogen storage technology consists of an alkaline electrolyzer, gas storage tank and a fuel cell. The Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) under consideration includes wind energy, solar energy from photovoltaics, solar thermal energy and biomass energy in the form of biogas. Energy needs are categorized depending on the type and quality of the energy requirements. After meeting all the energy needs, any excess energy available from wind and PVs is converted into hydrogen using an electrolyzer for later use in a fuel cell. Similarly, when renewable energy generation is not able to supply the actual load demand, the stored hydrogen is utilized through fuel cell to fulfill load demand. Analysis of how IRES operates in order to satisfy different types of energy needs is discussed. Findings and Conclusions. All simulations are performed using MATLAB software. Hydrogen storage technology consisting of an electrolyzer, gas storage tank and a fuel cell is incorporated in the IRES design process for a hypothetical remote community. Results show that whenever renewable energy generated is greater than the electrical demand, excess energy is stored in the form of hydrogen and in case of energy shortfall, the stored hydrogen is utilized through the fuel cell to supply to excess power demand. The overall operation of IRES is enhanced as a result of energy storage in the form of hydrogen. Hydrogen has immense potential to be the energy carrier of the future because of its clean character and the model of hydrogen storage discussed here can form an integral part of IRES for remote area applications.

  15. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world.

  16. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  17. Annular Air Leaks in a liquid hydrogen storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, AG; Youngquist, RC; Starr, SO

    2017-12-01

    Large liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA, the DOD, and industrial users. Over time, air may leak into the evacuated, perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Once inside, the extremely low temperatures will cause most of the air to freeze. If a significant mass of air is allowed to accumulate, severe damage can result from nominal draining operations. Collection of liquid air on the outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. Testing and analysis to quantify the thermal conductivity of perlite that has nitrogen frozen into its interstitial spaces and to determine the void fraction of frozen nitrogen within a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture is presented. General equations to evaluate methods for removing frozen air, while avoiding fracture, are developed. A hypothetical leak is imposed on an existing tank geometry and a full analysis of that leak is detailed. This analysis includes a thermal model of the tank and a time-to-failure calculation. Approaches to safely remove the frozen air are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the most feasible approach is to allow the frozen air to melt and to use a water stream to prevent the outer shell from chilling.

  18. Hydrazine Borane and Hydrazinidoboranes as Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Moury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazine borane N2H4BH3 and alkali derivatives (i.e., lithium, sodium and potassium hydrazinidoboranes MN2H3BH3 with M = Li, Na and K have been considered as potential chemical hydrogen storage materials. They belong to the family of boron- and nitrogen-based materials and the present article aims at providing a timely review while focusing on fundamentals so that their effective potential in the field could be appreciated. It stands out that, on the one hand, hydrazine borane, in aqueous solution, would be suitable for full dehydrogenation in hydrolytic conditions; the most attractive feature is the possibility to dehydrogenate, in addition to the BH3 group, the N2H4 moiety in the presence of an active and selective metal-based catalyst but for which further improvements are still necessary. However, the thermolytic dehydrogenation of hydrazine borane should be avoided because of the evolution of significant amounts of hydrazine and the formation of a shock-sensitive solid residue upon heating at >300 °C. On the other hand, the alkali hydrazinidoboranes, obtained by reaction of hydrazine borane with alkali hydrides, would be more suitable to thermolytic dehydrogenation, with improved properties in comparison to the parent borane. All of these aspects are surveyed herein and put into perspective.

  19. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  20. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  1. Fabrication of Nickel Nanotube Using Anodic Oxidation and Electrochemical Deposition Technologies and Its Hydrogen Storage Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical deposition technique was utilized to fabricate nickel nanotubes with the assistance of AAO templates. The topography and element component of the nickel nanotubes were characterized by TEM and EDS. Furthermore, the nickel nanotube was made into microelectrode and its electrochemical hydrogen storage property was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the diameter of nickel nanotubes fabricated was around 20–100 mm, and the length of the nanotube could reach micron grade. The nickel nanotubes had hydrogen storage property, and the hydrogen storage performance was higher than that of nickel powder.

  2. FINAL REPORT - Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Donald [Hexagon Lincoln LLC, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The “Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery” project [DE-FG36-08GO18062] was initiated on 01 July 2008. Hexagon Lincoln (then Lincoln Composites) received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Energy to support the design and development of an improved bulk hauling and storage solution for hydrogen in terms of cost, safety, weight and volumetric efficiency. The development of this capability required parallel development and qualification of large all-composites pressure vessels, a custom ISO container to transport and store said tanks, and performance of trade studies to identify optimal operating pressure for the system. Qualification of the 250 bar TITAN® module was completed in 2009 with supervision from the American Bureau of Shipping [ABS], and the equipment has been used internationally for bulk transportation of fuel gases since 2010. Phase 1 of the project was successfully completed in 2012 with the issuance of USDOT SP 14951, the special permit authorizing the manufacture, marking, sale and use of TITAN® Mobile Pipeline® equipment in the United States. The introduction of tube trailers with light weight composite tankage has meant that 2 to 3 times as much gaseous fuel can be transported with each trip. This increased hauling efficiency offers dramatically reduced operating costs and has enabled a profitable business model for over-the-road compressed natural gas delivery. The economic drivers of this business opportunity vary from country to country and region to region, but in many places gas distribution companies have realized profitable operations. Additional testing was performed in 2015 to characterize hydrogen-specific operating protocols for use of TITAN® systems in CHG service at 250 bar. This program demonstrated that existing compression and decompression methodologies can efficiently and safely fill and unload lightweight bulk hauling systems. Hexagon Lincoln and U.S. DOE agreed

  3. Calculation of axial hydrogen redistribution on the spent fuels during interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    One of the phenomena that will affect fuel integrity during a spent fuel dry storage is a hydrogen axial migration in cladding. If there is a hydrogen pickup in cladding in reactor operation, hydrogen will move from hotter to colder cladding region in the axial direction under fuel temperature gradient during dry storage. Then hydrogen beyond solubility limit in colder region will be precipitated as hydride, and consequently hydride embrittlement may take place in the cladding. In this study, hydrogen redistribution experiments were carried out to obtain the data related to hydrogen axial migration by using actually twenty years dry (air) stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods of which burn-ups were 31 and 58 MWd/kg HM. From the hydrogen redistribution experiments, the heat of transport of hydrogen of zircaloy-4 cladding from twenty years dry stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods were from 10.1 to 18.6 kcal/mol and they were significantly larger than that of unirradiated zircaloy-4 cladding. This means that hydrogen in irradiated cladding can move easier than that in unirradiated cladding. In the hydrogen redistribution experiments, hydrogen diffusion coefficients and solubility limit were also obtained. There are few differences in the diffusion coefficients and solubility limits between the irradiated cladding and unirradiated cladding. The hydrogen redistribution in the cladding after dry storage for forty years was evaluated by one-dimensional diffusion calculation using the measured values. The maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the irradiated cladding and various spent fuel temperature profiles reported were used in the calculation. The axial hydrogen migration was not significant after dry storage for forty years in helium atmosphere and the maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the unirradiated cladding gave conservative evaluation for hydrogen redistribution

  4. Numerical analysis of accidental hydrogen releases from high pressure storage at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Melideo, Daniele; Baraldi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the performance of simplified engineering and CFD models are important to improve risk assessment tools e.g. to predict accurately releases from various types of hydrogen storages. These tools have to predict releases from a wide range of storage pressures (up to 80 MPa) and temper......Evaluations of the performance of simplified engineering and CFD models are important to improve risk assessment tools e.g. to predict accurately releases from various types of hydrogen storages. These tools have to predict releases from a wide range of storage pressures (up to 80 MPa...

  5. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Ciotti, Michael [H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering

    2017-11-16

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.

  6. Hydriding and dehydriding rates and hydrogen-storage capacity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    means of nuclear, wind, solar, tidal or geothermal energy. When hydrogen is converted into energy, water is the only exhaust product. It is thus extremely environmental friendly as an energy carrier. Although hydrogen has obvious benefits, an immediate incorporation of hydrogen into the world economy has a number of ...

  7. Tailoring the thermostability and hydrogen storage capacity of Li decorated carbon materials by heteroatom doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Li, Jieyuan; Nan, Fang; Yin, Shi; Li, Jianjun; Cen, Wanglai

    2018-03-01

    Li decorated graphene is supposed to be a promising material for the hydrogen storage, which can be further improved by heteroatom doping. But a unified promoting mechanism for various doping types and species are still lacking, which hinders the rational design of advanced materials. The potential of N/B doped Li decorated graphene for hydrogen storage is investigated with DFT calculations. A covalent interaction between Li and the graphene substrates is identified to control the thermostability and hydrogen storage capacity (HSC) of the Li decorated substrate, which is in turn subject to the electronegativity of doping species and the doping types. Additionally, a conceptual descriptor is proposed to predict the HSC of Li decorated graphene. These results provide a unified explanation and prediction of the effects of heteroatom doping on Li decorated carbon materials for hydrogen storage.

  8. Synthesis of a hybrid MIL-101(Cr)/ZTC composite for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) hybrid composites have recently attracted considerable attention in hydrogen storage applications. In this study a hybrid composite of zeolite templated carbon (ZTC) and Cr-based MOF (MIL-101) was synthesised...

  9. Comparison of MOF-5- and Cr-MOF-derived carbons for hydrogen storage application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Segakweng, T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous carbons which possess high surface areas and narrow pore size distributions have become one of the most important classes of porous materials with potential to be utilized for hydrogen storage. In recent times, several metal...

  10. Modeling, Testing and Deploying a Multifunctional Radiation Shielding / Hydrogen Storage Unit, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  11. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of ex situ and in situ time-resolved SR-XRPD in hydrogen storage materials, are reviewed in detail. Future trends and proposals in the applications of the advanced XRPD techniques in hydrogen storage materials are also discussed.

  12. Synthesis of templated carbon from nanoclay and its zeolitic derivatives for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the many available options for hydrogen storage, carbonaceous materials are gaining increasing attention. In particular, templated carbons have attracted research interest because of the ability to control their pore structure properties...

  13. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  14. Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation Technologies for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications which was held on April 8-10, 1997 at the Radisson Hotel Orlando Airport in Orlando, Florida...

  15. Improved synthesis and hydrogen storage of a microporous metal-organic framework material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shaojuan; Liu Shaobing; Zhao Qiang; Li Jinping

    2009-01-01

    A microporous metal-organic framework MOF-5 [Zn 4 O(BDC) 3 , BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic] was synthesized with and without H 2 O 2 by improved methods based on the previous studies. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption, and their hydrogen storage capacities were measured. The synthesis experiments showed that H 2 O 2 favored the growth of high quality sample, large pore volume and high specific surface area. The measurements of hydrogen storage indicated that the sample with higher specific surface area and large pore volume showed better hydrogen storage behavior than other samples. It was suggested that specific surface area and pore volume influenced the capacity of hydrogen storage for MOF-5 material.

  16. An overview of hydrogen storage materials: Making a case for metal organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available attention. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as hydrogen storage materials due to their well-defined structure, tunability, high porosity and large specific surface area. This presentation provides...

  17. First principles DFT investigation of yttrium-doped graphene: Electronic structure and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnavi, Sameerah; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic structure and hydrogen storage capability of Yttrium-doped grapheme has been theoretically investigated using first principles density functional theory (DFT). Yttrium atom prefers the hollow site of the hexagonal ring with a binding energy of 1.40 eV. Doping by Y makes the system metallic and magnetic with a magnetic moment of 2.11 μ B . Y decorated graphene can adsorb up to four hydrogen molecules with an average binding energy of 0.415 eV. All the hydrogen atoms are physisorbed with an average desorption temperature of 530.44 K. The Y atoms can be placed only in alternate hexagons, which imply a wt% of 6.17, close to the DoE criterion for hydrogen storage materials. Thus, this system is potential hydrogen storage medium with 100% recycling capability

  18. Hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes; Stockage d'hydrogene dans les nanotubes de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Hirscher, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Dettlaff-Weglikovska, U.; Chen, X.; Hulman, M.; Choi, Y.; Roth, S.; Meregalli, V.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Strobel, R.; Jorissen, L. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Ulm (Germany); Kappes, M.M. [Karlsruhe Univ., Institut fur Physikalische Chemie(Germany); Fink, J. [Institut fur Festkorper-Und Werkstoffforschun, Dresden (Germany); Zuttel, A. [Fribourg Univ., Dept. Physique (Switzerland); Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P. [Montpellier-2 Univ., GDPC, 34 (France)

    2003-11-01

    Hydrogen storage in new nano-structured carbonic materials is a topic for lively discussion. The measured storage capacities of these materials, which have been announced in the literature during the last ten years are spread over an enormous range from about 0.1 wt% up to 67 wt%. This paper will give a report on the state of the art of hydrogen storage in carbon nano-structures. We shall critically review the recent 'key publications' on this topic, which claim storage capacities clearly above the technological bench mark set by the US Department of Energy, and we shall report new results which have been obtained in a joint project sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research in Germany (BMBF). (authors)

  19. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Honghui Cheng; Chen Lu; Jingjing Liu; Yongke Yan; Xingbo Han; Huiming Jin; Yu Wang; Yi Liu; Changle Wu

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD) has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of...

  20. NbCl5 and CrCl3 catalysts effect on synthesis and hydrogen storage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two kinds of novel materials, Mg–1.6 mol% Ni–0.4 mol% NiO–2 mol% MCl (MCl = NbCl5, CrCl3), along with Mg–1.6 mol% Ni–0.4 mol% NiO for comparison, were examined for their potential use in hydrogen storage applications, having been fabricated via cryomilling. The effects of NbCl5 and CrCl3 on hydrogen storage ...

  1. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals ...pumping of gas species into and out of the nanocapillaries. The MEA also serves as a high pressure seal . A theoretical discussion of the potential

  2. Hydrogen energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P P; Kuznetsov, V L; David, W I F

    2007-04-15

    The problem of anthropogenically driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs are arguably the greatest challenge facing our planet. Hydrogen is now widely regarded as one key element of a potential energy solution for the twenty-first century, capable of assisting in issues of environmental emissions, sustainability and energy security. Hydrogen has the potential to provide for energy in transportation, distributed heat and power generation and energy storage systems with little or no impact on the environment, both locally and globally. However, any transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers. This brief report aims to outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and examines some of the important issues relating to the future development of hydrogen as an energy vector.

  3. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    Many challenges have still to be overcome in order to establish a solid ground for significant market penetration of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles. The development of an effective solution for on-board hydrogen storage is one of the main technical tasks that need to be tackled. The present thesis...... deals with the development of a simulation tool to design and compare different vehicular storage options with respect to targets based upon storage and fueling efficiencies. The set targets represent performance improvements with regard to the state-of-the-art technology and are separately defined...... for each storage solution investigated in this work. Attention is given to solutions that involve high-pressure solid-state and gas hydrogen storage with an integrated passive cooling system. A set of libraries is implemented in the modeling platform to select among different material compositions, kinetic...

  4. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  5. Underground hydrogen storage. Final report. [Salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers and depleted fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S.; Novil, M.; Rockar, E.; Randolph, P.

    1979-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of storing hydrogen in underground storage reservoirs is evaluated. The past and present technology of storing gases, primarily natural gas is reviewed. Four types of reservoirs are examined: salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers, and depleted fields. A technical investigation of hydrogen properties reveals that only hydrogen embrittlement places a limit on the underground storage by hydrogen. This constraint will limit reservoir pressures to 1200 psi or less. A model was developed to determine economic feasibility. After making reasonable assumptions that a utility might make in determining whether to proceed with a new storage operation, the model was tested and verified on natural gas storage. A parameteric analysis was made on some of the input parameters of the model to determine the sensitivity of the cost of service to them. Once the model was verified it was used to compute the cost of service of storing hydrogen in the four reservoir types. The costs of service for hydrogen storage ranged from 26 to 150% of the cost of the gas stored. The study concludes that it is now both safe and economic to store hydrogen in underground reservoirs.

  6. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis Framework for Geologic Storage of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Anna S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kobos, Peter Holmes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Large scale geostorage options for fuels including natural gas and petroleum offer substantial buffer capacity to meet or hedge against supply disruptions. This same notion may be applied to large scale hydrogen storage to meet industrial or transportation sector needs. This study develops an assessment tool to calculate the potential ‘gate-to-gate’ life cycle costs for large scale hydrogen geostorage options in salt caverns, and continues to develop modules for depleted oil/gas reservoirs and aquifers. The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in these types of storage to assess the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for this type of hydrogen storage. Understanding, and looking to quantify, the value of large-scale storage in a larger hydrogen supply and demand infrastructure may prove extremely beneficial for larger infrastructure modeling efforts when looking to identify the most efficient means to fuel a hydrogen demand (e.g., industrial or transportation-centric demand). Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale storage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S., the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO2 in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  7. Computational studies on hydrogen storage in aluminum nitride nanowires/tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafei; Zhou, Zhen; Shen, Panwen; Zhang, S B; Chen, Zhongfang

    2009-05-27

    One-dimensional AlN nanowires/tubes were exploited as hydrogen storage media. The adsorption of atomic and molecular hydrogen on AlN nanowires was investigated by using density functional theory computations. Hydrogen atoms prefer to adsorb on top of neighboring threefold-coordinated N and Al atoms in pairs. A hydrogen molecule, however, prefers to adsorb on top of threefold-coordinated Al atoms in the nanowire surface, with an adsorption energy of 0.21 eV. H(2) dissociation is exothermic in the surface of AlN nanowires, and the dissociation barrier is rather low (0.76 eV), indicating that chemisorption is a feasible route for hydrogen storage in AlN nanowires/tubes. A maximum 3.66 wt% of molecular and 2.44 wt% of atomic hydrogen can be stored in AlN nanowires/tubes.

  8. Properties of MgAl alloys in relation to hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2005-08-01

    Magnesium theoretically stores 7.6 wt. % hydrogen, although it requires heating to above 300 degrees C in order to release hydrogen. This limits its use for mobile application. However, due to its low price and abundance magnesium should still be considered as a potential candidate for hydrogen storage e.g. in stationary applications. In this report the properties of Mg-Al alloys are reviewed in relation to solid state hydrogen storage Alloying with Al reduces the hydrogen capacity since Al does not form a hydride under conventional hydriding conditions, however both the thermodynamical properties (lower desorption temperature), and kinetics of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation are improved. In addition to this, the low price of the hydride is retained along with improved heat transfer properties and improved resistance towards oxygen contamination. (au)

  9. DFT study of planar boron sheets: a new template for hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Er, S.; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the hydrogen storage properties of planar boron sheets and compare them to those of graphene. The binding of molecular hydrogen to the boron sheet (0.05 eV) is stronger than that to graphene. We find that dispersion of alkali metal (AM = Li, Na, and K) atoms onto the boron sheet markedly

  10. Hydrogen storage performance of functionalized hexagonal boron nitride for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Developing light weight, safe, efficient and compact hydrogen storage medium are still the major concerns for the blooming of hydrogen based energy economy. In the present article, activated hexagonal boron nitride (ABN) and ABN functionalized with lithium borohydride (ABN-LiBH4) nanocomposite based hydrogen storage medium are synthesized. where a facile solvent-assistant technique was adopted for the preparation of ABN-LiBH4 nanocomposite. The prepared hydrogen storage medium was subjected to various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDX, CHNS - elemental analysis and TGA. Sievert's-like hydrogenation setup has been utilized for hydrogenation studies. It is noticed that the ABN-LiBH4 nanocomposite exhibits an attractive high gravimetric density of 1.67 wt% at 100 °C than pristine ABN. Moreover the stored hydrogen is released in the temperature range of 115 - 150 °C and possesses an average binding energy of 0.31 eV. These results indicate that the prepared ABN-LiBH4 nanocomposite paves a way to potential solid state hydrogen storage medium towards fuel cell technology as per the targets set by US Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Bulk-scaffolded hydrogen storage and releasing materials and methods for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; Li, Xiaohong S [Richland, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA

    2011-06-21

    Compositions are disclosed for storing and releasing hydrogen and methods for preparing and using same. These hydrogen storage and releasing materials exhibit fast release rates at low release temperatures without unwanted side reactions, thus preserving desired levels of purity and enabling applications in combustion and fuel cell applications.

  12. Hydrogen patent portfolios in the automotive industry - the search for promising storage methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the development of hydrogen vehicle technologies, the automotive industry adopts a portfolio approach; a multitude of technological options is developed for hydrogen storage and conversion. Patent portfolios of car manufacturers are used as indicators of the variation and selection dynamics of

  13. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astiaso Garcia, D.; Barbanera, F.; Cumo, F.; De Matteo, U.; Nastasi, B.

    2016-01-01

    Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical), hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G) from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into

  14. Uncertainties in risk assessment of hydrogen discharges from pressurized storage vessels at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Melideo, D.; Baraldi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the uncertainties resulting from risk assessment tools to predict releases from the various hydrogen storage types are important to support risk informed safety management. The tools have to predict releases from a wide range of storage pressures (up to 80 MPa) and temperatures (at...

  15. Alloying effect on the electronic structures of hydrogen storage compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, H.; Moringa, M.; Takahashi, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    1997-05-20

    The electronic structures of hydrogenated LaNi{sub 5} containing various 3d transition elements were investigated by the DV-X{alpha} molecular orbital method. The hydrogen atom was found to form a strong chemical bond with the Ni rather than the La atoms. The alloying modified the chemical bond strengths between atoms in a small metal octahedron containing a hydrogen atom at the center, resulting in the change in the hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of LaNi{sub 5} with alloying. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB{sub 5} materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB{sub 5} materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to. The thesis is divided into 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting with a short presentation of energy storage alternatives. Then a general review of metal hydrides and their utilisation as energy carriers is presented. This part also includes more detailed descriptions of the crystal structure, the chemical composition and the hydrogen storage properties of AB{sub 5} materials. Furthermore, a description of the chill-block melt spinning process and the gas atomisation process is given. In Part II of the thesis a digital photo calorimetric technique has been developed and applied for obtaining in situ temperature measurements during chill-block melt spinning of a Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5} hydride forming alloy (Mm = Mischmetal of rare earths). Compared with conventional colour transmission temperature measurements, this technique offers a special advantage in terms of a high temperature resolutional and positional accuracy, which under the prevailing experimental conditions were found to be {+-}29 K and {+-} 0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the cooling rate in solid state is approximately 2.5 times higher than that observed during solidification, indicating that the solid ribbon stayed in intimate contact with the wheel surface down to very low metal temperatures before the bond was broken. During this contact period the cooling regime shifted from near ideal in the melt puddle to near Newtonian towards the end, when the heat transfer from the solid ribbon to the wheel became the rate controlling step. In Part III of the

  17. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  18. The storage of hydrogen in the form of metal hydrides: An application to thermal engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, C.; Perroud, P.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using LaNi56, FeTiH2, or MgH2 as metal hydride storage sytems for hydrogen fueled automobile engines is discussed. Magnesium copper and magnesium nickel hydrides studies indicate that they provide more stable storage systems than pure magnesium hydrides. Several test engines employing hydrogen fuel have been developed: a single cylinder motor originally designed for use with air gasoline mixture; a four-cylinder engine modified to run on an air hydrogen mixture; and a gas turbine.

  19. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ≥6 wt% and ≥50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the

  20. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  1. A study on hydrogen storage through adsorption in nano-structured carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langohr, D.

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this work is to build and calibrate an experimental set-up for the testing of the materials, to produce some carbon materials in large amounts and characterise them, and finally, to test these materials in their ability to store hydrogen. This will help in establishing a link between the hydrogen storage capacities of the carbons and their nano-structure. The script is divided into four chapters. The first chapter will deal with the literature review on the thematic of hydrogen storage through adsorption in the carbon materials, while the second chapter will present the experimental set-up elaborated in the laboratory. The third chapter explains the processes used to produce the two families of carbon materials and finally, the last chapter presents the structural characterisation of the samples as well as the experimental results of hydrogen storage on the materials elaborated. (author)

  2. A direct electrochemical route from ilmenite to hydrogen-storage ferrotitanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Wang, Dihua; Hu, Xiaohong; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z

    2006-06-23

    An unrecognised but predictable need for a hydrogen-supported society is tens or even hundreds of million tonnes of hydrogen-storage materials, and thus challenges existing technologies in terms of resource and economical realities. Ilmenite is an abundant mineral, and ferrotitanium alloys are among the earliest known hydrogen-storage materials. At present, industrial production of ferrotitanium alloys goes through separate extraction of individual metals, followed by a multistep arc-melting process. In particular, the extraction of titanium from ilmenite is highly energy intensive and tedious, accounting for titanium's high market price and restricted uses. This article reports the electrochemical synthesis of various ferrotitanium alloy powders directly from solid ilmenite in molten calcium chloride. More importantly, it demonstrates, for the first time, that such produced alloy powders can be used without further treatment for hydrogen storage and perform comparably with or better than similar products by means of other methods, but cost just a fraction.

  3. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    designs based on the tubular tank configuration with Ti1.1CrMn as the absorbing alloy. Results show that a shell and tube layout with metal hydride tubes of 2 mm inner diameter achieves the desired refueling time of 3 min and store a maximum of 3.1 kg of hydrogen in a 126 L tank, corresponding......A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...... the vehicular tank within the frame of a complete refueling system. The two technologies that are integrated in the platform are solid-state hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides and compressed gas systems. In this work the computational platform is used to compare the storage performance of two tank...

  4. System simulation of compressed hydrogen storage based residential wind hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Mandhapati; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the storage of excess wind energy, in a hybrid wind power system, in the form of compressed hydrogen. A system simulation model is developed in Matlab/Simulink platform for the charging and discharging dynamics of compressed hydrogen storage system integrated with the wind turbine and the fuel cell. Wind model is used to estimate the power generation in the wind turbine. When the wind power generation exceeds the load, the excess power is diverted to the electrolyzer to produce hydrogen. As and when the pressure inside the electrolyzer builds, a compressor is operated intermittently (for higher efficiency) to divert the hydrogen into high pressure cylinders. When demand exceeds the power generation, fuel cell supplies the power to the load. A number of fuel cell stacks are provided to meet the required load. The overall efficiency of the storage system, defined as the ratio of the useful energy derived from the storage system to the energy diverted to the storage system is found to be 24.5% for the compressed hydrogen storage based system.

  5. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G

    2006-04-27

    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  6. First-principles study of hydrogen storage in non-stoichiometric TiCx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Haimin; Fan, Xiaoliang; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Xiangfa; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Chunyang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The absorption of hydrogen in non-stoichiometric TiC x is thermally favorable. ► As many as four hydrogen atoms can be trapped by a carbon vacancy. ► The diffusion of hydrogen in TiC x is difficult, especially in TiC x with high x. - Abstract: In this work, the first principles calculation has been performed to study the hydrogen storage in non-stoichiometric TiC x . It is found that hydrogen absorption in stoichiometric TiC is energetically unfavorable, while it is favorable in non-stoichiometric TiC x . This indicates that the existence of carbon vacancies is essential for hydrogenation storage in TiC x . At the same time, multiple hydrogen occupancy of the vacancy has been confirmed and it is calculated that as many as four hydrogen atoms can be trapped by a carbon vacancy. These absorbed hydrogen atoms tend to uniformly distribute around the vacancy. However, it is also found that the diffusion of hydrogen atoms in TiC x is difficult, especially in TiC x with high x.

  7. Kinetics study of solid ammonia borane hydrogen release--modeling and experimental validation for chemical hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Joon; Rönnebro, Ewa C E; Rassat, Scot; Karkamkar, Abhi; Maupin, Gary; Holladay, Jamie; Simmons, Kevin; Brooks, Kriston

    2014-05-07

    Ammonia borane (AB), NH3BH3, is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage with 19.6 wt% gravimetric hydrogen capacity of which maximum 16.2 wt% hydrogen can be released via an exothermic thermal decomposition below 200 °C. We have investigated the kinetics of hydrogen release from AB and from an AB-methyl cellulose (AB/MC) composite at temperatures of 160-300 °C using both experiments and modeling. The hydrogen release rate at 300 °C is twice as fast as at 160 °C. The purpose of our study was to show safe hydrogen release without thermal runaway effects and to validate system model kinetics. AB/MC released hydrogen at ∼20 °C lower than neat AB and at a faster release rate in that temperature range. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations were revised to better represent the growth and nucleation process during decomposition of AB. We explored two different reactor concepts; auger and fixed bed. The current auger reactor concept turned out to not be appropriate, however, we demonstrated safe self-propagation of the hydrogen release reaction of solid AB/MC in a fixed bed reactor.

  8. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS. PART I: SCOPING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    Detailed models for hydrogen storage systems provide essential design information about flow and temperature distributions, as well as, the utilization of a hydrogen storage media. However, before constructing a detailed model it is necessary to know the geometry and length scales of the system, along with its heat transfer requirements, which depend on the limiting reaction kinetics. More fundamentally, before committing significant time and resources to the development of a detailed model, it is necessary to know whether a conceptual storage system design is viable. For this reason, a hierarchical system of models progressing from scoping models to detailed analyses was developed. This paper, which discusses the scoping models, is the first in a two part series that presents a collection of hierarchical models for the design and evaluation of hydrogen storage systems.

  9. Hydrogen isotope storage behavior of Zr1-xTixCo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Pati, Subhasis; Parida, S.C.; Agarwal, Renu; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium storage properties similar to uranium make ZrCo as a suitable candidate material for storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes in various tritium facilities. Beside non-radioactive, nonpyrophoric at room temperature and higher storage capacity (H/f.u. up to 3, f.u. = ZrCo), it has been reported that upon repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles, ZrCo undergoes dis-proportionation as per the reaction; ZrCo + H 2 ↔ ZrH 2 + ZrCo 2 . The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of Ti content on the hydrogen storage behavior of Zr 1-x Ti x Co alloys and the hydrogen isotope effect

  10. POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN BUILDUP IN HANFORD SEALED AIR FILLED NUCLEAR STORAGE VESSELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEY BE

    2008-01-01

    This calculation is performed in accordance with HNF-PRO-8259, PHMC Calculation Preparation and Issue and addresses the question as to whether a flammable mixture of hydrogen gas can accumulate in a Hanford sealed nuclear storage vessel where the only source of hydrogen is the moisture in the air that initially filled the vessel Of specific concern is nuclear fuel inside IDENT 69-Gs, placed in Core Component Containers (CCCs) located inside Interim Storage Vaults (ISVs) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) The CCCs are to be removed from the ISVs and placed inside a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) for transport and interim storage. The repackaging procedures mandated that no plastics were permitted, all labels and tape were to be removed and the pins to be clean and inspected Loading of the fuel into the CCC/ISV package was permitted only if it was not raining or snowing. This was to preclude the introduction of any water The purpose was to minimize the presence of any hydrogenous material inside the storage vessels. The scope of NFPA 69, 'Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems', precludes its applicability for this case. The reactor fuel pins are helium bonded. The non-fuel pins, such as the pellet stacks, are also helium bonded. The fuel pellets were sintered at temperatures that preclude any residual hydrogenous material. Hydrogen gas can be formed from neutron and gamma radiolysis of water vapor. The radiolysis reaction is quite complex involving several intermediate radicals, and competing recombination reactions. Hydrogen gas can also be formed through corrosion. This analysis takes a simplistic approach and assumes that all water vapor present in the storage vessel is decomposed into hydrogen gas. Although the analysis is needed to specifically address HUFP storage of nuclear fuel, it is equally applicable to any sealed fuel storage vessel under the assumptions listed

  11. Complex Metal Hydrides for hydrogen storage and solid-state ion conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein

    Renewable energy, such as sun and wind, are sustainable and clean sources of energy for the future but are unevenly distributed both over time and geographically. Therefore, this type of energy must be converted to a form that can be stored and two of the most promising options are hydrogen...... and electricity in batteries. However, both hydrogen and electricity must be stored in a very dense way to be useful, e.g. for mobile applications. Complex metal hydrides have high hydrogen density and have been studied during the past twenty years in hydrogen storage systems. Moreover, they have shown high ionic...... conductivities which promote their application as solid electrolytes in batteries. This dissertation presents the synthesis and characterization of a variety of complex metal hydrides and explores their hydrogen storage properties and ionic conductivity. Five halide free rare earth borohydrides RE(BH4)3, (RE...

  12. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  13. A comparative analysis of the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitpas, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benard, P [Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada); Klebanoff, L E [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Xiao, J [Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada); Aceves, S M [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    While conventional low-pressure LH₂ dewars have existed for decades, advanced methods of cryogenic hydrogen storage have recently been developed. These advanced methods are cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage, which operate best in the temperature range 30–100 K. We present a comparative analysis of both approaches for cryogenic hydrogen storage, examining how pressure and/or sorbent materials are used to effectively increase onboard H₂ density and dormancy. We start by reviewing some basic aspects of LH₂ properties and conventional means of storing it. From there we describe the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods, and then explore the relationship between them, clarifying the materials science and physics of the two approaches in trying to solve the same hydrogen storage task (~5–8 kg H₂, typical of light duty vehicles). Assuming that the balance of plant and the available volume for the storage system in the vehicle are identical for both approaches, the comparison focuses on how the respective storage capacities, vessel weight and dormancy vary as a function of temperature, pressure and type of cryo-adsorption material (especially, powder MOF-5 and MIL-101). By performing a comparative analysis, we clarify the science of each approach individually, identify the regimes where the attributes of each can be maximized, elucidate the properties of these systems during refueling, and probe the possible benefits of a combined “hybrid” system with both cryo-adsorption and cryo-compression phenomena operating at the same time. In addition the relationships found between onboard H₂ capacity, pressure vessel and/or sorbent mass and dormancy as a function of rated pressure, type of sorbent material and fueling conditions are useful as general designing guidelines in future engineering efforts using these two hydrogen storage approaches.

  14. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  15. Direct Evidence for Solid-like Hydrogen in a Nanoporous Carbon Hydrogen Storage Material at Supercritical Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Valeska P; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Bimbo, Nuno; Sharpe, Jessica E; Noguera-Diaz, Antonio; Presser, Volker; Rudic, Svemir; Mays, Timothy J

    2015-08-25

    Here we report direct physical evidence that confinement of molecular hydrogen (H2) in an optimized nanoporous carbon results in accumulation of hydrogen with characteristics commensurate with solid H2 at temperatures up to 67 K above the liquid-vapor critical temperature of bulk H2. This extreme densification is attributed to confinement of H2 molecules in the optimally sized micropores, and occurs at pressures as low as 0.02 MPa. The quantities of contained, solid-like H2 increased with pressure and were directly evaluated using in situ inelastic neutron scattering and confirmed by analysis of gas sorption isotherms. The demonstration of the existence of solid-like H2 challenges the existing assumption that supercritical hydrogen confined in nanopores has an upper limit of liquid H2 density. Thus, this insight offers opportunities for the development of more accurate models for the evaluation and design of nanoporous materials for high capacity adsorptive hydrogen storage.

  16. A Biomimetic Approach to New Adsorptive Hydrogen Storage Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hongcai J [Texas A& M University

    2015-08-12

    In the past decades, there has been an escalation of interest in the study of MOFs due to their fascinating structures and intriguing application potentials. Their exceptionally high surface areas, uniform yet tunable pore sizes, and well-defined adsorbate-MOF interaction sites make them suitable for hydrogen storage. Various strategies to increase the hydrogen capacity of MOFs, such as constructing pore sizes comparable to hydrogen molecules, increasing surface area and pore volume, utilizing catenation, and introducing coordinatively unsaturated metal centers (UMCs) have been widely explored to increase the hydrogen uptake of the MOFs. MOFs with hydrogen uptake approaching the DOE gravimetric storage goal under reasonable pressure but cryo- temperature (typically 77 K) were achieved. However, the weak interaction between hydrogen molecules and MOFs has been the major hurdle limiting the hydrogen uptake of MOFs at ambient temperature. Along the road, we have realized both high surface area and strong interaction between framework and hydrogen are equally essential for porous materials to be practically applicable in Hydrogen storage. Increasing the isosteric heats of adsorption for hydrogen through the introduction of active centers into the framework could have great potential on rendering the framework with strong interaction toward hydrogen. Approaches on increasing the surface areas and improving hydrogen affinity by optimizing size and structure of the pores and the alignment of active centers around the pores in frameworks have been pursued, for example: (a) the introduction of coordinatively UMC (represents a metal center missing multiple ligands) with potential capability of multiple dihydrogen-binding (Kubas type, non-dissociative) per UMC, (b) the design and synthesis of proton-rich MOFs in which a + H3 binds dihydrogen just like a metal ion does, and (c) the preparation of MOFs and PPNs with well aligned internal electric fields. We believe the

  17. Potential of AlN nanostructures as hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-24

    The capability of AlN nanostructures (nanocages, nanocones, nanotubes, and nanowires) to store hydrogen has been studied using gradient-corrected density functional theory. In contrast to bulk AlN, which has the wurtzite structure and four-fold coordination, the Al sites in AlN nanostructures are unsaturated and have two- and three-fold coordination. Each Al atom is capable of binding one H(2) molecule in quasi-molecular form, leading to 4.7 wt % hydrogen, irrespective of the topology of the nanostructures. With the exception of AlN nanotubes, energetics does not support the adsorption of additional hydrogen. The binding energies of hydrogen to these unsaturated metal sites lie in the range of 0.1-0.2 eV/H(2) and are ideal for applications under ambient thermodynamic conditions. Furthermore, these materials do not suffer from the clustering problem that often plagues metal-coated carbon nanostructures.

  18. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  19. Theoretical investigation on the alkali-metal doped BN fullerene as a material for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramanan, Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy; Belosludov, Rodion Vladimirovich; Note, Ryunosuke; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: First-principles calculations have been used to investigate hydrogen adsorption on alkali atom doped B 36 N 36 clusters. Adsorption of alkali atoms involves a charge transfer process, creating positively-charged alkali atoms and this polarizes the H 2 molecules and increases their binding energy. The maximum hydrogen storage capacity of Li doped BN fullerene is 8.9 wt.% in which 60 hydrogen atoms were chemisorbed and 12 H 2 were adsorbed in molecular form. - Abstract: First-principles calculations have been used to investigate hydrogen adsorption on alkali atom doped B 36 N 36 clusters. The alkali atom adsorption takes place near the six tetragonal bridge sites available on the cage, thereby avoiding the notorious clustering problem. Adsorption of alkali atoms involves a charge transfer process, creating positively charged alkali atoms and this polarizes the H 2 molecules thereby, increasing their binding energy. Li atom has been found to adsorb up to three hydrogen molecules with an average binding energy of 0.189 eV. The fully doped Li 6 B 36 N 36 cluster has been found to hold up to 18 hydrogen molecules with the average binding energy of 0.146 eV. This corresponds to a gravimetric density of hydrogen storage of 3.7 wt.%. Chemisorption on the Li 6 B 36 N 36 has been found to be an exothermic reaction, in which 60 hydrogen atoms chemisorbed with an average chemisorption energy of -2.13 eV. Thus, the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of Li doped BN fullerene is 8.9 wt.% in which 60 hydrogen atoms were chemisorbed and 12 hydrogen molecules were adsorbed in molecular form.

  20. A nanostructured Ni/graphene hybrid for enhanced electrochemical hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Moon-Hyung; Min, Young-Je [Department of Chemistry and Green-Nano Materials Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon [Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwondo 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Seung-Min, E-mail: smpaek@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Green-Nano Materials Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae-Min, E-mail: jaemin.oh@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwondo 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide(GO) was hybridized with the Ni(OH){sub 2}. • The Ni(OH){sub 2}/GO was reduced to Ni/graphene. • XRD, TEM, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were examined. • The hydrogen storage property of Ni/graphene was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: To fabricate electrochemical hydrogen storage materials with delaminated structure, the graphene oxide (GO) in the ethylene glycol solution was reassembled in the presence of the precursor of Ni nanoparticles, and then, the reassembled hybrid was reduced under hydrogen atmosphere to obtain Ni/graphene hybrid. X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectscopic (XAS) analysis clearly show that Ni nanoparticles in Ni/graphene hybrid maintain its nanosized nature even after hybridization with graphene nanosheet (GNS). According to the TEM analysis, the Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 5.2 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the GNS in such a way that the nanoporous structure with much amount of void spaces could be fabricated. The obtained Ni/GNS exhibits a hydrogen storage capacity of 160 mA h/g, while the specific capacity of the graphene nanosheet was only 21 mA h/g. A flexible delaminated structure of Ni/GNS nanocomposite could provide additional intercalation sites for accommodation of hydrogen, leading to the enhancement of hydrogen storage capacity.

  1. Ultra-high hydrogen storage capacity of Li-decorated graphyne: A first-principles prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Meng; Zhao Lixia; Luo Youhua [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Mingwen; Bu Hongxia; He Xiujie [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 Shandong (China)

    2012-10-15

    Graphyne, consisting of sp- and sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms, is a new member of carbon allotropes which has a natural porous structure. Here, we report our first-principles calculations on the possibility of Li-decorated graphyne as a hydrogen storage medium. We predict that Li-doping significantly enhances the hydrogen storage ability of graphyne compared to that of pristine graphyne, which can be attributed to the polarization of H{sub 2} molecules induced by the charge transfer from Li atoms to graphyne. The favorite H{sub 2} molecules adsorption configurations on a single side and on both sides of a Li-decorated graphyne layer are determined. When Li atoms are adsorbed on one side of graphyne, each Li can bind four H{sub 2} molecules, corresponding to a hydrogen storage capacity of 9.26 wt. %. The hydrogen storage capacity can be further improved to 15.15 wt. % as graphyne is decorated by Li atoms on both sides, with an optimal average binding energy of 0.226 eV/H{sub 2}. The results show that the Li-decorated graphyne can serve as a high capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  2. Kinetics Study of Solid Ammonia Borane Hydrogen Release – Modeling and Experimental Validation for Chemical Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Joon; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Maupin, Gary D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-02-24

    Ammonia borane (AB), NH3BH3, is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage with 19.6 wt% gravimetric hydrogen capacity of which 16.2 wt% hydrogen can be utilized below 200°C. We have investigated the kinetics of hydrogen release from AB and from an AB-methyl cellulose (AB/MC) composite at temperatures of 160-300°C using both experiments and modeling. The purpose of our study was to show safe hydrogen release without thermal runaway effects and to validate system model kinetics. AB/MC released hydrogen at ~20°C lower than neat AB and at a rate that is two times faster. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations were revised to better represent the growth and nucleation process during decomposition of AB. We explored two different reactor concepts; Auger and fixed bed. The current Auger reactor concept turned out to not be appropriate, however, we demonstrated safe self-propagation of the hydrogen release reaction of solid AB/MC in a fixed bed reactor.

  3. Hydrogen storage materials with focus on main group I-II elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2005-07-01

    A future hydrogen based society, viz. a society in which hydrogen is the primary energy carrier, is viewed by many as a solution to many of the energy related problems of the world {integral} the ultimate problem being the eventual depletion of fossil fuels. Although, for the hydrogen based society to become realizable, several technical difficulties must be dealt with. Especially, the transport sector relies on a cheap, safe and reliable way of storing hydrogen with high storage capacity, fast kinetics and favourable thermodynamics. No potential hydrogen storage candidate has been found yet, which meets all the criteria just summarized. The hydrogen storage solution showing the greatest potential in fulfilling the hydrogen storage criteria with respect to storage capacity, is solid state storage in light metal hydrides e.g. alkali metals and alkali earth metals. The remaining issues to be dealt with mainly concerns the kinetics of hydrogen uptake/release and the thermal stability of the formed hydride. In this thesis the hydrogen storage properties of some magnesium based hydrides and alkali metal tetrahydridoaluminates, a subclass of the so called complex hydrides, are explored in relation to hydrogen storage. After briefly reviewing the major energy related problems of the world, including some basic concepts of solid state hydrogen storage the dehydrogenation kinetics of various magnesium based hydrides are investigated. By means of time resolved in situ X-ray powder diffraction, quantitative phase analysis is performed for air exposed samples of magnesium, magnesium-copper, and magnesium-aluminum based hydrides. From kinetic analysis of the different samples it is generally found that the dehydrogenation kinetics of magnesium hydride is severely hampered by the presence of oxide impurities whereas alloying with both Cu and Al creates compounds significantly less sensitive towards contamination. This leads to a phenomenological explanation of the large

  4. Analysis of hydrogen storage in metal hydride tanks introducing an induced phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondor, Germain; Lexcellent, Christian [Institut FEMTO-ST, Departement de Mecanique Appliquee (LMARC), Universite de Franche-Comte, UMR CNRS 6174, 24 Chemin de l' Epitaphe, 25000 Besancon (France)

    2009-07-15

    Hydrogen absorption in a metal hydride tank is generally studied based on a heat and mass transfer analysis. The originality of this investigation is that the phase transformation from a solid ({alpha} phase) to hydride ({beta} phase) solution is included in the hydrogen absorption mechanism. Toward this end, a modelling of the equilibrium pressure, composition (absorbed or desorbed hydrogen atoms per metal atoms), and isothermal curves of a LaNi{sub 5} alloy is performed. Moreover, a kinetic model is developed taking into account the steps of hydrogen absorption and desorption (i.e., physisorption, chemisorption, surface penetration, nucleation and growth of the hydride phase and diffusion). Simulations are then performed to show the impact of external conditions (hydrogen gas pressure and temperature) and parameter values (wall heat transfer, conductivities of gas and solid, viscosity, porosity, etc.) on refilling time. The physical nature of the phase transformation associated to the hydrogen storage remains an open problem. (author)

  5. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  6. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  7. Ultrasonochemical-Assisted Synthesis of CuO Nanorods with High Hydrogen Storage Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform CuO nanorods with different size have been synthesized in a water-alcohol solution through a fast and facile ultrasound irradiation assistant route. Especially, the as-prepared CuO nanorods have shown a strong size-induced enhancement of electrochemical hydrogen storage performance and exhibit a notable hydrogen storage capacity and big BET surface area. These results further implied that the as-prepared CuO nanorods could be a promising candidate for electrochemical hydrogen storage applications. The observation of the comparison experiments with different concentrations of NaOH, ethanol, CTAB, and HTMA while keeping other synthetic parameters unchanged leads to the morphology and size change of CuO products.

  8. Hydrogen storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes by means of laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksengorn, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new mode for hydrogen adsorption and storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes is used, on the basis of laser excitation. Remember that this method has been useful to obtain, in the case of the fullerene C 60 , many complex C 60 -atoms or C 60 -molecules, where atoms or molecular particles are trapped inside the C 60 -molecules. We think this method might be important to store many hydrogen molecules inside carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  9. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, M. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2011-06-21

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  10. Standardized hydrogen storage module with high utilization factor based on metal hydride-graphite composites

    OpenAIRE

    Bürger, Inga; Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Röntzsch, Lars; Linder, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In view of hydrogen based backup power systems or small-scale power2gas units, hydrogen storages based on metal hydrides offer a safe and reliable solution. By using Hydralloy C5 as suitable hydride forming alloy, the present tank design guarantees very simple operating conditions: pressures between 4 bar and 30 bar, temperatures between 15 C and 40 C and minimal efforts for thermal management in combination with fast and constant charging and discharging capabilities. The modular...

  11. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  12. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  13. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  14. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  15. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  16. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia

    2017-12-01

    Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  17. Investigation of cryogenic hydrogen storage on high surface area activated carbon. Equilibrium and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Ricardo Gaspar

    2008-11-29

    This thesis investigates cryo-adsorptive systems for hydrogen storage for mobile applications. By means of macroscopic and microscopic balance models, an extensive analysis is carried out, including among others the investigation of the thermal effects during high-pressure system filling, venting losses during normal operation and inactivity, time-course of system pressure and temperature and gas delivery under various operating conditions. Model results were compared with experimental data, good agreement was obtained. The analysis also includes a comparison to other storage technologies such as cryo-compressed gas and liquefaction storage. The results show that cryo-adsorptive systems have storage characteristics comparable to compressed gas systems, but at a much lower pressure. They are also energetically more efficient than liquid hydrogen systems. However, the necessity of cryotemperatures and thermal management during operation and filling might limit their application. (orig.)

  18. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Rigid Three-Dimensional Hofmann Clathrate Derivatives: The Effects of Pore Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, J.T.; Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Smith, M.R.; Bittner, E.; Matranga, C.S.; Bockrath, B.

    2008-05-01

    The effects of pore size on the hydrogen storage properties of a series of pillared layered solids based on the M(L)[M'(CN)4] structural motif, where M ) Co or Ni, L ) pyrazine (pyz), 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), or 4,4'-dipyridylacetylene (dpac), and M' ) Ni, Pd, or Pt, has been investigated. The compounds all possess slitlike pores with constant in-plane dimensions and similar organic functionality. The pore heights vary as a function of L and provide a means for a systematic investigation of the effects of pore dimension on hydrogen storage properties in porous materials. Hydrogen isotherms were measured at 77 and 87 K up to a pressure of 1 atm. The pyz pillared materials with the smallest pore dimensions store hydrogen at a pore density similar to that of liquid hydrogen. The adsorbed hydrogen density drops by a factor of 2 as the relative pore size is tripled in the dpac material. The decreased storage efficiency diminishes the expected gravimetric gain in capacity for the larger pore materials. The heats of adsorption were found to range from 6 to 8 kJ/mol in the series and weakly correlate with pore size.

  20. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Rigid Three-Dimensional Hofmann Clathrate Derivatives: The Effects of Pore Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Jeffery T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Natesakhawat, Sittichai [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Smith, Milton R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Bittner, Edward [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Matranga, Christopher [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Bockrath, Bradley [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The effects of pore size on the hydrogen storage properties of a series of pillared layered solids based on the M(L)[M'(CN)(4)] structural motif, where M = Co or Ni, L = pyrazine (pyz), 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), or 4,4'-dipyridylacetylene (dpac), and M' = Ni, Pd, or Pt, has been investigated. The compounds all possess slitlike pores with constant in-plane dimensions and similar organic functionality. The pore heights vary as a function of L and provide a means for a systematic investigation of the effects of pore dimension on hydrogen storage properties in porous materials. Hydrogen isotherms were measured at 77 and 87 K up to a pressure of 1 atm. The pyz pillared materials with the smallest pore dimensions store hydrogen at a pore density similar to that of liquid hydrogen. The adsorbed hydrogen density drops by a factor of 2 as the relative pore size is tripled in the dpac material. The decreased storage efficiency diminishes the expected gravimetric gain in capacity for the larger pore materials. The heats of adsorption were found to range from 6 to 8 kJ/mol in the series and weakly correlate with pore size.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Hydride/Carbon Aerogel Composites for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4, a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs, a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. The objectives of the present work have been to investigate the synthesis, characterization, and hydrogenation behavior of Pd-, Ti- or Fe-doped CAs, NaAlH4, and MgH2 nanocomposites. The diameters of Pd nanoparticles onto CA’s surface and BET surface area of CAs were 3–10 nm and 700–900 m2g−1, respectively. The H2 storage capacity of metal hydrides has been studied using high-pressure TGA microbalance and they were 4.0, 2.7, 2.1, and 1.2 wt% for MgH2-FeTi-CAs, MgH2-FeTi, CAs-Pd, and 8 mol% Ti-doped NaAlH4, respectively, at room temperature. Carbon aerogels with higher surface area and mesoporous structures facilitated hydrogen diffusion and adsorption, which accounted for its extraordinary hydrogen storage phenomenon. The hydrogen adsorption abilities of CAs notably increased after inclusion of metal hydrides by the “hydrogen spillover” mechanisms.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Safaei; Michael J. Aziz

    2017-01-01

    We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temper...

  3. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian

    2014-07-01

    Novel developments regarding materials for solid-state hydrogen storage show promising prospects. These complex hydrides exhibit high mass-related storage capacities and thus great technical potential to store hydrogen in an efficient and safe way. However, a comprehensive evaluation of economic competitiveness is still lacking, especially in the case of the LiBH4 / MgH2 storage material. In this study, an assessment with respect to the economic feasibility of implementing complex hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is presented. The cost structure of hydrogen storage systems based on NaAlH4 and LiBH4 / MgH2 is discussed and compared with the conventional high pressure (700 bar) and liquid storage systems. Furthermore, the properties of LiBH4 / MgH2, so-called Li-RHC (Reactive Hydride Composite), are scientifically compared and evaluated on the lab and pilot plant scale. To enhance the reaction rate, the addition of TiCl3 is investigated and high energy ball milling is evaluated as processing technique. The effect of the additive in combination with the processing technique is described in detail. Finally, an optimum set of processing parameters and additive content are identified and can be applied for scaled-up production of the material based on simple models considering energy input during processing. Furthermore, thermodynamic, heat transfer and kinetic properties are experimentally determined by different techniques and analysed as a basis for modelling and designing scaled-up storage systems. The results are analysed and discussed with respect to the reaction mechanisms and reversibility of the system. Heat transfer properties are assessed with respect to the scale-up for larger hydrogen storage systems. Further improvements of the heat transfer were achieved by compacting the material. In this regard, the influence of the compaction pressure on the apparent density, thermal conductivity and sorption behaviour, was investigated in detail. Finally, scaled

  4. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E [St Andrews

    2012-04-02

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  5. New nitrogen-containing materials for hydrogen storage and their characterization by high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    -called complex hydrides, which contain hydrogen bound covalently often in very light materials involving elements such as lithium, sodium, nitrogen and aluminum. While these materials typically have high decomposition temperatures, the combination with other compounds helps to destabilize the material resulting...... in lowered effective dehydrogenation temperatures. From the discovery in 1996 by Borislav Bogdanović and his group that catalyzed sodium alanate, NaAlH4, can release hydrogen reversibly below 200 °C relatively fast, hydrogen storage in nitrogen-containing compounds beginning with lithium nitride, Li3N...

  6. Solid hydrides as hydrogen storage reservoirs; Hidruros solidos como acumuladores de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Sanchez, C.; Friedrichs, O.; Ares, J. R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2010-07-01

    Metal hydrides as hydrogen storage materials are briefly reviewed in this paper. Fundamental properties of metal-hydrogen (gas) system such as Pressure-Composition-Temperature (P-C-T) characteristics are discussed on the light of the metal-hydride thermodynamics. Attention is specially paid to light metal hydrides which might have application in the car and transport sector. The pros and cons of MgH{sub 2} as a light material are outlined. Researches in course oriented to improve the behaviour of MgH{sub 2} are presented. Finally, other very promising alternative materials such as Al compounds (alanates) or borohydrides as light hydrogen accumulators are also considered. (Author)

  7. Aluminium hydride: a reversible material for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L; Fewox, Christopher S; Stowe, Ashley C; Gray, Joshua R; Harter, Andrew G

    2009-07-07

    Aluminium hydride has been synthesized electrochemically, providing a synthetic route which closes a reversible cycle for regeneration of the material and bypasses expensive thermodynamic costs which have precluded AlH(3) from being considered as a H(2) storage material.

  8. Screening of hydrogen storage media applying high pressure thermogravimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, J.

    2001-01-01

    A number of commercially available hydride-forming alloys of the MmNi5–xSnx (Mm=mischmetal, a mixture of lanthanides) type were examined using a high pressure, high temperature microbalance,scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Activation conditions, reversible storage capacity...

  9. Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua; Hu, Weihao; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Chen, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates the tradeoffs between selling the hydrogen directly to customers or using it as a storage medium to re-generate electricity at a time when it is more valuable. This research finds that the most beneficial configuration is to produce hydrogen at a time that complements the wind farm and sell the hydrogen directly to end users.

  10. Preparation of Mg2FeH6 Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Niaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg and iron (Fe nanoparticles are prepared by thermal decomposition of bipyridyl complexes of metals. These prepared Mg-Fe (2 : 1 nanoparticles are hydrogenated under 4 MPa hydrogen pressure and 673 K for 48 hours to achieve Mg2FeH6. Their structural analysis was assessed by applying manifold techniques. The hydrogen storage properties of prepared compound were measured by Sieverts type apparatus. The desorption kinetics were measured by high pressure thermal desorption spectrometer (HP-TDS. More than 5 wt% hydrogen released was obtained by the Mg2FeH6 within 5 min, and during rehydrogenation very effective hydrogen absorption rate was observed by the compound.

  11. Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2014), s. 2313-2333 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : metal-hydrid phase transformation * hydrogen diffusion * swelling Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2014 http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=10195&mode=full

  12. CATALYTICALLY ENHANCED SYSTEMS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig M. Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Previous U.S. DOE sponsored research at the University of Hawaii resulted in the development of methods of doping of sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH4 with titanium, zirconium and other catalysts such that: dehydriding occurs at temperatures as low as 100 C; rehydriding requires less than 1 h; and >4 weight percent hydrogen can be repeatedly cycled through dehydriding/rehydriding. These materials appeared to be on the threshold of practical viability as hydrogen carriers for onboard fuel cells. However, it was apparent that further kinetic enhancement was required to achieve commercial viability. Thus, one of the primary goals of this project was to develop the requisite improved catalysts. Over the course of this project, a variety of titanium and zirconium dopant precursors were investigated. Moreover, the approach was to conduct guided search for improved catalysts by obtaining a fundamental understanding of the chemical nature of the titanium dopants and their mechanism of action. Therefore, the projected also aimed to determined the chemical nature of the titanium species that are formed upon mechanical milling of NaAlH4 with the dopant precursors through synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In addition to kinetic studies, insight into the mechanism of action of the dopants was gained through studies of the destabilization of hydrogen in NaAlH4 by the dopants through infrared, NMR, and anelastic spectroscopy

  13. Hydrogen storage by BeO nano-cage: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheshtian, Javad; Ravaei, Isa

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrostatic potential contours of Be 12 O 12 cluster with hydrogen molecules adsorbed. - Highlights: • H 2 adsorption on pristine beryllium oxide nano-cage (BeONC) investigated. • We investigated using density functional theory calculations in terms of adsorption energy, gravimetric, and charge transfer of H 2 molecule on BeONC. • We found that H 2 molecule is significantly adsorbed on the pristine BeO nano-cage. • We found that the DFT calculations indicate that gravimetric storage capacity of surface adsorption of hydrogen on BeONC is more than 7.6 wt%. • The H 2 molecule shows significantly adsorbed and gravimetric storage capacity, which our DFT results suggest on providing guidance for material design to better storage materials. - Abstract: First-principles calculations based on density functional theory were performed to study the hydrogen adsorption and H 2 storage on the beryllium oxide nano-cage (BeONC). The adsorption of H 2 molecules on the nano-cage depends on the polarization and charge of the atom surface. The transfer of charge from the Be atom to its neighboring O atoms in the surface of the cluster indicates the ionic character of the Be−O bond, so that Be−O bonds are polarized. The results show that the H 2 molecule is significantly adsorbed on the BeONC surface, so that the H 2 prefers to be adsorbed atop a Be atom as compared to oxygen atoms of the cluster surface. Our calculations also reveal that the gravimetric uptake can overpass the value of 7.6 wt% with an average adsorbed energy (E ads ) of −0.11 eV. These findings have important implications on designing of hydrogen storage materials and significantly broadening the spectrum of strategies for fabricating of new nanostructures to enhance hydrogen storage capacity.

  14. Hydrogen storage for wind parks: A real options evaluation for an optimal investment in more flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroniger, Daniel; Madlener, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Economic analysis of investing in H 2 storage for excess wind power production. • Use of real options analysis to account for uncertainty and managerial flexibility. • Hourly profits are simulated for profit-maximizing operation of the storage device. • Revenues by load factor increase, offering minute reserve, temporal arbitrage, H 2 sale. • Power-to-power is unprofitable under current techno-political conditions in Germany. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the economic viability of hydrogen storage for excess electricity produced in wind power plants. For the analysis, we define two scenarios (50 MW system with and without re-electrification unit) and apply Monte Carlo simulation and real options analysis (ROA) to compute hourly profits under uncertainty regarding wind speed, spot market electricity prices, and call of minute reserve capacity. Hydrogen as a storage medium helps to either (1) increase capacity utilization of the wind park in case of grid disconnection; (2) to offer minute reserve; or (3) to exploit temporal price arbitrage at the electricity spot market; additionally, hydrogen can also be directly sold as a commodity. We find that power-to-power operation is highly uneconomical under current framework conditions in Germany, irrespective of potential energy efficiency gains. Interestingly, due to counterbalancing effects, offshore wind parks are found to have only a modest economic advantage compared to onshore ones. The power-to-fuel plant can be operated profitably (at hydrogen prices of more than 0.36 € m −3 and a 100% utilization of the electrolyzer) if hydrogen is directly marketed instead of used to store and re-generate electrical energy. The ROA recommends investment in a storage device without re-electrification unit beyond an expected project value that is about twice the investment cost of the storage device, a figure which is reduced markedly as conversion efficiency rises, assuming technical change

  15. A review on on-board challenges of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Wasikur

    2017-06-01

    The attempt of the review is to realize on-board hydrogen storage technologies concerning magnesium based solid-state matrix to allow fuel cell devices to facilitate sufficient storage capacity, cost, safety and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. Hydrogen, a potential and clean fuel, can be applied in the state-of-the-art technology of `zero emission' vehicles. Hydrogen economy infrastructure both for stationary and mobile purposes is complicated due to its critical physico-chemical properties and materials play crucial roles in every stage of hydrogen production to utilization in fuel cells in achieving high conversion efficiency, safety and robustness of the technologies involved. Moreover, traditional hydrogen storage facilities are rather complicated due to its anomalous properties such as highly porous solids and polymers have intrinsic microporosity, which is the foremost favorable characteristics of fast kinetics and reversibility, but the major drawback is the low storage capacity. In contrast, metal hydrides and complex hydrides have high hydrogen storage capacity but thermodynamically unfavorable. Therefore, hydrogen storage is a real challenge to realize `hydrogen economy' that will solve the critical issues of humanity such as energy depletion, greenhouse emission, air pollution and ultimately climate change. Magnesium based materials, particularly magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity as well as environmentally benign properties to work the grand challenge out.

  16. Homogeneous Catalysis for Sustainable Hydrogen Storage in Formic Acid and Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordakis, Katerina; Tang, Conghui; Vogt, Lydia K; Junge, Henrik; Dyson, Paul J; Beller, Matthias; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2018-01-24

    Hydrogen gas is a storable form of chemical energy that could complement intermittent renewable energy conversion. One of the main disadvantages of hydrogen gas arises from its low density, and therefore, efficient handling and storage methods are key factors that need to be addressed to realize a hydrogen-based economy. Storage systems based on liquids, in particular, formic acid and alcohols, are highly attractive hydrogen carriers as they can be made from CO 2 or other renewable materials, they can be used in stationary power storage units such as hydrogen filling stations, and they can be used directly as transportation fuels. However, to bring about a paradigm change in our energy infrastructure, efficient catalytic processes that release the hydrogen from these molecules, as well as catalysts that regenerate these molecules from CO 2 and hydrogen, are required. In this review, we describe the considerable progress that has been made in homogeneous catalysis for these critical reactions, namely, the hydrogenation of CO 2 to formic acid and methanol and the reverse dehydrogenation reactions. The dehydrogenation of higher alcohols available from renewable feedstocks is also described. Key structural features of the catalysts are analyzed, as is the role of additives, which are required in many systems. Particular attention is paid to advances in sustainable catalytic processes, especially to additive-free processes and catalysts based on Earth-abundant metal ions. Mechanistic information is also presented, and it is hoped that this review not only provides an account of the state of the art in the field but also offers insights into how superior catalytic systems can be obtained in the future.

  17. Hydrogen Energy Storage and Power-to-Gas: Establishing Criteria for Successful Business Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua; Melaina, Marc

    2015-10-27

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility, sufficient capacity and greater concern for overgeneration. As a result there is growing interest in exploring the role of energy storage and demand response technologies to support grid needs. Hydrogen is a versatile feedstock that can be used in a variety of applications including chemical and industrial processes, as well as a transportation fuel and heating fuel. Traditionally, hydrogen technologies focus on providing services to a single sector; however, participating in multiple sectors has the potential to provide benefits to each sector and increase the revenue for hydrogen technologies. The goal of this work is to explore promising system configurations for hydrogen systems and the conditions that will make for successful business cases in a renewable, low-carbon future. Current electricity market data, electric and gas infrastructure data and credit and incentive information are used to perform a techno-economic analysis to identify promising criteria and locations for successful hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas projects. Infrastructure data will be assessed using geographic information system applications. An operation optimization model is used to co-optimizes participation in energy and ancillary service markets as well as the sale of hydrogen. From previous work we recognize the great opportunity that energy storage and power-to-gas but there is a lack of information about the economic favorability of such systems. This work explores criteria for selecting locations and compares the system cost and potential revenue to establish competitiveness for a variety of equipment configurations. Hydrogen technologies offer unique system flexibility that can enable interactions between multiple energy sectors including electric, transport, heating fuel and industrial. Previous research established that

  18. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcieszak, R.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports (γ-Al 2 O 3 , amorphous or crystallized SiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , CeO 2 and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N 2 , FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H 2 -TPR, H 2 -adsorption, H 2 -TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO 2 or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  19. Overview of geologic storage of natural gas with an emphasis on assessing the feasibility of storing hydrogen.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Anna Snider

    2009-09-01

    In many regions across the nation geologic formations are currently being used to store natural gas underground. Storage options are dictated by the regional geology and the operational need. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in understanding theses various geologic storage options, the advantages and disadvantages, in the hopes of developing an underground facility for the storage of hydrogen as a low cost storage option, as part of the hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Currently, depleted gas/oil reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground natural gas storage in use today. The other storage options available currently and in the near future, such as abandoned coal mines, lined hard rock caverns, and refrigerated mined caverns, will become more popular as the demand for natural gas storage grows, especially in regions were depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and salt deposits are not available. The storage of hydrogen within the same type of facilities, currently used for natural gas, may add new operational challenges to the existing cavern storage industry, such as the loss of hydrogen through chemical reactions and the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement. Currently there are only three locations worldwide, two of which are in the United States, which store hydrogen. All three sites store hydrogen within salt caverns.

  20. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The generalized gradient approximation (GGA function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG. It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H2 molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of −0.429 eV/H2. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of −0.296 eV/H2. The adsorption of H2 molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H2 molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  1. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  2. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  3. Preparation and Microstructure Characterization of Iron Oxide Pellets for Hydrogen Storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Rogut, J.; Grabowski, J.; Wiatowski, M.; Ludwik-Pardała, M.; Schneider, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2011), s. 334-341 ISSN 2074-1308 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7C08033 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2007-00006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen storage * transport parameters * inverse gas chromatography Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Modulated synthesis of zirconium-metal organic framework (Zr-MOF) for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modulated synthesis of Zr-metal organic framework (Zr-MOF) with improved ease of handling and decreased reaction time is reported to yield highly crystalline Zr-MOF with well-defined octahedral shaped crystals for practical hydrogen storage...

  5. Review on processing of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials towards system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available materials to form part of a practical hydrogen storage system, knowledge of the ‘processing’ techniques to improve the properties of the powders is essential. However, the processing routes of MOF materials towards system integration are rarely reviewed...

  6. A new material for hydrogen storage; ScAl0.8Mg0.2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sahlberg, M.; Beran, Přemysl; Nielsen, T.K.; Cerenius, Y.; Kadas, K.; Punkkinen, M.P.J.; Vitos, L.; Eriksson, O.; Jensen, T.R.; Andersson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 11 (2009), s. 3113-3117 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : scandium intermetallics * hydrides * hydrogen storage materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.340, year: 2009

  7. Hybrid functional calculations of potential hydrogen storage material: Complex dimagnesium iron hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-06-01

    By employing the state of art first principles approaches, comprehensive investigations of a very promising hydrogen storage material, Mg 2FeH6 hydride, is presented. To expose its hydrogen storage capabilities, detailed structural, elastic, electronic, optical and dielectric aspects have been deeply analysed. The electronic band structure calculations demonstrate that Mg2FeH6 is semiconducting material. The obtained results of the optical bandgap (4.19 eV) also indicate that it is a transparent material for ultraviolet light, thus demonstrating its potential for optoelectronics application. The calculated elastic properties reveal that Mg2FeH6 is highly stiff and stable hydride. Finally, the calculated hydrogen (H2) storage capacity (5.47 wt.%) within a reasonable formation energy of -78 kJ mol-1, at room temperature, can be easily achievable, thus making Mg2FeH6 as potential material for practical H2 storage applications. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ni foam-immobilized MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals toward system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available nanocrystals, as an example, were prepared and immobilized on Ni foam as multi-layers. The hydrogen storage properties of individual and hybrid materials were assessed and compared. The hybrid material with 81 wt.% loading of MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals exhibited...

  9. Nanostructured graphite-induced destabilization of LiBH4 for reversible hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wang, K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nanostructured graphite (nano-G) was added to LiBH(sub4) and examined with respect to its effect on the hydrogen storage properties of the system. Our study found that nano-G is an effective additive for promoting the reversible...

  10. Synthesis of Cr-MOF derived porous carbon for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available template during the production of highly porous carbonaceous material have also been demonstrated to lead to enhancement of hydrogen storage capacity of the MOFs. Most of the studies in this case have mainly focused on the use of Zn-based MOFs. In this work...

  11. Metalized T graphene: A reversible hydrogen storage material at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhong, Wei; Du, You-Wei; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-decorated graphene is a promising hydrogen storage medium due to its high capacity. However, homogeneous mono-layer coating graphene with lithium atoms is metastable and the lithium atoms would cluster on the surface, resulting in the poor reversibility. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we demonstrated that lithium atoms can be homogeneously dispersed on T graphene due to a nonuniform charge distribution in T graphene and strong hybridizations between the C-2p and Li-2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridizations contribute to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules (storage capacity of 7.7 wt. %) with an optimal adsorption energy of 0.19 eV/H 2 . The adsorption/desorption of H 2 at ambient temperature and pressure is also discussed. Our results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on non-hexagonal graphenes.

  12. Materials Genome in Action: Identifying the Performance Limits of Physical Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Aaron W; Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Kwon, Ohmin; Deeg, Kathryn S; Konstas, Kristina; Pas, Steven J; Hill, Matthew R; Winkler, David A; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2017-04-11

    The Materials Genome is in action: the molecular codes for millions of materials have been sequenced, predictive models have been developed, and now the challenge of hydrogen storage is targeted. Renewably generated hydrogen is an attractive transportation fuel with zero carbon emissions, but its storage remains a significant challenge. Nanoporous adsorbents have shown promising physical adsorption of hydrogen approaching targeted capacities, but the scope of studies has remained limited. Here the Nanoporous Materials Genome, containing over 850 000 materials, is analyzed with a variety of computational tools to explore the limits of hydrogen storage. Optimal features that maximize net capacity at room temperature include pore sizes of around 6 Å and void fractions of 0.1, while at cryogenic temperatures pore sizes of 10 Å and void fractions of 0.5 are optimal. Our top candidates are found to be commercially attractive as "cryo-adsorbents", with promising storage capacities at 77 K and 100 bar with 30% enhancement to 40 g/L, a promising alternative to liquefaction at 20 K and compression at 700 bar.

  13. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  14. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (TIAX, LLC)

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  15. Li-Decorated β12-Borophene as Potential Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: A First-Principle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen storage properties of pristine β12-borophene and Li-decorated β12-borophene are systemically investigated by means of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The adsorption sites, adsorption energies, electronic structures, and hydrogen storage performance of pristine β12-borophene/H2 and Li-β12-borophene/H2 systems are discussed in detail. The results show that H2 is dissociated into Two H atoms that are then chemisorbed on β12-borophene via strong covalent bonds. Then, we use Li atom to improve the hydrogen storage performance and modify the hydrogen storage capacity of β12-borophene. Our numerical calculation shows that Li-β12-borophene system can adsorb up to 7 H2 molecules; while 2Li-β12-borophene system can adsorb up to 14 H2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity up to 10.85 wt %.

  16. Analysis of hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials for low carbon energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Nuno; Ting, Valeska P; Hruzewicz-Kołodziejczyk, Anna; Mays, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    A robust, simple methodology for analysis of isotherms for the adsorption of fluids above their critical temperature onto nanostructured materials is presented. The analysis of hydrogen adsorption in a metal-organic framework is used as an example to illustrate the methodology, which allows the estimation of the absolute adsorption into nanoporous systems. Further advantages of employing this analysis are that adsorption systems can be described using a small number of parameters, and that excess and absolute isotherms can be extrapolated and used to predict adsorption behaviour at higher pressures and over different temperature ranges. Thermodynamic calculations, using the exact Clapeyron equation and the Clausius-Clapeyron approximation applied to the example dataset, are presented and compared. Conventional compression of hydrogen and adsorptive storage are evaluated, with an illustration of the pressure ranges in which adsorption facilitates storage of greater volumes of hydrogen than normal compression in the same operating conditions.

  17. General Motors: Final Report for Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Mei [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Chakraborty, Amlan [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Hou, Peter [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Kaisare, Niklet [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Kumar, Sudarshan [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Li, Changpeng [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Ortmann, Jerome [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Raju, M. [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States); Vadivelu, S. Kumar [General Motors Company, Warren, MI (United States)

    2015-06-30

    As part of the HSECoE team, the GM team built system models and detailed transport models for on-board hydrogen storage systems using metal hydrides and adsorbent materials. Detailed transport models have been developed for both the metal hydride and adsorbent systems with a focus on optimization of heat exchanger designs with the objective of minimizing the heat exchanger mass. We also performed work in collaboration with our partners on storage media structuring and enhancement studies for the metal hydride and adsorbent materials. Since the hydrogen storage materials are generally characterized by low density and low thermal conductivity, we conducted experiments to form pellets and add thermal conductivity enhancers to the storage material, and to improve cycling stability and durability of the metal hydride and adsorbent materials. Refueling of a MOF-5 pellet with cryogenic hydrogen was studied by developing a detailed two-dimensional axisymmetric COMSOL® model of the process. The effects of pellet permeability, thermal conductivity, and thermal conductivity enhancers were investigated. Our key area of focus has been on designing and building a cryo-adsorption vessel for validation of cryo-adsorption models. The 3-L cryogenic tank was used to study the fast fill and discharge dynamics of a cryo-adsorbent storage system, both experimentally and numerically.

  18. Improvement of hydrogen storage characteristics of Mg/Mg2Ni by alloying: Beneficial effect of In

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 214, SEP (2012), s. 208-215 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA106/09/0814; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium alloys * Hydrogen desorption * Hydrogen storage * Hydrogen storage materials Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 4.675, year: 2012

  19. Effect of MoS2 on hydrogenation storage properties of LiBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Dan; Han, Shumin; Wang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen storage properties of LiBH 4 ball milled with 20 wt% MoS 2 have been investigated. It shows that the LiBH 4 doped with MoS 2 exhibits favorable hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties in terms of decomposition temperature and hydriding/dehydriding reversibility. The sample with MoS 2 starts to release hydrogen at 230 °C and has a decrease of 80 °C in contrast with pristine LiBH 4 . Furthermore, for the second cycle, the LiBH 4 with MoS 2 maintains a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of about 8.0 wt% which is almost identical with the first cycle under 5 MPa at 550 °C. Analyzed by the XRD and the FTIR results, LiBH 4 can be regenerated after re-hydrogenation under a relatively mild condition by adding MoS 2 . The improvement of the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties mainly results from the formation of Li 2 S and MoB 2 during ball milling. -- Graphical abstract: Hydrogen absorption curves of LiBH 4 doped with MoS 2 for five cycles at 400 °C. Highlights: • The hydrogen absorption capacity is nearly the same for 5 cycles at 400 °C. • The sample with MoS 2 starts to release hydrogen at 230 °C. • The coexistence of MoB 2 and Li 2 S catalyzes the decomposition of LiBH 4

  20. First-principles investigation on hydrogen storage performance of Li, Na and K decorated borophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifuzi; Chen, Xianfei; Du, Haiying; Yuan, Yuquan; Qu, Hui; Zou, Miao

    2018-01-01

    Borophene, a new kind of two-dimensional materials, were successfully synthesized in experiment recently with potential applications. In this study, we have investigated the hydrogen storage performances of alkali-metal (Li, Na and K) doped three types of borophene polytypes synthesized on Ag substrate. It is found that strong binding strength exists between alkali-metal atoms and borophene, where metal atoms on borophene with separated distribution are energy more favorable than the formation of metal clusters, avoiding the aggregation problems. Polarization mechanism plays a dominant role in H2 adsorption and the obtained storage capacities are closely related with the configurations of borophene, types of foreign atoms and the electronic interactions therein. The effects of temperature and pressure have also been taken into consideration through modified van't Hoff equation. Our results demonstrate that Na-doped S2 and S3 and Li-doped three types of borophene could be severed as promising candidates for hydrogen storage.

  1. Nickel foam/polyaniline-based carbon/palladium composite electrodes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Urbaniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The sandwich-like nickel/palladium/carbon electrodes exhibiting ability to absorb hydrogen in alkaline solution are presented. Electrodes were prepared by successive deposition of palladium and polyaniline layers on nickel foam substrate followed by heat treatment to give Ni/Pd/C electrode. It was shown that thermal conversion of polymer into carbon layer and subsequent thermal activation of carbon component bring about the modification of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen sorption. It was proven that carbon layer, interacting with Pd catalyst, plays a considerable role in the process of hydrogen storage. In the other series of experiments, Pd particles were dispersed electrochemically on carbon coating leading to Ni/C/Pd system. The adding of the next carbon layer resulted in Ni/C/Pd/C electrodes. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes depend on both the sequence of Pd and C layers and the preparation/activation of carbon coating. Electrochemical behavior of sandwich-like electrodes in the reaction of hydrogen sorption/desorption was characterized in 6 M KOH using the cyclic voltammetry method and the results obtained were compared to those for Ni/Pd electrode. The anodic desorption of hydrogen from electrodes free and containing carbon layer was considered after the potentiodynamic as well as potentiostatic sorption of hydrogen. The influence of the sorption potential and the time of rest of electrodes at a cut-off circuit on the kinetics of hydrogen recovery were examined. The results obtained for Ni/Pd/C electrodes indicate that the displacement of hydrogen between C and Pd phase takes place during the rest at a cut-off circuit. Electrodes containing carbon layer require longer time for hydrogen electrosorption. On the other hand, the presence of carbon layer in electrodes is advantageous because a considerable longer retention of hydrogen is possible, as compared to Pd/Ni electrode. Hydrogen stored in sandwich-like electrodes can instantly be

  2. High-density automotive hydrogen storage with cryogenic capable pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias; Ross, Timothy O.; Weisberg, Andrew H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-792, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Brunner, Tobias C.; Kircher, Oliver [BMW Group, Knorrstr. 147, 80788 Munich (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    LLNL is developing cryogenic capable pressure vessels with thermal endurance 5-10 times greater than conventional liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) tanks that can eliminate evaporative losses in routine usage of (L)H{sub 2} automobiles. In a joint effort BMW is working on a proof of concept for a first automotive cryo-compressed hydrogen storage system that can fulfill automotive requirements on system performance, life cycle, safety and cost. Cryogenic pressure vessels can be fueled with ambient temperature compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH{sub 2}), LH{sub 2} or cryogenic hydrogen at elevated supercritical pressure (cryo-compressed hydrogen, CcH{sub 2}). When filled with LH{sub 2} or CcH{sub 2}, these vessels contain 2-3 times more fuel than conventional ambient temperature compressed H{sub 2} vessels. LLNL has demonstrated fueling with LH{sub 2} onboard two vehicles. The generation 2 vessel, installed onboard an H{sub 2}-powered Toyota Prius and fueled with LH{sub 2} demonstrated the longest unrefueled driving distance and the longest cryogenic H{sub 2} hold time without evaporative losses. A third generation vessel will be installed, reducing weight and volume by minimizing insulation thickness while still providing acceptable thermal endurance. Based on its long experience with cryogenic hydrogen storage, BMW has developed its cryo-compressed hydrogen storage concept, which is now undergoing a thorough system and component validation to prove compliance with automotive requirements before it can be demonstrated in a BMW test vehicle. (author)

  3. Carbon-Based Metal-Free Catalysts for Electrocatalysis beyond the ORR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Dai, Liming

    2016-09-19

    Besides their use in fuel cells for energy conversion through the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), carbon-based metal-free catalysts have also been demonstrated to be promising alternatives to noble-metal/metal oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in metal-air batteries for energy storage and for the splitting of water to produce hydrogen fuels through the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). This Review focuses on recent progress in the development of carbon-based metal-free catalysts for the OER and HER, along with challenges and perspectives in the emerging field of metal-free electrocatalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [University of Missouri; Wexler, Carlos [University of Missouri; Hawthorne, M. Frederick [University of Missouri; Lee, Mark W. [University of Missouri; Jalistegi, Satish S. [University of Missouri

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have

  5. Hydrogen underground storage in siliciclastic reservoirs - intention and topics of the H2STORE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Ganzer, Leonhard; Henkel, Steven; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; De Lucia, Marco; Panfilov, Michel; Pilz, Peter; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Würdemann, Hilke; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    The transfer of energy supply from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation to renewable energy production sources is strongly reliant to the potential of storing high capacities of energy in a safe and reliable way in time spans of several months. One conceivable option can be the storage of hydrogen and (related) synthetic natural gas (SNG) production in appropriate underground structures, like salt caverns and pore space reservoirs. Successful storage of hydrogen in the form of town gas in salt caverns has been proven in several demonstration projects and can be considered as state of the art technology. However, salt structures have only limited importance for hydrogen storage due to only small cavern volumes and the limited occurrence of salt deposits suitable for flushing of cavern constructions. Thus, regarding potential high-volume storage sites, siliciclastic deposits like saline aquifers and depleted gas reservoirs are of increasing interest. Motivated by a project call and sponsored by the German government the H2STORE ("Hydrogen to Store") collaborative project will investigate the feasibility and the requirements for pore space storage of hydrogen. Thereby depleted gas reservoirs are a major concern of this study. This type of geological structure is chosen because of their well investigated geological settings and proved sealing capacities, which already enable a present (and future) use as natural (and synthetic) reservoir gas storages. Nonetheless hydrogen and hydrocarbon in porous media exhibit major differences in physico-chemical behaviour, essentially due to the high diffusivity and reactivity of hydrogen. The biotic and abiotic reactions of hydrogen with rocks and fluids will be necessary observed in siliciclastic sediments which consist of numerous inorganic and organic compounds and comprise original formation fluids. These features strongly control petrophysical behaviour (e.g. porosity, permeability) and therefore fluid (hydrogen

  6. Pillared Graphene: A New 3-D Innovative Network Nanostructure Augments Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgios, Dimitrakakis K.; Emmanuel, Tylianakis; George, Froudakis E.

    2009-08-01

    Nowadays, people have turned into finding an alternative power source for everyday applications. One of the most promising energy fuels is hydrogen. It can be used as an energy carrier at small portable devices (e.g. laptops and/or cell phones) up to larger, like cars. Hydrogen is considered as the perfect fuel. It can be burnt in combustion engines and the only by-product is water. For hydrogen-powered vehicles a big liming factor is the gas tank and is the reason for not using widely hydrogen in automobile applications. According to United States' Department of Energy (D.O.E.) the target for reversible hydrogen storage in mobile applications is 6% wt. and 45 gr. H2/L and these should be met by 2010. After their synthesis Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) were considered as ideal candidates for hydrogen storage especially after some initially incorrect but invitingly results. As it was proven later, pristine carbon nanotubes cannot achieve D.O.E.'s targets in ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. Therefore, a way to increase their hydrogen storage capacity should be found. An attempt was done by doping CNTs with alkali metal atoms. Although the results were promising, even that increment was not enough. Consequently, new architectures were suggested as materials that could potentially enhance hydrogen storage. In this work a novel three dimensional (3-D) nanoporous carbon structure called Pillared Graphene (Figure 1) is proposed for augmented hydrogen storage in ambient conditions. Pillared Graphene consists of parallel graphene sheets and CNTs that act like pillars and support the graphene sheets. The entire structure (Figure 1) can be resembled like a building in its early stages of construction, where the floors are represented by graphene sheets and the pillars are the CNTs. As shown in Figure 1, CNTs do not penetrate the structure from top to bottom. Instead, they alternately go up and down, so that on the same plane do not exist two neighboring CNTs with the

  7. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  8. Technology Development for Hydrogen Propellant Storage and Transfer at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Krenn, Angela; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a major user of liquid hydrogen. In particular, NASA's John F. Kennedy (KSC) Space Center has operated facilities for handling and storing very large quantities of liquid hydrogen (LH2) since the early 1960s. Safe operations pose unique challenges and as a result NASA has invested in technology development to improve operational efficiency and safety. This paper reviews recent innovations including methods of leak and fire detection and aspects of large storage tank health and integrity. We also discuss the use of liquid hydrogen in space and issues we are addressing to ensure safe and efficient operations should hydrogen be used as a propellant derived from in-situ volatiles.

  9. Tool for optimal design and operation of hydrogen storage based autonomous energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschachtsiek, B.; Lemken, D. [ZBT - Duisburg (Germany); Stark, M.; Krost, G. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Decentralized small scale electricity generation based on renewable energy sources usually necessitates decoupling of volatile power generation and consumption by means of energy storage. Hydrogen has proven as an eligible storage medium for mid- and long-term range, which - when indicated - can be reasonably complemented by accumulator short term storage. The selection of appropriate system components - sources, storage devices and the appertaining peripherals - is a demanding task which affords a high degree of freedom but, on the other hand, has to account for various operational dependencies and restrictions of system components, as well as for conduct of load and generation. An innovative tool facilitates the configuration and dimensioning of renewable energy based power supply systems with hydrogen storage paths, and allows for applying appropriate operation strategies. This tool accounts for the characteristics and performances of relevant power sources, loads, and types of energy storage, and also regards safety rules the energy system has to comply with. In particular, the tool is addressing small, detached and autonomous supply systems. (orig.)

  10. Hydrogen storage for vehicular applications: Technology status and key development areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.L.; Handrock, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    The state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage technology is reviewed, including gaseous, liquid, hydride, surface adsorbed media, glass microsphere, chemical reaction, and liquid chemical technologies. The review of each technology includes a discussion of advantages, disadvantages, likelihood of success, and key research and development activities. A preferred technological path for the development of effective near-term hydrogen storage includes both cur-rent DOT qualified and advanced compressed storage for down-sized highly efficient but moderate range vehicles, and liquid storage for fleet vehicle applications. Adsorbate media are also suitable for fleet applications but not for intermittent uses. Volume-optimized transition metal hydride beds are also viable for short range applications. Long-term development of coated nanoparticulate or metal matrix high conductivity magnesium alloy, is recommended. In addition, a room temperature adsorbate medium should be developed to avoid cryogenic storage requirements. Chemical storage and oxidative schemes present serious obstacles which must be addressed for these technologies to have a future role.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  12. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  13. Energy Dense, Lighweight, Durable, Systems for Storage and Delivery of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacky Pruez; Samir Shoukry; Gergis William; Thomas Evans; Hermann Alcazar

    2008-12-31

    The work presented in this report summarizes the current state-of-the-art in on-board storage on compressed gaseous hydrogen as well as the development of analysis tools, methods, and theoretical data for devising high performance design configurations for hydrogen storage. The state-of-the-art in the area of compressed hydrogen storage reveals that the current configuration of the hydrogen storage tank is a seamless cylindrical part with two end domes. The tank is composed of an aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers. Such a configuration was proved to sustain internal pressures up to 350 bars (5,000 psi). Finite-element stress analyses were performed on filament-wound hydrogen storage cylindrical tanks under the effect of internal pressure of 700 bars (10,000 psi). Tank deformations, stress fields, and intensities induced at the tank wall were examined. The results indicated that the aluminum liner can not sustain such a high pressure and initiate the tank failure. Thus, hydrogen tanks ought to be built entirely out of composite materials based on carbon fibers or other innovative composite materials. A spherical hydrogen storage tank was suggested within the scope of this project. A stress reduction was achieved by this change of the tank geometry, which allows for increasing the amount of the stored hydrogen and storage energy density. The finite element modeling of both cylindrical and spherical tank design configurations indicate that the formation of stress concentration zones in the vicinity of the valve inlet as well as the presence of high shear stresses in this area. Therefore, it is highly recommended to tailor the tank wall design to be thicker in this region and tapered to the required thickness in the rest of the tank shell. Innovative layout configurations of multiple tanks for enhanced conformability in limited space have been proposed and theoretically modeled using 3D finite element analysis. Optimum tailoring of fiber orientations and lay

  14. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Behavior of Complex Hydrides via Bimetallic Nanocatalysts Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C. Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pristine complex quaternary hydride (LiBH4/2LiNH2 and its destabilized counterpart (LiBH4/2LiNH2/nanoMgH2 have recently shown promising reversible hydrogen storage capacity under moderate operating conditions. The destabilization of complex hydride via nanocrystalline MgH2 apparently lowers the thermodynamic heat values and thus enhances the reversible hydrogen storage behavior at moderate temperatures. However, the kinetics of these materials is rather low and needs to be improved for on-board vehicular applications. Nanocatalyst additives such as nano Ni, nano Fe, nano Co, nano Mn and nano Cu at low concentrations on the complex hydride host structures have demonstrated a reduction in the decomposition temperature and overall increase in the hydrogen desorption reaction rates. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts such as the combination of nano Fe and nano Ni have shown further pronounced kinetics enhancement in comparison to their individual counterparts. Additionally, the vital advantage of using bi-metallic nanocatalysts is to enable the synergistic effects and characteristics of the two transitional nanometal species on the host hydride matrix for the optimized hydrogen storage behavior.

  15. Kinetic limitations of the Mg2Si system for reversible hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Stephen T; Clemens, B M; Van Atta, Sky L; Vajo, John J; Olson, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    Despite the promising thermodynamics and storage capacities of many destabilized metal hydride hydrogen storage material systems, they are often kinetically limited from achieving practical and reversible behavior. Such is the case with the Mg 2 Si system. We investigated the kinetic mechanisms responsible for limiting the reversibility of the MgH 2 +Si system using thin films as a controlled research platform. We observed that the reaction MgH 2 + 1/2 Si ↔ 1/2 Mg 2 Si + H 2 is limited by the mass transport of Mg and Si into separate phases. Hydrogen readily diffuses through the Mg 2 Si material and nucleating MgH 2 phase growth does not result in reaction completion. By depositing and characterizing multilayer films of Mg 2 Si and Mg with varying Mg 2 Si layer thicknesses, we conclude that the hydrogenation reaction consumes no more than 1 nm of Mg 2 Si, making this system impractical for reversible hydrogen storage.

  16. Design and synthesis of vanadium hydrazide gels for Kubas-type hydrogen adsorption: a new class of hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tuan K A; Webb, Michael I; Mai, Hung V; Hamaed, Ahmad; Walsby, Charles J; Trudeau, Michel; Antonelli, David M

    2010-08-25

    In this paper we demonstrate that the Kubas interaction, a nondissociative form of weak hydrogen chemisorption with binding enthalpies in the ideal 20-30 kJ/mol range for room-temperature hydrogen storage, can be exploited in the design of a new class of hydrogen storage materials which avoid the shortcomings of hydrides and physisorpion materials. This was accomplished through the synthesis of novel vanadium hydrazide gels that use low-coordinate V centers as the principal Kubas H(2) binding sites with only a negligible contribution from physisorption. Materials were synthesized at vanadium-to-hydrazine ratios of 4:3, 1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2 and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The material with the highest capacity possesses an excess reversible storage of 4.04 wt % at 77 K and 85 bar, corresponding to a true volumetric adsorption of 80 kg H(2)/m(3) and an excess volumetric adsorption of 60.01 kg/m(3). These values are in the range of the ultimate U.S. Department of Energy goal for volumetric density (70 kg/m(3)) as well as the best physisorption material studied to date (49 kg H(2)/m(3) for MOF-177). This material also displays a surprisingly high volumetric density of 23.2 kg H(2)/m(3) at room temperature and 85 bar--roughly 3 times higher than that of compressed gas and approaching the DOE 2010 goal of 28 kg H(2)/m(3). These materials possess linear isotherms and enthalpies that rise on coverage and have little or no kinetic barrier to adsorption or desorption. In a practical system these materials would use pressure instead of temperature as a toggle and can thus be used in compressed gas tanks, currently employed in many hydrogen test vehicles, to dramatically increase the amount of hydrogen stored and therefore the range of any vehicle.

  17. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Polyhedral Borane Anions and Aluminum-Ammonia-Borane Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Safronov, Alexander V.; Lee, Han Beak; Wu, Jianguo

    2010-10-01

    Phase 1. Hydrolysis of borohydride compounds offer the potential for significant hydrogen storage capacity, but most work to date has focused on one particular anion, BH4-, which requires high pH for stability. Other borohydride compounds, in particular polyhedral borane anions offer comparable hydrogen storage capacity without requiring high pH media and their long term thermal and hydrolytic stability coupled with non-toxic nature make them a very attractive alternative to NaBH4. The University of Missouri project provided the overall program focal point for the investigation of catalytic hydrolysis of polyhedral borane anions for hydrogen release. Due to their inherent stability, a transition metal catalyst was necessary for the hydrolysis of polyhedral borane anions. Transition metal ions such as cobalt, nickel, palladium and rhodium were investigated for their catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of nido-KB11H14, closo-K2B10H10, and closo-K2B12H12. The rate of hydrolysis follows first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of the polyhedral borane anion and surface area of the rhodium catalyst. The rate of hydrolysis depends upon a) choice of polyhedral borane anion, c) concentration of polyhedral borane anion, d) surface area of the rhodium catalyst and e) temperature of the reaction. In all cases the yield of hydrogen was 100% which corresponds to ~7 wt% of hydrogen (based on material wt%). Phase 2. The phase 2 of program at the University of Missouri was focused upon developing aluminum ammonia-boranes (Al-AB) as chemical hydrogen storage materials, specifically their synthesis and studies of their dehydrogenation. The ammonia borane molecule (AB) is a demonstrated source of chemically stored hydrogen (19.6 wt%) which meets DOE performance parameters except for its regeneration from spent AB and elemental hydrogen. The presence of an aluminum center bonded to multiple AB residues might combine the efficiency of AB dehydrogenation with an aluminum

  18. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  19. Towards a hydrogen-driven society? Calculations and neutron scattering on potential hydrogen storage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable development, the resources of the earth need to be maintained and carbon dioxide emission should be avoided. In particular, we need to find an alternative for the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. Since long, hydrogen has been recognised as the fuel of the future because it exhausts

  20. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  1. Application of palladium-, platinum- and rhodium-based solid solutions to the solid storage of hydrogen isotopes: electronic structure, stability in hydrogen environment and aging in tritium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, I.

    2001-01-01

    Palladium and its alloys have been extensively studied. One of the reasons is their faculty to store reversibly hydrogen. This ability is interesting from both the fundamental and technological standpoints, particularly for the purification or storage of hydrogen isotopes (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium). For some applications, substitution of palladium by rhodium and/or platinum is used in order to modify thermodynamic properties of the corresponding hydride. The aim of this work was to study the electronic structure, the stability after hydrogen exposure and the behaviour after tritium aging of the binary and ternary alloys. We showed that there is a relation between the electronic structure of the host metals and the hydrogenation properties. Study of the stability after hydrogen exposure showed that all the alloys were stable in standard storage conditions, if there is less than 10 % of rhodium. Furthermore, we found an original behaviour of the ternary alloys after tritium aging. (author)

  2. Sputtered Pd as Hydrogen Storage for a Chip-Integrated Microenergy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Slavcheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AMF. The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis and discharging (fuel cell operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  3. Hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: the hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.P. da.

    1981-01-01

    The massive and common use of hydrogen as an energy carrier requires an adequate solution to the problem of storing it. High pressure or low temperatures are not entirely satisfactory, having each a limited range of applications. Reversible metal hydrides cover a range of applications intermediate to high pressure gas and low temperature liquid hydrogen, retaining very favorable safety and energy density characteristics, both for mobile and stationary applications. This work demonstrates the technical viability of storing hydrogen in metal hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys. Also, it shows that technology, a product of science, can be generated within an academic environment, of the goal is clear, the demand outstanding and the means available. We review briefly theoretical models relating to metal hydride properties, specially the thermodynamics properties relevant to this work. We report our experimental results on hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys of various compositions including data on structure, hydrogen storage capacities, reaction kinetics, pressure-composition isotherms. We selected a promising alloy for mass production, built and tested a modular storage tank based on the hydrides of the alloy, with a capacity for storing 10 Nm sup(3) of hydrogen of 1 atm and 20 sup(0)C. The tank weighs 46,3 Kg and has a volume of 21 l. (author)

  4. Lithium doping on covalent organic framework-320 for enhancing hydrogen storage at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Liangzhi; Liu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) combines with grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are performed to explore the effect of Li doping on the hydrogen storage capability of COF-320. The results show that the interaction energy between the H 2 and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. GCMC simulations are employed to study the hydrogen uptake of Li-doped COF-320 at ambient temperature, further confirm that the lithium doping can improve the hydrogen uptake at ambient temperature. Our results demonstrate that Li-doped COFs have good potential in the field of hydrogen storage. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. The optimized cluster model used here to represent the COF-320 and possible adsorption sites (A, B, C) for adsorption of metals in the COF-320. The dangling bonds are terminated by H atoms. C, H, and N atoms are shown as gray, white, and blue colors, respectively. Fig. 2. The adsorption isotherm of H 2 in the pristine and Li-doped COF-320 at 298 K. - Highlights: • The binding sites of single and two lithium atoms in COF-320 were studied. • The interaction energy between the H 2 and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. • H 2 uptakes on the Li-doped COFs obtain significant improvement at ambient temperature. • Lithium-doping is a successful strategy for improving hydrogen uptake.

  5. Hydrogen Storage Stability of Nanoconfined MgH2 upon Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Huen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of utmost importance to optimise and stabilise hydrogen storage capacity during multiple cycles of hydrogen release and uptake to realise a hydrogen-based energy system. Here, the direct solvent-based synthesis of magnesium hydride, MgH2, from dibutyl magnesium, MgBu2, in four different carbon aerogels with different porosities, i.e., pore sizes, 15 < Davg < 26 nm, surface area 800 < SBET < 2100 m2/g, and total pore volume, 1.3 < Vtot < 2.5 cm3/g, is investigated. Three independent infiltrations of MgBu2, each with three individual hydrogenations, are conducted for each scaffold. The volumetric and gravimetric loading of MgH2 is in the range 17 to 20 vol % and 24 to 40 wt %, which is only slightly larger as compared to the first infiltration assigned to the large difference in molar volume of MgH2 and MgBu2. Despite the rigorous infiltration and sample preparation techniques, particular issues are highlighted relating to the presence of unwanted gaseous by-products, Mg/MgH2 containment within the scaffold, and the purity of the carbon aerogel scaffold. The results presented provide a research path for future researchers to improve the nanoconfinement process for hydrogen storage applications.

  6. Considerations for Storage of High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Utilizing Non-Metal Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robin E.; Scott, Joseph P.; Wise, Harry

    2005-01-01

    When working with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, it is critical that the storage container be constructed of the proper materials, those which will not degrade to the extent that container breakdown or dangerous decomposition occurs. It has been suggested that the only materials that will safely contain the peroxide for a significant period of time are metals of stainless steel construction or aluminum use as High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Containers. The stability and decomposition of HTP will be also discussed as well as various means suggested in the literature to minimize these problems. The dangers of excess oxygen generation are also touched upon.

  7. Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of CNT doped NaAlH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukazhselvan, D.; Sterlin Leo Hudson, M.; Bipin Kumar Gupta; Srivastava, O.N.

    2006-01-01

    The current Hydrogen based energy infrastructure required a high energy density consumer friendly hydrogen storage media. Although the desired goals for the hydrogen fueled vehicular transport has not yet met by any hydrogen storage material, complex Sodium Alanate is said to be a promising candidate under this demand due to its high hydrogen storage capacity and the thermodynamically permissible reversible hydrogen storage capacity. However its poor sorption behavior under moderate conditions (NaAlH 4 →Na 3 AlH 6 ; 3.7 wt % vs 50 hrs at ∼170 C and Na 3 AlH 6 →NaH; 1.85 wt % vs 30 hrs at ∼220 C) urges their limited uses in ages. But these limitations can be removed by using catalysts particularly transition elements but the location of catalyst in NaAlH 4 matrix and the possible mechanism is not yet clearly understood. The aim of the present investigation is to improve the overall sorption characteristics of NaAlH 4 by a new light weighted high surface area (1315 sq mtr/gm) material (CNT) admixing and to obtain a best doping level to NaAlH 4 . So far only Ti has been attempted as a suitable catalyst. It is believed that the high surface area of CNT can provide an additional solid-gas (H 2 ) surface/interface and it can produce thermal contact between grains (thermal conductivity Kth of MWCNT: 3000 w/k and Kth of NaAlH 4 : 0.32 w/k) for stimulating their thermally activated dissociation in NaAlH 4 . In parallel with this approach XRD of NaAlH 4 reveals that there was no change in lattice structure after doping by CNT, SEM picture depicts that CNT precipitation in grain surfaces. Catalytic concentration of various mole % of x values finds that x = 8 is the best doping level as it gives 3.3 wt % of hydrogen within 2 hrs. The comparative sorption behavior with Ti:NaAlH 4 also shows CNTs as an optimum alternative catalyst to NaAlH 4 and besides this CNT doped desorbed ingredients shown good re-hydrogenation behavior(3.7 wt % at 8. cycle and 4.2 wt % maximum at

  8. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  9. Hydrogen desorption reactions of Li-N-H hydrogen storage system: Estimation of activation free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Haga, Tetsuya; Kawai, Yasuaki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2007-01-01

    The dehydrogenation reactions of the mixtures of lithium amide (LiNH 2 ) and lithium hydride (LiH) were studied under an Ar atmosphere by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The dehydrogenation reaction of the LiNH 2 /LiH mixture was accelerated by addition of 1 mol% Ti(III) species (k = 3.1 x 10 -4 s -1 at 493 K), and prolonged ball-milling time (16 h) further enhanced reaction rate (k = 1.1 x 10 -3 s -1 at 493 K). For the hydrogen desorption reaction of Ti(III) doped samples, the activation energies estimated by Kissinger plot (95 kJ mol -1 ) and Arrhenius plot (110 kJ mol -1 ) were in reasonable agreement. The LiNH 2 /LiH mixture without Ti(III) species, exhibited slower hydrogen desorption process and the kinetic traces deviated from single exponential behavior. The results indicated the Ti(III) additives change the hydrogen desorption reaction mechanism of the LiNH 2 /LiH mixture

  10. Phase Transformation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of an La7.0Mg75.5Ni17.5 Hydrogen Storage Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available X-ray diffraction showed that an La7.0Mg75.5Ni17.5 alloy prepared via inductive melting was composed of an La2Mg17 phase, an LaMg2Ni phase, and an Mg2Ni phase. After the first hydrogen absorption/desorption process, the phases of the alloy turned into an La–H phase, an Mg phase, and an Mg2Ni phase. The enthalpy and entropy derived from the van’t Hoff equation for hydriding were −42.30 kJ·mol−1 and −69.76 J·K−1·mol−1, respectively. The hydride formed in the absorption step was less stable than MgH2 (−74.50 kJ·mol−1 and −132.3 J·K−1·mol−1 and Mg2NiH4 (−64.50 kJ·mol−1 and −123.1 J·K−1·mol−1. Differential thermal analysis showed that the initial hydrogen desorption temperature of its hydride was 531 K. Compared to Mg and Mg2Ni, La7.0Mg75.5Ni17.5 is a promising hydrogen storage material that demonstrates fast adsorption/desorption kinetics as a result of the formation of an La–H compound and the synergetic effect of multiphase.

  11. Theoretical investigation of calcium-decorated β12 boron sheet for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Gu, Yuantong; Kou, Liangzhi

    2018-03-01

    From first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we find that the recently synthesized β12 boron sheet is a perfect candidate for calcium-decoration and hydrogen storage application. In contrast to graphene where defects are required to capture Ca, the naturally formed hexagonal hollow ring in β12 boron sheet provides the ideal site for Ca adsorption, and up to 6H2 molecules for each Ca atom can be captured with a desirable binding energy of ∼0.2 eV/H2. The gravimetric hydrogen density for Ca decorated boron sheet can reach up to 8.92 wt%. From the electronic analysis, it is found that both the orbital hybridizations and polarization mechanism play significant roles in H2 adsorption and storage.

  12. Efficient Discovery of Novel Multicomponent Mixtures for Hydrogen Storage: A Combined Computational/Experimental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, Christopher [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ozolins, Vidvuds [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kung, Harold H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Yang, Jun [Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Hwang, Sonjong [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Shore, Sheldon [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2016-11-28

    The objective of the proposed program is to discover novel mixed hydrides for hydrogen storage, which enable the DOE 2010 system-level goals. Our goal is to find a material that desorbs 8.5 wt.% H2 or more at temperatures below 85°C. The research program will combine first-principles calculations of reaction thermodynamics and kinetics with material and catalyst synthesis, testing, and characterization. We will combine materials from distinct categories (e.g., chemical and complex hydrides) to form novel multicomponent reactions. Systems to be studied include mixtures of complex hydrides and chemical hydrides [e.g. LiNH2+NH3BH3] and nitrogen-hydrogen based borohydrides [e.g. Al(BH4)3(NH3)3]. The 2010 and 2015 FreedomCAR/DOE targets for hydrogen storage systems are very challenging, and cannot be met with existing materials. The vast majority of the work to date has delineated materials into various classes, e.g., complex and metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents. However, very recent studies indicate that mixtures of storage materials, particularly mixtures between various classes, hold promise to achieve technological attributes that materials within an individual class cannot reach. Our project involves a systematic, rational approach to designing novel multicomponent mixtures of materials with fast hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics and favorable thermodynamics using a combination of state-of-the-art scientific computing and experimentation. We will use the accurate predictive power of first-principles modeling to understand the thermodynamic and microscopic kinetic processes involved in hydrogen release and uptake and to design new material/catalyst systems with improved properties. Detailed characterization and atomic-scale catalysis experiments will elucidate the effect of dopants and nanoscale catalysts in achieving fast kinetics and reversibility. And

  13. The performance of a grid-tied microgrid with hydrogen storage and a hydrogen fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linfeng; Xiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two microgrids with different structure are simulated. • Their performance are comprehensively evaluated and compared. • The one with DES and a FC stack has high environmental and quality indexes. - Abstract: In a heat-power system, the use of distributed energy generation and storage not only improves system’s efficiency and reliability but also reduce the emission. This paper is focused on the comprehensive performance evaluation of a grid-tied microgrid, which consists of a PV system, a hydrogen fuel cell stack, a PEM electrolyzer, and a hydrogen tank. Electricity and heat are generated in this system, to meet the local electric and heat demands. The surplus electricity can be stored as hydrogen, which is supplied to the fuel cell stack to generate heat and power as needed. The performance of the microgrid is comprehensively evaluated and is compared with another microgrid without a fuel cell stack. As a result, the emission and the service quality in the first system are higher than those in the second one. But they both have the same overall performance

  14. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  15. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  16. Phase transition and hydrogen storage properties of Mg–Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Daifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ouyang, Liuzhang, E-mail: meouyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wu, Cong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Hui; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Sun, Lixian [Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhu, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • A fully reversible transformation in Mg–Ga–H system with reduced dehydrogenation enthalpy is realized. • The mechanism of phase transformation in the de/hydrogenation of Mg–Ga alloy is revealed. • The de/hydrogenation process of Mg{sub 5}Ga{sub 2} compound is expressed as: Mg{sub 5}Ga{sub 2} + H{sub 2} ↔ 2Mg{sub 2}Ga + MgH{sub 2}. - Abstract: Mg-based alloys are viewed as one of the most promising candidates for hydrogen storage; however, high desorption temperature and the sluggish kinetics of MgH{sub 2} hinder their practical application. Alloying and changing the reaction pathway are effective methods to solve these issues. As the solid solubility of Ga in Mg is 5 wt% at 573 K, the preparation of a Mg(Ga) solid solution at relatively high temperatures was designed in this paper. The phase transition and hydrogen storage properties of the MgH{sub 2} and Mg{sub 5}Ga{sub 2} composite (hereafter referred to as Mg–Ga alloy) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pressure–composition-isotherm (PCI) measurements, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of Mg–Ga alloy is 5.7 wt% H{sub 2}. During the dehydrogenation process of Mg–Ga alloy, Mg{sub 2}Ga reacts with MgH{sub 2}, initially releasing H{sub 2} and forming Mg{sub 5}Ga{sub 2}; subsequently, MgH{sub 2} decomposes into Mg with further release of H{sub 2}. The phase transition mechanism of the Mg{sub 5}Ga{sub 2} compound during the dehydrogenation process was also investigated by using in situ XRD analysis. In addition, the dehydrogenation enthalpy and entropy changes, and the apparent activation energy were also calculated.

  17. A study on hydrogen storage through adsorption in nano-structured carbons; Etude du stockage d'hydrogene par adsorption dans des carbones nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langohr, D

    2004-10-15

    The aim of this work is to build and calibrate an experimental set-up for the testing of the materials, to produce some carbon materials in large amounts and characterise them, and finally, to test these materials in their ability to store hydrogen. This will help in establishing a link between the hydrogen storage capacities of the carbons and their nano-structure. The script is divided into four chapters. The first chapter will deal with the literature review on the thematic of hydrogen storage through adsorption in the carbon materials, while the second chapter will present the experimental set-up elaborated in the laboratory. The third chapter explains the processes used to produce the two families of carbon materials and finally, the last chapter presents the structural characterisation of the samples as well as the experimental results of hydrogen storage on the materials elaborated. (author)

  18. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don; Harmon, Laurel

    2011-02-14

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 LiAlH4Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the

  19. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used

  20. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  1. Combinatorial search for hydrogen storage alloys: Mg-Ni and Mg-Ni-Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelmez, Rabia; Cakmak, Guelhan; Oeztuerk, Tayfur [Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    A combinatorial study was carried out for hydrogen storage alloys involving processes similar to those normally used in their fabrication. The study utilized a single sample of combined elemental (or compound) powders which were milled and consolidated into a bulk form and subsequently deformed to heavy strains. The mixture was then subjected to a post annealing treatment, which brings about solid state reactions between the powders, yielding equilibrium phases in the respective alloy system. A sample, comprising the equilibrium phases, was then pulverized and screened for hydrogen storage compositions. X-ray diffraction was used as a screening tool, the sample having been examined both in the as processed and the hydrogenated state. The method was successfully applied to Mg-Ni and Mg-Ni-Ti yielding the well known Mg{sub 2}Ni as the storage composition. It is concluded that a partitioning of the alloy system into regions of similar solidus temperature would be required to encompass the full spectrum of equilibrium phases. (author)

  2. Magnesium-Nickel alloy for hydrogen storage produced by melt spinning followed by cold rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigo Leiva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe plastic deformation routes (SPD have been shown to be attractive for short time preparation of magnesium alloys for hydrogen storage, generating refined microstructures and interesting hydrogen storage properties when compared to the same materials processed by high-energy ball milling (HEBM, but with the benefit of higher air resistance. In this study, we present results of a new processing route for Mg alloys for hydrogen storage: rapid solidification followed by cold work. A Mg97Ni3 alloy was processed by melt spinning (MS and by extensive cold rolling (CR. Submitting Mg97Ni3 ribbons between steel plates to cold rolling has shown to be a viable procedure, producing a thin cold welded foil, with little material waste. The as-processed material presents a high level of [002] fiber texture, a sub microcrystalline grain structure with a high density of defects, and also a fine dispersion of Mg2Ni nanoparticles. This refined microstructure allied to the developed texture resulted in enhanced activation and H-sorption kinetics properties.

  3. Microstructure and low-temperature hydrogen storage capacity of ball-milled graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentsche, Melanie; Hermann, Helmut; Lindackers, Dirk [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden, PF 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Seifert, Gotthard [Technical University Dresden, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Hydrogen adsorption in ball-milled graphite is investigated in the low temperature range from 110 to 35 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. The adsorption data are compared to the results of detailed quantitative microstructural analyses of the samples used for the adsorption experiments. The amount of hydrogen adsorbed at temperatures well below 77 K exceeds considerably that what is expected from adsorption on plane graphitic planes. The results can be explained assuming the following mechanisms: (i) adsorption in trapping states on plane surfaces at and below 110 K; (ii) adsorption in small micropores with diameter of less than 1 nm at 77 K and pressure of 10 MPa, and (iii) multilayer adsorption in mesopores at temperatures from 35 to 40 K and pressure of 2 MPa. The effects observed in the low temperature range are reversible and make the investigated material interesting as a supporting component for liquid hydrogen storage systems. (author)

  4. Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Chun, Jaehun; Choi, Young Joon; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2016-01-25

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high hydrogen content of 14-16 wt% below 200°C and high volumetric density. In our previous paper, we selected AB in silicone oil as a role model for a slurry hydrogen storage system. Materials engineering properties were optimized by increasing solid loading by using an ultra-sonic process. In this paper, we proceeded to scale up to liter size batches with solid loadings up to 50 wt% (8 wt% H2) with dynamic viscosities less than 1000cP at 25°C. The use of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-15, shows significant promise in controlling the level of foaming produced during the thermal dehydrogenation of the AB. Through the development of new and efficient processing techniques and the ability to adequately control the foaming, stable homogenous slurries of high solid loading have been demonstrated as a viable hydrogen delivery source.

  5. Nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage and H2/D2 isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyunchul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of hydrogen adsorption properties at RT with noble metal doped porous materials and an efficient separation of hydrogen isotopes with nanoporous materials. Most analysis is performed via thermal desorption spectra (TDS) and Sieverts-type apparatus. The result and discussion is presented in two parts; Chapter 4 focuses on metal doped nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. Cryogenic hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials has the advantage of high reversibility and fast refuelling times with low heat evolution at modest pressures. At room temperature, however, the physisorption mechanism is not abEle to achieve enough capacity for practical application due to the weak van der Waals interaction, i.e., low isosteric heats for hydrogen sorption. Recently, the ''spillover'' effect has been proposed by R. Yang et al. to enhance the room temperature hydrogen storage capacity. However, the mechanism of this storage enhancement by decoration of noble metal particles inside high surface area supports is not yet fully understood and still under debate. In this chapter, noble metal (Pt / Pd) doped nanoporous materials (i.e. porous carbon, COFs) have been investigated for room temperature hydrogen storage. Their textural properties and hydrogen storage capacity are characterized by various analytic techniques (e.g. SEM, HRTEM, XRD, BET, ICP-OES, Thermal desorption spectra, Sievert's apparatus and Raman spectroscopy). Firstly, Pt-doped and un-doped templated carbons possessing almost identical textural properties were successfully synthesized via a single step wet impregnation method. This enables the study of Pt catalytic activities and hydrogen adsorption kinetics on porous carbons at ambient temperature by TDS after H 2 /D 2 gas exposure and PCT measurement, respectively. While the H 2 adsorption kinetics in the microporous structure is enhanced by Pt catalytic activities (spillover), only a small enhancement of the hydrogen

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  7. Nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage and H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyunchul

    2014-05-05

    This thesis presents a study of hydrogen adsorption properties at RT with noble metal doped porous materials and an efficient separation of hydrogen isotopes with nanoporous materials. Most analysis is performed via thermal desorption spectra (TDS) and Sieverts-type apparatus. The result and discussion is presented in two parts; Chapter 4 focuses on metal doped nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. Cryogenic hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials has the advantage of high reversibility and fast refuelling times with low heat evolution at modest pressures. At room temperature, however, the physisorption mechanism is not abEle to achieve enough capacity for practical application due to the weak van der Waals interaction, i.e., low isosteric heats for hydrogen sorption. Recently, the ''spillover'' effect has been proposed by R. Yang et al. to enhance the room temperature hydrogen storage capacity. However, the mechanism of this storage enhancement by decoration of noble metal particles inside high surface area supports is not yet fully understood and still under debate. In this chapter, noble metal (Pt / Pd) doped nanoporous materials (i.e. porous carbon, COFs) have been investigated for room temperature hydrogen storage. Their textural properties and hydrogen storage capacity are characterized by various analytic techniques (e.g. SEM, HRTEM, XRD, BET, ICP-OES, Thermal desorption spectra, Sievert's apparatus and Raman spectroscopy). Firstly, Pt-doped and un-doped templated carbons possessing almost identical textural properties were successfully synthesized via a single step wet impregnation method. This enables the study of Pt catalytic activities and hydrogen adsorption kinetics on porous carbons at ambient temperature by TDS after H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} gas exposure and PCT measurement, respectively. While the H{sub 2} adsorption kinetics in the microporous structure is enhanced by Pt catalytic activities (spillover), only a

  8. Characterization of hydrogen storage materials and systems with photons and neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pranzas, P. Klaus; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Karimi, Fahim; Muenning, Martin; Metz, Oliver; Minella, Christian Bonatto; Schmitz, Heinz-Werner; Beckmann, Felix; Bormann, Ruediger; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany). Centre for Materials and Coastal Research; Vainio, Ulla; Zajac, Dariusz; Welter, Edmund [HASYLAB/DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Jensen, Torben R. [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Cerenius, Yngve [MAX-lab, Lund University (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Complex hydrides are very promising candidates for future light-weight solid state hydrogen storage materials. The present work illustrates detailed characterization of such novel hydride materials on different size scales by the use of synchrotron radiation and neutrons. The comprehensive analysis of such data leads to a deep understanding of the ongoing processes and mechanisms. The reaction pathways during hydrogen desorption and absorption are identified by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Function and size of additive phases are estimated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS). The structure of the metal hydride matrix is characterized using (ultra) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS/USANS). The hydrogen distribution in tanks filled with metal hydride material is studied with neutron computerized tomography (NCT). The results obtained by the different analysis methods are summarized in a final structural model. The complementary information obtained by these different methods is essential for the understanding of the various sorption processes in light metal hydrides and hydrogen storage tanks. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Nanostructured Ti-catalyzed MgH2 for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H; Felderhoff, M; Schüth, F; Weidenthaler, C

    2011-06-10

    Nanocrystalline Ti-catalyzed MgH(2) can be prepared by a homogeneously catalyzed synthesis method. Comprehensive characterization of this sample and measurements of hydrogen storage properties are discussed and compared to a commercial MgH(2) sample. The catalyzed MgH(2) nanocrystalline sample consists of two MgH(2) phases-a tetrahedral β-MgH(2) phase and an orthorhombic high-pressure modification γ-MgH(2). Transmission electron microscopy was used for the observation of the morphology of the samples and to confirm the nanostructure. N(2) adsorption measurement shows a BET surface area of 108 m(2) g(-1) of the nanostructured material. This sample exhibits a hydrogen desorption temperature more than 130 °C lower compared to commercial MgH(2). After desorption, the catalyzed nanocrystalline sample absorbs hydrogen 40 times faster than commercial MgH(2) at 300 °C. Both the Ti catalyst and the nanocrystalline structure with correspondingly high surface area are thought to play important roles in the improvement of hydrogen storage properties. The desorption enthalpy and entropy values of the catalyzed MgH(2) nanocrystalline sample are 77.7 kJ mol(-1) H(2) and 138.3 J K(-1) mol(-1) H(2), respectively. Thermodynamic properties do not change with the nanostructure.

  10. Technical feasibility and financial analysis of hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage for Cooma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, B.D.; Aye, L. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Musgrave, P. [Snowy Hydro Ltd., Cooma, NSW (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) system incorporating compressed hydrogen gas storage was studied for Cooma (Australia). Cooma has an average annual solar and wind energy availability of 1784 and 932 kWh/m{sup 2}, respectively. A system with 69 kWh{sub e}/day (load) and 483 kWh{sub e}(storage) was studied. Hydrogen is generated in electrolysers using excess electricity from the system. The system components were selected according to their availability and cost. The 'discounted cash flow' method, with the 'levelized energy cost' (LEC) as a financial indicator was used for analysis. Configurations with PV% of 100, 60, 12 and zero were analysed. The lowest LEC of AU $2.52/kWh{sub e} was found for 100% PV. The cost of hydrogen generation from 100% PV was AU $692/GJ of hydrogen. Fifty-two percent of the total project costs were due to the electrolyser. Hence, a reduction in the electrolyser cost would reduce the cost of the overall system. (Author)

  11. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Lithium Aluminohydride Modified by Dopants and Mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Keita [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alkali metal aluminohydrides have high potential as solid hydrogen storage materials. They have been known for their irreversible dehydrogenation process below 100 atm until Bogdanovic et al [1, 2] succeeded in the re-hydrogenation of NaAlH4 below 70 atm. They achieved 4 wt.% H2 reversible capacity by doping NaAlH4 with Ti and/or Fe organo-metalic compounds as catalysts. This suggests that other alkali and, possibly alkaline earth metal aluminohydrides can be used for reversible hydrogen storage when modified by proper dopants. In this research, Zr27Ti9Ni38V5Mn16Cr5, LaNi4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined , LaNi4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined with LiAlH4 by ball-milling to study whether or not LiAlH4 is capable to both absorb and desorb hydrogen near ambient conditions. X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were employed for sample characterizations. All four compounds worked as catalysts in the dehydrogenation reactions of both LiAlH4 and Li3AlH6 by inducing the decomposition at lower temperature. However, none of them was applicable as catalyst in the reverse hydrogenation reaction at low to moderate hydrogen pressure.

  12. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Lithium Aluminohydride modified by dopants and mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Keita [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alkali metal aluminohydrides have high potential as solid hydrogen storage materials. They have been known for their irreversible dehydrogenation process below 100 atm until Bogdanovic et al [1, 2] succeeded in the re-hydrogenation of NaAlH4 below 70 atm. They achieved 4 wt.% H2 reversible capacity by doping NaAlH4 with Ti and/or Fe organo-metalic compounds as catalysts. This suggests that other alkali and, possibly alkaline earth metal aluminohydrides can be used for reversible hydrogen storage when modified by proper dopants. In this research, Zr27Ti9Ni38V5Mn16Cr5, LaNi4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined with LiAlH4 by ball-milling to study whether or not LiAlH4 is capable to both absorb and desorb hydrogen near ambient conditions. X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were employed for sample characterizations. All four compounds worked as catalysts in the dehydrogenation reactions of both LiAlH4 and Li3AlH6 by inducing the decomposition at lower temperature. However, none of them was applicable as catalyst in the reverse hydrogenation reaction at low to moderate hydrogen pressure.

  13. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Lithium Aluminohydride Modified by Dopants and Mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ketia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alkali metal aluminohydrides have high potential as solid hydrogen storage materials. They have been known for their irreversible dehydrogenation process below 100 atm until Bogdanovic et al succeeded in the re-hydrogenation of NaAlH4 below 70 atm. They achieved 4 wt.% H2 reversible capacity by doping NaAlH4 with Ti and/or Fe organo-metallic compounds as catalysts. This suggests that other alkali and, possibly alkaline earth metal aluminohydrides can be used for reversible hydrogen storage when modified by proper dopants. In this research, Zr27Ti9Ni38V5Mn16Cr5, LaNi 4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined with LiAlH4 by ball-milling to study whether or not LiAlH4 is capable to both absorb and desorb hydrogen near ambient conditions. X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were employed for sample characterizations. All four compounds worked as catalysts in the dehydrogenation reactions of both LiAlH4 and Li3AlH6 by inducing the decomposition at lower temperature. However, none of them was applicable as catalyst in the reverse hydrogenation reaction at low to moderate hydrogen pressure.

  14. Effect of storage and LEO cycling on manufacturing technology IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Yardney Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) 50 A-hr space weight individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells were evaluated. This consisted of investigating: the effect of storage and charge/discharge cycling on cell performance. For the storage test the cells were precharged with hydrogen, by the manufacturer, to a pressure of 14.5 psia. After undergoing activation and acceptance tests, the cells were discharged at C/10 rate (5A) to 0.1 V or less. The terminals were then shorted. The cells were shipped to NASA Lewis Research Center where they were stored at room temperature in the shorted condition for 1 year. After storage, the acceptance tests were repeated at NASA Lewis. A comparison of test results indicate no significant degradation in electrical performance due to 1 year storage. For the cycle life test the regime was a 90 minute low earth orbit at deep depths of discharge (80 and 60 percent). At the 80 percent DOD the three cells failed on the average at cycle 741. Failure for this test was defined to occur when the cell voltage degraded to 1 V prior to completion of the 35 min discharge. The DOD was reduced to 60 percent. The cycle life test was continued.

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-TiO2 nanotubular material for reversible hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Amrita; Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Graeve, Olivia A; Misra, Mano

    2008-01-01

    A material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and larger titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays has been produced and found to be efficient for reversible hydrogen (H 2 ) storage. The TiO 2 nanotube arrays (diameter ∼60 nm and length ∼2-3 μm) are grown on a Ti substrate, and MWCNTs a few μm in length and ∼30-60 nm in diameter are grown inside these TiO 2 nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition with cobalt as a catalyst. The resulting material has been used in H 2 storage experiments based on a volumetric method using the pressure, composition, and temperature relationship of the storage media. This material can store up to 2.5 wt% of H 2 at 77 K under 25 bar with more than 90% reversibility.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-TiO(2) nanotubular material for reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita; Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Graeve, Olivia A; Misra, Mano

    2008-11-05

    A material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and larger titania (TiO(2)) nanotube arrays has been produced and found to be efficient for reversible hydrogen (H(2)) storage. The TiO(2) nanotube arrays (diameter ∼60 nm and length ∼2-3 µm) are grown on a Ti substrate, and MWCNTs a few µm in length and ∼30-60 nm in diameter are grown inside these TiO(2) nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition with cobalt as a catalyst. The resulting material has been used in H(2) storage experiments based on a volumetric method using the pressure, composition, and temperature relationship of the storage media. This material can store up to 2.5 wt% of H(2) at 77 K under 25 bar with more than 90% reversibility.

  17. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  18. The perspectives for the use of hydrogen for electricity storage considering the foreign experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacharski Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the European Union has seen a rapid increase in installed capacity of generating units based on renewable energy sources (RES. The most significant increase in installed capacity was recorded in 2015, in wind farms and solar PV installations. One of the most serious is the volatile character of RES on a time basis. Therefore, for a further expected increase in the use of RES and their effectiveness improvements, investments are needed allowing for electricity to be stored. One of the electricity storage options is to use excess electricity in order to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water. Although this process plays a marginal role in obtaining hydrogen on a worldwide basis due to high costs, experience in recent years has shown that periodically low (negative electricity prices, developing on the power exchanges in the situation where there is surplus electricity available, affect economic requirements for hydrogen production technologies. The paper shows activities undertaken by European countries (mainly Germany aiming at making it possible for hydrogen to be stored in the natural gas grids. A particular attention is given to material resource issues and possible operational problems that might arise while blending natural gas with hydrogen into the grid. The experiences of selected European countries are of particular interest from the Polish perspective, having regard to significant increase of RES in electricity generation during the last few years and adopted objectives for the growing importance of RES in the Poland’s energy balance.

  19. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  20. First Principles Based Simulation of Reaction-Induced Phase Transition in Hydrogen Storage and Other Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Qingfeng [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2014-08-31

    This major part of this proposal is simulating hydrogen interactions in the complex metal hydrides. Over the period of DOE BES support, key achievements include (i) Predicted TiAl3Hx as a precursor state for forming TiAl3 through analyzing the Ti-doped NaAlH4 and demonstrated its catalytic role for hydrogen release; (ii) Explored the possibility of forming similar complex structures with other 3d transition metals in NaAlH4 as well as the impact of such complex structures on hydrogen release/uptake; (iii) Demonstrated the role of TiAl3 in hydriding process; (iv) Predicted a new phase of NaAlH4 that links to Na3AlH6 using first-principles metadynamics; (v) Examined support effect on hydrogen release from supported/encapsulated NaAlH4; and (vi) Expanded research scope beyond hydrogen storage. The success of our research is documented by the peer-reviewed publications.

  1. Local disorder in hydrogen storage compounds: the case of lithium amide/imide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludueña, Guillermo A; Wegner, Martin; Bjålie, Lars; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2010-08-02

    Amides and imides of alkali metals are a very promising class of materials for use as a hydrogen-storage system, as they are able to store and release hydrogen via a chemical route at controllable temperatures and pressures. We critically revise the present picture of the atomic structure of the lightest member (LiNH(2)/Li(2)NH) by using a combined computational and experimental approach. Specifically, ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations and solid-state (1)H NMR techniques are combined. The results show that the presently assumed local structure might be inconsistent or at least incomplete and needs considerable revision. In particular, the Li atoms turn out to be more mobile and more disordered than suggested by structural data obtained from X-ray scattering. Also, the configuration of the hydrogen atoms, which is accessible via the NMR experiment and the corresponding first-principles calculations, is different from the previously assumed data. The computed and experimentally observed (1)H NMR parameters are in very good mutual agreement and illustrate the unusual chemical environment of the hydrogen atoms in this system. Incorporating our results on the new lithium data, we show that the effect of nuclear quantum delocalization for the hydrogen atoms is considerably reduced compared to the perfect crystal structure.

  2. Mexican natural zeolite, material for their possible use in the hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J. L.; Vazquez A, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this work a study is presented on the use of a Mexican natural zeolite as possible alternative to storage hydrogen. This zeolite material comes from the Sonora State (Mexico), to which is diminished the particle size by means of a mill treatment with a mechanical alloyed system during 5 hours. Later on, the zeolite in powder form was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was also exposed to heating in a micro-reactor at 350 C and at the same time making empty during 2 hours, to eliminate humidity and possible gases that were caught in their structure. Soon after, it was diminished the temperature at 10 C and it was contacted with hydrogen of ultra high purity to a pressure of 10 bars during 10 minutes. The hydrogen analysis caught in the zeolite was realized through gas chromatography. The results by means of the chromatograms indicate that the zeolite adsorbed and liberate to hydrogen under conditions completely different to that reported in the literature, being understood that under our experimental conditions to low pressure and temperature, the hydrogen is adsorbed in this material type. (Author)

  3. SANS/USANS investigations of nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2} for reversible storage of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pranzas, P.K. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)]. E-mail: pranzas@gkss.de; Dornheim, M. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bellmann, D. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Aguey-Zinsou, K.-F. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Klassen, T. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Schreyer, A. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Nanocrystalline magnesium hydride is considered to be one of the most promising alternatives for the reversible storage of hydrogen. In this work structural changes of high-energy ball-milled MgH {sub x} and MgH{sub 2}/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} with varying hydrogen content were investigated with small and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (SANS/USANS) using different milling parameters, e.g., milling time, vial and ball material, to obtain information about hydrogen sorption and desorption mechanisms. In a first attempt size distributions of spheres with radii from 1 nm up to 20 {mu}m were calculated in order to characterize the influence of cycling history on the microstructure. Apparent changes of crystallite and particle structures due to hydrogen loading and unloading were found. The use of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle additives result in distinct differences of the obtained scattering curves, which indicate that Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} not only has a catalytic function for the hydrogen sorption properties of MgH{sub 2} but also serves as an agent to breakup particles during the milling process. The results demonstrate the potential of the combination of SANS and USANS for structural characterization of nanocrystalline light-metal hydrides over the large size range of 1 nm up to 20 {mu}m.

  4. SANS/USANS investigations of nanocrystalline MgH2 for reversible storage of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranzas, P.K.; Dornheim, M.; Bellmann, D.; Aguey-Zinsou, K.-F.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium hydride is considered to be one of the most promising alternatives for the reversible storage of hydrogen. In this work structural changes of high-energy ball-milled MgH x and MgH 2 /Cr 2 O 3 with varying hydrogen content were investigated with small and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (SANS/USANS) using different milling parameters, e.g., milling time, vial and ball material, to obtain information about hydrogen sorption and desorption mechanisms. In a first attempt size distributions of spheres with radii from 1 nm up to 20 μm were calculated in order to characterize the influence of cycling history on the microstructure. Apparent changes of crystallite and particle structures due to hydrogen loading and unloading were found. The use of Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticle additives result in distinct differences of the obtained scattering curves, which indicate that Cr 2 O 3 not only has a catalytic function for the hydrogen sorption properties of MgH 2 but also serves as an agent to breakup particles during the milling process. The results demonstrate the potential of the combination of SANS and USANS for structural characterization of nanocrystalline light-metal hydrides over the large size range of 1 nm up to 20 μm

  5. CO impurities effect on LaNi4∙ 7Al0∙ 3 hydrogen storage alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 4. CO impurities effect on LaNi4.7Al0.3 hydrogen storage alloy hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties. Qi Wan Ping Li Yunlong Li Fuqiang Zhai Weina Zhang Liqun Cui Alex A Volinsky Xuanhui Qu. Volume 37 Issue 4 June 2014 pp 837-842 ...

  6. CO impurities effect on LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 hydrogen storage alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature test. The activated sample was completely deactivated after only 3 hydriding/dehydriding cycles in hydrogen containing 300 ppm CO at 30 °C, but hydrogen storage capacity did not degrade when tested at 80 °C. Additionally, two ...

  7. Suitability of III-V [XH4][YH4] materials for hydrogen storage: A density functional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuliani, F.; Gotz, A.W.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Baerends, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the search for novel hydrogen storage media, the III-V hydridic material [NH4] [BH4] is a natural candidate. It can store a high wt% of hydrogen and has a favorable volumetric density. Unfortunately it was found to decompose slowly at room temperature. It is of interest to consider chemically

  8. A more efficient way to shape metal-organic framework (MOF) powder materials for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available of Hydrogen Energy Vol. 40(13) A more efficient way to shape metal-organic framework (MOF) powder materials for hydrogen storage applications Jianwei Ren*, Nicholas M. Musyoka, Henrietta W. Langmi, Ashton Swartbooi, Brian C. North, Mkhulu Mathe Hy...

  9. Lithium doping on covalent organic framework-320 for enhancing hydrogen storage at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Liangzhi, E-mail: 15004110853@163.com; Liu, Qing

    2016-12-15

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) combines with grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are performed to explore the effect of Li doping on the hydrogen storage capability of COF-320. The results show that the interaction energy between the H{sub 2} and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. GCMC simulations are employed to study the hydrogen uptake of Li-doped COF-320 at ambient temperature, further confirm that the lithium doping can improve the hydrogen uptake at ambient temperature. Our results demonstrate that Li-doped COFs have good potential in the field of hydrogen storage. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. The optimized cluster model used here to represent the COF-320 and possible adsorption sites (A, B, C) for adsorption of metals in the COF-320. The dangling bonds are terminated by H atoms. C, H, and N atoms are shown as gray, white, and blue colors, respectively. Fig. 2. The adsorption isotherm of H{sub 2} in the pristine and Li-doped COF-320 at 298 K. - Highlights: • The binding sites of single and two lithium atoms in COF-320 were studied. • The interaction energy between the H{sub 2} and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. • H{sub 2} uptakes on the Li-doped COFs obtain significant improvement at ambient temperature. • Lithium-doping is a successful strategy for improving hydrogen uptake.

  10. Poly phenylenediamine and its TiO{sub 2} composite as hydrogen storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehim, Mona H. Abdel [Packing and Packaging Materials Department, Center of Excellence for Advanced Science, Renewable Energy Group, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Ismail, Nahla, E-mail: nahlaismail24@yohoo.com [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Center of Excellence for Advanced Science, Renewable Energy Group, National Research Center, El-bohooth St 33, Cairo (Egypt); Badawy, Abd El-Rahman A.A. [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Center of Excellence for Advanced Science, Renewable Energy Group, National Research Center, El-bohooth St 33, Cairo (Egypt); Turky, Gamal [Microwave Physics and Dielectrics Department, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} A new polymeric material has been prepared and fully characterized. {yields} The composite with TiO{sub 2} showed a change in the morphology. {yields} The mechanism of the reaction of the polymer with TiO{sub 2} is studied. {yields} The conductivity of the new polymer and the composite is studied. {yields} The hydrogen storage capacity of the materials prepared are evaluated. - Abstract: Poly phenylenediamine was synthesized from 1,4-phenylenediamine in presence of potassium persulphate and salicylic acid. The structure of the formed poly phenylenediamine was traced using FTIR and its morphology was examined by transmittance electron microscope (TEM). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to evaluate the polymer molecular weight which showed that the value of its molar mass is 20,000 g mol{sup -1} and it has polydispersity index of 1.01. Different concentrations of TiO{sub 2} were incorporated in the poly phenylenediamine structure via coordination bond between the oxygen atom of TiO{sub 2} and the hydrogen atom of N-H group of polymer. The prepared composites were characterized using FTIR, TA, TEM and SEM/EDX. The TEM micrographs revealed that the composites have 2-D network structure and its morphology changed from a dendritic structure for the pure polymer to layered structure of the composite. The polymer and its composite are completely insulators. Their hydrogen storage capacity has been estimated at -193 deg. C and the composite reported higher hydrogen uptake values than the pure polymer. The reason is suggested to be due to the layered structure of composite which gives it the privilege to store more hydrogen in its interlayer vicinity.

  11. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, C.; Nucara, A.; Pietrafesa, M.; Pudano, A.

    2013-01-01

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50

  12. Nanostructured materials for solid-state hydrogen storage: A review of the achievement of COST Action MP1103

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callini, Elsa; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo Francois; Ahuja, Rajeev; Ares, Jos Ramon; Bals, Sara; Biliskov, Nikola; Chakraborty, Sudip; Charalambopoulou, Georgia; Chaudhary, Anna Lisa; Cuevas, Fermin; Dam, Bernard; de Jongh, Petra; Dornheim, Martin; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Novakovic, Jasmina G.; Hirscher, Michael; Hirscher, M.; Jensen, Torben R.; Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Novakovic, Nikola; Lai, Qiwen; Leardini, Fabrice; Gattia, Daniele Mirabile; Pasquini, Luca; Steriotis, Theodore; Turner, Stuart; Vegge, Tejs; Zuttel, Andreas; Montone, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action MP1103 Nanostructured Materials for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage were synthesized, characterized and modeled. This Action dealt with the state of the art of energy storage and set up a competitive and coordinated

  13. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  14. Hydrogen storage by adsorption on activated carbon: Investigation of the thermal effects during the charging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermosilla-Lara, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, CNRS UPR 1311-Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Momen, G.; Le Neindre, B.; Hassouni, K. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, CNRS UPR 1311-Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Marty, P.H. [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the thermal effects during high-pressure charging of a packed bed hydrogen storage tank. The studied column is packed with activated IRH3 carbon, which has an average surface area of 2600m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and is fed with hydrogen or helium from an external high-pressure source. The temperature at six locations in the storage tank and the pressure value at the bottom of the tank are recorded during the charging stage. Several experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the initial flow rate on the temperature field in the reservoir and on the duration of the charging process. A study of the respective contribution of adsorption and mechanical dissipation effects to the thermal phenomena is done in the case of hydrogen. Experimental results are compared to those obtained with the commercial code Fluent. A fair agreement is found when comparing typical pressure and temperature evolutions during the tank filling. (author)

  15. Evaluation of on-board hydrogen storage methods for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, J. F.; Adeyiga, A. A.; Perdue, Samara; Northam, G. B.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen is the foremost candidate as a fuel for use in high speed transport. Since any aircraft moving at hypersonic speeds must have a very slender body, means of decreasing the storage volume requirements below that for liquid hydrogen are needed. The total performance of the hypersonic plane needs to be considered for the evaluation of candidate fuel and storage systems. To accomplish this, a simple model for the performance of a hypersonic plane is presented. To allow for the use of different engines and fuels during different phases of flight, the total trajectory is divided into three phases: subsonic-supersonic, hypersonic and rocket propulsion phase. The fuel fraction for the first phase is found be a simple energy balance using an average thrust to drag ratio for this phase. The hypersonic flight phase is investigated in more detail by taking small altitude increments. This approach allowed the use of flight profiles other than the constant dynamic pressure flight. The effect of fuel volume on drag, structural mass and tankage mass was introduced through simplified equations involving the characteristic dimension of the plane. The propellant requirement for the last phase is found by employing the basic rocket equations. The candidate fuel systems such as the cryogenic fuel combinations and solid and liquid endothermic hydrogen generators are first screened thermodynamically with respect to their energy densities and cooling capacities and then evaluated using the above model.

  16. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.

    2006-12-01

    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  17. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  18. Hydrogen storage: current knowledge and used techniques. An overview on this research topic at the LMARC of Besancon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelle, D.; Perreux, D.; Thiebaud, F.; Robinet, P.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part are presented, with examples, the different means of hydrogen storage in order to establish a comparison in performances, maturity and safety. The second part presents the studies carried out in the Laboratoire de Mecanique Appliquee Raymond Chaleat de Besancon, and more particularly of the team 'Mechanical Properties of Materials', for hydrogen storage. This Laboratory aims to develop, design and optimize, in a thermomechanical point of view, the containment intended to store hydrogen under pressure but the solid compounds systems too. (O.M.)

  19. Final Technical Report for GO15056 Millennium Cell: Development of an Advanced Chemical Hydrogen Storage and Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Oscar [Millennium Cell Inc., Eatontown, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-22

    The objectives of this project are to increase system storage capacity by improving hydrogen generation from concentrated sodium borohydride, with emphasis on reactor and system engineering; to complete a conceptual system design based on sodium borohydride that will include key technology improvements to enable a hydrogen fuel system that will meet the systembased storage capacity of 1.2 kWh/L (36 g H2/L) and 1.5 kWh/kg (45 g H2/kg), by the end of FY 2007; and to utilize engineering expertise to guide Center research in both off-board chemical hydride regeneration and on-board hydrogen generation systems.

  20. Templated synthesis of nickel nanoparticles: Toward heterostructured nanocomposites for efficient hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Nicholas Cole [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of metals. Herein, we report a novel method for the scalable synthesis of silica templated zero-valent nickel particles (Ni$\\subset$ SiO2) that hold promise for the synthesis of nickel nanorods for use in bimetallic heterostructures for hydrogen storage. Our synthesis proceeds by chemical reduction of a nickel-hydrazine complex with sodium borohydride followed by calcination under hydrogen gas to yield silica encapsulated nickel particles. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the general morphology of the resultant nanocapsules as well as the crystalline phases of the incorporated Ni0 nanocrystals. The structures display strong magnetic behavior at room temperature and preliminary data suggests nickel particle size can be controlled by varying the amount of nickel precursor used in the synthesis. Calcination under different environments and TEM analysis provides evidence for an atomic migration mechanism of particle formation. Ni$\\subset$SiO2 nanocapsules were used as seeds to induce heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth within the nanocapsule via electroless nickel plating. Nickel nanoparticle

  1. Nanostructured materials for solid-state hydrogen storage: A review of the achievement of COST Action MP1103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callini, Elsa; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action MP1103 Nanostructured Materials for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage were synthesized, characterized and modeled. This Action dealt with the state of the art of energy storage and set up a competitive and coordinated...... network capable to define new and unexplored ways for Solid State Hydrogen Storage by innovative and interdisciplinary research within the European Research Area. An important number of new compounds have been synthesized:metal hydrides, complex hydrides, metal halide ammines and amidoboranes. Tuning...... the structure from bulk to thin film, nanoparticles and nanoconfined composites improved the hydrogen sorption properties and opened the perspective to new technological applications. Direct imaging of the hydrogenation reactions and in situ measurements under operando conditions have been carried out...

  2. Hydrogen storage in porous carbons: modelling and performance improvements; Le stockage de l'hydrogene dans les carbones: modelisation et optimisation des performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellenq, R.J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Recherches en Matiere Condensee et Nanosciences, 13 - Marseille (France); Maresca, O. [Barcelona Univ., Unitat de Quimica Fisica (Spain); Marinelli, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, 13 - Marseille (France); Duclaux, L. [Universite de Savoie, Lab. de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement (LCME), 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France); Azais, P. [Elexience, 91 - Verrieres le Buisson (France); Conard, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Recherches sur la Matiere Divisee, Universite d' Orleans, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-03-15

    In this work, we aim at exploring using ab initio calculations, the various ways allowing for an efficient hydrogen docking in carbon porous materials. Firstly, the influence of surface curvature on the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen is considered. Then it is shown that electro-donor elements such as lithium or potassium used as dopant of the carbon substrate induce a strong physi-sorption for H{sub 2}, allowing its storage at ambient temperature under moderate pressure. (authors)

  3. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): Toward a Hydrogen-free Hydrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-17

    The need to drastically reduce CO 2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent. Recent scientific and technological progress in handling hydrogen in chemically bound form as liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) supports the technological vision that a future hydrogen economy may work without handling large amounts of elemental hydrogen. LOHC systems are composed of pairs of hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich organic compounds that store hydrogen by repeated catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation cycles. While hydrogen handling in the form of LOHCs allows for using the existing infrastructure for fuels, it also builds on the existing public confidence in dealing with liquid energy carriers. In contrast to hydrogen storage by hydrogenation of gases, such as CO 2 or N 2 , hydrogen release from LOHC systems produces pure hydrogen after condensation of the high-boiling carrier compounds. This Account highlights the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage using LOHC systems. It first introduces fundamental aspects of a future hydrogen economy and derives therefrom requirements for suitable LOHC compounds. Molecular structures that have been successfully applied in the literature are presented, and their property profiles are discussed. Fundamental and applied aspects of the involved hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis are discussed, characteristic differences for the catalytic conversion of

  4. Numerical simulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in metal hydride-based hydrogen storage reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumar, P.; Ramana, S. Venkata

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical investigation of two-dimensional heat and mass transfer during absorption of hydrogen in a cylindrical metal hydride bed containing MmNi 6.4 Al 0.4 is presented. By considering the variation in cooling fluid temperature along the axial direction (variable wall temperature), the changes in hydrogen concentration, hydride equilibrium pressure, and average hydride bed temperature at different axial locations are presented. The average bed temperature profiles and hydrogen storage capacities at different supply pressures showed good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. As the absorption progresses, the change in cooling fluid temperature along the axial direction is found to decrease and becomes unchanged at the end of the absorption process. The effect of variable wall temperature on hydrogen absorption rate for different supply pressures and hydride bed thicknesses are presented. The effect of variable wall temperature on absorption time is found to be significant for the hydride beds of thickness of above 7.5 mm. For a supply pressure of 20 bar, the maximum difference in absorption time between variable wall temperature and constant wall temperature boundary conditions is about 300 s for 17.5 mm bed thickness

  5. Standardized hydrogen storage module with high utilization factor based on metal hydride-graphite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Inga; Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Röntzsch, Lars; Linder, Marc

    2017-02-01

    In view of hydrogen based backup power systems or small-scale power2gas units, hydrogen storages based on metal hydrides offer a safe and reliable solution. By using Hydralloy C5 as suitable hydride forming alloy, the present tank design guarantees very simple operating conditions: pressures between 4 bar and 30 bar, temperatures between 15 °C and 40 °C and minimal efforts for thermal management in combination with fast and constant charging and discharging capabilities. The modular tank consists of 4 layers with 5 reactor tubes each that are filled with metal hydride-graphite composites of a diameter of 21 mm. Experiments show that each layer of this tank is able to desorb the desired amount of hydrogen for a fuel cell operation at electrical power of 160 Wel for 100 min reaching a utilization factor of 93% of the stored hydrogen at RC. Furthermore, the experimental results of modularity, increasing loads and the electric air ventilation are presented.

  6. Solid NMR characterization of hydrogen solid storage matrices; Caracterisation par RMN du solide des matrices de stockage solide de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, Lab. de Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique Lab. Claude Frejacques - CEA/CNRS URA 331, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)

  7. Hydrogen storage capacity on Ti-decorated porous graphene: First-principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lihua; Kang, Long; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Daobin; Gong, Jijun; Wang, Chunni; Zhang, Meiling; Wu, Xiaojuan

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen storage capacity on Titanium (Ti) decorated porous graphene (PG) has been investigated using density functional theory simulations with generalized gradient approximation method. The possible adsorption sites of Ti atom on PG and electronic properties of Ti-PG system are also discussed.The results show a Ti atom prefers to strongly adsorb on the center site above the C hexagon with the binding energy of 3.65 eV, and the polarization and the hybridization mechanisms both contribute to the Ti atom adsorption on PG. To avoid a tendency of clustering among Ti atoms, the single side of the PG unit cell should only contain one Ti atom. For the single side of PG, four H2 molecules can be adsorbed around Ti atom, and the adsorption mechanism of H2 molecules come from not only the polarization mechanism between Ti and H atoms but also the orbital hybridization among Ti atom, H2 molecules and C atoms. For the case of double sides of PG, eight H2 molecules can be adsorbed on Ti-decorated PG unit cell with the average adsorption energy of -0.457 eV, and the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity is 6.11 wt.%. Furthermore, ab inito molecular-dynaics simulation result shows that six H2 molecules can be adsorbed on double sides of unit cell of Ti-PG system and the configuration of Ti-PG is very stable at 300 K and without external pressure, which indicates Ti-decorated PG could be considered as a potential hydrogen storage medium at ambient conditions.

  8. Li3-xMxN (M = Co, Ni) synthesized by Spark Plasma Sintering for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junxian; Cerny, Radovan; Villeroy, Benjamin; Godart, Claude; Chandra, Dhanesh; Latroche, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Anion substitution in light hydrides (amides) is realized experimentally. → The compounds have been synthesized by in-situ Spark plasma Sintering. → The structural characterization has been done by synchrotron powder diffraction. - Abstract: Lithium nitride has recently emerged as a promising material for hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage capacity reaches 10.2 wt% H by the formation of compounds, such as imides, amides, and others. Hydrogenation of lithium nitride is highly exothermic, and thus desorbing hydrogen from these compounds requires high temperature and cannot be used for reversible hydrogen storage. Ab initio calculations predict that partial substitution of Li by transition metals like Cu or Ni can reduce the reaction enthalpy between amide and imide. In this work, we present the synthesis of the ternary system Li 3-x M x N (M = Co or Ni) by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The samples are hydrogenated at 255 deg. C by solid gas reaction. The sample crystal structures have been analyzed by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction using a high resolution powder diffractometer. The structural models for Co and Ni-substituted Li 3 N have been confirmed. The effect of the substitution on the phase formation upon hydrogenation has been investigated at various metal and hydrogen concentration. Different behaviors are observed depending on the nature of M.

  9. Organic chemical hydrides as storage medium of hydrogen on the basis of superheated liquid-film concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya Hodoshima; Atsushi Shono; Kazumi Satoh; Yasukazu Saito

    2006-01-01

    A catalysis pair of tetralin dehydrogenation / naphthalene hydrogenation has been proposed in the present paper as an organic chemical hydride for operating stationary fuel cells. Catalytic naphthalene hydrogenation, having been commercialized since the 1940's, proceeds to generate decalin via tetralin as an intermediate. The storage capacities of tetralin (3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are lower than decalin (7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) but both tetralin dehydrogenation and naphthalene hydrogenation are much faster than the decalin / naphthalene pair. Moreover, existing infrastructures, e.g., gas station and tank lorry, are available for storage, transportation and supply of hydrogen. As for the stationary fuel cells with large space for hydrogen storage, tetralin as a hydrogen carrier is superior to decalin in terms of fast hydrogen supply. Rapid hydrogen supply from tetralin under mild conditions was only accomplished with the carbon supported metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions. In contrast to the ordinary suspended states, the catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film state gave high catalytic performances at around 250 C. As a result, serious coke formation over the catalyst surface and excessive exergy consumption were prevented simultaneously. (authors)

  10. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. F. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal, chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA, and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  11. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS) Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rui F M; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, Cesar A C; Ribeiro, Jorge H F

    2012-02-06

    Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi 3.6 Co 0.85 Al 0.3 Mn 0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  12. Applications of functional carbon nanomaterials from hydrogen storage to drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Ashley Dawn

    This dissertation describes the modification and functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). These SWCNTs were then investigated for their use in medical applications and for the storage of hydrogen. A technique was developed that leads to highly customized, individually suspended aqueous solutions of SWCNTs. These newly generated water-soluble SWCNTs were then functionalized further in water, thereby permitting the second functionalization addends to be chemically sensitive functional groups, for example drugs, that would not withstand the strongly acidic conditions of the first functionalization. The radical scavenging properties of nanovectors derived from SWCNTs were investigated and it was found that even the poorest SWCNT nanovector studied was nearly 40 times more effective at scavenging radicals than dendrite-fullerene DF-1, which has been shown to be a radioprotective to zebrafish via an antioxidant niechanism. This was used as the base to investigate using SWCNTs as protectors and mitigators of radiation exposure. SWCNTs were then explored for their use as drug delivery agents, in particular, the water insoluble chemotherapy drug, paclitaxel. SWCNTs showed promising in vivo and in vitro efficacy in the delivery of paclitaxel. Toxicity and biodistribution studies of the SWCNTs as drug delivery agents were performed in vivo using SWCNTs functionalized with radiolabeled indium. It was found that SWCNTs could be used for hydrogen storage by chemically crosslinking 3-dimensional frameworks of SWCNT fibers. These frameworks were shown to physisorb twice as much hydrogen, at low pressures, with respect to their surface areas, than typical macroporous carbon materials. This makes these SWCNT frameworks attractive materials for the development of a hydrogen vehicle fuel tank.

  13. Synthesis, structure and properties of Al-based borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to chemistry and hydrogen storage properties of novel complex hydrides. The main efforts were focused on synthesis and characterization of new Al-based borohydrides and amidoboranes. Somewhat different investigation on the hydrolysis of KBH4 in the atmosphere of CO2 was also performed. The series of mixed-cation M[Al(BH4)4] (M = Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Rb+, Cs+) were successfully obtained by a reaction of the corresponding MBH4 with Al(BH4)3. This method provides a high t...

  14. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  15. Coordinated Control of a Wind-Methanol-Fuel Cell System with Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejiang Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wind-methanol-fuel cell system with hydrogen storage. It can manage various energy flow to provide stable wind power supply, produce constant methanol, and reduce CO2 emissions. Firstly, this study establishes the theoretical basis and formulation algorithms. And then, computational experiments are developed with MATLAB/Simulink (R2016a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA. Real data are used to fit the developed models in the study. From the test results, the developed system can generate maximum electricity whilst maintaining a stable production of methanol with the aid of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. A sophisticated control scheme is also developed to coordinate these actions to achieve satisfactory system performance.

  16. The HERMES polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target in the HERA electron storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Braun, B.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Capiluppi, M.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Court, G.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; De Leo, R.; Demey, M.; De Nardo, L.; De Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haeberli, W.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, N.; Kolster, H.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mussa, R.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Wise, T.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2005-03-01

    The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented.

  17. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  18. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  19. Fundamental study on hydrogen storage with hydrogen absorbing alloys. Operating characteristics of storage tank; Suiso kyuzo gokin wo mochiita suiso chozo ni kansuru kiso kenkyu. Chozo yoki no dosa tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, S.; Sekiguchi, N.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Hydrogen absorption by a hydrogen storage (MH storage) is investigated for static characteristics, with a constant current applied to the hydrogen generator, and dynamic characteristics, with a fluctuating current applied to the same simulating actual insolation. In the experiment, alloy temperature (MH temperature) in the storage and a current for the generator are preset, and then automatic measurement is allowed to proceed at 10-second intervals of the differential pressure, hydrogen temperature in the piping, absolute pressure, MH temperature, room temperature, and water tank temperature. It is found as the result of the experiment that absorption performance is improved when the MH storage is cooled; that the mean absorption rate which is 1 without cooling increases to 1.62 at 7degC; that the mean absorption rate changes in proportion to the applied current (introduced hydrogen flow rate); that the rate which is 1 at 32A decreases to 0.53 that at 16A; that the absorption rate is dependent more on the current applied to the storage than the temperature of the heat exchanging medium; and that, even in the presence of fluctuation halfway in the applied current, the total absorption will be equal to a case of constant current application if the total amount of applied current is equal. 2 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.