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Sample records for carbon-11 labeled alpha-amino-isobutyric

  1. Carbon 11 labelled phosgene: a new synthesis - medical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, P.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes a new synthesis of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 labelled phosgene. The latter is an important precursor for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals used in Positron Emission Tomography. The synthesis is carried out in 10 minutes. First, the carbon-11 labelled methane ( 11 CH 4 ) is chlorinated into carbon tetrachloride on pumice impregnated with copper (II) chloride. A photochemical process had previously been studied but this reaction was strongly inhibited. Then the 11 C-carbon tetrachloride is oxidized into 11 C-phosgene on hot stainless. The 11 C-CGP 12177 has been labelled from this new 11 C-Phosgene synthesis for receptor studies which require high specific radioactivity. (author) [fr

  2. Carbon-11 labelled phosgene new synthesis - medical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, P.

    1985-09-01

    This thesis describes a new synthesis of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 labelled phosgene. The latter is an important precursor for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals used in Positron Emission Tomography. The synthesis is carried out in 10 minutes. First, the carbon-11 labelled methane ( 11 CH 4 ) is chlorinated into carbon tetrachloride on pumice impregnated with copper (II) chloride. A photochemical process had previously been studied but this reaction was strongly inhibited. Then the 11 C-carbon tetrachloride is oxidized into 11 C-phosgene on hot stainless. The 11 C-CGP 12177 has been labelled from this new 11 C-Phosgene synthesis for receptor studies which require high specific radioactivity [fr

  3. Radiation dose estimates for carbon-11-labelled PET tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aart, Jasper van der; Hallett, William A.; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Passchier, Jan; Comley, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Carbon-11-labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers commonly used in biomedical research expose subjects to ionising radiation. Dosimetry is the measurement of radiation dose, but also commonly refers to the estimation of health risk associated with ionising radiation. This review describes radiation dosimetry of carbon-11-labelled molecules in the context of current PET research and the most widely used regulatory guidelines. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search returned 42 articles; 32 of these were based on human PET data dealing with radiation dosimetry of carbon-11 molecules. Radiation burden expressed as effective dose and maximum absorbed organ dose was compared between tracers. Results: All but one of the carbon-11-labelled PET tracers have an effective dose under 9 μSv/MBq, with a mean of 5.9 μSv/MBq. Data show that serial PET scans in a single subject are feasible for the majority of radiotracers. Conclusion: Although differing in approach, the two most widely used regulatory frameworks (those in the USA and the EU) do not differ substantially with regard to the maximum allowable injected activity per PET study. The predictive validity of animal dosimetry models is critically discussed in relation to human dosimetry. Finally, empirical PET data are related to human dose estimates based on homogenous distribution, generic models and maximum cumulated activities. Despite the contribution of these models to general risk estimation, human dosimetry studies are recommended where continued use of a new PET tracer is foreseen.

  4. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled (R)-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holschbach, M.; Hamkens, W.; Roden, W.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    A route to 11 C-labelled (R)-carnitine, based on the methylation of the dimethyl derivative is described. Furthermore, a five-step synthesis for the enantiomerically pure precursor is outlined. (author)

  5. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled cyclopentyltheophylline: A radioligand for PET studies of adenosine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, J.C.; Prenant, C.; Crouzel, C.

    1990-01-01

    Adenosine is presently considered as a neuromodulator, and an adenosine system has been described including secretory neurons, with a diffused distribution, specific receptors and a re-uptake system distributed heterogeneously in different anatomic areas. In order to localize the adenosine receptors in vivo by PET, the authors have synthesized the carbon-11 labelled 8-cyclopentyltheophylline, a known adenosine antagonist of A 1 receptors

  6. Dibenzodiazepines (clozapine) and analogues were labelled with carrier-free carbon-11 and fluorine-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.

    1993-12-01

    Pharmacologically active dibenzodiazepines were labelled with carbon-11 and fluorine-18, in particular the atypical neuroleptic clozapine (8-Cl-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-5H-dibenzo[b,e]-[1,4]-diazepine) for pharmakokinetic studies with positron emission tomography (PET). (orig./EF)

  7. Carbon-11 and Fluorine-18 Labeled Amino Acid Tracers for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aixia; Liu, Xiang; Tang, Ganghua

    2017-12-01

    Tumor cells have an increased nutritional demand for amino acids(AAs) to satisfy their rapid proliferation. Positron-emitting nuclide labeled AAs are interesting probes and are of great importance for imaging tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). Carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled AAs include the [1-11C] amino acids, labeling alpha-C- amino acids, the branched-chain of amino acids and N-substituted carbon-11 labeled amino acids. These tracers target protein synthesis or amino acid(AA) transport, and their uptake mechanism mainly involves AA transport. AA PET tracers have been widely used in clinical settings to image brain tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, prostate cancer, breast cancer, non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review focuses on the fundamental concepts and the uptake mechanism of AAs, AA PET tracers and their clinical applications.

  8. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  9. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of 11 C, 18 F and 13 N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume

  10. Synthesis of high specific activity carbon-11 labeled tracers for neuroreceptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1989-01-01

    The use of short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers together with positron emission tomography (PET) has allowed scientists to acquire previously inaccessible information regarding problems in physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology in the living human body. In the past five years, successes in the application of PET to the non-invasive determination of the spatial distribution and regional concentration of a variety of neurotransmitter binding sites within the living brain often followed the successful selections and syntheses of appropriately radiolabeled ligands. This presentation concentrates on the synthesis of these high specific activity radiotracers for neuroreceptor PET studies labeled specifically with carbon-11. (author). 15 refs.; 1 fig

  11. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled phenylalanine and phenylglycine by a new amino acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaalburg, W.; Beerling-van der Molen, H.D.; Reiffers, S; Rijskamp, A.; Woldring, M.G.; Wynberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    Of the cyclotron-produced short-lived isotopes carbon-11 (tsub(1/2) = 20.4 min;β + ) is one of the most promising as label for radiopharmaceuticals. To prepare 11 C-labelled amino acids for evaluation as pancreas scanning agents a new rapid amino acid synthesis was developed. The method is based on the carboxylation of α-lithioisocyanides with 11 CO 2 , followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate reaction product to the desired amino acid. By this method DL-α-phenylalanine-1- 11 C and DL-α-phenylglycine-1- 11 C were prepared. The precursor 11 CO 2 was produced via the 14 N(p,α) 11 C reaction by bombardment of a flow of nitrogen gas mixed with 0.1% 0 2 with 20 MeV protons. The target system is described. (author)

  12. Carbon-11-labelling of a novel, trishomocubane-derived, high affinity and selectivity DAT ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Le Helleix, St.; Peyronneau, M.A.; Saba, W.; Tournier, N.; Valette, H.; Banister, S.; Kassiou, M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder and drug abuse are related to abnormalities within the brain's dopaminergic system. The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in regulating the synaptic concentration of dopamine and thus dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Since the DAT can be considered as a marker of the integrity and number of the presynaptic striatal dopamine-producing neurons, considerable efforts have been spent in recent years on the design and development of DAT-selective radioligands for use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. Notably, the tropane PE2I and its fluorinated analogue LBT-999 were identified as having high affinity and selectivity for the DAT over the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the serotonin transporter (SERT). Besides tropanes, only a few bicyclic frameworks, e.g. bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes, have delivered compounds with high affinity for the DAT. Recently, novel poly-carbocyclic DAT ligands with selectivity over the NET and the SERT were reported. The lead compound of this series (1, N-methyl-N-(3-fluoro) benzyl-pentacyclo[5.4.0.0 2, 6 .0 3, 10 .0 5, 9 ] undec-8-ylamine, Ki = 1.2 nM, ≥ 8300-fold selectivity over NET and SERT) was selected as a potential candidate for imaging the DAT with PET and isotopically labelled with carbon-11 using [ 11 C]methyl triflate. Methods: The trishomocubane derivatives 1 (reference) and 2 (precursor for labelling with carbon-11) were prepared from commercially available Cookson's diketone in 6 and 7 steps, respectively. Carbon-11 labelling of 1 was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprises (1) trapping at -10 C of [ 11 C]MeOTf in acetone (0.4 mL) containing the nor-derivative 2 (0.6-0.9 mg, free base) and aq. 3N NaOH (8 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) concentration to dryness and taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification

  13. Chiral dimethylamine flutamide derivatives-modeling, synthesis, androgen receptor affinities and carbon-11 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Orit; Laky, Desideriu; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Elgavish, Sharona; Gozin, Michael; Even-Sapir, Einat; Leibovitc, Ilan; Gutman, Mordechai; Chisin, Roland; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Mishani, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Most prostate cancers are androgen dependent upon initial diagnosis. On the other hand, some very aggressive forms of prostate cancer were shown to have lost the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Although the AR is routinely targeted in endocrine treatment, the clinical outcome remains suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the presence and activity of the AR in each case of prostate cancer, before and after treatment. While noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to determine AR expression of tumor cells in vivo, fully optimized PET imaging agents are not yet available. Based on molecular modeling, three novel derivatives of hydroxyflutamide (Compounds 1-3) were designed and synthesized. They contain an electron-rich group (dimethylamine) located on the methyl moiety, which may confer a better stability to the molecule in vivo. Compounds 1-3 have AR binding that is similar or higher than that of the currently used commercial drugs. An automated carbon-11 radiolabeling route was developed, and the compounds were successfully labeled with a 10-15% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 4Ci/μmol end of bombardment (n=15). These labeled biomarkers may facilitate the future quantitative molecular imaging of AR-positive prostate cancer using PET and may also allow for image-guided treatment of prostate cancer

  14. Radiation protection problems in a laboratory for the labelling of molecules with carbon-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Moreau, A.

    1980-03-01

    This paper shows that the qualities of carbon-11, especially its short half-life, which suit it so well for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals prove to be a great handicap in the preparation of these substances. The operator has to make a fresh preparation for each examination and start with strong radioactivities (200 to 500 mCi) in order to obtain an adequate injected activity at the end of the process, the absorbed dose averaging 1.5 man-rem per manipulation at the fingertips. The development of an automatic preparation method involving as little manual interference as possible has halved the collective dose for twice the dose handled. The labelling of molecules used for diagnosis is now considered to take place under satisfactory radioprotection conditions. The fingertip irradiations are analysed in the light of CIPR recommendations, while regretting that in publication 26 this problem of partial external irradiation of the skin is not dealt with as clearly and precisely as before [fr

  15. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled phenylalanine and phenylglycine by a new amino acid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaalburg, W; Beerling-van der Molen, H D; Reiffers, S; Rijskamp, A; Woldring, M G; Wynberg, H [Academic Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands). Central Isotope Lab.

    1976-03-01

    Of the cyclotron-produced short-lived isotopes carbon-11 (tsub(1/2) = 20.4 min;..beta../sup +/) is one of the most promising as label for radiopharmaceuticals. To prepare /sup 11/C-labelled amino acids for evaluation as pancreas scanning agents a new rapid amino acid synthesis was developed. The method is based on the carboxylation of ..cap alpha..-lithioisocyanides with /sup 11/CO/sub 2/, followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate reaction product to the desired amino acid. By this method DL-..cap alpha..-phenylalanine-1-/sup 11/C and DL-..cap alpha..-phenylglycine-1-/sup 11/C were prepared. The precursor /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ was produced via the /sup 14/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reaction by bombardment of a flow of nitrogen gas mixed with 0.1% 0/sub 2/ with 20 MeV protons. The target system is described.

  16. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled celecoxib derivatives as new candidate PET radioligands for imaging of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min; Miller, Kathy D.; Hutchins, Gary D.; Zheng Qihuang

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase or COX) enzyme represents a particularly attractive target in inflammation processes for the development of both therapeutic agents and imaging agents. This study was designed to develop new radioligands for imaging of inflammation using the biomedical imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET). Carbon-11 labeled celecoxib derivatives, [ 11 C]methyl 2-(4-(5-p-tolyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenylsulfonamidooxy) acetate ([ 11 C]6e), [ 11 C]methyl 2-methyl-2-(4-(5-p-tolyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) phenylsulfonamidooxy)propanoate ([ 11 C]6f), [ 11 C]methyl 2-(4-(5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) phenylsulfonamidooxy)acetate ([ 11 C]6g), and [ 11 C]methyl 2-methyl-2-(4-(5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) phenylsulfonamidooxy)propanoate ([ 11 C]6h), were prepared by O-[ 11 C]methylation of their corresponding precursors using [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf under basic condition and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method in 50-60% radiochemical yields based on [ 11 C]CO 2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The overall synthesis time from EOB was 15-20 min, the radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 111-185 GBq/μmol.

  17. Preparation of carbon 11-labelled radiopharmaceuticals by the use of HPLC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berget, G.; Maziere, M.; Godot, J.M.; Sastre, J.; Prenant, C.; Comar, D.

    1982-06-01

    Various medical examinations and metabolic studies are carried out with carbon 11-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. This radioelement offers a number of advantages: it can be introduced into an organic molecule without changing its properties; the radiation dose delivered to the patient is low (T = 20 mn); since the specific activity obtained is high (0.5 to 2 Ci/μ mole) the injected masses are very small; finally, tomographic images of the distribution of the product in the body may be obtained by the use of positron cameras. However in view of the radioactivities handled on a routine basis the preparations must be carried out without manual intervention, in closed shielded hoods. Synthesis methods and special equipment have been developed. In all cases the reaction mixtures are purified by HPLC, a method chosen for its speed, efficiency, ease of automation and adaptation to any product with a suitable choice of column and eluant. The radiopharmaceuticals are obtained in injectable solution (ethanol-physiological serum, buffered physiological serum) or in a mixture of volatile solvents which are evaporated by nitrogen bubbling and finally sterilised by passage over millipore filter. About ten different radiopharmaceuticals are prepared in this way in the laboratory [fr

  18. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [11C]physostigmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnot-Lours, S.; Crouzel, C.; Prenant, C.; Hinnen, F.

    1993-01-01

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [ 11 C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [ 11 C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [ 11 C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [ 11 C]CH 3 COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [ 11 C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [ 11 C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25 o C, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [ 11 C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author)

  19. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [[sup 11]C]physostigmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnot-Lours, S.; Crouzel, C.; Prenant, C.; Hinnen, F. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1993-01-01

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [[sup 11]C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [[sup 11]C]CH[sub 3]COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25[sup o]C, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [[sup 11]C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author).

  20. Synthesis and positron emission tomography studies of carbon-11-labeled imatinib (Gleevec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Kun-Eek [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Ding Yushin [Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); Lin Kuoshyan [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Alexoff, David [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States)]. E-mail: fowler@bnl.gov

    2007-02-15

    Introduction: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is a well known drug for treating chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Its active ingredient, imatinib ([4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-N-[4-methyl-3-[[4-(3-pyridyl) -2-pyrimidinyl]amino]phenyl]benzamide), blocks the activity of several tyrosine kinases. Here we labeled imatinib with carbon-11 as a tool for determining the drug distribution and pharmacokinetics of imatinib, and we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) studies in baboons. Methods: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib was synthesized from [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide and norimatinib was synthesized by the demethylation of imatinib (isolated from Gleevec tablets) according to a patent procedure [Collins JM, Klecker RW Jr, Anderson LW. Imaging of drug accumulation as a guide to antitumor therapy. US Patent 20030198594A1, 2003]. Norimatinib was also synthesized from the corresponding amine and acid. PET studies were carried out in three baboons to measure pharmacokinetics in the brain and peripheral organs and to determine the effect of a therapeutic dose of imatinib. Log D and plasma protein binding were also measured. Results: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib uptake in the brain is negligible (consistent with P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux); it peaks and clears rapidly from the heart, lungs and spleen. Peak uptake and clearance occur more slowly in the liver and kidneys, followed by accumulation in the gallbladder and urinary bladder. Pretreatment with imatinib did not change uptake in the heart, lungs, kidneys and spleen, and increased uptake in the liver and gallbladder. Conclusions: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib has potential for assessing the regional distribution and kinetics of imatinib in the human body to determine whether the drug targets tumors and to identify other organs to which the drug or its labeled metabolites distribute. Paired with tracers such as 2'deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and 3&apos

  1. Imaging for carbon translocation to a fruit of tomato with carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, N.; Suzui, N.; Ishii, S.; Fujimaki, S.; Ishioka, N.; Kikuchi, K.; Watanbe, H.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon kinetics in the fruit is an agricultural issue on the growth and development of the fruit to be harvested. Particularly, photo-assimilate translocation and distribution are important topics for understanding the mechanism. In the present work, carbon-11 ( 11 C) labeled photo-assimilate translocation into fruits of tomato has been imaged using carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and the positron emission tomography (PET). Dynamic PET data of gradual increasing of 11 C activity and its distribution is acquired quantitatively in intact plant body. This indicates that the three dimensional photo-assimilate translocation into the fruits is imaged successfully and carbon kinetics is analyzed to understand the plant physiology and nutrition. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of suicide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase: carbon-11 labeled clorgyline, L-deprenyl and D-deprenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, R.R.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Halldin, C.; Langstroem, B.

    1988-01-01

    The suicide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A and B, clorgyline and L-deprenyl have been labeled with carbon-11 by [ 11 C]methylation of the norbases with [ 11 C]H 3 I. The less active enantiomer of deprenyl (D-deprenyl) was also labeled using this procedure. The synthesis time was 35 minutes, the radiochemical yield was 25-40% and the specific activity was 0.8-2.0 Ci/μmol (calculated to EOB). Procedures for synthesis of the precursor norbases as well as the synthesis of unlabeled clorgyline, L-deprenyl and D-deprenyl are given. (author)

  3. Positron emission tomography shows high specific uptake of racemic carbon-11 labelled norepinephrine in the primate heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Halldin, C.; Naagren, K.; Suhara, Tetsuya; Karlsson, P.; Schoeps, K.O.; Swahn, C.G.; Bone, D.

    1994-01-01

    (-)-Norepinephrine is the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic innervation of the heart. Racemic norepinephrine was labelled with carbon-11 and injected i.v. into Cynomolgus monkeys. Five minutes after injection there was a more than tenfold higher radioactivity in the heart than in adjacent tissue. Pretreatment with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine reduced the uptake by more than 80%. The high specific uptake of racemic [ 11 C]norepinephrine indicates that enatiomerically pure(-)-[ 11 C]norepinephrine has promising potential for detailed mapping of the sympathetic innervation of the human myocardium. (orig.)

  4. Positron emission tomography shows high specific uptake of racemic carbon-11 labelled norepinephrine in the primate heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farde, L [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Halldin, C [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Naagren, K [Turku Univ., Cyclotron/PET Center (Finland); Suhara, Tetsuya [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, P [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Schoeps, K O [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, C G [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Bone, D [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-04-01

    (-)-Norepinephrine is the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic innervation of the heart. Racemic norepinephrine was labelled with carbon-11 and injected i.v. into Cynomolgus monkeys. Five minutes after injection there was a more than tenfold higher radioactivity in the heart than in adjacent tissue. Pretreatment with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine reduced the uptake by more than 80%. The high specific uptake of racemic [[sup 11]C]norepinephrine indicates that enatiomerically pure(-)-[[sup 11]C]norepinephrine has promising potential for detailed mapping of the sympathetic innervation of the human myocardium. (orig.)

  5. Some examples of the use of carbon 11-labelled molecules in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Berger, G.; Mestelan, G.

    1976-01-01

    If a radioelement is to be useful for medical diagnosis it must: be an indicator of a normal or pathological biological process; have a half-life consistent with the duration of the biological phenomenon to be observed; emit a suitable radiation. Carbon 11 is one of the radionuclides which best satisfies these different requirements. It is shown how this radioelement, of 20-minute half-life, may be incorporated into psychotropic drugs and biologically useful molecules with enough speed to have an available radioactivity adequate for diagnostic examinations. Two examples are described, one concerning the metabolism of a neuroleptic, chlorpromazine-11C, the other the passage of methionine- 11 C through the blood brain barrier during a congenital disease, phenylketonuria [fr

  6. Carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol for signal transduction imaging by positron CT. Evaluation of the quality and safety for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ryou [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio; Ido, Tatsuo [and others

    1995-02-01

    To elucidate the synaptic transmission in the neural system, we have been developing fundamental studies for intracellular signaling. For clinical application of carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol (1-[1-{sup 11}C]butyryl-2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol: {sup 11}C-DAG) using positron emission computed tomography (PET), we evaluated the quality and the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG as the solution for injection. As a result, {sup 11}C-DAG was synthesized within 50 minutes, including the preparation step for injection. The half life time and energy spectrum of {sup 11}C-DAG were the same as the physical character of carbon-11, and other radioisotopes were not detected. In the quality control, {sup 11}C-DAG solution was negative in the examination of bacterial contamination and the pyrogen test in three successive synthesis procedures. In the acute toxicity test by administration of {sup 11}C-DAG and 100 {mu}mol/kg of non-radioactive DAG to the rat intravenously, the systemic condition of the rat was not changed and no abnormalities were found in any organ 24 hours after administration. These findings indicated the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG solution. Clinical application of {sup 11}C-DAG using positron emission tomography may be useful to elucidate the dysfunction of intracellular signaling in disorders of higher cortical function such as Alzheimer disease. (author).

  7. Development of carbon-11 labeled acryl amides for selective PET imaging of active tissue transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wildt, Berend; Wilhelmus, Micha M M; Bijkerk, Jonne; Haveman, Lizeth Y F; Kooijman, Esther J M; Schuit, Robert C; Bol, John G J M; Jongenelen, Cornelis A M; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Drukarch, Benjamin; Windhorst, Albert D

    2016-04-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme capable of forming metabolically and mechanically stable crosslinks between the γ-carboxamide of a glutamine acyl-acceptor substrate and the ε-amino functionality of a lysine acyl-donor substrate resulting in protein oligomers. High TG2 crosslinking activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including celiac disease, cancer and fibrotic and neurodegenerative diseases. Development of a PET tracer specific for active TG2 provides a novel tool to further investigate TG2 biology in vivo in disease states. Recently, potent irreversible active site TG2 inhibitors carrying an acrylamide warhead were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. Three of these inhibitors, compound 1, 2 and 3, were successfully radiolabeled with carbon-11 on the acrylamide carbonyl position using a palladium mediated [(11)C]CO aminocarbonylation reaction. Ex vivo biodistribution and plasma stability were evaluated in healthy Wistar rats. Autoradiography was performed on MDA-MB-231 tumor sections. [(11)C]1, -2 and -3 were obtained in decay corrected radiochemical yields of 38-55%. Biodistribution showed low uptake in peripheral tissues, with the exception of liver and kidney. Low brain uptake of <0.05% ID/g was observed. Blood plasma analysis demonstrated that [(11)C]1 and [(11)C]2 were rapidly metabolized, whereas [(11)C]3 was metabolized at a more moderate rate (63.2 ± 6.8 and 28.7 ± 10.8% intact tracer after 15 and 45 min, respectively). Autoradiography with [(11)C]3 on MDA-MB-231 tumor sections showed selective and specific binding of the radiotracer to the active state of TG2. Taken together, these results identify [(11)C]3 as the most promising of the three compounds tested for development as PET radiotracer for the in vivo investigation of TG2 activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled erythromycin A lactobionate for the study of the antibiotic in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.J.; Pike, V.W.; Horlock, P.L.; Perun, L.A.; Freiberg, L.A.; Dunnigan, D.A.; Liss, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Erythromycin A is produced naturally by Streptomyces erythreus and is an important macrolide antibiotic. This paper describes the chemical synthesis of Erythromycin A by the reductive methylation of N-dimethylerythromycin A, and its labelling with 11 C formaldehyde. (U.K.)

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of Carbon-11 Labelled alpha-Amino Acids for PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popkov, Alexander; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For PET applications in oncological and neurological diagnostics, amino acids have been studied both clinically and pre-clinically during the last 35 years. Nowadays two applications of labelled amino acids for visualisation of tumours attract the main attention: [C-11] or [F-18]amino acids as

  10. Facile synthesis of carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives as new PET radioligands for imaging of 5-HT1AR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min; Zheng Qihuang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives, 2-((4-(4-(2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)benzo[d]oxazole ([ 11 C]5a), 2-((4-(4-(2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)-5,7-dimethylbenzo [d]oxazole ([ 11 C]5c), 2-((4-(4-(2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)benzo[d]thiazole ([ 11 C]5e), 2-((6-(4-(2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)benzo[d]oxazole ([ 11 C]5g), 2-((6-(4-(2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)-5,7-dimethylbenzo [d]oxazole ([ 11 C]5i), and 2-((6-(4-(2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)benzo[d]thiazole ([ 11 C]5k), were prepared from their corresponding phenol precursors with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge in 50–60% (n=5) radiochemical yields based on [ 11 C]CO 2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The overall synthesis time from EOB was 23 min, the radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 277.5±92.5 GBq/μmol (n=5). - Highlights: ► New arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives were synthesized. ► New carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives were synthesized. ► Simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  11. Development of new and improved labelling procedures for introducing isotopic hydrogen and carbon-11 into organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qahtani, M.H.S.

    1999-10-01

    New and improved methods for introducing radioisotopic hydrogen (tritium) and carbon (positron-emitting short-lived carbon-11, t 1/ 2 = 20.4 min) into organic molecules for application in biological research have been explored. In Chapter 1 the applications of radioactive isotopes in biological and clinical research is surveyed, with particular emphasis on the value of β-emitting tritium and positron-emitting carbon-11. In Chapter 2 we report the use of the non-radioactive hydrogen isotope, deuterium, as a surrogate for tritium in the development of microwave-enhanced labelling procedures, based on catalytic hydrogen transfer to olefins (e.g. styrene, styrene derivatives, cinnamic acid and its derivatives). Hydrogen or deuterium donors (e.g. formate salts) were used alone or in combination with other sources (e.g. D 2 O). The method was found to give fully hydrogenated products using very short microwave irradiation times (∼ 2 min) and was highly reproducible. Importantly, the method is environmentally clean, as when extended to tritiated formates little or no radioactive waste is produced. In Chapter 3 we explored the labelling of CGP 62349 {3-[1-(R)-[3-(4-methoxybenzyl)phosphinyl-2-(S)-hydroxy-propyl- amino]ethyl]benzoic acid}, a γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA B ) receptor antagonist, with carbon-11 in order to provide a prospective radioligand for medical imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Labelling agents, [ 11 C]iodomethane and [ 11 C]methyl triflate, prepared by improved methods, were used in the rapid methylation of desmethyl-CGP 62349. Substantially higher radiochemical yields (78%) of [ 11 C]CGP 62349 were achieved by the new methods compared to that produced in a previously published procedure (9%). In addition, the use of [ 11 C]methyl triflate rather than [ 11 C]iodomethane has the advantage of giving a high radiochemical yield and a lower amount of carrier. In Chapter 4 we report on the use of [ 11 C]carbon monoxide as a labelling

  12. Carbon-11 labelled ketamine-synthesis, distribution in mice and PET studies in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, C.-Y.; Vallabhahosula, Shankar; Wolf, Alfred P.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Schlyer, David J.; Arnett, Carroll D.; Zhou Yiguo

    1997-01-01

    No-carrier-added (NCA)[ 11 C](±)-ketamine (2a) and its enantiomers (+)-2b and (-)-2c were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding norketamine (1a-c) with [ 11 C]H 3 I in an overall radiochemical yield of 20% (EOB) with specific activities of 0.35-0.45 Ci/μmole at EOB in a synthesis time of 40 min from EOB. Compound 2a was metabolized rapidly in mouse brain and labeled metabolites appeared in baboon plasma. PET studies of compounds 2a-c in a baboon showed that influx of compounds 2a-c into the brain was high for the first few min but radioactivity then declined rapidly. Although the retention of radioactivity in the baboon striatum was not significantly different for 2a-c 20 min post-injection, graphical analysis of time-activity data for each enantiomer and for the racemate in baboon striatum suggested that (+)-ketamine may interact with receptors slightly more effectively than its (-)-enantiomer or racemate. However, due to its rapid metabolism in the brain and a similar uptake in the striatum and cerebellum, [ 11 C]ketamine may not be an ideal tracer for studying NMDA receptor with PET

  13. Carbon-11 labelled ketamine-synthesis, distribution in mice and PET studies in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, C.-Y.; Vallabhahosula, Shankar; Wolf, Alfred P.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Schlyer, David J.; Arnett, Carroll D.; Zhou Yiguo

    1997-02-01

    No-carrier-added (NCA)[{sup 11}C]({+-})-ketamine (2a) and its enantiomers (+)-2b and (-)-2c were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding norketamine (1a-c) with [{sup 11}C]H{sub 3}I in an overall radiochemical yield of 20% (EOB) with specific activities of 0.35-0.45 Ci/{mu}mole at EOB in a synthesis time of 40 min from EOB. Compound 2a was metabolized rapidly in mouse brain and labeled metabolites appeared in baboon plasma. PET studies of compounds 2a-c in a baboon showed that influx of compounds 2a-c into the brain was high for the first few min but radioactivity then declined rapidly. Although the retention of radioactivity in the baboon striatum was not significantly different for 2a-c 20 min post-injection, graphical analysis of time-activity data for each enantiomer and for the racemate in baboon striatum suggested that (+)-ketamine may interact with receptors slightly more effectively than its (-)-enantiomer or racemate. However, due to its rapid metabolism in the brain and a similar uptake in the striatum and cerebellum, [{sup 11}C]ketamine may not be an ideal tracer for studying NMDA receptor with PET.

  14. Production and application of synthetic precursors labeled with carbon-11 and fluorine-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrieri, R.A.

    2001-04-02

    It is evident from this chapter that there is enormous flexibility both in the selection of the nature of the radioisotope and ways to generate it, as well as in the selection of the labeling precursor to appropriately attach that radioisotope to some larger biomolecule of interest. The arsenal of radiolabeling precursors now available to the chemist is quite extensive, and without a doubt will continue to grow as chemists develop new ones. However, the upcoming years will perhaps reflect a greater effort in refining existing methods for preparing some of those precursors that are already available to us. For example, the use of solid-phase reactions to accomplish in a single step what would normally take several using conventional solvent-based reactions has already been shown to work in many occasions. The obvious advantage here is that processes become more amenable to system automation thus affording greater reliability in day-to-day operations. There are perhaps other technologies in science that have yet to be realized by the chemist in the PET laboratory that could provide a similar or even a greater benefit. One only needs to be open to new ideas, and imaginative enough to apply them to the problems at hand.

  15. Production and application of synthetic precursors labeled with carbon-11 and fluorine-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    It is evident from this chapter that there is enormous flexibility both in the selection of the nature of the radioisotope and ways to generate it, as well as in the selection of the labeling precursor to appropriately attach that radioisotope to some larger biomolecule of interest. The arsenal of radiolabeling precursors now available to the chemist is quite extensive, and without a doubt will continue to grow as chemists develop new ones. However, the upcoming years will perhaps reflect a greater effort in refining existing methods for preparing some of those precursors that are already available to us. For example, the use of solid-phase reactions to accomplish in a single step what would normally take several using conventional solvent-based reactions has already been shown to work in many occasions. The obvious advantage here is that processes become more amenable to system automation thus affording greater reliability in day-to-day operations. There are perhaps other technologies in science that have yet to be realized by the chemist in the PET laboratory that could provide a similar or even a greater benefit. One only needs to be open to new ideas, and imaginative enough to apply them to the problems at hand

  16. Propionyl-l-carnitine: Labelling in the N-methyl position with Carbon-11 and pharmacokinetic studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, Raymond J.; Law, Marilyn P.; Pike, Victor W.; Osman, Safiye; Poole, Keith G.

    1995-01-01

    The prospective therapeutic, propionyl-l-carnitine, was labelled in the N-methyl position with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t (1(2)) = 20.4 min), with a view to studying its pharmacokinetics in humans using PET. Labelling was achieved by methylating nor-propionyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride with no-carrier-added [ 11 C]iodomethane (produced from cyclotron-produced [ 11 C]carbon dioxide) in ethanol in the presence of 1,2,2,6,6,-pentamethylpiperidine. HPLC of the reaction mixture on a strong cation exchange column provided high purity [N-methyl- 11 C]propionyl-l-carnitine in 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected from [ 11 C]iodomethane), ready for intravenous administration within 35 min from the end of radionuclide production. [N-methyl- 11 C]Propionyl-l-carnitine, given intravenously to rats, cleared rapidly from plasma. A slow uptake of radioactivity into myocardium and striated muscle was observed. In plasma, unchanged tracer represented 84% of the radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.5% of the radioactivity at 60 min. In heart, unchanged tracer represented 18% of radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.4% at 15 min. The remainder of radioactivity detected in plasma and heart was identified as [N-methyl- 11 C]l-carnitine and [N-methyl- 11 C]acetyl-l-carnitine

  17. In vivo evaluation of carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-based glycine transporter 1 inhibitors in mice and conscious monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyohara, Jun [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan 173-0022 (Japan); Ishiwata, Kiichi; Sakata, Muneyuki [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan 173-0022 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka, Japan 434-8601 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashimoto@faculty.chiba-u.j [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is an attractive target in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of three carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-type GlyT-1 inhibitors - [{sup 11}C]SA1, [{sup 11}C]SA2 and [{sup 11}C]SA3 - as novel PET tracers for GlyT-1. Methods: The regional brain distributions of the three compounds in mice were studied at baseline and under receptor-blockade conditions with co-injection of carrier loading or pretreatment with an excess of selective GlyT-1 inhibitors (ALX-5407 and SSR504734). Metabolic stability was investigated by radio high-performance liquid chromatography. Dynamic PET scans in conscious monkeys were performed with/without selective GlyT-1 inhibitors. Results: The IC{sub 50} values of SA1, SA2 and SA3 were 9.0, 6400 and 39.7 nM, respectively. The regional brain uptakes of [{sup 11}C]SA1 and [{sup 11}C]SA3 in mice were heterogeneous and consistent with the known distribution of GlyT-1. [{sup 11}C]SA2 showed low and homogeneous uptake in the brain. Most radioactivity in the brain was detected in unchanged form, although peripherally these compounds were degraded. Carrier loading decreased the uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. However, similar reductions were not observed with [{sup 11}C]SA3. Pretreatment with ALX-5407 decreased the uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. In the monkey at baseline, regional brain uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 was heterogeneous and consistent with the known GlyT-1 distribution. Pretreatment with selective GlyT-1 inhibitors significantly decreased the distribution volume ratio of [{sup 11}C] SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C]SA1 has the most suitable profile among the three carbon-11-labelled GlyT-1 inhibitors. Lead optimization of [{sup 11}C]SA1 structure will be required to achieve in vivo selective GlyT-1 imaging.

  18. In vivo evaluation of carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-based glycine transporter 1 inhibitors in mice and conscious monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Sakata, Muneyuki; Wu, Jin; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is an attractive target in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of three carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-type GlyT-1 inhibitors - [ 11 C]SA1, [ 11 C]SA2 and [ 11 C]SA3 - as novel PET tracers for GlyT-1. Methods: The regional brain distributions of the three compounds in mice were studied at baseline and under receptor-blockade conditions with co-injection of carrier loading or pretreatment with an excess of selective GlyT-1 inhibitors (ALX-5407 and SSR504734). Metabolic stability was investigated by radio high-performance liquid chromatography. Dynamic PET scans in conscious monkeys were performed with/without selective GlyT-1 inhibitors. Results: The IC 50 values of SA1, SA2 and SA3 were 9.0, 6400 and 39.7 nM, respectively. The regional brain uptakes of [ 11 C]SA1 and [ 11 C]SA3 in mice were heterogeneous and consistent with the known distribution of GlyT-1. [ 11 C]SA2 showed low and homogeneous uptake in the brain. Most radioactivity in the brain was detected in unchanged form, although peripherally these compounds were degraded. Carrier loading decreased the uptake of [ 11 C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. However, similar reductions were not observed with [ 11 C]SA3. Pretreatment with ALX-5407 decreased the uptake of [ 11 C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. In the monkey at baseline, regional brain uptake of [ 11 C]SA1 was heterogeneous and consistent with the known GlyT-1 distribution. Pretreatment with selective GlyT-1 inhibitors significantly decreased the distribution volume ratio of [ 11 C] SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. Conclusions: [ 11 C]SA1 has the most suitable profile among the three carbon-11-labelled GlyT-1 inhibitors. Lead optimization of [ 11 C]SA1 structure will be required to achieve in vivo selective GlyT-1 imaging.

  19. Application of carbon-11 labelled nicotine in the measurement of human cerebral blood flow and other physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, Fuji; Hayashi, Tokishi; Iio, Masaaki; Hara, Toshihiko

    1993-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), we measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in five normal human subjects after intravenous injection of carbon-11 labelled (R)nicotine. The rCBF of the same subjects was measured by PET using the C 15 O 2 inhalation steady-state method. The distribution of 11 C activity in the brain after injection of 11 C-(R)nicotine was almost equivalent to the CBF image obtaines with C 15 O 2 inhalation steady-state method. The kinetics of 11 C-(R)nicotine in the brain was analysed using a two-compartment model consisting of vascular and brain tissue compartments. The rCBF values obtained with 11 C-(R)nicotine were higher than with C 15 O 2 gas. It is possible that the relatively long fixed distribution of 11 C-(R)nicotine with a short uptake period allows stimulation studies by measurement of CBF to be performed with better photon flux and a longer imaging time than are possible with H 2 15 O. (orig.)

  20. The ''in vivo'' distribution of carbon 11 labeled-nicotine in animals. A method suitable for use in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, M.; Berger, G.; Plummer, D.; Comar, D.; Masse, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described to label nicotine with carbon 11. A hundred millicuries can be obtained, in 45 minutes, with a high specific activity. This labeling of nicotine has allowed an ''in vivo'' study of the distribution of this very toxic drug in animals. Five minutes after injection in rabbits or monkeys, it was shown with a gamma camera or with a positron camera that the radioactivity was very rapidly distributed throughout the tissues especially in brain, lungs and kidneys. 11 C-nicotine readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and the brain radioactivity decreases very sharply with time. The eyes however retained activity, possibly in the retina. Unfortunately the monkey is not the ideal subject for 11 C-nicotine brain study because: the brain is small, considering the resolution of the cameras and the cerebral lobes are also quite overlaped in this animal; Japanese authors have shown that compared with dogs the nicotine brain uptake is lower, due to the high affinity of nicotine for skeletal muscle which occupies approximately forty to fifty % of the body weight of the monkey. Also in monkeys, the nicotine destruction is faster than in dogs because there is a higher enzyme nicotine metabolizing activity in the liver of this animal. The differences observed between various animals studies using nicotine indicate that we should not draw any firm conclusions about the behaviour of this drug in humans. In order to do so, examinations must be conducted in man and the method described in spite of its limitations provides a means for such a study

  1. Synthesis of carbon-11-labeled 5-HT6R antagonists as new candidate PET radioligands for imaging of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Dong, Fugui; Miao, Caihong; Li, Wei; Wang, Min; Gao, Mingzhang; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Xu, Zhidong

    2018-06-01

    Carbon-11-labeled serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 6 receptor (5-HT 6 R) antagonists, 1-[(2-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]-5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2a) and 1-[(2-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]-5-methoxy-3-[(4-[ 11 C]methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2a), 5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2b) and 5-methoxy-3-((4-[ 11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2b), 1-((4-isopropylphenyl)sulfonyl)-5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2c) and 1-((4-isopropylphenyl)sulfonyl)-5-methoxy-3-((4-[ 11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2c), 1-((4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2d) and 1-((4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-5-methoxy-3-((4-[ 11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2d), were prepared from their O- or N-desmethylated precursors with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O- or N-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by HPLC combined with SPE in 40-50% radiochemical yield, based on [ 11 C]CO 2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The radiochemical purity was >99%, and the molar activity (MA) at EOB was 370-740 GBq/μmol with a total synthesis time of ∼40-min from EOB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Otto, Nicola; Win, Khaing; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Reid, Alicia E.; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profiles. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11 CO 2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [ 11 C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity were the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low ( VPA > PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [ 11 C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [ 11 C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [ 11 C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects

  3. Simple synthesis of carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Miller, Kathy D.; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer. The target tracers, X-[ 11 C]methoxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; [ 11 C]4a–d), were prepared from their corresponding precursors, X-hydroxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; 5a–d), with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a C-18 Sep-Pak Plus cartridge. The radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), from [ 11 C]CO 2 , were 40–60%. The specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185–370 GBq/μmol. - Highlights: ► New chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► New carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► Simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled 2-oxoquinoline derivatives for type 2 cannabinoid receptor positron emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evens, Nele; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Houbrechts, Nele; Lambert, Didier M.; Verbruggen, Alfons M.; Van Laere, Koen; Bormans, Guy M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The type 2 cannabinoid (CB 2 ) receptor is part of the endocannabinoid system and has been suggested as a mediator of several central and peripheral inflammatory processes. Imaging of the CB 2 receptor has been unsuccessful so far. We synthesized and evaluated a carbon-11- and a fluorine-18-labeled 2-oxoquinoline derivative as new PET tracers with high specificity and affinity for the CB 2 receptor. Methods: Two 2-oxoquinoline derivatives were synthesized and radiolabeled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Their affinity and selectivity for the human CB 2 receptor were determined. Biological evaluation was done by biodistribution, radiometabolite and autoradiography studies in mice. Results: In vitro studies showed that both compounds are high affinity CB 2 -specific inverse agonists. Biodistribution study of the tracers in mice showed a high in vivo initial brain uptake and fast brain washout, in accordance with the low CB 2 receptor expression levels in normal brain. A persistently high in vivo binding to the spleen was observed, which was inhibited by pretreatment with two structurally unrelated CB 2 selective inverse agonists. In vitro autoradiography studies with the radioligands confirmed CB 2 -specific binding to the mouse spleen. Conclusion: We synthesized two novel CB 2 receptor PET tracers that show high affinity/selectivity for CB 2 receptors. Both tracers show favourable characteristics as radioligands for central and peripheral in vivo visualization of the CB 2 receptor and are promising candidates for primate and human CB 2 PET imaging.

  5. Facile synthesis of carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives as new PET radioligands for imaging of 5-HT{sub 1A}R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2111 (United States); Zheng Qihuang, E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2111 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives, 2-((4-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)benzo[d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5a), 2-((4-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)-5,7-dimethylbenzo [d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5c), 2-((4-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)benzo[d]thiazole ([{sup 11}C]5e), 2-((6-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)benzo[d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5g), 2-((6-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)-5,7-dimethylbenzo [d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5i), and 2-((6-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)benzo[d]thiazole ([{sup 11}C]5k), were prepared from their corresponding phenol precursors with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}OTf through O-[{sup 11}C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge in 50-60% (n=5) radiochemical yields based on [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The overall synthesis time from EOB was 23 min, the radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 277.5{+-}92.5 GBq/{mu}mol (n=5). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  6. Carbon-11 labeled stilbene derivatives from natural products for the imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mengchao; Tang, Ruikun; Li, Zijing; Jia, Hongmei; Liu, Boli [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-04-01

    Four stilbene derivatives from natural products were screened as novel β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging ligands. In vitro binding assay showed that the methylated ligand, (E)-1-methoxy-4-styrylbenzene (8) displayed high binding affinity to Aβ{sub 1-42} aggregates (K{sub i} = 19.5 nM). Moreover, the {sup 11}C-labeled ligand, [{sup 11}C]8 was prepared through an O-methylation reaction using [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}OTf. In vitro autoradiography with sections of transgenic mouse brain also confirmed the high and specific binding of [{sup 11}C]8 to Aβ plaques. In vivo biodistribution experiments in normal mice indicated that [{sup 11}C]8 displayed high initial uptake (9.41 ± 0.51% ID/g at 5 min post-injection) into and rapid washout from the brain, with a brain{sub 5} {sub min}/brain{sub 30} {sub min} ratio of 6.63. These preliminary results suggest that [{sup 11}C]8 may be served as a novel Aβ imaging probe for PET. (orig.)

  7. Facile synthesis of new carbon-11 labeled conformationally restricted rivastigmine analogues as potential PET agents for imaging AChE and BChE enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Wang Jiquan; Gao Mingzhang; Zheng Qihuang

    2008-01-01

    Rivastigmine is a newer-generation inhibitor with a dual inhibitory action on both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes, and is used for the treatment of AChE- and BChE-related diseases such as brain Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. New carbon-11 labeled conformationally restricted rivastigmine analogues radiolabeled quaternary ammonium triflate salts, (3aR,9bS)-1-[ 11 C]methyl-1-methyl-6-(methylcarbamoyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5, 9b-hexahy dro-1H-benzo[g]indolium triflate ([ 11 C]8) and (3aR,9bS)-1-[ 11 C]methyl-1-methyl-6-(heptylcarbamoyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5, 9b-hexahy dro-1H-benzo[g]indolium triflate ([ 11 C]9), were designed and synthesized as potential positron emission tomography (PET) agents for imaging AChE and BChE enzymes. The appropriate precursors were labeled with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through N-[ 11 C]methylation, and the target tracers were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-50% radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), 15-20 min overall synthesis time, and 148-222 GBq/μmol specific activity at EOB

  8. Human dosimetry of carbon-11 labeled N-butan-2-yl-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylisoquinoline-3-carboxamide extrapolated from whole-body distribution kinetics and radiometabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luoto, Pauliina; Laitinen, Iina; Suilamo, Sami

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-11 labeled N-butan-2-yl-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylisoquinoline-3-carboxamide ([11C]PK11195) is a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) antagonist that is used as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical for neuroinflammatory imaging. This study was designed to investigate...

  9. Synthesis of carbon-11-labeled imidazopyridine- and purine-thioacetamide derivatives as new potential PET tracers for imaging of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2016-03-01

    The target tracer carbon-11-labeled imidazopyridine- and purine-thioacetamide derivatives, N-(3-[(11)C]methoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-((5-methoxy-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)thio)acetamide (3-[(11)C]4a) and N-(4-[(11)C]methoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-((5-methoxy-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)thio)acetamide (4-[(11)C]4a); 2-((6-amino-9H-purin-8-yl)thio)-N-(3-[(11)C]methoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acetamide (3-[(11)C]8a) and 2-((6-amino-9H-purin-8-yl)thio)-N-(4-[(11)C]methoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide (4-[(11)C]8a), were prepared by O-[(11)C]methylation of their corresponding precursors with [(11)C]CH3OTf under basic condition (2N NaOH) and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method in 50-60% radiochemical yields based on [(11)C]CO2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The overall synthesis time from EOB was 23min, the radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185-555GBq/μmol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Realization of an apparatus for the synthesis and detection of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids and of a data acquisition system for the study of the myocardial methabolism of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fressonnet, G.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the study and the realization of an apparatus to synthesize fatty acids labelled with carbon 11, a radioactive isotope with an half-life of 20.38 minutes. A system of gamma-ray detection with data processing designed for the study of the myocardiac metabolism of radiopharmaceuticals using isolated rat hearts as experimental models. The synthesis of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids required a preliminary study of the manufacture of this isotope at the synchrocyclotron of the I.P.N. (Lyon). The method chosen is the nuclear reaction (d,xn) with naturally occurring boron trioxide as the target. The apparatus was designed so as extract carbon 11 from the target in the form of 11 CO 2 which can then be used in the synthesis of carbon 11 labelled hexadecanoique, heptadecanoic and beta-methyl hexadecanoic acids. The time scale of this synthesis must be compatible with the short half-like of the isotope. In order to study these compounds 'in vivo' on the experimental model of isolated rat hearts, a system of detection, which functions either in a simple gamma mode or in a gamma-gamma coincidence mode, was developed. This apparatus can attain a rate of approximately 50 000 counts/sec. per channel, thus it is possible to obtain information about rapid phases of metabolism with a satisfactory statistical precision. Moreover the spectral analysis of the gamma-ray permits the simultaneous detection of different radioisotopes. Hence it was possible to compare the behaviour of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids with homologous molecules marked with iodine 123. The analysis of the experimental results was achieved witha computer based on an I.B.M. compatible PC-XT. The essential parts of this system are a data-acquisition card for the PC, code for the acquisition and the data processing [fr

  11. Correlation of stable elevations in striatal mu-opioid receptor availability in detoxified alcoholic patients with alcohol craving: a positron emission tomography study using carbon 11-labeled carfentanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andreas; Reimold, Matthias; Wrase, Jana; Hermann, Derik; Croissant, Bernhard; Mundle, Götz; Dohmen, Bernhard M; Braus, Dieter F; Braus, Dieter H; Schumann, Gunter; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Bares, Roland; Mann, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The pleasant effects of food and alcohol intake are partially mediated by mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, a central area of the brain reward system. Blockade of mu-opiate receptors with naltrexone reduces the relapse risk among some but not all alcoholic individuals. To test the hypothesis that alcohol craving is pronounced among alcoholic individuals with a high availability of mu-opiate receptors in the brain reward system. Patients and comparison sample. The availability of central mu-opiate receptors was measured in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand carbon 11-labeled carfentanil in the ventral striatum and compared with the severity of alcohol craving as assessed by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Hospitalized care. Volunteer sample of 25 male alcohol-dependent inpatients assessed after detoxification of whom 12 underwent PET again 5 weeks later. Control group of 10 healthy men. After 1 to 3 weeks of abstinence, the availability of mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, was significantly elevated in alcoholic patients compared with healthy controls and remained elevated when 12 alcoholic patients had these levels measured 5 weeks later (P<.05 corrected for multiple testing). Higher availability of mu-opiate receptors in this brain area correlated significantly with the intensity of alcohol craving as assessed by the OCDS. Abstinent alcoholic patients displayed an increase in mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, which correlated with the severity of alcohol craving. These findings point to a neuronal correlate of alcohol urges.

  12. Measurement of regional pulmonary function with carbon-11-labeled CO/sub 2/ and CO. Studies of radioactive gas clearance curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Rikitake, T; Hasegawa, S [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki Japan; Matsumoto, T; Tateno, Y

    1979-06-01

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide labelled with carbon-11 have been produced in the remotecontrolled system for a large scale production of short lived radioactive substance with cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The single breath measurement with /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO, using inhalation system and a coincidence positron camera combined with an on-line computer system (TOSBAC 3400 Model 31) has been employed to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity in three normal volunteers and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), old lung tuberculosis and benign tumor. Regional clearance rate constant (lambda) and distribution index (lambda i/lambda t) were calculated from monoexponential removal curves measured by external counting over the chest in supine position. This process was performed in a short period of breath-holding (10 - 20 sec.) after a single breath of these radioactive gases mixed with room air. These parameters were calculated for each lung fields divided into four zones (bilateral upper and lower lung region). In our method, the activity of the inspired mixture were 5 - 35 mCi/L and each value in lung fields, divided into four zones, can be measured with time interval for one second. While the clearance rate of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ seemed to be mainly limited by pulmonary blood flow, it was considered that the rate of /sup 11/CO were limited by not only the diffusing capacity but also the perfusion in each lung fields. In normal subjects, the distribution of regional clearance rate was showed approximately even for /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO. It was caused of the measurement in supine position. In contrast, the distribution of these parameter was showed uneven in patients with lung disease, particularly with COPD.

  13. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled thymidine (TdR) for studying the effect of therapy on prostatic adenocarcinoma in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Kleinert, E.L.; Schma, B.; Herr, H.W.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in tumor growth, such as those which occur during therapeutic manipulation, may be followed by measuring variations in radiolabeled TdR uptake. In order to study such parameters in vivo using external imaging techniques, the authors have synthesized TdR labeled with cyclotron produced carbon-11, a short-lived (T1/2=20.4 min) positron-emitting radionuclide. The Copenhagen rat bearing the transplantable Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma can be used as a model for poorly differentiated carcinoma of the prostate in humans. The tissue distribution of C-14 TdR was studied in untreated tumor rats and in tumor rats receiving a combination of difluoromethyl ornithine and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone, effective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis. The tissue distribution at 45 min post-injection (5 rats/group) was determined by calculating the relative concentration (RC) of radioactivity in blood and tissue samples (RC=dpm found per gm tissue/dpm injected per gm animal mass). The mean RC in untreated tumor was 2.55 +- 0.46, compared to 0.85 +- 0.12 in treated tumor. Tumor/blood, tumor/muscle and tumor/prostate ratios were 3.07, 7.08, and 6.89 in untreated tumor, and 1.23, 3.04, and 2,93 in treated tumor. The differences in RC for the untreated and treated tumors suggest that external imaging with C-11 TdR may be useful for monitoring the effects of therapy on tumors in vivo

  14. Carbon-11 labelling of S38419, a novel alpha-4-beta-2-selective ligand for PET imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Demphel, St.; Saba, W.; Schollhorn-Peyronneau, M.A.; Deverre, J.R.; Bottlaender, M.; Valette, H.; Charton, Y.; Goldstein, S.; Lestage, P.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: There is considerable evidence that a variety of functions and disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease) of the CNS is associated with the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and particularly with the subtypes containing α4 and β2 subunits (nAChRs). The consistent and severe loss of these receptors in the diseases mentioned above has prompted extensive efforts, over more than two decades now, into the design of PET radioligands for non-invasive in vivo imaging of these receptors and the quantification of their density in the human brain. Not only analogues of the alkaloid epibatidine were labelled with positron-emitters but also series of 3-pyridyl ethers bearing either the traditional nicotinic-like pyrrolidine ring (e.g. [ 11 C]A-84543) or the azetidine motive (e.g. 2-[ 18 F]F-A-85380). Novel structures, still possessing high affinity and selectivity for nAChRs but not displaying any saturated, nitrogen-containing, 5- or 4-membered rings were also reported (e.g. [ 11 C]p-PVPMEMA). Recently, a novel series of highly potent α4β2-selective 3-pyridinamines (exhibiting a cyclopropane ring together with a non-cyclic amino function) has been developed by Servier Laboratories. Within this series, S38419 (1, N-methyl-N-[[1-(methylamino)cyclopropyl]methyl]pyridin-3-amine) was selected on the basis of its pharmacological and biological characteristics as a potent candidate for PET imaging and was isotopically labelled with carbon-11 using [ 11 C]methyl triflate. Methods: Carbon-11 labelling of S38419 (1) was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprises (1) trapping at -10 C of [ 11 C]MeOTf in DMF (0.3 mL) containing the nor-derivative (N-demethylated, 1.8-2.0 mg); (2) heating at 120 C for 2 min; (3) taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification using semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC (Waters Symmetry R C-18 - eluent: CH 3 CN / H 2 O / TEA: 20 / 80

  15. Synthesis of 'no carrier added' carbon-11 fotemustine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasne, M.C.; Piarraud, A.; Lalaoui, K.; Barre, L.; Derlon, J.M.; Giroux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrosoureas are commonly used for chemotherapeutic treatment of some tumors and the search for new drugs less toxic amd more selective is always under investigation. Efficacy of fotemustine, a nitrosourea type compound in the treatment of malignant gliomas prompted us to label it with carbon-11 so that its pharmacokinetics and metabolic behavior in human brain tumors could be studied in vivo using PET. The synthetic pathway for labelling with carbon-11 is outlined

  16. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives as new potential PET SKCa channel imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2008-02-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SKCa channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SKCa channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SKCa channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([11C]9a-c and [11C]11), were prepared by N-[11C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [11C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO2 or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.

  17. Synthesis and carbon-11-labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575, a novel indoleacetamide-based candidate for PET imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (TSPO 18 kDa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damont, A.L.; Le Helleix, St.; Kuhnast, B.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Dolle, F.; Marguet, F.; Puech, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [ 11 C]PK11195, despite its low brain uptake and high level of nonspecific binding, is still the most widely used PET-radioligand for the in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR or TSPO 18 kDa). Several new PBR radioligands are currently developed to replace [ 11 C]PK11195 [1], e.g the pyrazolo[1, 5-a]pyrimidine-acetamides [ 11 C]DPA-713 and [ 18 F]DPA-714, the imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridine-acetamides [ 11 C]CLINME and [ 18 F]PBR111 and the N-benzyl-N-(2-phenoxy-aryl)- acetamides [ 11 C]PBR28 and [ 18 F]FEDAA1106. Another attractive newly identified chemical class of structures are the indole-acetamides and notably compounds derived from the lead compound SSR180575 [2]. Herein are reported the synthesis and the labelling with the positron-emitter carbon-11 (half-life: 20.38 min) of a novel derivative of SSR180575, bearing a para methoxy function on its phenyl ring. Methods: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was synthesized from commercially available 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene in 10 steps. O-demethylation, performed with a boron tribromide solution in dichloromethane at low temperature, afforded the free phenol derivative 2. Carbon-11 labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprised (1) trapping of [ 11 C]MeOTf at -10 C in acetone (0.3 mL) containing the nor-derivative 2 (O-demethylated, 0.6-0.9 mg) and aq. 3N NaOH (8 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) concentration to dryness and taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification using semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC (Waters Symmetry R C-18 - eluent: CH 3 CN / H 2 O / TFA: 50 / 50 / 0.1 (v:v:v) - flow rate: 5 mL/min - detection at 254 nm) and (5) SepPak Plus R C-18-based formulation for i.v. injection approach was the pyridazine ring formation reaction that proceeded partially: the maximum conversion of the intermediate diester-indole reacting

  18. Synthesis and carbon-11-labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575, a novel indoleacetamide-based candidate for PET imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (TSPO 18 kDa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damont, A.; Le Helleix, St.; Kuhnast, B.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Dolle, F.; Marguet, F.; Puech, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [ 11 C]PK11195, despite its low brain uptake and high level of nonspecific binding, is still the most widely used PET-radioligand for the in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR or TSPO 18 kDa). Several new PBR radioligands are currently developed to replace [ 11 C]PK11195, e.g the pyrazolo[1, 5-a]pyrimidine-acetamides [ 11 C]DPA-713 and [ 18 F]DPA-714, the imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridine-acetamides [ 11 C]CLINME and [ 18 F]PBR111 and the N-benzyl-N-(2-phenoxy-aryl)- acetamides [ 11 C]PBR28 and [ 18 F]FEDAA1106. Another attractive newly identified chemical class of structures are the indole-acetamides and notably compounds derived from the lead compound SSR180575. Herein are reported the synthesis and the labelling with the positron-emitter carbon-11 (half-life: 20.38 min) of a novel derivative of SSR180575, bearing a para methoxy function on its phenyl ring. Methods: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was synthesized from commercially available 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene in 10 steps. O-demethylation, performed with a boron tribromide solution in dichloromethane at low temperature, afforded the free phenol derivative 2. Carbon-11 labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprised (1) trapping of [ 11 C]MeOTf at -10 C in acetone (0.3 mL) containing the nor-derivative 2 (O-demethylated, 0.6-0.9 mg) and aq. 3N NaOH (8 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) concentration to dryness and taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification using semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC (Waters Symmetry C-18 - eluent: CH 3 CN / H 2 O / TFA: 50 / 50 / 0.1 (v:v:v) - flow rate: 5 mL/min - detection at 254 nm) and (5) SepPak R Plus C-18-based formulation for i.v. injection. Results: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was obtained in 10% overall yield. The tricky and low-yielding step in our approach was the pyridazine ring formation

  19. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) as an in vivo tracer of amino acid uptake in differing metabolic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Starnes, H.F.; Brennan, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    AIB has been used as a model amino acid for the evaluation of alanine-preferring amino acid transport. Hormonal factors and starvation alter the tissue distribution of amino acids, particularly in liver and muscle. With positron emission tomography and labeling of biochemical tracers with C-11, (t1/2=20.4 min), it is now possible to study amino acid kinetics in vivo using external imaging. In order to investigate the utility of C-11 AIB as an in vivo tracer of altered tissue metabolism, C-14 AIB was studied in groups of rats with either streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin-induced hypoglycemia or starvation. The data suggest an increased amino acid uptake in liver in starvation, an increased uptake in muscle in response to insulin and associated hypoglycemia and decreased transport in muscle in starvation, as seen by other investigators. These results suggest that C-11 AIB may be useful as an in vivo monitor of metabolic changes in body tissues

  20. Carbon-11 labelling of eticlopride in two different positions - a selective high-affinity ligand for the study of dopamine D-2 receptors using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halldin, Christer; Hall, Haakan

    1990-01-01

    A new highly selective high-affinity dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride ((-)-(S)-5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-6-methoxysalicylamide), was labelled with 11 C in two different positions ([N-ethyl- 11 C]eticlopride (I) and ([methyl- 11 C]eticlopride (II)). Product I was prepared by N-alkylation of the N-desethyl compound with [ 11 C]ethyl iodide. II was prepared by O-alkylation of the diphenolic precursor with [ 11 C]methyl iodide followed by separation of the two methylated products. The radiochemical yields were 15-20% (EOB) with an overall synthesis time of 45-60 min. Both compounds were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and the radiochemical purity was in both cases > 99%. I was injected i.v. in a Cynomolgus monkey and brain radioactivity was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). The specific activity was 70 Ci/mmol at time of injection. There was a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the basal ganglia, regions known to have a high density of dopamine D-2 receptors. (author)

  1. New {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonists derived from the antipsychotic sertindole - carbon-11 labelling and pet examination of brain uptake in the cynomolgus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balle, Thomas E-mail: tb@dfuni.dk; Halldin, Christer; Andersen, Linus; Hjorth Alifrangis, Lene; Badolo, Lassina; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Chou, Y.-W.; Andersen, Kim; Perregaard, Jens; Farde, Lars

    2004-04-01

    Central {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors are potential targets for recently developed antipsychotic drugs. Two new 11C labeled potent and selective {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonists, 1- [2- [4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-[{sup 11}C]methyl-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-1- pipridinyl]ethyl]-imidazolidin-2-one ([{sup 11}C]2) and 1- [2- [4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(1-[{sup 11}C]methyl-(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) -1H-indol-3-yl]- 1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-imidazolidin-2-one ([{sup 11}C]3) were prepared and evaluated for imaging of central {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors in the cynomolgus monkey brain. For both compounds, the total brain radioactivity was only about 0.6% of the radioactivity injected i.v. There was no evident binding in regions known to contain {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors. This observation suggests that the affinity of the radioligands in primates in vivo is not sufficient to provide a signal for specific binding that can be differentiated from the background. In addition, active efflux by P-glycoprotein may be responsible for the low total brain-uptake of the two radioligands. Both compounds showed a highly polarised and verapamile sensitive transport across monolayers of Caco-2 cells. The total brain-uptake of [{sup 3}H]2 was 6 times higher in mdr1a(-/-) knock-out mice lacking the gene encoding P-glycoprotein compared to wild type mice. Pretreatment of one monkey with Cyclosporin A (15 mg/kg) resulted in 40% higher brain uptake for [{sup 11}C]3 when compared with baseline. These observations support the view that efflux by P-glycoprotein can be of quantitative importance for the total brain-uptake of some PET radioligands.

  2. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives as new potential PET SK{sub Ca} channel imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L-3 Room 202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Zheng Qihuang [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L-3 Room 202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu

    2008-02-15

    Small conductance Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} (SK{sub Ca}) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SK{sub Ca} channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SK{sub Ca} channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SK{sub Ca} channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([{sup 11}C]9a-c and [{sup 11}C]11), were prepared by N-[{sup 11}C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO{sub 2} or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.

  3. Radiosynthesis of [11C]D.P.A.-713, [11C]D.P.A.-715 and [11C]clinme, selected carbon-11-labelled novel potential radioligands for imaging the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Thominiaux, C.; Hinnen, F.; Demphel, S.; Le helleix, S.; Chauveau, F.; Boutin, H.; Herard, A.S.; Hantraye, P.; Tavitian, B.; Kassiou, M.; James, M.; Creelman, A.; Fulton, R.; Kassiou, M.; Katsifis, A.; Greguric, I.; Mattner, F.; Loch, C.; Selleri, S.

    2008-01-01

    11 C P.K.11195 is not only the oldest, but also the most widely used PET radiotracer for in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (P.B.R. or translocator protein (18 kDa, T.S.P.O.). With the aim of developing a new PET imaging probe for the in vivo study of the P.B.R., two pyrazol [1,5-a]pyrimidineacetamides (D.P.A.-713 and D.P.A.-715) and one imidazol[1,2-a]pyridine-acetamide (C.L.I.N.M.E.) were radiolabelled with the positron emitters carbon 11 (half life: 20.38 min) [1-5]. Briefly, C.L.I.N.M.E. (2-[6-chloro-2(4-iodophenyl)-imidazol[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl] -N-ethyl-N-methyl-acetamide) was labelled at its methyl-acetamide moity chain from the corresponding nor-analogue using[ 11 C]methyl iodide (in D.M.S.O./D.M.F (100/200 μL) containing powdered K.O.H. (3-5 mg) at 110 degrees C for 3 min. D.P.A.-713 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin -3-yl]acetamide) and D.P.A.-715 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-bis-tri-fluoro-methyl-pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]acetamide) were labelled at their aromatic methoxy groups from the corresponding nor-derivatives using [ 11 C]methyl triflate (in acetone (300μL) containing aq. 3 M NaOH (4μL) at 110 degrees C for 1 min). All radioligands were purified using semi preparative Zorbax reverse phase H.P.L.C., were adequately formulated for in vivo injection within 30 min and were found to be > 95% chemically and radiochemically pure. (N.C.)

  4. The preparation and application of carbon-11 nuclide and its PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-11 is a valuable positron nuclide, for it can be used to replace carbon atom at specific position inside the organic molecules and not change the molecular biochemistry character. Carbon-11 has wide application in the labeling of amino acids, fatty acids, receptor-ligand and neurotransmitter molecular etc, which are used for detecting the blood flow, metabolism, the synthesis of protein and the neurotransmitter function in brain by PET imaging. It is very important in basic science and clinical research to understand and master the preparation of carbon-11 and its labeled compounds

  5. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 labelled N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[11C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine as a PET tracer for NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiaans, Johannes A.M.; Klein, Pieter J.; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kooijman, Esther J.M.; Schuit, Robert C.; Leysen, Josée E.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in learning and memory. Overactivation is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Currently, it is not possible to assess N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) bio-availability in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for the NR2B binding site of the NMDA receptor. Methods: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was radiolabelled with carbon-11 in the phenyl moiety. Biodistribution and blocking studies were carried out in anaesthetized mice and in non-anaesthetized rats. Results: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was prepared in 49 ± 3% (decay-corrected) yield, affording 4.1 ± 0.3 GBq of formulated product at the end of synthesis with a radiochemical purity of > 99% and with a specific activity of 78 ± 10 GBq/μmol. Conclusion: A new NR2B PET ligand was developed in high yield. [ 11 C]4 readily enters the brain and binds to the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr in the rodent brain. High sigma-1 receptor binding may, however, limit its future application as a PET probe for imaging the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr. Anaesthesia has an effect on NMDAr function and therefore can complicate interpretation of preclinical in vivo results. In addition, effects of endogenous compounds cannot be excluded. Despite these potential limitations, further studies are warranted to investigate the values of [ 11 C]4 as an NR2B PET ligand

  6. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]D.P.A.-713, [{sup 11}C]D.P.A.-715 and [{sup 11}C]clinme, selected carbon-11-labelled novel potential radioligands for imaging the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, F.; Thominiaux, C.; Hinnen, F.; Demphel, S.; Le helleix, S.; Chauveau, F.; Boutin, H.; Herard, A.S.; Hantraye, P.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Kassiou, M.; James, M.; Creelman, A.; Fulton, R. [Sydney Univ., Brain and Mind Research Institute, NSW (Australia); Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., Discipline of Medical Radiations, Sciences and School of Chemistry, NSW (Australia); Katsifis, A.; Greguric, I.; Mattner, F.; Loch, C. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, ANSTO, NSW (Australia); Selleri, S. [Degli Studi di Firenze Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Farmaceutiche (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    {sup 11}C P.K.11195 is not only the oldest, but also the most widely used PET radiotracer for in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (P.B.R. or translocator protein (18 kDa, T.S.P.O.). With the aim of developing a new PET imaging probe for the in vivo study of the P.B.R., two pyrazol [1,5-a]pyrimidineacetamides (D.P.A.-713 and D.P.A.-715) and one imidazol[1,2-a]pyridine-acetamide (C.L.I.N.M.E.) were radiolabelled with the positron emitters carbon{sup 11} (half life: 20.38 min) [1-5]. Briefly, C.L.I.N.M.E. (2-[6-chloro-2(4-iodophenyl)-imidazol[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl] -N-ethyl-N-methyl-acetamide) was labelled at its methyl-acetamide moity chain from the corresponding nor-analogue using[{sup 11}C]methyl iodide (in D.M.S.O./D.M.F (100/200 {mu}L) containing powdered K.O.H. (3-5 mg) at 110 degrees C for 3 min. D.P.A.-713 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin -3-yl]acetamide) and D.P.A.-715 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-bis-tri-fluoro-methyl-pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]acetamide) were labelled at their aromatic methoxy groups from the corresponding nor-derivatives using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate (in acetone (300{mu}L) containing aq. 3 M NaOH (4{mu}L) at 110 degrees C for 1 min). All radioligands were purified using semi preparative Zorbax reverse phase H.P.L.C., were adequately formulated for in vivo injection within 30 min and were found to be > 95% chemically and radiochemically pure. (N.C.)

  7. Simple synthesis of new carbon-11-labeled 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one derivatives for PET imaging of A3 adenosine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Gao, Andy Chufan; Wang, Min; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    The reference standards 4a-b, 6a-b, 7a-c, and desmethylated precursors 9a-b, 10a-b, 8a-c were synthesized from 4-methoxyaniline, ethyl 2-chloro-acetoacetate and substituted benzene-1,2-diamines with 3, 5, 6 steps in 61–67%, 34–41%, 23–31%, and with 4, 6, 7 steps in 49–57%, 28–35%, 20–27% overall chemical yield, respectively. The target tracers [ 11 C]4a-b, [ 11 C]6a-b, [ 11 C]7a-c were synthesized from their corresponding precursors with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by simplified SPE in 40–60% decay corrected radiochemical yields at EOB, with 185–370 GBq/μmol specific activity at EOS. - Highlights: • New 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one derivatives were synthesized. • New 11 C-labeled 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one derivatives were synthesized. • A simplified SPE technique was employed in radiosynthesis

  8. Difference in brain distributions of carbon 11-labeled 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolones as PET radioligands for the glycine-binding site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Haradahira, Terushi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: terushi@niu.ac.jp; Fujimoto, Noriko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okauchi, Takashi; Maeda, Jun; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Sasaki, Shigeki; Mukai, Takahiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Maeda, Minoru [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    High-affinity iodine- and ethyl-C-5 substituted analogs of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)-2(1H)-quinolone ([{sup 11}C]4HQ) were synthesized as new positron emission tomography radioligands for the glycine-binding sites of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel. Although both radioligands showed high in vitro specific binding to rat brain slices, their binding characteristics were quite different from each other. 5-Ethyl-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed higher in vitro binding in the forebrain regions than in the cerebellum, bindings that were strongly inhibited by both glycine-site agonists and antagonists. In contrast, 5-iodo-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed a homogeneous in vitro binding throughout the brain, which was inhibited by antagonists but not by agonists. This difference in in vitro binding between 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ was quite similar to that previously observed between [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 and [{sup 11}C]4HQ, both glycine-site antagonists. In vivo brain uptakes of these {sup 11}C-labeled 4-hydroxyquinolones were examined in mice. Initial brain uptakes of 5Et- and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ at 1 min after intravenous injections were comparable to that of [{sup 11}C]4HQ, but they were 1.3-2.1 times higher than that of [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The treatment with an anticoagulant, warfarin, only slightly increased the initial uptakes of [{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ in contrast to [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The in vivo regional brain distributions were slightly different between the two radioligands. Pretreatment with nonradioactive ligand (2 mg/kg) slightly inhibited the binding of 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (16-36% inhibition) but not that of 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ. In this study, it was found that a small structural change in [{sup 11}C]4HQ resulted in a major change in binding characteristics and distributions, suggesting the existence of two binding sites for [{sup 11}C]4-hydroxyquinolones on the NMDA ion channel

  9. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: The introduction of green radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. - Highlights: • We report application of the principles of green chemistry to a radiochemistry setting. • Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent. • Green radiochemistry simplifies production and QC in busy clinical production laboratories. • Residual solvent analysis can be relegated to a quarterly or annual QC test

  10. Captive solvent methods for fast, simple carbon-11 radioalkylations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, D.M.; Mangner, T.J.; Watkins, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals for receptor studies usually require final purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A significant simplification of the apparatus is possible if the radiolabeling reaction can be done directly in the HPLC injection circuit. Captive solvent methods in which the reaction is done in a small volume of solvent absorbed in a porous solid matrix are a general approach to this problem. For N-methylations with [ 11 C] methyl iodide, a basic catalyst may be incorporated in the polymeric or alumina solid phase. Reaction volumes are from 20 to 100 ML. Often no heating or cooling of the reaction column is necessary. The syntheses of [ 11 C]PK11195 and [ 11 C] flumazenil are described to illustrate some of the advantages and limitations of captive solvent methods

  11. Synthesis of n.c.a. PET-radiotracers with carbon-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirbel, A.

    1998-11-01

    Carbon-11 offers the unique possibility of authentic labelling of molecules as radioindicators for non invasive and quantitative determination of physiological functions via positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to synthesize of different n.c.a. 11 C-labelled pharmaceuticals for in vivo distribution studies with PET. For the determination of the pharmacokinetics of [1- 11 C]acetate in porcine myocardium during prolonged ischemia, n.c.a. [1- 11 C]acetate was synthesized via carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide with in target produced n.c.a. [ 11 C]CO 2 with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 68 ± 7%. The fast (18 min) and reliable radiosynthesis allowed for repeated tracer administration at short intervals ( R c) in humans, [1- 11 C]acetylsalicylic acid, acetyl-[carboxy- 11 C]salicylic acid and [carboxy- 11 C]salicylic acid were prepared. N.c.a. [1- 11 C]acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized via the reaction of [1- 11 C]acetylchloride with salicylic acid salts. The use of the silver salt proved to be superior to the sodium salt and resulted in radiochemical yields of 32 ± 5%. Base-line (clean) separation of the labelled product was achieved using radio-HPLC. With regard to the preparation of n.c.a. [carboxy- 11 C]salicylic acid, several protected and unprotected phenol derivates were metallated and subsequently carboxylated using n.c.a. [ 11 C]CO 2 . Best results (87 ± 3% RCY) could be achieved with 2-(methoxymethoxy)-phenylmagnesium iodide as a precursor and subsequent quantitative cleavage of the MOM-group. Acetylation of n.c.a. [carboxy- 11 C]salicylic acid to acetyl-[carboxy- 11 C]salicylic acid was performed using acetylchloride in CH 2 Cl 2 with a radiochemical yield of 65 ± 4%. (orig.)

  12. Distribution of carbon-11 labeled methamphetamine and the effect of its chronic administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Michinao; Hishinuma, Takanori; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    1993-01-01

    [ 11 C]Methamphetamine, a psychotropic agent, was synthesized by N-methylation of amphetamine with [ 11 C]CH 3 I in hopes that it could be applied in the near future to assist positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of its distribution in the human brain. The regional distribution of [ 11 C]methamphetamine was investigated in the mice brain at various intervals after an intravenous (i.v.) injection. Radioactivity was higher in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Furthermore, in chronically administered mice, the uptake of [ 11 C]methamphetamine was higher in the striatum than those in other regions. The regional differences in the distribution of methamphetamine in the mice brain may enable the imaging of its distribution by PET using [ 11 C]methamphetamine. (Author)

  13. Distribution of carbon-11 labeled methamphetamine and the effect of its chronic administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Michinao; Hishinuma, Takanori; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    1993-01-01

    [ 11 C]methamphetamine, a psychotropic agent, was synthesized by N-methylation of amphetamine with [ 11 C]CH 3 I in hopes that it could be applied in the near future to assist positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of its distribution in the human brain. The regional distribution of [ 11 C]methamphetamine was investigated in the mouse brain at various intervals after an intravenous (i.v.) injection. Radioactivity was higher in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Furthermore, in chronically administered mice, the uptake of [ 11 C]methamphetamine was higher in the striatum than those in other regions. The regional differences in the distribution of methamphetamine in the mice brain may enable the imaging of its distribution by PET using [ 11 C]methamphetamine. (author)

  14. Distribution of carbon-11 labeled methamphetamine and the effect of its chronic administration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizugaki, Michinao; Hishinuma, Takanori; Nakamura, Hitoshi (Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences) (and others)

    1993-05-01

    [[sup 11]C]methamphetamine, a psychotropic agent, was synthesized by N-methylation of amphetamine with [[sup 11]C]CH[sub 3]I in hopes that it could be applied in the near future to assist positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of its distribution in the human brain. The regional distribution of [[sup 11]C]methamphetamine was investigated in the mouse brain at various intervals after an intravenous (i.v.) injection. Radioactivity was higher in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Furthermore, in chronically administered mice, the uptake of [[sup 11]C]methamphetamine was higher in the striatum than those in other regions. The regional differences in the distribution of methamphetamine in the mice brain may enable the imaging of its distribution by PET using [[sup 11]C]methamphetamine. (author).

  15. Rapid synthesis and purification of carbon-11 labelled DOPA: a potential agent for brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiffers, S.; Beerling-van der Molen, H.D.; Vaalburg, W.; Hoeve, W. ten; Paans, A.M.J.; Korf, J.; Woldring, M.G.; Wynberg, H.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid method for preparation and purification of β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-D,L-α-alanine-1- 11 C( 11 C-DOPA), using 11 CO 2 as the radioactive precursor is described. Carboxylation of an α-lithioisocyanide, containing protected hydroxylic groups, was followed by a three-step hydrolysis of the intermediate αioscyano carboxylic acid. Preliminary experiments in rats indicate that the compound is preferentially decarboxylated in brain areas rich in dopamine containing neurons. (author)

  16. Development of [11C]/[3H]THK-5351 – A potential novel carbon-11 tau imaging PET radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, Vladimir; Svedberg, Marie; Jia, Zhisheng; Krasikova, Raisa; Lemoine, Laetitia; Okamura, Nobujuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Mitsios, Nicholas; Mulder, Jan; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta; Halldin, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the rise in the number of patients with dementia the imperative for finding new diagnostic and treatment options becomes ever more pressing. While significant progress has been made in PET imaging of Aβ aggregates both in vitro and in vivo, options for imaging tau protein aggregates selectively are still limited. Based on the work previously published by researchers from the Tohoku University, Japan, that resulted in the development of [ 18 F]THK-5351, we have undertaken an effort to develop a carbon-11 version of the identical structure - [ 11 C]THK-5351. In parallel, THK-5351 was also labeled with tritium ([ 3 H]THK-5351) for use in in vitro autoradiography (ARG). Methods: The carbon-11 labeling was performed starting with di-protected enantiomeric pure precursor - tert-butyl 5-(6-((2S)-3-fluoro-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)propoxy)quinolin-2-yl) pyridin-2-yl carbamate, which was reacted with [ 11 C]MeI, using DMF as the solvent and NaH as base, followed by deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid/water mixture, resulting in enantiomerically pure carbon-11 radioligand, [ 11 C]THK-5351 - (S)-1-fluoro-3-(2-(6-([ 11 C]methylamino)pyridin-3-yl)quinolin-6-yloxy) propan-2-ol. Tritium labeling and purification of [ 3 H]THK-5351 were undertaken using similar approach, resulting in [ 3 H]THK-5351 with RCP >99.8% and specific radioactivity of 1.3 GBq/μmol. Results: [ 11 C]THK-5351 was produced in good yield (1900 ± 355 MBq), specific radioactivity (SRA) (361 ± 119 GBq/μmol at EOS + 20 min) and radiochemical purity (RCP) (>99.8%), with enantiomeric purity of 98.7%. [ 3 H]THK-5351 was evaluated for ARG of tau binding in post-mortem human brain tissue using cortical sections from one AD patient and one control subject. [ 3 H]THK-5351 binding density was higher in the AD patient compared to the control subject, the binding was displaced by unlabeled THK-5351 confirming specific [ 3 H]THK-5351 binding.

  17. Carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry devoted to molecular probes for imaging the brain with positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollé, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the living human brain in real-time and in a noninvasive way was for centuries only a dream, made, however, possible today with the remarkable development during the four last decades of powerful molecular imaging techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET). Molecular PET imaging relies, from a chemical point of view, on the use and preparation of a positron-emitting radiolabelled probe or radiotracer, notably compounds incorporating one of two short-lived radionuclides fluorine-18 (T1/2 : 109.8 min) and carbon-11 (T1/2 : 20.38 min). The growing availability and interest for the radiohalogen fluorine-18 in radiopharmaceutical chemistry undoubtedly results from its convenient half-life and the successful use in clinical oncology of 2-[(18) F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18) F]FDG). The special interest of carbon-11 is not only that carbon is present in virtually all biomolecules and drugs allowing therefore for isotopic labelling of their chemical structures but also that a given molecule could be radiolabelled at different functions or sites, permitting to explore (or to take advantage of) in vivo metabolic pathways. PET chemistry includes production of these short-lived radioactive isotopes via nuclear transmutation reactions using a cyclotron, and is directed towards the development of rapid synthetic methods, at the trace level, for the introduction of these nuclides into a molecule, as well as the use of fast purification, analysis and formulation techniques. PET chemistry is the driving force in molecular PET imaging, and this special issue of the Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, which is strongly chemistry and radiochemistry-oriented, aims at illustrating, be it in part only, the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions currently available and its potential for the research and development of specific molecular probes labelled with the positron emitters carbon-11 and fluorine-18, with optimal imaging

  18. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  19. Noninvasive assessment of canine myocardial oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Myears, D.W.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial metabolism would be highly desirable to evaluate pathogenetic mechanisms of heart disease and their response to therapy. It was previously demonstrated that the metabolism of radiolabeled acetate, a readily utilized myocardial substrate predominantly metabolized to carbon dioxide (CO2) by way of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, provides a good index of oxidative metabolism in isolated perfused rabbit hearts because of tight coupling between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, in a prelude to human studies, the relation between myocardial clearance of carbon-11 (11C)-labeled acetate and myocardial oxygen consumption was characterized in eight intact dogs using positron emission tomography. Anesthetized dogs were studied during baseline conditions and again during either high or low work states induced pharmacologically. High myocardial extraction and rapid blood clearance of tracer yielded myocardial images of excellent quality. The turnover (clearance) of 11C radioactivity from the myocardium was biexponential with the mean half-time of the dominant rapid phase averaging 5.4 +/- 2.2, 2.8 +/- 1.3 and 11.1 +/- 1.3 min in control, high and low work load studies, respectively. No significant difference was found between the rate of clearance of 11C radioactivity from the myocardium measured noninvasively with positron emission tomography and the myocardial efflux of 11CO2 measured directly from the coronary sinus. The rate of clearance of the 11C radioactivity from the heart correlated closely with myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001) as well as with the rate-pressure product (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001). Hence, the rate of oxidation of 11C-acetate can be determined noninvasively with positron emission tomography, providing a quantitative index of oxidative metabolism under diverse conditions

  20. Syntheses of [ω-11C]-labelled fatty acids using alkyl halides and Grignard reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlberg, T.; Malmborg, P.; Langstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    A method for synthesizing carbon-11 labelled fatty acids, where the carbon-11 has a mid-chain location, has been developed. Fatty acids labelled thus are less susceptible to early loss of the label through metabolic degradation. Carbon-11 labelled methyl iodide was trapped in a solution of alpha, omega-di(bromo magnesium)alkane in THF. Li 2 CuCl 4 was added and allowed to react. Carbon dioxide was introduced into the mixture, followed by heating and then hydrolysis. Hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids were synthesized with this method

  1. Radio-metabolite analysis of carbon-11 biochemical partitioning to non-structural carbohydrates for integrated metabolism and transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Karve, Abhijit A; Judt, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Metabolism and phloem transport of carbohydrates are interactive processes, yet each is often studied in isolation from the other. Carbon-11 ((11)C) has been successfully used to study transport and allocation processes dynamically over time. There is a need for techniques to determine metabolic partitioning of newly fixed carbon that are compatible with existing non-invasive (11)C-based methodologies for the study of phloem transport. In this report, we present methods using (11)C-labeled CO2 to trace carbon partitioning to the major non-structural carbohydrates in leaves-sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was adapted to provide multisample throughput, raising the possibility of measuring different tissues of the same individual plant, or for screening multiple plants. An additional advantage of HPTLC was that phosphor plate imaging of radioactivity had a much higher sensitivity and broader range of sensitivity than radio-HPLC detection, allowing measurement of (11)C partitioning to starch, which was previously not possible. Because of the high specific activity of (11)C and high sensitivity of detection, our method may have additional applications in the study of rapid metabolic responses to environmental changes that occur on a time scale of minutes. The use of this method in tandem with other (11)C assays for transport dynamics and whole-plant partitioning makes a powerful combination of tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and whole-plant transport as integrated processes.

  2. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  3. Tracers development for the PET study of nicotinic receptors: [11C]-mecamylamine and [11C]-SIB 1553A. Tritium and carbon-11 radiolabelling of a serine proteinase inhibitor: the t-PAstop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrio, F.

    2002-12-01

    In order to develop radiotracers for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we labelled both the mecamylamine and SIB-1553A with carbon-11 to study the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). The radiosynthesis of [ 11 C]-t-PA stop and the labelling with tritium of one analogue were realized for cerebral ischemia PET studies. The [ 11 C]-mecamylamine, a non-competitive and non-selective nAChRs antagonist was synthesized in 45 min via a N-[ 11 C]-methylation reaction. In the rat brain, the ex vivo studies showed no radio-metabolite 45 min after the injection of [ 11 C]-mecamylamine. The uptake kinetics in the rat brain or in vivo by PET in the anesthetized baboon or in the conscious monkey, reached a plateau around 45-50 min after injection. However, the saturation or displacement experiments did not permit to exhibit nor a significant difference of labelling between the different cerebral regions nor a specific uptake. In consequence, the [ 11 C]-mecamylamine was not an appropriate radioligand for nAChRs PET study. The labelling of [ 11 C]-SIB 1553A, a selective agonist for the nicotinic β4 subunit, required the synthesis in 5 steps (56% overall yield) of precursor for the incorporation of carbon-11. The radiosynthesis was performed in 36 min by a N-[ 11 C]-methylation reaction (yield: 75%). The [ 11 C]-t-PA stop was obtained from [ 11 C]-KCN with yields from 80 to 90%. For the first time with carbon-11, the formation of an amidine group was realized from a nitrile group. The labelling by isotopic exchange of hydrogen by tritium of the t-PA stop did not permit to obtain the [ 3 H]-t-PA stop but a tritiated analogue. This compound will be used to study its vectorization by micro-encapsulation. (author)

  4. Synthesis of n. c. a. PET-radiotracers with carbon-11. Zur Synthese traegerarme PET-Radiotracer mit Kohlenstoff-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirbel, A.

    1998-11-01

    Carbon-11 offers the unique possibility of authentic labelling of molecules as radioindicators for non invasive and quantitative determination of physiological functions via positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to synthesize of different n.c.a. [sup 11]C-labelled pharmaceuticals for in vivo distribution studies with PET. For the determination of the pharmacokinetics of [1-[sup 11]C]acetate in porcine myocardium during prolonged ischemia, n.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetate was synthesized via carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide with in target produced n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 68 [+-] 7%. The fast (18 min) and reliable radiosynthesis allowed for repeated tracer administration at short intervals (<20 min). In order to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin[sup R]c) in humans, [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid, acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid and [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid were prepared. N.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized via the reaction of [1-[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with salicylic acid salts. The use of the silver salt proved to be superior to the sodium salt and resulted in radiochemical yields of 32 [+-] 5%. Base-line (clean) separation of the labelled product was achieved using radio-HPLC. With regard to the preparation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid, several protected and unprotected phenol derivates were metallated and subsequently carboxylated using n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2]. Best results (87 [+-] 3% RCY) could be achieved with 2-(methoxymethoxy)-phenylmagnesium iodide as a precursor and subsequent quantitative cleavage of the MOM-group. Acetylation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid to acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid was performed using acetylchloride in CH[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield of 65 [+-] 4%. (orig.)

  5. Development of rapid multistep carbon-11 radiosynthesis of the myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 to assess brain exposure by PET microdosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnström, Peter; Bergman, Linda; Varnäs, Katarina; Malmquist, Jonas; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 has been selected as a candidate drug currently being developed to delay progression in patients with neurodegenerative brain disorders. Part of the decision tree for translation of AZD3241 into clinical studies included the need for assessment of brain exposure in non-human primates by PET microdosing. For that purpose a rapid multistep method for 11 C-labeling of AZD3241 was developed. Methods: AZD3241 was labeled in the thio-carbonyl position starting from [ 11 C]potassium cyanide in a 4-step procedure using microwave assisted heating. In the first step [ 11 C]potassium cyanide was converted to [ 11 C]potassium thiocyanate followed by reaction with benzoyl chloride to yield benzoyl [ 11 C]isothiocyanate. The benzoyl [ 11 C]isothiocyanate was subsequently reacted with the precursor ethyl 3-(2-isopropoxyethylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and the formed intermediate underwent a base catalyzed cyclization to obtain [ 11 C]AZD3241 in the final step. To assess [ 11 C]AZD3241 brain exposure PET measurements were performed in three cynomolgus monkeys. Results: [ 11 C]AZD3241 was produced in good and reproducible radiochemical yield 710 ± 294 MBq (mean ± SD, n = 7). Total time of synthesis was 60 min from end of bombardment. The specific radioactivity was 9 ± 4 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity was > 98%. Following iv administration of [ 11 C]AZD3241 there was a rapid presence of radioactivity in brain in each of the three monkeys. The distribution of [ 11 C]AZD3241 to brain was fast and a C max of 1.9 to 2.6% of the injected radioactivity was observed within 1.5 min. [ 11 C]AZD3241 was homogeneously distributed in brain. Conclusion: The MPO inhibitor AZD3241 was successfully labeled with carbon-11 in a challenging 4-step procedure in good radiochemical yield allowing PET microdosing studies in cynomolgus monkey. [ 11 C]AZD3241 rapidly entered brain and confirmed adequate brain exposure to support translation

  6. Carbon-11 and radioiodinated derivatives of lysergic acid diethylamide: Ligands for the study of serotonin S2 receptors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, J.R.; Hartig, P.R.; Wong, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    2-[ 125 1]-LSD binds selectively and with high affinity to serotonin S2 receptors in vitro. In the present study, the authors prepared 2-[ 123 1]-LSD as well as a carbon-11 labeled analog. They also characterized the in vivo binding of these tracers to receptor sites in mouse brain to assess their potential for tomographic imaging of S2 receptors in man. The temporal distribution of 2-[ 125 1]-LSD paralleled the density of S2 receptors. Regional selectivity was maximal after 15 minutes when tissue to cerebellum ratios were: frontal cortex (2.6), olfactory tubercles (2.4), striatum (2.3), and cortex (2.0). Preinjection of ketanserin, a potent S2 antagonist, inhibited binding. 2-[ 123 1]-LSD, prepared in 20% yield from LSD and electrophilic I-123, gave similar results in vivo and may be useful for SPECT studies. The authors then synthesized N1-([ 11 C]-Me)-2-Br-LSD ( 11 C-MBL) from [ 11 C]-methyl iodide and 2-Br-LSD for PET imaging trials. 11 C-MBL was isolated by HPLC in high chemical and radiochemical purity within 30 minutes from E.O.B. The average radiochemical yield was 20% and the specific activity was determined by U.V. spectroscopy to be up to 1300Ci/mMol (E.O.S.). 11C-MBL showed greater regional selectivity in vivo in mouse brain than 2-[ 125 1]-LSD. After 30 minutes, peak tissue to cerebellum ratios were: frontal cortex (5.4), olfactory tubercles (4.2), striatum (3.0), and cortex (2.8). Preinjection of ketanserin markedly inhibited 11 C-MBL binding. 11 C-MBL is a promising candidate for PET studies of S2 receptors

  7. Carbon-11 labeled papaverine as a PET tracer for imaging PDE10A: radiosynthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Zhude [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: tuz@mir.wustl.edu; Xu Jinbin; Jones, Lynne A.; Li Shihong; Mach, Robert H. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Papaverine, 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A with IC{sub 50} values of 36 nM for PDE10A, 1,300 nM for PDE3A and 320 nM for PDE4D, has served as a useful pharmaceutical tool to study the physiological role of PDE10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]papaverine and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]papaverine as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of papaverine with {sup 11}C was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. [{sup 11}C]papaverine was obtained with {approx}70% radiochemical yield and a specific activity >10 Ci/{mu}mol. In vitro autoradiography studies of rat and monkey brain sections revealed selective binding of [{sup 11}C]papaverine to PDE10A enriched regions: the striatum of rat brain and the caudate and putamen of rhesus monkey brain. The biodistribution of [{sup 11}C]papaverine in rats at 5 min demonstrated an initially higher accumulation in striatum than in other brain regions, however the washout was rapid. MicroPET imaging studies in rhesus macaques similarly displayed initial specific uptake in the striatum with very rapid clearance of [{sup 11}C]papaverine from brain. Our initial evaluation suggests that despite papaverine's utility for in vitro studies and as a pharmaceutical tool, [{sup 11}C]papaverine is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Analogs of papaverine having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.

  8. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer E-mail: christer.halldin@neuro.ks.se; Dolle, Frederic; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Olsson, Hans; Lundkvist, Per Karlsson; Hall, Haakan; Sandell, Johan; Vaufrey, Camilla; Loc' h, Christian; Franzoise; Crouzel, Christian; Maziere, Bernard; Farde, Lars

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride {l_brace}(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide= {r_brace} binds with a picomolar affinity (K{sub i}=24 pM) to the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/{mu}mol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [{sup 11}C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 11}C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]epidepride. The availability of [{sup 11}C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with

  9. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  10. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S

    2011-01-01

    Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acu...

  11. Role of carbon-11 choline PET/CT in the management of uterine carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sawada, Morio; Arai, Yasuaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Inoue, Tomio; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Terauchi, Takashi; Kano, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the role of carbon-11 choline ( 11 C-choline) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the management of uterine carcinoma. Twenty-two patients who underwent 11 C-choline PET/CT and pelvic MRI were evaluated retrospectively. The images were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and a nuclear medicine specialist who were unaware of any clinical information, and a consensus was reached. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was evaluated for staging. The reference standard consisted of histological examination (n=17) and follow-up conventional CT (n=5). In five patients with cervical carcinoma, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before and after treatment that consisted of cisplatin infusion and subsequent radiotherapy. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was compared with unidimensional and volumetric measurements that were made on magnetic resonance images (MRI) before and after treatment. Based on PET/CT interpretations, the reviewers correctly classified tumor (T) stage in 8 patients (47%), nodes (N) stage in 21 patients (96%), metastasis (M) stage in 20 patients (91%), and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage in 15 patients (88%). Tumor size, volume, and SUV decreased after treatment in five patients with cervical carcinoma. Using the Pearson correlation test, a significant correlation was found between the reduction rate of SUV and reduction rate of tumor volume. 11 C-choline PET/CT is an accurate means for the management of patients with uterine carcinoma. The combination of 11 C-choline PET/CT and MRI increases the accuracy of staging in patients with uterine carcinoma. (author)

  12. Reduced myocardial carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine retention is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, M.; Ukkonen, H. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Malminiemi, K. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital (Finland); Saraste, M. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Naagren, K.; Lehikoinen, P. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Voipio-Pulkki, L.-M. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system are known to be of prognostic significance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cardiac autonomic innervation in CHF has not been explored previously. We retrospectively studied the survival data of 46 NYHA class II-III CHF patients (mean LVEF 35%{+-}8%) who had undergone carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine ({sup 11}C-HED) studies at the Turku PET Centre between August 1992 and March 1996. The origin of CHF was dilated cardiomyopathy in 13 of the 46 patients and coronary artery disease with at least one prior myocardial infarction in the remaining 33. Data on causes of death and heart transplantation were collected, and the statistically significant predictors of prognosis were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. During the mean follow-up period of 55{+-}19 months, 11 deaths occurred and two patients underwent heart transplantation successfully. Eleven end-points were classified as cardiac (nine sudden cardiac deaths and two deaths due to progressive heart failure) and two as non-cardiac. When divided into two groups based on the median of {sup 11}C-HED retention (mean 0.184{+-}0.061, median 0.183), eight end-points (death or cardiac transplantation) were reached in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention below the median and three in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention above the median (P<0.02). In proportional hazards regression analysis, only peak oxygen uptake (peak VO{sub 2}), left ventricular end-diastolic volume and HED retention were found to be statistically significant. It is concluded that {sup 11}C-HED PET provides independent prognostic information in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  13. Reduced myocardial carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine retention is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietilae, M.; Ukkonen, H.; Malminiemi, K.; Saraste, M.; Naagren, K.; Lehikoinen, P.; Voipio-Pulkki, L.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system are known to be of prognostic significance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cardiac autonomic innervation in CHF has not been explored previously. We retrospectively studied the survival data of 46 NYHA class II-III CHF patients (mean LVEF 35%±8%) who had undergone carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine ( 11 C-HED) studies at the Turku PET Centre between August 1992 and March 1996. The origin of CHF was dilated cardiomyopathy in 13 of the 46 patients and coronary artery disease with at least one prior myocardial infarction in the remaining 33. Data on causes of death and heart transplantation were collected, and the statistically significant predictors of prognosis were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. During the mean follow-up period of 55±19 months, 11 deaths occurred and two patients underwent heart transplantation successfully. Eleven end-points were classified as cardiac (nine sudden cardiac deaths and two deaths due to progressive heart failure) and two as non-cardiac. When divided into two groups based on the median of 11 C-HED retention (mean 0.184±0.061, median 0.183), eight end-points (death or cardiac transplantation) were reached in the group with 11 C-HED retention below the median and three in the group with 11 C-HED retention above the median (P 2 ), left ventricular end-diastolic volume and HED retention were found to be statistically significant. It is concluded that 11 C-HED PET provides independent prognostic information in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  14. Clinical application of dynamic lung imaging by the single breath measurement with carbon-11-labeled CO/sub 2/, CO and nitrogen-13-labeled N/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Rikitake, T; Hasegawa, S [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsumoto, T; Tateno, Y

    1979-09-01

    The single breath measurement with /sup 11/CO/sub 2/, /sup 11/CO and /sup 13/N-N composed of inhalation system and a coincidence positron camera interfaced with an on-line computer system has been used to evaluated regional pulmonary function in two normal volunteers and four patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In serial images of normal subjects after single inhalation of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/, the appearance time of the heart was within about 10 - 20 seconds and the radioactivity at heart area remained relatively high compared with lung fields. However in some patients with COPD, the heart appearance time was delayed and the hypo-ventilated lung area became gradually hot during the wash-out phase. The heart appearance time after an inspiration of /sup 11/CO was within 10 - 20 seconds in normal subject. In contrast, the appearance time was remarkably prolonged in the patients with disturbance of diffusion capacity. Immediately after single breath of /sup 13/N-N in the patient with COPD the well ventilated lung area was revealed as a region of high radioactivity and the distribution of the slow space was showed in the late phase of wash out. These findings should have patho-physiological diagnostic usefulness, especially for the patients with COPD and fibrosing lung disease.

  15. Carbon-11 choline or FDG-PET for staging of oesophageal cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, P.L.; Que, T.H.; Vaalburg, W.; Pruim, J.; Elsinga, P.; Plukker, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using carbon-11 choline (CHOL) positron emission tomography (PET) for the staging of oesophageal cancer, in comparison with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, using histopathological findings as the gold standard. Eighteen patients were studied: 16 patients with cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction and two with in situ carcinoma/high-grade dysplasia. PET imaging was performed 5 min (CHOL) or 90 min (FDG) after injection of 370 MBq of the tracer. PET images were analysed by two independent and blinded physicians using visual and standardised uptake value (SUV) analysis. PET results were compared with surgical and histopathological findings. FDG-PET was able to detect all (100%) of the 16 malignant primary lesions, while CHOL-PET detected 73%. In situ carcinoma (n=1) and high-grade dysplasia (n=1) were not visualised with either tracer. Diffuse uptake of the tracers was noted in areas of Barrett's oesophagitis. Twelve patients had locoregional metastases (N1) that were not detected with either FDG or CHOL. Six patients had additional distant nodal (M1a) metastases; four of six (66%) were visualised by FDG, and three of five (60%) by CHOL-PET. On a lesion basis, FDG-PET detected 10/12 non-regional metastases (sensitivity 83%), while CHOL-PET detected 5/12 (sensitivity 42%). Haematogenous distant metastases (M1b) were positive on FDG-PET in three of four patients, and on CHOL-PET in two of four. SUV values were significantly higher for FDG (FDG 6.6±3.5, CHOL 5.5±2.5, P=0.04). CHOL-PET is able to visualise oesophageal carcinoma and its metastases, but appears to be inferior to FDG-PET. Presumably this is the result of lower tumoural uptake and considerable non-specific uptake of CHOL in liver, stomach wall, pancreas and small intestine. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. (orig.)

  16. Carbon-11 choline or FDG-PET for staging of oesophageal cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, P.L.; Que, T.H.; Vaalburg, W.; Pruim, J.; Elsinga, P. [PET Centre, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Plukker, J.T. [Dept. of Surgical Oncology, Groningen University Hospital (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using carbon-11 choline (CHOL) positron emission tomography (PET) for the staging of oesophageal cancer, in comparison with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, using histopathological findings as the gold standard. Eighteen patients were studied: 16 patients with cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction and two with in situ carcinoma/high-grade dysplasia. PET imaging was performed 5 min (CHOL) or 90 min (FDG) after injection of 370 MBq of the tracer. PET images were analysed by two independent and blinded physicians using visual and standardised uptake value (SUV) analysis. PET results were compared with surgical and histopathological findings. FDG-PET was able to detect all (100%) of the 16 malignant primary lesions, while CHOL-PET detected 73%. In situ carcinoma (n=1) and high-grade dysplasia (n=1) were not visualised with either tracer. Diffuse uptake of the tracers was noted in areas of Barrett's oesophagitis. Twelve patients had locoregional metastases (N1) that were not detected with either FDG or CHOL. Six patients had additional distant nodal (M1a) metastases; four of six (66%) were visualised by FDG, and three of five (60%) by CHOL-PET. On a lesion basis, FDG-PET detected 10/12 non-regional metastases (sensitivity 83%), while CHOL-PET detected 5/12 (sensitivity 42%). Haematogenous distant metastases (M1b) were positive on FDG-PET in three of four patients, and on CHOL-PET in two of four. SUV values were significantly higher for FDG (FDG 6.6{+-}3.5, CHOL 5.5{+-}2.5, P=0.04). CHOL-PET is able to visualise oesophageal carcinoma and its metastases, but appears to be inferior to FDG-PET. Presumably this is the result of lower tumoural uptake and considerable non-specific uptake of CHOL in liver, stomach wall, pancreas and small intestine. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine: A false transmitter agent for heart neuronal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Haka, M.S.; Van Dort, M.E.; Jewett, D.M.; Gildersleeve, D.L.; Schwaiger, M.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is a new radiotracer developed for mapping the sympathetic nerves of the heart. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is synthesized by direct N-methylation of metaraminol with [ 11 C]methyl iodide in dimethyl formamide/dimethyl sulfoxide and purified by semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Total synthesis time is 45 min from end-of-bombardment. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is produced in 40%-50% corrected radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 900 Ci/mmol. Routine radiochemical and chemical purity are 95% and 98%, respectively. Biodistribution studies in rats show high myocardial uptake. Pretreatment with desipramine, a drug known to selectively block neuronal uptake, results in a 92% decrease in tracer accumulation in the myocardium. Metabolic studies in guinea pigs show less than 5% metabolites in heart tissue 30 min after intravenous injection suggesting that [ 11 C]meta-hydroxyephedrine is suitable for kinetic modeling. These preliminary results support this new tracer as a clinical agent for neuronal imaging of the heart

  18. A combined simple bubbling method with high performance liquid chromatography purification strategy, higher radiochemical yield and purity and faster preparation of carbon-11-raclopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huacheng; Ning, Yanli; Zhang, Bucheng; Lou, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-11-raclopride (¹¹C-R) is a positron-emitting radiotracer successfully used for the study of cognitive control and widely applied in PET imaging. A simple automated preparation of ¹¹C-R by using the reaction of carbon-(11)-methyl triflate (¹¹C-MeOTF) or ¹¹C-methyl iodide (¹¹C-MeI) with demethylraclopride is described. Specifically we used a simple setup applied an additional "U" reaction vessel for ¹¹C-MeOTf compared with ¹¹C-MeI and assessed the influence of several solvents and of the amount of the percussor for ¹¹C-methylation of demethylraclopride by the bubbling method. The reversal of retention order between product and its precursor has been achieved for ¹¹C-R, enabling collection of the purified ¹¹C-R by using the HPLC column after shorter retention time. By the improved radiosynthesis and purification strategy, ¹¹C-R could be prepared with higher radiochemical yield than that of the previous studies. The yield for ¹¹C-MeOTf was 76% and for ¹¹C-CH3I >26% and with better radiochemical purity (>99% based on both ¹¹C-MeOTf and ¹¹C-MeI) as compared to the previously obtained purity of ¹¹C-R using HPLC method with acetonitrile as a part of mobile phase. Furthermore, by using ethanol as the organic modifier, residual solvent analysis prior to human injection could be avoided and ¹¹C-R could be injected directly following simple dilution and sterile filtration. Improved radiosynthesis and HPLC purification in combination with ethanol containing eluent, extremely shortened the time for preparation of ¹¹C-R, gave a higher radiochemical yield and purity for ¹¹C-R and can be used for multiple and faster synthesis of ¹¹C-R and probably for other ¹¹C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals.

  19. Preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 sulfonamide derivatives for in vivo radiolabeling of erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gheysens, Olivier; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Chekol, Rufael; Dresselaers, Tom; Celen, Sofie; Koole, Michel; Dauwe, Dieter; Cleynhens, Bernard J; Claus, Piet; Janssens, Stefan; Verbruggen, Alfons M; Nuyts, Johan; Himmelreich, Uwe; Bormans, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, few PET tracers for in vivo labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) are available. In this study, we report the radiosynthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 11C and 18F sulfonamide derivatives targeting carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), a metallo-enzyme expressed in RBCs, as potential blood pool tracers. A proof-of-concept in vivo imaging study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility to assess cardiac function and volumes using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated positron ...

  20. The potential of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry: illustration through the development of positron emission tomography radioligands targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damont, Annelaure; Roeda, Dirk; Dolle, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The TSPO (translocator protein), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is up-regulated in the brain of subjects suffering from neuro-degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Moreover, this overexpression has been proved to be linked to micro-glia activation making thus the TSPO a marker of choice of neuro-inflammatory processes and therefore a potential target for the development of radioligands for positron emission tomography imaging. The discovery of selective TSPO ligands and their labelling with the short-lived positron-emitter isotopes carbon-11 and fluorine-18 emerged in the mid-1980's with the preparation of the 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [ 11 C]PK11195. To date, an impressive number of promising compounds - [ 11 C]PK11195-challengers - have been developed; some radioligands - for example, [ 11 C]PBR28, [ 11 C]DPA-713, [ 18 F]FEDAA1106 and [ 18 F]DPA-714 - are currently used in clinical trials. As illustrated in this review, the methodologies applied for the preparation of these compounds remain mainly [ 11 C]methylations using [ 11 C]MeI or [ 11 C]MeOTf and SN2- type nucleophilic aliphatic [ 18 F]fluorinations - two processes illustrating the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions that involves these two short-lived radioisotopes - but alternative processes, such as [ 11 C]carbonylations using [ 11 C]CO and [ 11 C]COCl 2 as well as SNAr-type nucleophilic [ 18 F]fluorinations, have also been reported and as such, reviewed herein. (authors)

  1. Clinical evaluation of carbon-11-phenylephrine: MAO-sensitive marker of cardiac sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, D M; Corbett, J R; del Rosario, R B; Gildersleeve, D L; Chiao, P C; Schwaiger, M; Wieland, D M

    1996-12-01

    The sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine recently has been labeled with 11C for use in PET studies of cardiac sympathetic innervation. Previous reports using isolated perfused rat heart models indicate that phenylephrine is metabolized by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO). This report compares the imaging characteristics, neuronal selectivity and kinetics of (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) to the structurally similar but MAO-resistant analog (-)-[11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED), an established heart neuronal marker. Fourteen healthy volunteers were studied with PET and PHEN. Ten had paired studies with HED; four of the 10 were scanned a second time with each tracer after oral administration of desipramine, a selective neuronal transport blocker. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were determined from venous blood samples taken during the PET study. Myocardial retention indices for both tracers were calculated. No hemodynamic or electrocardiographic effects were observed with either tracer. PHEN showed reduced myocardial retention at 50 min compared to HED; however, image quality and uniformity of distribution were comparable. PHEN cleared from myocardium with a mean half-time of 59 +/- 5 min, while myocardial levels of HED remained constant. PHEN metabolites appeared in the blood approximately three times faster than HED metabolites. Desipramine pretreatment markedly reduced (> 60%) myocardial retention of both PHEN and HED. PHEN provides PET images of human heart comparable in quality and uniformity to HED. Like HED, PHEN localizes in the sympathetic nerves of the heart. However, the more rapid efflux of PHEN, that is likely mediated by MAO, may provide information on the functional status of cardiac sympathetic neurons unobtainable with HED.

  2. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  3. Biodistribution of a positron-emitting suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase, carbon-11 pargyline, in mice and a rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, K.; Ido, T.; Yanai, K.; Kawashima, K.; Miura, Y.; Monma, M.; Watanuki, S.; Takahashi, T.; Iwata, R.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon-11 ( 11 C) pargyline, which is a suicide inactivator of Type B monoamine oxidase (MAO), was synthesized by the reaction of N-demethylpargyline with 11 CH 3 l. Biodistribution was investigated in mice, and positron tomographic images of the heart and lung in a rabbit were obtained. The distribution of 11 C after administration of [ 11 C]pargyline was measured in several organs and blood at various time intervals. After 30 min its concentrations in the organs were constant. Subcellular distribution studies in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney showed that 59-70% of the 11 C became acid-insoluble and 9-33% was present in the crude mitochondrial fraction at 60 min after injection. The uptakes of the 11 C in each organ except for the kidney and spleen seemed to correlate with the in vitro enzymatic activity of Type B MAO. At high loading dose a nonspecific uptake was observed

  4. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S

    2000-01-01

    alternating with 5 minutes of reperfusion. Before and after repetitive coronary occlusions, oxygen 15 water/oxygen 15 carbon monoxide (blood flow), and 11C-acetate (oxygen consumption) PET imaging were performed. Left ventricular regional systolic wall thickening was measured with sonomicrometry. Forty......BACKGROUND: Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short......-five minutes after the ischemic episodes, systolic ventricular wall thickening was decreased by 90%, whereas myocardial blood flow was reduced by 21% compared with baseline values (P consumption was unaltered compared with the baseline level...

  5. In vivo detection of cranial dopaminergic processes: studies with L-1-C-11-Dopa and C-11-labelled ADTN derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, J.F.v.d.; Kuilman, T.; Molen, H.D.v.d.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wiegman, T.; Korf, J.; Vaalburg, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this article, probably the first in literature, some results are presented of in vivo studies of carbon-11-labelled dopamine agonists in cats and dogs with positron emission tomography. Recently a method for the separation of D- and L-dopa enantiomers from the DL-dopa mixture was developed. These three compounds were injected intravenously and with PET cold spots in the striatium of dog's brains could be obtained, independently of pretreatment with carbidopa. The synthesis of carbon-11-labelled ADTN derivatives and their uses is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Tracers development for the PET study of nicotinic receptors: [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine and [{sup 11}C]-SIB 1553A. Tritium and carbon-11 radiolabelling of a serine proteinase inhibitor: the t-PA{sub stop}; Developpement de traceurs pour l'etude des recepteurs nicotiniques par TEP: la [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine et le [{sup 11}C]SIB 1553A. Radiomarquages par le tritium et le carbone-11 d'un inhibiteur d'une serine protease: le t-PA{sub stop}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrio, F.

    2002-12-15

    In order to develop radiotracers for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we labelled both the mecamylamine and SIB-1553A with carbon-11 to study the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). The radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]-t-PA{sub stop} and the labelling with tritium of one analogue were realized for cerebral ischemia PET studies. The [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine, a non-competitive and non-selective nAChRs antagonist was synthesized in 45 min via a N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation reaction. In the rat brain, the ex vivo studies showed no radio-metabolite 45 min after the injection of [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine. The uptake kinetics in the rat brain or in vivo by PET in the anesthetized baboon or in the conscious monkey, reached a plateau around 45-50 min after injection. However, the saturation or displacement experiments did not permit to exhibit nor a significant difference of labelling between the different cerebral regions nor a specific uptake. In consequence, the [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine was not an appropriate radioligand for nAChRs PET study. The labelling of [{sup 11}C]-SIB 1553A, a selective agonist for the nicotinic {beta}4 subunit, required the synthesis in 5 steps (56% overall yield) of precursor for the incorporation of carbon-11. The radiosynthesis was performed in 36 min by a N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation reaction (yield: 75%). The [{sup 11}C]-t-PA{sub stop} was obtained from [{sup 11}C]-KCN with yields from 80 to 90%. For the first time with carbon-11, the formation of an amidine group was realized from a nitrile group. The labelling by isotopic exchange of hydrogen by tritium of the t-PA{sub stop} did not permit to obtain the [{sup 3}H]-t-PA{sub stop} but a tritiated analogue. This compound will be used to study its vectorization by micro-encapsulation. (author)

  7. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  9. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  10. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  11. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  12. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  13. 11C-labelling of ohmefentanyl: An agonist for μ-opiate receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouzel, C.; Prenant, C.; Comar, D.

    1990-01-01

    Ohmefentanyl: cis-N-[1-(beta-hydroxy-beta-phenylethyl)-3-methyl-4-piperydyl]-N-phenylpropionamide, is a synthetic narcotic analgesic agent with an analgesic activity 28 times more potent than that of fentanyl and 6,300 times more than that of morphine. The authors have developed a method for labelling of this compound with carbon-11 for the purpose of visualizing 'in vivo' the μ receptors by PET

  14. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  15. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Butler, T.A.; Callahan, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  16. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  17. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  18. Automated carbon-11 radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.C.; Dowsett, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Hammersmith methylation systems are controlled by a TOSHIBA EX40+ programmable controller with an EX40E expansion unit. Programmable controllers were selected for reliability which at present is very good. (author) 7 figs

  19. Noninvasive determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption and efficiency in normal humans by carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porenta, G.; Cherry, S.; Czernin, J.; Brunken, R.; Kuhle, W.; Hashimoto, T.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to measure noninvasively and near simultaneously myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and contractile function and (2) to analyze myocardial energy expenditure and efficiency at rest and during dobutamine stress in normal humans. Dynamic and gated carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in 11 normal subjects. The initial uptake of 11 C-acetate was measured to estimate myocardial blood flow. Oxygen consumption was derived from the monoexponential slope of the 11 C-clearance curve recorded during myocardial washout. ECG-gated systolic and diastolic images were acquired during the peak myocardial 11 C activity to measure left ventricular radius, myocardial wall thickness, and long axis length. Myocardial oxygen consumption and parameters of cardiac geometry were used to determine myocardial energetics and cardiac efficiency by tension-area area analysis. Myocardial blood flow averaged 0.8±0.06 ml min -1 g -1 at rest and 1.48±0.15 ml min -1 g -1 during dobutamine stress. Oxygen delivery and consumption were 151±13 and 88±15 μl O 2 min -1 g -1 at rest and increased to 291±31 and 216±31 μl O 2 min -1 g -1 , respectively, during pharmacological stress (P 11 C acetate imaging provides the unique capability to study noninvasively determinants of myocardial energy delivery, expenditure, and efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Selectivity in catalytic alkyne cyclotrimerization over chromium(VI): kinetic evaluation using the characteristics of radioactive carbon-11 decay for nondisruptive ultrasensitive detection of adsorbed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Wolf, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The application of carbon-11 to kinetic measurements of molecular sorption is reported using positron annihilation surface detection (PASD). The technique is nondisruptive to dynamic processes and has the sensitivity to detect 10 -8 of a monolayer. In studies of alkyne cyclomerization on silica-alumina-supported Cr(VI), a high selectivity toward p-xylene formation was observed when acetylene-propyne mixtures were cotrimerized at monolayer total alkyne coverages. This selectivity was enhanced to 84% p-xylene, as the partial acetylene coverage was reduced to 1.0% of a monolayer. Competitive sorption studies utilized PASD to measure the surface concentration of [ 11 C]-acetylene coupled with macroscopic sorption measurements of propyne. Surface displacement of sorbed acetylene by propyne was observed with subsequent readsorption. The kinetics of this displacement were evaluated by using PASD in pulse-flow studies with various acetylene and propyne coverages and were modeled to a calculation of the isomeric xylene distribution. A near-identical fit was obtained between experimental and modeled results. This strongly suggested that the observed selectivity for p-xylene formation was due to sorbate interactions resulting in a specific molecular ordering of the alkyne mixture on the catalyst surface

  1. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  2. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  3. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  4. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  5. Minicyclotron-based technology for the production of positron-emitting labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.; Satyamurthy, N.; Padgett, H.C.; MacDonald, N.S.; Phelps, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of short-lived positron emitters such as carbon 11, fluorine 18, nitrogen 13, and oxygen 15, together with positron-emission tomography (PET) for probing the dynamics of physiological and biochemical processes in the normal and diseased states in man is presently an active area of research. One of the pivotal elements for the continued growth and success of PET is the routine delivery of the desired positron emitting labelled compounds. To date, the cyclotron remains the accelerator of choice for production of medically useful radionuclides. The development of the technology to bring the use of cyclotrons to a clinical setting is discussed

  6. Minicyclotron-based technology for the production of positron-emitting labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.; Satyamurthy, N.; Padgett, H.C.; MacDonald, N.S.; Phelps, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of short-lived positron emitters such as carbon 11, fluorine 18, nitrogen 13, and oxygen 15, together with positron-emission tomography (PET) for probing the dynamics of physiological and biochemical processes in the normal and diseased states in man is presently an active area of research. One of the pivotal elements for the continued growth and success of PET is the routine delivery of the desired positron emitting labelled compounds. To date, the cyclotron remains the accelerator of choice for production of medically useful radionuclides. The development of the technology to bring the use of cyclotrons to a clinical setting is discussed. (ACR)

  7. Carbon-11 pb-12: an attempt to visualize the dopamine d{sub 4} receptor in the primate brain with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver E-mail: oliver.langer@psyk.ks.se; Halldin, Christer; Chou Yuanhwa; Sandell, Johan; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Naagren, Kjell; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco; Leopoldo, Marcello; Farde, Lars

    2000-11-01

    The dopamine D{sub 4} receptor (D{sub 4}R) is expressed in low density in various extrastriatal brain regions. This receptor subtype is discussed in relation to the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia but no selective positron emission tomography (PET) ligand is available to date to study the distribution in vivo. The arylpiperazine derivative N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (PB-12) is a novel, high-affinity ( K{sub i}=0.040 nM) and selective D{sub 4}R ligand. We radiolabeled PB-12 with carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} 20.4 min) by O-methylation of the corresponding desmethyl analogue N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-hydroxybenzamide (LM-190) with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Derivative LM-190 was prepared by condensing 3-hydroxybenzoic acid with the appropriate amine. For the radiolabeling, the incorporation yield was >90% and the total synthesis time including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification was about 35 min. The specific radioactivity of [{sup 11}C]PB-12 at time of injection was 67-118 GBq{center_dot}{mu}mol{sup -1}. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey showed a high uptake and widespread distribution of radioactivity in the brain, including the neocortex and thalamus. About 40% of total radioactivity in plasma represented unchanged radioligand at 60 min after injection as determined by HPLC. Pretreatment with the D{sub 4}R ligand 3-{l_brace}[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl{r_brace}-1H-pyrollo[2,3-b]pyridine (L-745,870) prior to radioligand injection failed to demonstrate receptor-specific binding in the monkey brain. Furthermore, the brain radioactivity distribution was left unaffected by pretreating with unlabeled PB-12. This failure to detect a D{sub 4}R-specific signal may be related to a very low density of the D{sub 4}R in primate brain, insufficient binding affinity of the radioligand, and a high background of nonspecific binding. It can be concluded from these findings that

  8. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  9. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  10. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  11. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  12. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  13. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  14. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  15. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  16. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  9. Synthesis of carbon-11-labeled 4-(phenylamino)-pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine derivatives as new potential PET tracers for imaging of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Gao, Mingzhang; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2014-08-15

    The reference standards methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(methoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate (10a), methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(ethoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate (10b) and corresponding precursors 4-(2-methyl-5-(methoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylic acid (11a), methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(ethoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylic acid (11b) were synthesized from methyl crotonate and 3-amino-4-methylbenzoic acid in multiple steps with moderate to excellent yields. The target tracer [(11)C]methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(methoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate ([(11)C]10a) and [(11)C]methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(ethoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate ([(11)C]10b) were prepared from their corresponding precursors with [(11)C]CH3OTf under basic condition through O-[(11)C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method in 50-60% radiochemical yields at end of bombardment (EOB) with 185-555 GBq/μmol specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  11. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  12. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  13. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  14. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  15. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  16. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  17. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  20. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  1. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  2. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  3. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  4. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  5. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  6. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  7. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  8. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  9. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  10. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  11. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  12. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  13. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  14. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  15. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  16. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  17. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  18. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  19. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  20. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  2. Some radiopharmaceuticals derived from carbon-eleven labelled phosgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeda, D.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with some applications of the short lived cyclotron produced radioisotope carbon-11 (half life 20.4 min.) For medical use. Both chemical manipulation of highly radioactive gamma emitting material in order to prepare suitable 11 C-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and two clinical studies are discussed. The first chapter comprises a general introduction concerning the application of the ''tracer principle'' to the short lived positron emitting radionuclides 18 F, 11 C, 13 N and 15 O in medicine. Chapter two deals with the synthesis of 11 COCl 2 . This product is a useful new 11 C-synthon with many potential applications. In chapter three the synthesis of 11 C-urea from 11 C-phosgene for medical use is described. The method uses the reaction of 11 COCl 2 with aqueous ammonia. Chapter four deals with the synthesis of 11 C-barbituric acids and 11 C-hydantoins and presents a clinical study on epilepsy, using 2- 11 C-5,5-diphenylhydantoin ( 11 C-DPH). Patients having intractable epilepsy and patients having no epilepsy were given intravenously a single dose of 11 C-DPH after which the accumulation of the radioactivity in the brain was followed by positron emission tomography. No regional concentration differences could be found near epileptic foci. There was a faint indication that there are some differences in uptake for whole brain between the two categories of patients. (Auth.)

  3. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  4. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  5. Robotic synthesis of [carbon-11]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsakov, M.V.; Kisselev, M.Y.; Solovyov, D.; Horti, A.G.; Vasilev, A.; Nilsson, L.E.; Ulin, J.

    1992-01-01

    [ 11 C]Methionine was prepared in a fully automated robotic synthesis, using the SCANDITRONIX robotic system starting from [ 11 C]I and homocysteine thiolactone. The product was purified using solid phase extraction on anionic exchange cartridges. The decay corrected yield was 60% based on CH 3 I and 16 min synthesis time. The radiochemical purity was 98-99% and the chemical impurities were: homocysteine 0.05-0.07 mg/ml, homocystine 0.005 mg/ml, 'cold' methionine 0.03-0.05 mg/ml, and homocysteine thiolactone 0.0008-0.002 mg/ml. The total procedure takes 30 min from EOB. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Carbon-11 in Bone and Lung Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W. G.; Hunter, Jr., W. W. [Ohio State University Health Center, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1969-05-15

    Radiocarbon-11 decays with 20.3-min half-life by emitting positrons with 1.0-MeV maximum energy. Two 511-keV {sup {+-}}{gamma}-photons almost always are emitted coincidentally with each disintegration, at 180 Degree-Sign to each other. This 'back-to-back' relationship makes it possible readily to locate small accumulations of {sup 11}C in vivo by opposed detectors connected by coincidence circuitry. The calculated narrow-beam half-thickness in water is more than 7 cm, to provide good penetration from deep organs, and with little scatter. Multimillicurie amounts of a mixture of {sup 11}CO and {sup 11}CO{sub 2} are generated readily in our small cyclotron when probe targets of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} are bombarded with protons, deuterons, or {sup 3}He{sup ++} ions. The {sup 11}CO is oxidized to {sup 11}CO{sub 2} by hopcalite placed in the vacuum line. Dogs with primary or metastatic bone tumours received {sup 11}CO{sub 2}, either by inhalation in a closed system, or in slightly basic solution in travenously. Scintigraphs, that were obtained within 10-20 min by means of a Nuclear-Chicago focused-collimator scanning machine, revealed significant accumulations of {sup 11}C at sites where bone erosion was demonstrable roentgenographically. Good pictures of dog lungs were obtained either with the mechanical scanner, or with our Nuclear-Chicago scintillation camera, after intravenous injection of 4-12 {mu}m diam. smoothly-rounded aggregates of SrCO{sub 3} that were formed in dextran-saline solution. These 'photon-carrier' aggregates have been made either with {sup 11}C; or with 2.8-h {sup 87m}Sr, which emits 388-keV gamma-rays. Alternatively, they might be made to 'carry' the 231-keV gamma-rays of 70-m in {sup 85m}Sr, that are advantageous for scintigraphy. The advent of Anger's positron camera, with choice of plane of prime interest, will provide opportunities to emphasize the maximum target/nontarget ratio in pictures of localized accumulations of {sup 11}C, as well as of {sup 13}N, {sup 15}O and other cyclotron-produced short-lived {beta}{sup +}-isotopes of abundant physiologically important elements. (author)

  7. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  8. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  9. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  10. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  11. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  12. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  13. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  14. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  15. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  16. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  18. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  19. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  20. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  1. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  2. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  3. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  4. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  5. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  6. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  7. Development of fluorine 18 labelled MPPF, radiopharmaceutical tracer for serotoninergic system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bars, D.; Tochon-Danguy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive method for exploration, in man and animals, of metabolism with radiopharmaceutical tracers labelled with positron emitters such as carbon 11 and fluorine 18 obtained with a cyclotron. Among the ever increasing number of tracers focussed at the CNS neurotransmission, the discovery of a new family of serotoninergic 5HT 1A antagonists (WAY 100635) has led to the first in vivo imaging of 5HT 1A receptors in man, located in cerebral structures such as cortex and hippocampus. Exploration of serotonine parthway is particulaly interesting in normal or diseased state, as this neurotransmitter is involved in the control of mood, sleep and is probably altered in psychiatric disorders. CERMEP, in collaboration with other PET centres has developped a new 5HT 1A antagonist, MPPF, labelled with fluorine 18. [ 18 F]MPPF has the advantadge of fluorine 18 labelling, with a longer half-life (110 min vs 20 min for carbon 11) and easier radiosynthesis automation. Moreover, MPPF affinity for 5HT 1A is close to serotonin itself, thus enabling displacement of MPPF by endogenous serotonin during pharmacological challenges. Automated radiosynthesis of MPPF is achieved via a classical [ 18 F]F - fluoro for nitro displacement, activated by a catalyst, on a nitro precursor prepared in four steps. A final HPLC purification ensures the production of [ 18 F]MPPF with a high purity and a high specific activity. Ex vivo autoradiographies and PET studies in animals (rat, cat) have shown the excellent specificity of MPPF for the 5HT 1A receptor. Experiments with intracerebral β probe have evidenced the displacement of [ 18 F]MPPF by endogenous serotonin after fenfluramine injection. [ 18 F]MPPF is now used in man for non-invasive PET studies of serotoninergic system. Normal volunteers matched for age and sex have been screened as a database and to compute a mathematical model of the tracer kinetic describing 5HT 1A receptor affinity and

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  9. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  10. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  12. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  13. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  14. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  3. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  4. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  5. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  6. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  7. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  8. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  9. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  10. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  11. Drug distribution in man: a positron emission tomography study after oral administration of the labelled neuroprotective drug vinpocetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer; Sandell, Johan; Farde, Lars; Sovago, Judit; Cselenyi, Zsolt; Vas, Adam; Kiss, Bela; Karpati, Egon

    2002-01-01

    Direct information on the distribution of a drug requires measurements in various tissues. Such data have until now been obtained in animals, or have indirectly been calculated from plasma measurements in humans using mathematical models. Here we suggest the use of positron emission tomography (PET) as a method to obtain direct measurements of drug distribution in the human body. The distribution in body and brain of vinpocetine, a neuroprotective drug widely used in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, was followed after oral administration. Vinpocetine was labelled with carbon-11 and radioactivity was measured by PET in stomach, liver, brain and kidney in six healthy volunteers. The radioactivity in blood and urine as well as the fractions of [ 11 C]vinpocetine and labelled metabolites in plasma were also determined. After oral administration, [ 11 C]vinpocetine appeared immediately in the stomach and within minutes in the liver and the blood. In the blood the level of radioactivity continuously increased until the end of the measurement period, whereas the fraction of the unchanged mother compound decreased. Radioactivity uptake and distribution in the brain were demonstrable from the tenth minute after the administration of the labelled drug. Brain distribution was heterogeneous, similar to the distribution previously reported after intravenous administration. These findings indicate that vinpocetine, administered orally in humans, readily enters the bloodstream from the stomach and gastrointestinal tract and, consequently, passes the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain. Radioactivity from [ 11 C]vinpocetine was also demonstrated in the kidneys and in urine, indicating that at least a part of the radioactive drug and labelled metabolites is eliminated from the body through the kidneys. This study is the first to demonstrate that PET might be a useful, direct and non-invasive tool to study the distribution and pharmacokinetics of orally

  12. Drug distribution in man: a positron emission tomography study after oral administration of the labelled neuroprotective drug vinpocetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Balázs; Halldin, Christer; Sóvágó, Judit; Sandell, Johan; Cselényi, Zsolt; Vas, Adám; Kiss, Béla; Kárpáti, Egon; Farde, Lars

    2002-08-01

    Direct information on the distribution of a drug requires measurements in various tissues. Such data have until now been obtained in animals, or have indirectly been calculated from plasma measurements in humans using mathematical models. Here we suggest the use of positron emission tomography (PET) as a method to obtain direct measurements of drug distribution in the human body. The distribution in body and brain of vinpocetine, a neuroprotective drug widely used in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, was followed after oral administration. Vinpocetine was labelled with carbon-11 and radioactivity was measured by PET in stomach, liver, brain and kidney in six healthy volunteers. The radioactivity in blood and urine as well as the fractions of [(11)C]vinpocetine and labelled metabolites in plasma were also determined. After oral administration, [(11)C]vinpocetine appeared immediately in the stomach and within minutes in the liver and the blood. In the blood the level of radioactivity continuously increased until the end of the measurement period, whereas the fraction of the unchanged mother compound decreased. Radioactivity uptake and distribution in the brain were demonstrable from the tenth minute after the administration of the labelled drug. Brain distribution was heterogeneous, similar to the distribution previously reported after intravenous administration. These findings indicate that vinpocetine, administered orally in humans, readily enters the bloodstream from the stomach and gastrointestinal tract and, consequently, passes the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain. Radioactivity from [(11)C]vinpocetine was also demonstrated in the kidneys and in urine, indicating that at least a part of the radioactive drug and labelled metabolites is eliminated from the body through the kidneys. This study is the first to demonstrate that PET might be a useful, direct and non-invasive tool to study the distribution and pharmacokinetics of orally

  13. Drug distribution in man: a positron emission tomography study after oral administration of the labelled neuroprotective drug vinpocetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyas, Balazs [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Halldin, Christer; Sandell, Johan; Farde, Lars [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Sovago, Judit; Cselenyi, Zsolt [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Vas, Adam; Kiss, Bela; Karpati, Egon [Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-08-01

    Direct information on the distribution of a drug requires measurements in various tissues. Such data have until now been obtained in animals, or have indirectly been calculated from plasma measurements in humans using mathematical models. Here we suggest the use of positron emission tomography (PET) as a method to obtain direct measurements of drug distribution in the human body. The distribution in body and brain of vinpocetine, a neuroprotective drug widely used in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, was followed after oral administration. Vinpocetine was labelled with carbon-11 and radioactivity was measured by PET in stomach, liver, brain and kidney in six healthy volunteers. The radioactivity in blood and urine as well as the fractions of [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine and labelled metabolites in plasma were also determined. After oral administration, [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine appeared immediately in the stomach and within minutes in the liver and the blood. In the blood the level of radioactivity continuously increased until the end of the measurement period, whereas the fraction of the unchanged mother compound decreased. Radioactivity uptake and distribution in the brain were demonstrable from the tenth minute after the administration of the labelled drug. Brain distribution was heterogeneous, similar to the distribution previously reported after intravenous administration. These findings indicate that vinpocetine, administered orally in humans, readily enters the bloodstream from the stomach and gastrointestinal tract and, consequently, passes the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain. Radioactivity from [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine was also demonstrated in the kidneys and in urine, indicating that at least a part of the radioactive drug and labelled metabolites is eliminated from the body through the kidneys. This study is the first to demonstrate that PET might be a useful, direct and non-invasive tool to study the distribution and

  14. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  15. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  16. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  17. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  18. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  19. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  20. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  1. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  2. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  3. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  5. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  6. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  7. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  8. Development of new radioactive labelling methods (3H and 11C) in luteizing hormone (LH) and its releasing hormone (LRF). Study of physico-chemical properties of LRF by circular dichroism and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marche, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of present knowledge on the hypothalamus-hypophysis this thesis falls into three parts. The first situates the peptide hormones studied in their biological context. Research on the radioactive labelling of hormonal peptides is dealt with in part two which includes, besides the application of already known tritiation methods to particular problems, the description of a new tritium labelling method and the use of carbon 11 for the kinetic distribution study of a hormone. Part three concerns the physico-chemical study of a hypothalamic hormone. As a contribution towards research on the hypophysary gonadotrophic function regulation, the work involved in all the above three sections was directed towards the luteinising hormone (LH) and its hypothalamic release factor (LRF). During the study of this latter the problem of peptides containing tryptophane arose and was consequently investigated [fr

  9. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  10. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  11. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  12. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  13. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  14. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  15. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  16. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  17. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  18. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  19. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  20. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  1. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  2. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  3. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  4. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  5. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-06-01

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic conversion of 11CO2 and 11CO into synthesis precursors for 11C labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    The positron emitter carbon-11 (T 1/2 =20.3 min) is an ideal radio nuclide for tracers in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study catalytic methods for the synthesis of [ 11 C]alcohols have been investigated. The formation of [ 11 C]methanol has been studied on Pd/Al 2 O 3 and Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts with respect to CO and CO 2 carrier addition to the synthesis gas. Carbon monoxide was identified as the precursor of methanol formation on the Pd/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst. In contrast on the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst methanol was formed on a reaction pathway via an adsorbed CO 2 -species. A n.c.a.-[ 11 C]methanol synthesis basing on the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst has been developed by substitution of the oxygen containing components CO and CO 2 in the synthesis gas by N 2 O. The radiochemical yield, the low selectivity of [ 11 C]methanol production and the rather slow kinetics of this process were arguments against the practical use of this process in the synthesis of 11 C-labelling agents. (orig.)

  7. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  8. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  12. Different approaches to labelling parasitoids using strontium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Wäckers, F.L.; Steindl, P.; Günther, D.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    Labelling parasitoids with trace elements is a potentially powerful technique for studying dispersal and trophic interactions in these usually small insects. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of different methods for trace element labelling of the

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  14. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  15. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  16. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  17. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.

  18. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod

    2016-01-01

    such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other

  19. Three rules suffice for good label placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Kapoor, V.; Strijk, T.

    2001-01-01

    The general label-placement problem consists in labeling a set of features (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each feature. The problem arises when annotating classical cartographical maps, diagrams, or graph drawings.

  20. A combinatorial framework for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Whitesides, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general map labeling problem consists in labeling a set of sites (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each site. A map can be a classical cartographical map, a diagram, a graph or any other figure that needs to be

  1. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issued a final rule defining “gluten-free” for food labeling, which will help consumers, especially those living with ... free” label on foods. Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling: FDA’s Regulation of “Gluten-Free” Claims Blog: A ...

  2. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  3. Predictive labeling with dependency pairs using SAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koprowski, A.; Middeldorp, A.; Pfenning, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines predictive labeling with dependency pairs and reports on its implementation. Our starting point is the method of proving termination of rewrite systems using semantic labeling with infinite models in combination with lexicographic path orders. We replace semantic labeling with

  4. On the Lucky labeling of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi, Arash; Dehghan, Ali; Mollaahmadi, Esmael

    2010-01-01

    Suppose the vertices of a graph $G$ were labeled arbitrarily by positive integers, and let $Sum(v)$ denote the sum of labels over all neighbors of vertex $v$. A labeling is lucky if the function $Sum$ is a proper coloring of $G$, that is, if we have $Sum(u) \

  5. 27 CFR 19.604 - Caution label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caution label. 19.604... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.604 Caution label... denaturer may be printed on such label, but no other extraneous matter will be permitted thereon without the...

  6. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labelling requirements. 15.19 Section 15.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.19 Labelling... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the unique...

  7. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 26.39 Section 26.39 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  8. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and...

  9. 27 CFR 19.704 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 19.704 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Samples of Spirits § 19.704 Labels. (a) On each container of spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of § 19.701, the proprietor shall affix a label showing the...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-37 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Label. 188.10-37 Section 188.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-37 Label. This term means the label required by 49 CFR part 172...

  11. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  12. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  13. Synthesis of isotopically labeled ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    In this work were synthesized ketamine isotopomers. Ketamine is used in human medicine and veterinary sectors. It has very broad spectrum of pharmacological effects: anesthetic, analgesic, hallucinogenic, bronchodilator, cardiovascular and antidepressive, which is currently in the research. At first was synthesized precursor of ketamine, N- desmethylketamine which was subsequently labeled the deuterium, tritium and carbon- 14. For the determination of purity and identity mass spectrometry and...

  14. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  15. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  16. Menakar Label Fundamentalisme Untuk Muslim

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Susilo

    2014-01-01

    This study was developed referring to the negative connotation in using the word “fundamentalism ” and its using as an individual or group label. The method used in this study were literature review using many literatures about Islam and fundamentalism in any perspectives. Based on psychology perspective, it said that fundamentalism is an individual psychological construct associated with beliefs and individual interpretation of something, such as ideology, nationality, and religion. Accordin...

  17. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  18. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  19. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, Valeria Viorica; Mihailescu, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O 4 - stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  1. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  2. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM......) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload...... encoded carrier signal and the label encoded subcarrier signal can be coupled directly without prior filtering....

  4. Protein labelling with stable isotopes: strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirsac, P.N.; Gilles, N.; Jamin, N.; Toma, F.; Gabrielsen, O.; Boulain, J.C.; Menez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A protein labelling technique with stable isotopes has been developed at the CEA: a labelled complete medium has been developed, performing as well as the Luria medium, but differing from it because it contains not only free aminated acids and peptides, but also sugars (96% of D-glucopyrannose) and labelled nucleosides. These precursors are produced from a labelled photosynthetic micro-organisms biomass, obtained with micro-algae having incorporated carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and deuterium during their culture. Labelling costs are reduced. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  5. Spin labelling of human erythrocytes with nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagalj, C.; DePaoli, T.C.P.; Hager, A.A.; Palaoro, L.A.; Rubin de Celis, E.; Farach, H.A.; Poole, C.P. jr

    1984-01-01

    Human erythrocytes were labelled with nitroxide, the spin label SYNVAR 101, under various experimantal conditions. A study was made of the influence of antireductants on the labelling efficiency and the kinetics of the radical decay during the labelling process

  6. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  7. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  8. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  9. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  10. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  12. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  13. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  14. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  15. Labeling of the spent fuel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Chagari, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the containers used to store spent fuel in an underground repository must meet federal guidelines that call for unique labels that identify the contents and processing history. Existing standards in the nuclear power industry and relevant ASME/ANSI codes have been reviewed for possible application to the spent-fuel container labeling. An Array of labeling techniques were found that include recommendations for: fonts, word spacing, color combinations, label materials and mounting methods, placement, and content. The use of bar code, optical character recognition, and RF labels were also studied to meet the requirement that the container labels be consistent with the methods used to maintain the repository records

  16. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  17. Green power: naturemade - History of a label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the history of the set of 'naturemade' labels that are used to designate power generated in facilities that use renewable energy. Electricity from hydropower, wind-power, biogas and solar energy plants that fulfil particular ecological conditions receives a special label, 'Naturemade Star'. 'Normal' hydropower can be awarded the 'Naturemade Basic' label. The development of the labels is discussed in the light of increasing liberalisation of European electricity markets and increasing sales of 'green power' by electricity utilities. The need for certification of production facilities and the founding of the label's certification authority, the 'Verein fuer umweltgerechte Elektrizitaet' (VUE), a society for the promotion of environment-friendly electricity, are discussed. Criticisms made by certain environmental protection organisations on the awarding of the 'Naturemade Basic' label to projects that in their opinion do not help protect the environment are quoted. The article is completed with an interview on the subject with Ursula Stocker from the VUE

  18. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  19. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  20. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine. (author)

  2. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  3. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1606 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Control Information Update; (2) Full corporate name and trademark of the vehicle manufactuer; (3... tuneup specifications (if changed from the original label specifications) at the applicable altitude. ...

  5. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., particularly small businesses, with firsthand working knowledge of FDA's requirements and compliance policies... Consumer Protection Act of 2004, (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and...

  6. Labelled antibiotics as tumour-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; McCready, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The published results of clinical and experimental studies of labelled bleomycins and tetracyclines are reviewed. None of the labelled antibiotics yet studied show anything approaching absolute tumour specificity. Clinical trials suggest that 57 Co-bleomycin is superior to either 111 In- or 99 Tcsup(m)-bleomycin and that it may possess some advantages over 67 Ga-citrate in respect of lower uptake in the abdomen and, possibly, lower uptakes in benign and inflammatory lesions. Radioiodine-labelled or 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled tetracyclines appear to be of little value in tumour localization. (author)

  7. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  8. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons,

  9. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  4. Tritium labelled steroids, preparation process and application to synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Process for preparing new steroids labelled with tritium in 6.7 and comprising in 3 a blocked ketonic group as ketal, thioketal or derivatives. Application of these products to the synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives [fr

  5. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Sample Labels ER29AU07.122 PROTOTYPE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.123 PROTOTYPE LABEL 2 ER29AU07.124 PROTOTYPE LABEL 3 ER29AU07.125 PROTOTYPE LABEL 4 ER29AU07.126 SAMPLE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.127 SAMPLE LABEL 2...

  6. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  7. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Pei Zhuguo; Hu Mingyang; Wang Bocheng; Zhou Xingqin

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [ 131 I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [ 131 I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [ 131 I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  8. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  9. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37 0 C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty

  10. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  11. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-04-06

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low

  12. 10 CFR 61.57 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.57 Labeling. Each package of waste must be clearly labeled to identify whether it is Class A waste, Class B waste, or Class C waste, in accordance with § 61.55. ...

  13. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 355.60 Section 355.60 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 355.60 Professional... health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  15. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... name such as polyspecific may appear in smaller type. (4) Visual inspection. When the label has been...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  17. Synthesis and application of labelled growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the investigation of the metabolism both of phytoeffectors like herbicides and plant growth regulators such compounds are needed in radioactive labelled form. The synthesis of radioactive labelled fluorodifen, nitrofen, ethephon, diphenylic acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, abscisic acid, hydroxybenzoic acids and different conjugates are described. Some examples of these compounds metabolism in plants are discussed [ru

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  20. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  1. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... foreign country equivalent, passport number, financial account number, or credit or debit card number. You..., the Commission assumes that the label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an... label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an hourly wage rate of $23.44 per hour...

  2. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  3. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of [1,2- 3 H]fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described. (author)

  4. A note on root projection and labelling*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This paper identifies a problem with a hypothesis put forward in Chomsky (2013) in relation to his labelling algorithm. Chomsky suggests that category-neutral roots do not qualify as labels and cannot project. However, I provide evidence that the derivation of particle verbs involves the projection of a ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  6. Radial contour labeling with straight leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, B.; Nöllenburg, M.; Rutter, I.

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of technical drawings as well as scientific illustrations such as medical drawings of human anatomy essentially depends on the placement of labels that describe all relevant parts of the figure. In order to not spoil or clutter the figure with text, the labels are often placed around

  7. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or advertising of the device. (d) If such voluntary action is not taken, the Commissioner may take... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES General Provisions § 895.25 Labeling. (a) If the Commissioner determines that the...

  8. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123 I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  9. Hippuran-123 I: labelling and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.; Muramoto, E.

    1992-01-01

    The o-iodo hippuric acid labelling with radioiodine is a radiopharmaceutical used with more frequently for evaluation the kidney function. Several reactive kits for labelling with 123 I are prepared. Controls of radiochemical purity and biological distribution are made. The reactive kit of hippuran is kept at 4 C during 2 years. (C.G.C.)

  10. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Design. (1) Except for size and color, the printing, inner border, and symbol on each label must be as... withstand, without deterioration or a substantial change in color, a 30-day exposure to conditions incident... shown in the appropriate section of this subpart. (d) Color. (1) The background color on each label must...

  11. Energy labelling of refrigerated display cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Energy labelling of refrigerated display cabinets is a method to quickly assess the energy efficiency of a certain cabinet compared to the market average consumptions for similar cabinets. Labelling is also a method to obtain comparable data on cabinets from different manufacturers, which has time

  12. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed

  13. 19 CFR 12.18 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 12.18 Section 12.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.18 Labels. Each...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  15. Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt

  16. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...

  17. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  18. 7 CFR 56.73 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 56.73 Section 56.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Denial of Service § 56.73 Misleading labeling. The use of the terms...

  19. Two Responses to Hastings on Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Katherine M. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two comments respond to an R. P. Hastings article on labeling of individuals with mental retardation. The first comment notes that diagnoses should not be used as labels but as identifications of disorders a person has. The second comment calls for people to come forth with synonyms for "mental retardation" that will not immediately be stigmatic.…

  20. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  1. Proposal for a New Energy Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Energy labeling is believed to have great impact on the energy efficiency of household appliances sold. Many different labeling schemes exist around the world. As far as is known, none of these facilitates the easy tightening of specifications to keep up with technological advancements. The present...

  2. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing...

  3. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the...

  4. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Esteban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3 H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF 3 -Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3 H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 70 0 C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  6. Preparation of 188Re labelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minghua; Cao Rongzhen; Li Wenxin; Sheng Rong; Yin Duanzhi; He Weiyu; Zhou Wei; Wang Yongxian

    1998-01-01

    A simple technique of directly labelling antibodies with 188 Re has been developed. The reduction of antibody disulfide groups was achieved by incubation of antibody with ascorbic acid (pH = 6.5) for an hour at room temperature and a solution of excess SnCl 2 in sodium gluconate was added to the AA-reduced antibody followed by the addition of perrhenate. Some factors that influence labelling efficiency, such as the pH of the reaction mixture, the labelling time, and the amount of antibodies and reductive agent, were studied experimentally and a better labelling method was established. The labelling yields, as determined by paper chromatography, were greater than 80%

  7. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  8. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  9. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  10. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  11. Does the Drug Facts Label for nonprescription drugs meet its design objectives? A new procedure for assessing label effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema.

  12. 99Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with 111In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The lipophilic complex, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of 111 In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike 111 In, 99 Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with 99 Tcsup(m). About 6% of 99 Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with 111 In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes. (author)

  13. Efficient Multi-Label Feature Selection Using Entropy-Based Label Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-label feature selection is designed to select a subset of features according to their importance to multiple labels. This task can be achieved by ranking the dependencies of features and selecting the features with the highest rankings. In a multi-label feature selection problem, the algorithm may be faced with a dataset containing a large number of labels. Because the computational cost of multi-label feature selection increases according to the number of labels, the algorithm may suffer from a degradation in performance when processing very large datasets. In this study, we propose an efficient multi-label feature selection method based on an information-theoretic label selection strategy. By identifying a subset of labels that significantly influence the importance of features, the proposed method efficiently outputs a feature subset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify a feature subset much faster than conventional multi-label feature selection methods for large multi-label datasets.

  14. 11C-labelling of the analgesic Tramadol and its major metabolites by selective O- and N-methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gail, R.; Coenen, H.H.; Hamacher, K.; Stoecklin, G.

    1992-01-01

    For in vivo pharmacokinetic studies with PET, the analgesic Tramadol(1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-dimethylaminomethyl-cyclohexan-1-ol) and its major O- and N-desmethylated metabolites M1 and M2 were labelled with carbon-11. Starting with the corresponding desmethyl precursors, [O-methyl- 11 C]Tramadol and racemic[N-methyl- 11 C]Tramadol were prepared by methylation with n.c.a. [ 11 C]methyl iodide in DMSO with radiochemical yields of 85 and 90%, respectively. Specific n.c.a. N-methylation of bis-desmethyl-Tramadol (M5) was achieved with 90% radiochemical yield. However, a selective O-methylation of M5 was not possible even with an excess of NaOH, and only 70% of [O-methyl- 11 C]M2 was obtained. Quaternization of Tramadol or M1 was >15 times slower than O-methylation, and was only observed in the presence of added CH 3 I carrier. (author)

  15. Reaction of 11 C-benzoyl chlorides with metalloid reagents: 11 C-labeling of benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, and phenyl ketones from [11 C]CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, Sara; Dahl, Kenneth; Nordeman, Patrik

    2018-01-26

    In this article, we describe the carbon-11 ( 11 C, t 1/2  = 20.4 minutes) labeling of benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, and ketones using an efficient 2-step synthesis in which 11 C-carbon monoxide is used in an initial palladium-mediated reaction to produce 11 C-benzoyl chloride as a key intermediate. In the second step, the obtained 11 C-benzoyl chloride is further treated with a metalloid reagent to furnish the final 11 C-labeled product. Benzyl alcohols were obtained in moderated to high non-isolated radiochemical yields (RCY, 35%-90%) with lithium aluminum hydride or lithium aluminum deuteride as metalloid reagent. Changing the metalloid reagent to either tributyltin hydride or sodium borohydride, allowed for the reliable syntheses of 11 C-benzaldehydes in RCYs ranging from 58% to 95%. Finally, sodium tetraphenylborate were utilized to obtain 11 C-phenyl ketones in high RCYs (77%-95%). The developed method provides a new and efficient route to 3 different classes of compounds starting from aryl iodides or aryl bromides. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  17. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  18. 27 CFR 4.50 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Approval of Labels of... of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. [T.D...

  19. 27 CFR 5.55 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Approval of... certificates of label approval and certificates of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures...

  20. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  1. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  2. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  3. Synthesis and positron emission tomography studies of C-11-labeled isotopomers and metabolites of GTS-21, a partial {alpha}7 nicotinic cholinergic agonist drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States)]. E-mail: swkim@bnl.gov; Ding Yushin [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); Alexoff, David [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Patel, Vinal [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Logan, Jean [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lin, K.-S. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Carter, Pauline [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); King, Payton [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Constanzo, Jasmine R. [Department of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Ciaccio, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Introduction: (3E)-3-[(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridine (GTS-21), a partial {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist drug, has recently been shown to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. One of its two major demethylated metabolites, 4-OH-GTS-21, has been suggested to contribute to its therapeutic effects. Methods: We labeled GTS-21 in two different positions with carbon-11 ([2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 and [4-{sup 11}C]GTS-21) along with two corresponding demethylated metabolites ([2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]4-OH-GTS-21 and [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]2-OH-GTS-21) for pharmacokinetic studies in baboons and mice with positron emission tomography (PET). Results: Both [2-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 and [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 showed similar initial high rapid uptake in baboon brain, peaking from 1 to 3.5 min (0.027-0.038%ID/cc) followed by rapid clearance (t {sub 1/2}<15 min), resulting in low brain retention by 30 min. However, after 30 min, [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 continued to clear while [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 plateaued, suggesting the entry of a labeled metabolite into the brain. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of the two labeled metabolites confirmed expected higher brain uptake and retention of [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]2-OH-GTS-21 (the labeled metabolite of [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21) relative to [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]4-OH-GTS-21 (the labeled metabolite of [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21), which had negligible brain uptake. Ex vivo studies in mice showed that GTS-21 is the major chemical form in the mouse brain. Whole-body dynamic PET imaging in baboon and mouse showed that the major route of excretion of C-11 is through the gallbladder. Conclusions: The major findings are as follows: (a) extremely rapid uptake and clearance of [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 from the brain, which may need to be considered in developing optimal dosing of GTS-21 for patients, and (b) significant brain uptake of 2-OH-GTS-21

  4. Synthesis and positron emission tomography studies of C-11-labeled isotopomers and metabolites of GTS-21, a partial α7 nicotinic cholinergic agonist drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Won; Ding Yushin; Alexoff, David; Patel, Vinal; Logan, Jean; Lin, K.-S.; Shea, Colleen; Muench, Lisa; Xu Youwen; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Constanzo, Jasmine R.; Ciaccio, James A.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: (3E)-3-[(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridine (GTS-21), a partial α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist drug, has recently been shown to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. One of its two major demethylated metabolites, 4-OH-GTS-21, has been suggested to contribute to its therapeutic effects. Methods: We labeled GTS-21 in two different positions with carbon-11 ([2-methoxy- 11 C]GTS-21 and [4- 11 C]GTS-21) along with two corresponding demethylated metabolites ([2-methoxy- 11 C]4-OH-GTS-21 and [4-methoxy- 11 C]2-OH-GTS-21) for pharmacokinetic studies in baboons and mice with positron emission tomography (PET). Results: Both [2- 11 C]GTS-21 and [4-methoxy- 11 C]GTS-21 showed similar initial high rapid uptake in baboon brain, peaking from 1 to 3.5 min (0.027-0.038%ID/cc) followed by rapid clearance (t 1/2 11 C]GTS-21 continued to clear while [4-methoxy- 11 C]GTS-21 plateaued, suggesting the entry of a labeled metabolite into the brain. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of the two labeled metabolites confirmed expected higher brain uptake and retention of [4-methoxy- 11 C]2-OH-GTS-21 (the labeled metabolite of [4-methoxy- 11 C]GTS-21) relative to [2-methoxy- 11 C]4-OH-GTS-21 (the labeled metabolite of [2-methoxy- 11 C]GTS-21), which had negligible brain uptake. Ex vivo studies in mice showed that GTS-21 is the major chemical form in the mouse brain. Whole-body dynamic PET imaging in baboon and mouse showed that the major route of excretion of C-11 is through the gallbladder. Conclusions: The major findings are as follows: (a) extremely rapid uptake and clearance of [2-methoxy- 11 C]GTS-21 from the brain, which may need to be considered in developing optimal dosing of GTS-21 for patients, and (b) significant brain uptake of 2-OH-GTS-21, suggesting that it might contribute to the therapeutic effects of GTS-21. This study illustrates the value of comparing different label positions and labeled

  5. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  6. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  7. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  8. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  9. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  10. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  15. SAIL--stereo-array isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Optimal stereospecific and regiospecific labeling of proteins with stable isotopes enhances the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the determination of the three-dimensional protein structures in solution. Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) offers sharpened lines, spectral simplification without loss of information and the ability to rapidly collect and automatically evaluate the structural restraints required to solve a high-quality solution structure for proteins up to twice as large as before. This review gives an overview of stable isotope labeling methods for NMR spectroscopy with proteins and provides an in-depth treatment of the SAIL technology.

  16. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  17. Carbon-11-methionine positron emission tomography imaging of chordoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong [Department of Medical Imaging, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Medical Imaging, Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Tamura, Katsumi; Sagou, Kenji; Kandatsu, Susumu [Clinical Diagnosis Section, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tian, Mei; Suhara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Tanada, Shuji [Department of Medical Imaging, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that arises from notochord remnants. This is the first trial to investigate the utility of {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of chordoma before and after carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT). Fifteen patients with chordoma were investigated with MET-PET before and after CIRT and the findings analyzed visually and quantitatively. Tumor MET uptake was evaluated by tumor-to-nontumor ratio (T/N ratio). In 12 (80%) patients chordoma was clearly visible in the baseline MET-PET study with a mean T/N ratio of 3.3{+-}1.7. The MET uptake decreased significantly to 2.3{+-}1.4 after CIRT (P<0.05). A significant reduction in tumor MET uptake of 24% was observed after CIRT. Fourteen (93%) patients showed no local recurrence after CIRT with a median follow-up time of 20 months. This study has demonstrated that MET-PET is feasible for imaging of chordoma. MET-PET could provide important tumor metabolic information for the therapeutic monitoring of chordoma after CIRT. (orig.)

  18. Carbon-11-methionine positron emission tomography imaging of chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Tamura, Katsumi; Sagou, Kenji; Kandatsu, Susumu; Tian, Mei; Suhara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Tanada, Shuji; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2004-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that arises from notochord remnants. This is the first trial to investigate the utility of 11 C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of chordoma before and after carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT). Fifteen patients with chordoma were investigated with MET-PET before and after CIRT and the findings analyzed visually and quantitatively. Tumor MET uptake was evaluated by tumor-to-nontumor ratio (T/N ratio). In 12 (80%) patients chordoma was clearly visible in the baseline MET-PET study with a mean T/N ratio of 3.3±1.7. The MET uptake decreased significantly to 2.3±1.4 after CIRT (P<0.05). A significant reduction in tumor MET uptake of 24% was observed after CIRT. Fourteen (93%) patients showed no local recurrence after CIRT with a median follow-up time of 20 months. This study has demonstrated that MET-PET is feasible for imaging of chordoma. MET-PET could provide important tumor metabolic information for the therapeutic monitoring of chordoma after CIRT. (orig.)

  19. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.; Gratz, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, 11 C-serotonin as the substrate, and 11 CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker 11 CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later 11 C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of 11 C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of 11 C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium

  20. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  1. 101 Labeled Brain Images and a Consistent Human Cortical Labeling Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Arno; Tourville, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The “Desikan–Killiany–Tourville” (DKT) protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://mindboggle.info/data website. PMID:23227001

  2. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  3. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ancies in the contextual usage labelling in the dictionaries were established and are discussed. ..... Likewise, the noun vagrant meaning 'a person who has no job .... tions: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the American Translators ...

  4. Read the Label First: Protect Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the importance of reading pet products labels before purchasing and using any product to insure the safety of your pets. Find tips for ways to reduce the changes of pets accessing potentially dangerous products.

  5. Read the Label First! Protect Your Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pesticides could harm children, pets, or the environment if not used and stored correctly. Choose a product that is labeled for your specific pest. EPA encourages consumers to consider using EPA-registered ...

  6. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations that will be published under this part; (c) Comparative acoustic rating information, which EPA... number or type identification; (f) The phrase “Federal law prohibits removal of this label prior to...

  7. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastic, paper, metal, or other durable substances. Labels must be attached in such a manner that they... Act (15 U.S.C. 2605) as of (insert effective date of ban on distribution in commerce). Distribution of...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When ...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ...

  11. 75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... particular, this Notice contains revised Spanish language text in that sample label which reads ``Costo Estimado Anual de Energ[iacute]a'' instead of ``Costo Anual Estimado;'' ``de la tarifa'' instead of ``del...

  12. Isotopic labelling with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general methods of isotopic labelling with 14 C and with 3 H are briefly reviewed with special attention to examples of compounds likely to be of wide interest in biological research. (author)

  13. Evaluation of three methods of platelet labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, L.; Verbruggen, A.; Roo, M. de; Vermylen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111 In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method based on that described by W.A. Heaton et al. 1979 was optimized in the authors' laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients. (author)

  14. Evaluation of three methods of platelet labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, L; Verbruggen, A; De Roo, M; Vermylen, J

    1986-07-01

    The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method was optimized in our laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients.

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  17. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a... available for distribution is accompanied by documentation of the donor eligibility determination as...

  18. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  19. 76 FR 79057 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Labeling, Reporting and recordkeeping... emitting diode (OLED) means a thin-film light- emitting device that typically consists of a series of...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels ...

  1. Two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    Whenever one wants to distinguish, recognize, and/or measure objects (connected components) in binary images, labeling is required. This paper presents two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images. One is voxel based and the other is run based. For the voxel-based one, we present an efficient method of deciding the order for checking voxels in the mask. For the run-based one, instead of assigning each foreground voxel, we assign each run a provisional label. Moreover, we use run data to label foreground voxels without scanning any background voxel in the second scan. Experimental results have demonstrated that our voxel-based algorithm is efficient for 3-D binary images with complicated connected components, that our run-based one is efficient for those with simple connected components, and that both are much more efficient than conventional 3-D labeling algorithms.

  2. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.

    1995-07-25

    A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.

  3. Impact of Food Labeling on Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Todua Nugzar

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluates the development and perspective implication of social marketing interventions for empowering healthy life and well-being of the population in Georgia. The objective of the research is to analyze the impact of food labeling for healthy behavior change of Georgian consumers. The study revealed the strong correlation between awareness and education of consumer on food labeling and healthy behavior changing. One of the important factors of chang...

  4. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Tavares, Leoberto C.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  5. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  6. Stability of rhenium-188 labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, B. K.; Jung, J. M.; Jung, J. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several nontoxic radical-quenching agents. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with Re-188 by incubating with generator-eluted Re-188-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography (ITLC-SG/acetone, ITLC-SG/Umezawa, Whatman No.1/saline). Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies(2%). Stability of Re-188-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of vitamin C, ethanol, or Tween 80 as radical-quenching agents. Specific activities of 4.29∼5.11 MBq/μg were obtained. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4%(n=12). Very low stability after removal of stannous tartrate from the preparation was observed. If stored after purging with N 2 , all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, if contacted with air, stability decreased. Perrhenate and Re-188-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation (12∼47 and 9∼38% each, after 10 hr). Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of vitamin C stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N 2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity Re-188 labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of vitamin C increased the stability

  7. Cyclic labellings with constraints at two distances

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, R; Noble, S D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by problems in radio channel assignment, we consider the vertex-labelling of graphs with non-negative integers. The objective is to minimise the span of the labelling, subject to constraints imposed at graph distances one and two. We show that the minimum span is (up to rounding) a piecewise linear function of the constraints, and give a complete specification, together with associated optimal assignments, for trees and cycles.

  8. Private label brand equity: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...

  9. Living labeling techniques of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qingyu; Chen Li

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their self-renew and multi- differentiation potentiality. With the transplantation of the MSCs which can promote the regeneration and repair of the injured tissue, a new route for the treatment of dieases is hopeful to be effective. To trace the distribution, migration, proliferation and differentiation of the implanted MSCs, there need effective labeling techniques, especially living labeling techniques. (authors)

  10. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü

    Purpose: Quantitative airway assessment is often performed in specific branches to enable comparison of measurements between patients and over time. Little is known on the accuracy in locating these branches. We determined inter- and intra-observer agreement of manual labeling of segmental bronch...... disagreement in expert labeling, possibly reflecting large anatomical heterogeneity and changes with inspiration. Consistent airway measurement cannot be guaranteed based on manual localization....

  11. In vitro labeling receptor autoradiography: loss of label during ethanol dehydration and preparative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.; Unnerstall, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Slide-mounted tissue sections of brain were incubated with several reversibly binding [ 3 H]ligands to label receptors. Exposure of these labeled, mounted tissue sections to ethanol solutions for dehydration resulted in a substantial loss of receptor bound ligands in all cases, even when the tissues were fixed with formaldehyde vapors before exposure. Thus, serious problems can be introduced into in vitro labeling autoradiographic procedures by exposure of sections to aqueous or organic media. (Auth.)

  12. Comparison of ionisation properties of aetma-labeled saccharides with common labels

    OpenAIRE

    Partyka, J. (Jan); Foret, F. (František)

    2015-01-01

    We have tested (2-aminoethyl)trimethylammonium (AETMA) as a label for analysis of oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry detection and compared its performance to taurine, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide and 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid. The AETMA-labeled saccharides were provided higher ionization signals in positive mode than native sodium or ammonium adducts and equal or higher signals than saccharides labeled by the more commo...

  13. Thrombokinetics with In-111-oxine labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yui, Tokuo; Muroi, Shuichi; Matsuda, Shin; Kariyone, Shigeo

    1982-01-01

    Indium-111-oxine has been employed as a redioactive platelet label for thrombosis imaging and thrombokinetic studies in man. To evaluate it's suitability for platelet survival and turnover, thrombokinetic studies were carried out in hematological normal subjects, in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and chronic congestive splenomegaly. For In-111-oxine labelled platelets, platelets were collected by differential centrifugation from 44 ml of whole blood drawn into 6 ml of acid citrate dextrose solution. Platelet suspension was incubated with In-111-oxine, which was extracted before use by the method of Thakur and co-workers. The survival, recovery and turnover of In-111-labeled platelets were 8.6 +- 0.5 days, 63.0 +- 5.4% and 3.9 +- 0.3 x 10 4 / μl/day, respectively, which were similar with those of Cr-51 method. Platelet disappearance curves labelled with In-111 and Cr-51 simultaneously were similar in one case. In patients with ITP, platelet survival shortened in the same degree with Cr-51 method. The two simultaneous labeling studies between In-111 and Cr-51 showed no differences. In the patients with congestive splenomegaly, the same results were obtained. Thrombokinetic studies with In-111-oxine labelled platelets offer the advantages of reduced blood requirements, and the ability to perform external imaging of platelet distribution. (author)

  14. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  15. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, E.F.J. de E-mail: e.f.j.de.vries@pet.azg.nl; Vroegh, Joke; Elsinga, P.H.; Vaalburg, Willem

    2003-04-01

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons, {alpha}-bromo-{alpha}'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-m-xylene and N-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)-2-bromoacetamide were found to be the most promising. Labeling with the former synthon was less complicated and time consuming and gave higher uncorrected overall yields. The latter synthon required smaller amounts of the costly precursor to achieve acceptable labeling yields.

  16. Basic evaluation of 67Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji; Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with 67 Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na + , K + -ATPase imaging. (author)

  17. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with 99m using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of ∼80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for 99m Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3 ) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel 188 Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] complex to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate was investigated

  18. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  20. 49 CFR 172.446 - CLASS 9 label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the six white spaces between them. The lower half of the label must be white with the class number “9... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CLASS 9 label. 172.446 Section 172.446... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.446 CLASS 9 label. (a) Except for size and color, the “CLASS 9...

  1. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  2. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  3. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; exemptions from labeling. 501.100... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.100 Animal food; exemptions from labeling. (a) The following foods are exempt...

  4. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented

  5. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  6. 27 CFR 7.22 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Beverages § 7.22 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated: (a) On the brand label: (1) Brand name... alcohol. (b) On the brand label or on a separate label (back or front): (1) In the case of imported malt... PHENYLALANINE.” (Paragraph (b)(6) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1512-0469...

  7. 27 CFR 4.32 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mandatory label information. (a) There shall be stated on the brand label: (1) Brand name, in accordance... the bottle. (c) There shall be stated on the brand label or on a back label a statement that the... the Office of Management and Budget under Control Number 1512-0469) [T.D. 6521, 25 FR 13835, Dec. 29...

  8. 40 CFR 600.306-86 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... general to specific labels or vice versa within a model type, the manufacturer shall, within five calendar... legibility of the fuel economy label is maintained. For this purpose, all fuel economy label information must... cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy label (initial, or updated as...

  9. 40 CFR 211.214 - Removal of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of label. 211.214 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.214 Removal of label. Section 10(a)(4) of the Act prohibits any person from removing, prior to sale, any label required by this subpart, by either physical...

  10. 46 CFR 162.028-4 - Marine type label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine type label. 162.028-4 Section 162.028-4 Shipping... type label. (a) In addition to all other marking, every portable extinguisher shall bear a label containing the “marine type” listing manifest issued by a recognized laboratory. This label will include the...

  11. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If a...

  12. A comparative study on the radioactive labelling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.K.; Heertje, I.; Stijn, F. van

    1977-01-01

    The main methods in protein labelling are exchange labelling, iodination, acylation and alkylation. The universal application of the techniques is evaluated by a number of criteria, derived from the demand that labelled proteins should be as identical to the native ones as possible. From our experiences on labelling methods it is concluded that reductive methylation meets most requirements. (orig.) [de

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to complying...

  14. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  15. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds. Pt. 2. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    Studies on isotopic exchange between organic bromine compounds and 82 Br labelled dioxane dibromide in the presence of AlCl 3 are described. The results obtained enable to develop a simple and quick preparation method for the labelling with 82 Br [fr

  16. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .... FDA-2011-F-0171] Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction... certain articles of food sold from vending machines. The document published with several errors including... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Y. Reese, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food...

  17. FAST LABEL: Easy and efficient solution of joint multi-label and estimation problems

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Hong, Byungwoo

    2014-01-01

    that plague local solutions. Further, in comparison to global methods for the multi-label problem, the method is more efficient and it is easy for a non-specialist to implement. We give sample Matlab code for the multi-label Chan-Vese problem in this paper

  18. Official Labeling, Criminal Embeddedness, and Subsequent Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test of Labeling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Krohn, Marvin D.; Rivera, Craig J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the short-term impact of formal criminal labeling on involvement in deviant social networks and increased likelihood of subsequent delinquency. According to labeling theory, formal criminal intervention should affect the individual's immediate social networks. In many cases, the stigma of the criminal status may increase the…

  19. A Labeling Model Based on the Region of Movability for Point-Feature Label Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic point-feature label placement (PFLP is a fundamental task for map visualization. As the dominant solutions to the PFLP problem, fixed-position and slider models have been widely studied in previous research. However, the candidate labels generated with these models are set to certain fixed positions or a specified track line for sliding. Thus, the whole surrounding space of a point feature is not sufficiently used for labeling. Hence, this paper proposes a novel label model based on the region of movability, which comes from plane collision detection theory. The model defines a complete conflict-free search space for label placement. On the premise of no conflict with the point, line, and area features, the proposed model utilizes the surrounding zone of the point feature to generate candidate label positions. By combining with heuristic search method, the model achieves high-quality label placement. In addition, the flexibility of the proposed model enables placing arbitrarily shaped labels.

  20. PDS Label Assistant for Interactive Design (PLAID): Simplifying PDS4 Label Template Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algermissen, S. S.; Padams, J. H.; Radulescu, C.

    2017-06-01

    The PDS Label Assistant for Interactive Design (PLAID) tool seeks to simplify and expedite the process of building a PDS4 label template with a simple step-by-step interface that does not require experience with XML or PDS4 Schemas and Schematrons.

  1. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carton; (10) In the case of a product which contains an antibiotic added during the production process... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final container label, carton label, and enclosure. 112.2 Section 112.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 168.65 - Pesticide export label and labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... graphic matter on or attached to the immediate container of the pesticide, device, or active ingredient...). Every exported pesticide, device, and active ingredient used in producing a pesticide (see § 152.3 of this chapter for the definition of “active ingredient” and “pesticide”) must bear a label or labeling...

  3. Labeling and stability of radiolabeled antibody fragments by a direct 99mTc-labeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, K.Y.; Nedelman, M.A.; Tam, S.H.; Wilson, E.; Daddona, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro labeling and stability of 99m Tc-labeled antibody Fab' fragments prepared by a direct labeling technique were evaluated. Eight antibody fragments derived from murine IgG1 (N = 5), IgG2a (N = 2) and IgG3 (N = 1) isotypes were labeled with a preformed 99m Tc-D-glucarate complex. No loss of radioactivity incorporation was observed for all the 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments after 24 h incubation at 37 o C. 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments (IgG1, N = 2; IgG2a, n = 2; IgG3, N = 1) were stable upon challenge with DTPA, EDTA or acidic pH. Using the affinity chromatography technique, two of the 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments displayed no loss of immunoreactivity after prolonged incubation in phosphate buffer up to 24 h at 37 o C. Bonding between 99m Tc and antibody fragments was elucidated by challenging with a diamide ditholate (N 2 S 2 ) compound. The Fab' with IgG2a isotype displayed tighter binding to 99m Tc in comparison to Fab' from IgG1 and IgG3 isotype in N 2 S 2 challenge and incubation with human plasma. The in vivo biodistribution of five 99m Tc-labeled fragments were evaluated in normal mice. (Author)

  4. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' In Title I of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments..., dose designations, and error-prone label and packaging designs. Among these measures, FDA agreed that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0401...

  5. Syntheses of 18F-labeled reduced haloperidol and 11C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravert, H.T.; Dannals, R.F.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    18 F-Labeled reduced haloperidol and 11 C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone were synthesized in a convenient and quantitative one step reduction from 18 F-labeled haloperidol and 11 C-labeled N-methylspiperone, respectively. Both products were purified by semipreparative HPLC and were obtained at high specific activity and radiochemical purity. (author)

  6. Syntheses of sup 18 F-labeled reduced haloperidol and sup 11 C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Wilson, A A; Wong, D F; Wagner, Jr, H N [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA)

    1991-03-01

    {sup 18}F-Labeled reduced haloperidol and {sup 11}C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone were synthesized in a convenient and quantitative one step reduction from {sup 18}F-labeled haloperidol and {sup 11}C-labeled N-methylspiperone, respectively. Both products were purified by semipreparative HPLC and were obtained at high specific activity and radiochemical purity. (author).

  7. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    OpenAIRE

    M. van der Merwe; K. Venter

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review ...

  8. A consumer perspective on food labelling: Ethical or not?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Merwe, M.; Venter, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers' food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers' perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review ...

  9. Synthesis of tritium labeled renin inhibitor ditekiren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.; Bundy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In the search for a radioactive form of the peptidomimetic renin inhibitor, ditekiren, with a metabolically suitable radiolabel for conducting drug disposition studies, we prepared [ 3 H]ditekiren with tritium labels in the N-methyl-histidine moiety and in the leu-val alcohol transition-state insert. [His- 3 H]ditekiren was obtained by first introducing two iodine substituents into the N-methyl-histidine moiety of the parent drug, followed by catalytic hydrodehalogenation with tritium gas. Administration of this labeled drug to monkeys, however, resulted in prolonged retention of radioactivity in the test animals, even though little or no tritiated water was detected in urine. The results, together with similar earlier findings after administration of [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the proline moiety of the drug, led us to synthesize [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the ''unnatural'' leu-val alcohol (LVA) portion of the molecule. The tritium label in [LVA- 3 H]ditekiren was found to be metabolically suitable for conducting drug disposition studies, with no liability for tritiated water production or prolonged retention of radioactivity in tissues of test animals. (author)

  10. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  11. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of the oxysterol binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.R.; Kandutsch, A.A.; Anzalone, L.; Spencer, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic receptor protein for oxygenated sterols, that is thought to be involved in the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol biosynthesis, can be labeled covalently by the photoactivated affinity compound [5,6- 3 H]-7,7'-azocholestane-3β,25-diol (I). Several other compounds were tested including 25-hydroxycholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, 25-azido-27-norcholest-5-en-3β-ol,3β,25-dihydroxycholest-5-en-7-one and 3β-hydroxycholesta-8(14),9(11)-dien-15-one. However, these sterols either did not bind to the receptor with adequate affinity or did not react covalently with the receptor during photolysis. Compound I binds to the receptor with very high affinity (K/sub d/ = 30 nM). After activation with long wavelength UV, two tritium labeled proteins, M/sub r/ approximately 95K and 65K daltons, are found upon SDS gel electrophoresis. No labeling occurs when the binding reaction is carried out in the presence of a large excess of 25-hydroxycholesterol. It is possible that the smaller polypeptide is a degradation product. Under the reaction conditions investigated so far labeling is relatively inefficient (< 1% of bound sterol). These results are generally consistent with previous information suggesting that the M/sub r/ of the receptor subunit is 97,000. Covalent labeling of the receptor should greatly facilitate its further purification and characterization

  13. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siew Eang; Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  14. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    lysates, primarily the intact peptide (PenMSe, TAMRA-PenMSe or TAMRA-Pen) was observed. Selenium labelling caused minimal alteration of the physicochemical properties of the peptide and allowed for absolute quantitative determination of cellular uptake by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry......In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA....... Selenium is thus proposed as a promising alternative label for quantification of peptides in general, altering the properties of the peptide to a minor extent as compared to commonly used peptide labels....

  15. Housewives’ Compliance in Reading Food Labels in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Tumenggung

    2016-06-01

    Di Indonesia, masalah label pada kemasan makanan kurang mendapat perhatian konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari determinan kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan oleh ibu rumah tangga di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian dengan metode survei ini dilakukan dari bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013. Data dikumpulkan secara potong lintang dengan menggunakan angket. Variabel terikat adalah kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan yang terdiri dari label informasi nilai gizi, komposisi makanan, masa kedaluwarsa, harga, dan status halal. Variabel bebas adalah usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan keterpaparan dengan media informasi. Besar sampel 262 orang ditentukan secara accidental technique. Analisis data menggunakan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden patuh membaca label kedaluwarsa, label harga, dan label halal. Faktor usia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label kedaluwarsa dan label harga. Tingkat pendidikan berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label komposisi, label harga, dan lebel halal. Keterpaparan dengan media informasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label komposisi, kedaluwarsa, harga, dan halal. Disarankan kepada institusi terkait, yaitu dinas kesehatan untuk melakukan upaya meningkatkan pemahaman pentingnya membaca label kemasan makanan, terutama yang berkaitan dengan informasi nilai gizi dan komposisi bahan makanan.

  16. Hypoxia marker labeling in tumor biopsies: quantification of labeling variation and criteria for biopsy sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, Donald E.; Rosner, Gary L.; Azuma, Chieko; McEntee, Margaret C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The error associated with using biopsy-based methods for assessing parameters reflective of the tumor microenvironment depends on the variability in distribution of the parameter throughout the tumor and the biopsy sample. Some attention has been given to intratumoral distribution of parameters, but little attention has been given to their intrabiopsy distribution. We evaluated the intrabiopsy distribution of CCI-103F, a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker. Materials and methods: The hypoxia marker CCI-103F was studied in dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors. Two biopsies were taken from each of seven tumors, for a total of 14 biopsies. Biopsies were serially sectioned and four to six contiguous slides from each 100-150 μm of the biopsy were used to formulate the best estimate of CCI-103F labeled area throughout the biopsy sample. One, two or four slides were then randomly selected from each biopsy and the labeled area, based on this limited sample, was compared to the estimate obtained from counting all available slides. Random sampling of slides was repeated 1000 times for each biopsy sample. Results: CCI-103F labeling variance throughout the biopsy decreased as the estimated overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. The error associated with estimating the overall labeled area in a biopsy from a randomly selected subset of slides decreased as the number of slides increased, and as the overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. No minimally labeled biopsy was classified as unlabeled based on limited sampling. Conclusion: With regard to CCI-103F labeling, quantification of the labeled area in four randomly selected slides from a biopsy can provide, in most biopsies, an estimate of the labeled area in the biopsy within an absolute range of ±0.05

  17. Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magley, V J; Hulin, C L; Fitzgerald, L F; DeNardo, M

    1999-06-01

    Research has consistently documented a discrepancy between experiencing offensive sex-related behaviors and labeling these situations as sexual harassment, leading to several attempts to understand this phenomenon. The authors propose that the issue of why it is that women who report such experiences generally do not indicate that they have been sexually harassed is an important psychological question, and may provide a path through the nested meanings of workplace harassment. The authors argue for the value of moving beyond a descriptive approach to this issue by examining the effects of self-labeling on the psychological, health, and work-related outcomes of unwelcome, sex-related experiences. They present data from female employees working in 3 separate organizations, demonstrating that women exposed to such behaviors report very similar consequences, whether they label their experiences as harassment or not.

  18. Abcess detection using radiocolloid-labelled-leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Auvergnat, J.C.; Armengaud, M.; Guiraud, R.; Le Net, R.; Auvergnat, R.

    1975-01-01

    The early detection of infections centres using labelled polynuclear neutrophile (LPN) as vector was investigated. The method was based on one of the physiological properties of this substance, its phagocytotic power towards colloidal sulphur particles labelled with pertechnetate-Tc 99m. The preliminary results of experiments on dogs are reported and confirm that centres of infection can be determined in experimental animals by the use of polynuclear neutrophiles labelled by phagocytosis. It seems that these results are really due to the presence of LPN in situ and not to simple inflammatory hyperhaemia or to an excess of free pertechnetate. The nature of the vector, tracer and lebelling agent, the quality of the results obtained and the harmlessness of the method warrant its clinical application in human beings [fr

  19. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  20. RenderGAN: Generating Realistic Labeled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sixt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Convolutional Neuronal Networks (DCNNs are showing remarkable performance on many computer vision tasks. Due to their large parameter space, they require many labeled samples when trained in a supervised setting. The costs of annotating data manually can render the use of DCNNs infeasible. We present a novel framework called RenderGAN that can generate large amounts of realistic, labeled images by combining a 3D model and the Generative Adversarial Network framework. In our approach, image augmentations (e.g., lighting, background, and detail are learned from unlabeled data such that the generated images are strikingly realistic while preserving the labels known from the 3D model. We apply the RenderGAN framework to generate images of barcode-like markers that are attached to honeybees. Training a DCNN on data generated by the RenderGAN yields considerably better performance than training it on various baselines.