WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon tolerant reforming

  1. Carbon-tolerant solid oxide fuel cells using NiTiO3 as an anode internal reforming layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Zhenbin; Yang, Wenqiang; Peng, Ranran; Lu, Yalin

    2014-06-01

    In this work, adding a NiTiO3 (NTO) reforming layer is firstly adopted as a low cost method to improve the carbon tolerance in solid oxide fuel cells. XRD patterns suggest that NTO has a good chemical compatibility with the YSZ electrolyte, and NTO can be totally reduced to Ni and TiO2 when exposing to the H2 atmosphere. Maximum power densities for the cells with the NTO layers at 700 °C are 270 mWcm-2 with wet H2 fuel, and 236 mWcm-2 with wet methane fuel, respectively. Improved discharging stability for the cells with NTO layers has also been observed. The current density remains unchanged for the cells with NTO layers during a 26 h test, while it drops to zero within 1 h for the cells without NTO. Above electro-performance and long term stability tests suggest that fabricating a NTO reforming layer on the anode surface is an efficient and inexpensive method to realize highly carbon tolerant SOFCs.

  2. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  3. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances..., insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  4. Design of stable catalysts for methane-carbon dioxide reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lercher, J.A.; Bitter, J.H.; Hally, W.; Niessen, W.; Seshan, K.

    2001-01-01

    The activity and stability of catalysts for methane-carbon dioxide reforming depend subtly upon the support and the active metal. Methane decomposes to carbon and hydrogen, forming carbon on the oxide support and the metal. Carbon on the metal is reactive and can be oxidized to CO by oxygen from dis

  5. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Ommen, van, B.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In order to find suitable types of nickel catalysts and to obtain more knowledge about the deactivation mechanism(s) occurring during internal reforming, a series of nickel catalysts was prepared and subj...

  6. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Ommen, van J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In orde

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of carbon formation boundary and reforming performance for steam reforming of dimethyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Kikuchi, Ryuji; Eguchi, Koichi

    Thermodynamic analysis of dimethyl ether steam reforming (DME SR) was investigated for carbon formation boundary, DME conversion, and hydrogen yield for fuel cell application. The equilibrium calculation employing Gibbs free minimization was performed to figure out the required steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C = 0-5) and reforming temperature (25-1000 °C) where coke formation was thermodynamically unfavorable. S/C, reforming temperature and product species strongly contributed to the coke formation and product composition. When chemical species DME, methanol, CO 2, CO, H 2, H 2O and coke were considered, complete conversion of DME and hydrogen yield above 78% without coke formation were achieved at the normal operating temperatures of molten carbonate fuel cell (600 °C) and solid oxide fuel cell (900 °C), when S/C was at or above 2.5. When CH 4 was favorable, production of coke and that of hydrogen were significantly suppressed.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳朋; 聂勇; 吴昂山; 姬登祥; 于凤文; 计建炳

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

  9. Catalytic conversion of methane: Carbon dioxide reforming and oxidative coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas conversion remains one of the essential technologies for current energy needs. This review focuses on the mechanistic aspects of the development of efficient and durable catalysts for two reactions, carbon dioxide reforming and the oxidative coupling of methane. These two reactions have tremendous technological significance for practical application in industry. An understanding of the fundamental aspects and reaction mechanisms of the catalytic reactions reviewed in this study would support the design of industrial catalysts. CO 2 reforming of methane utilizes CO 2, which is often stored in large quantities, to convert as a reactant. Strategies to eliminate carbon deposition, which is the major problem associated with this reaction, are discussed. The oxidative coupling of methane directly produces ethylene in one reactor through a slightly exothermic reaction, potentially minimizing the capital cost of the natural gas conversion process. The focus of discussion in this review will be on the attainable yield of C 2 products by rigorous kinetic analyses.

  10. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  11. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  12. Damage-tolerant composite materials produced by stitching carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA-Langley has undertaken the investigation of composite damage-tolerance enhancement and fabrication economies-maximization via reinforcement-stitching, in combination with resin transfer molding. Attention is given to results obtained by an experimental evaluation of composites tailored for damage tolerance by stitching layers of dry carbon-fiber fabric with closely-spaced threads, in order to furnish through-the-thickness reinforcement. Various stitching patterns and thread materials have been evaluated, using flat-plate specimens; blade-stiffened structural elements have been fabricated and tested. The results presented indicate that stitched laminates furnish damage tolerance performance comparable to that of more expensive, toughened-matrix composites.

  13. Increasing carbon and material productivity through environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental tax reform (ETR), a shift in taxation towards environmental taxes, has been implemented on a small scale in a number of European countries. This paper first gives a short review of the literature about ETR. An Appendix briefly describes the model used for a modelling exercise to explore, through scenarios with low and high international energy prices, the implications of a large-scale ETR in the European Union, sufficient to reach the EU's emission reduction targets for 2020. The paper then reports the results of the exercise. The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity, with the emission reductions distributed across all sectors as a reduction in the demand for all fossil fuels. There are also small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries for all the scenarios, and for the EU as a whole. Both the environmental and macroeconomic outcomes are better with low than with high energy prices, because the former both increases the scale of the ETR required to reach the targets, and reduces the outflow of foreign exchange to pay for energy imports. ETR emerges from the exercise as an attractive and cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. - Highlights: ► European experience with environmental tax reform (ETR) is reviewed. ► Scenarios which meet EU carbon emission targets are modelled. ► The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity. ► There are small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries. ► ETR emerges as an attractive and cost-effective environmental policy.

  14. Microbial Metal Tolerance in Bermuda Carbonate Sediments †

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Mark E.; Jones, Galen E.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from Bermuda carbonate sediments on metal-supplemented media varied as much as 44-fold over a 15-cm depth. Distributional relationships with sulfate-reducing bacteria and sediment character indicated that metal tolerance was a function of metal bioavailability.

  15. Study on the Reaction Mechanism for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over supported Nickel Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling QIAN; Zi Feng YAN

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption and dissociation of methane and carbon dioxide for reforming on nickelcatalyst were extensively investigated by TPSR and TPD experiments. It showed that thedecomposition of methane results in the formation of at least three kinds of surface carbon specieson supported nickel catalyst, while CO2 adsorbed on the catalyst weakly and only existed in onekind of adsorption state. Then the mechanism of interaction between the species dissociatedfrom CH4 and CO2 during reforming was proposed.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1234 - Sodium carbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium carbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1234 Section 180.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1234 Sodium carbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance....

  17. Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Salinity Tolerance in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C, Δ) and salinity tolerance in rice was investigated in six experiments during 2004-09. In Experiment 1, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Δ were analyzed in an IR29 / Pokkali mapping population of 79 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown under salt stress imposed at the seedling stage. Three QTLs for flag leaf-Δ were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, and 11 with R2 values ranging from 18 to 33%, and all three co-located with mapped QTLs for salinity tolerance and Na+: K+ ratio. In Experiment 2, a set of 80 breeding lines and varieties were evaluated at the seedling stage for Δ and salinity tolerance using visual standard evaluation system (SES) scores, growth, salt uptake, and δ13C composition of leaves. While the first experiment using a mixture of sensitive and tolerant RILs showed strong correlations between Δ and salt-stress traits, the data from the breeding lines showed relatively weaker correlation, possibly due to the low genetic variability within this set and the high tolerance level of most of the lines. The correlation between Δ and salinity tolerance at the reproductive stage was tested in Experiment 3 using flag leaf and grain samples across a set of 80 tolerant and sensitive lines, including 46 breeding lines and 34 varieties and landraces. The flag leaf-Δ values correlated well with grain-Δ, and both correlated positively with grain yield of single plants, suggesting that flag leaf-Δ can potentially be used to select for salinity tolerance during the reproductive stage, which agreed with results obtained at the early vegetative stage. While the varieties and landraces showed larger variation across the different traits, the breeding lines were much more uniform. This data was found useful to select contrasting parental lines used for the development of new populations for subsequent studies. In Experiment 4, the same set of 80 tolerant and sensitive lines were evaluated at the

  18. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used after harvest in modified atmospheres for stored insect control on food commodities....

  19. Oxidative steam reforming of ethanol over carbon nanofiber supported Co catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, A.L.M.; Mattos, L.V.; den Breejen, J.P.; Bitter, J.H.; de Jong, K.P.; Noronha, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the cobalt particle size in the ethanol oxidative steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production was investigated using cobalt on carbon nanofiber catalysts. The smallest (4 nm) were quite stable during OSR reaction but significant carbon formation was detected.

  20. Stability, carbon resistance, and reactivity toward autothermal reforming of nickel on ceria-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) normally requires a reformer unit, where the fuel such as natural gas, methane, methanol, or ethanol can be reformed to hydrogen before introducing to the main part of fuel cell. Nickel on commercial supports such as Al2O3, MgO, ZrO2 has been widely reported to be used as the reforming catalyst commercially. Carbon formation and catalyst deactivation are always the main problems of using this type of catalyst. It is well established that CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 have been applied as the catalysts in a wide variety of reactions involving oxidation or partial oxidation of hydrocarbons (e.g. automotive catalysis). In order to quantify the performance of nickel on CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports for reformer application, the stabilities toward methane steam reforming and the carbon formation resistance were studied. After 18 hours, nickel on CeO2-ZrO2 with the Ce/Zr ratio of 3/1 presented the best performance in term of stability and activity. It also provided excellent resistance toward carbon formation compared to commercial Ni/Al2O3. The autothermal reforming of methane over Ni catalyst on CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports were also investigated. Ni/Ce-ZrO2 with the Ce/ Zr ratio of 3/1 also showed the best performance. The kinetics of this reaction was also studied. In the temperature range of 750-900C, the reaction order in methane was always closed to 1. The catalyst showed a slight positive effect of hydrogen and a negative effect of steam on the steam reforming rate. The addition of oxygen increased the steam reforming rate. However, the productions of CO and H2 decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. (author)

  1. Reforming performance of a plasma-catalyst hybrid converter using low carbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reforming performance of a plasma-catalyst hybrid converter using different low carbon fuels was investigated. The methodology was to use arc from spark discharge combined with an appropriate oxygen/carbon molar ratio (O2/C) and feeding rate of the supplied mixture. To enhance the mixing and reforming reaction, a gas intake swirl was generated by inducing the mixture tangentially into the reaction chamber. The required energy for fuel processing was provided by heat released through the oxidation of the air-fuel mixture. The reforming temperature as well as the effect of steam addition on the hydrogen production was studied. The results showed that reformate gas temperature had a profound effect on the overall reaction. The H2/(CO + CO2) ratio reformed by both methane and propane was shown to increase with temperature and that the optimum ratio was obtained when reforming methane under 650 deg. C. The conversion efficiency of the fuel was also shown to increase with increasing temperature. The best thermal efficiency of 72.01% was obtained near 750 deg. C. The theoretical equilibrium calculations and the experimental results were compared.

  2. Dry reforming of coke oven gases over activated carbon to produce syngas for methanol synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Fidalgo Fernández, Beatriz; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The dry reforming of coke oven gases (COG) over an activated carbon used as catalyst has been studied in order to produce a syngas suitable for methanol synthesis. The primary aim of this work was to study the influence of the high amount of hydrogen present in the COG on the process of dry reforming, as well as the influence of other operation conditions, such us temperature and volumetric hourly space velocity (VHSV). It was found that the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction takes ...

  3. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Carbon taxation reform in the European Union. The options involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' may be out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place in the EU. In this paper, we detail and discuss the different options available for such European carbon taxation. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 116

  5. Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance entails acceptance of the very things one disagrees with, disapproves of or dislikes. Tolerance can be seen as ‘a flawed virtue’ (Schuyt, 2001), because it concerns acceptance of the differences between others and ourselves we would rather fight, ignore or overcome. Although tolerance carr

  6. Carbon Capture via Chemical-Looping Combustion and Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Marcus; Mattisson, Tobias; Ryden, Magnus; Lyngfelt, Anders

    2006-10-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide is reduced by the reaction with the fuel and in the air reactor; the reduced metal oxide is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and almost pure stream of CO{sub 2} is obtained when water is condensed. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. The technique has been demonstrated successfully with both natural gas and syngas as fuel in continuous prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized beds within the size range 0.3 - 50 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. From these tests it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO{sub 2} capture is possible. Further, two different types of chemical-looping reforming (CLR) have been presented in recent years. CLR is a technology to produce hydrogen with inherent CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents an overview of the research performed on CLC and CLR highlights the current status of the technology.

  7. Carbon monoxide tolerant platinum electrocatalysts on niobium doped titania and carbon nanotube composite supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigdon, William A.; Huang, Xinyu

    2014-12-01

    In the anode of electrochemical cells operating at low temperature, the hydrogen oxidation reaction is susceptible to poisoning from carbon monoxide (CO) which strongly adsorbs on platinum (Pt) catalysts and increases activation overpotential. Adsorbed CO is removed by oxidative processes such as electrochemical stripping, though cleaning can also cause corrosion. One approach to improve the tolerance of Pt is through alloying with less-noble metals, but the durability of alloyed electrocatalysts is a critical concern. Without sacrificing stability, tolerance can be improved by careful design of the support composition using metal oxides. The bifunctional mechanism is promoted at junctions of the catalyst and metal oxides used in the support. Stable metal oxides can also form strong interactions with catalysts, as is the case for platinum on titania (TiOx). In this study, niobium (Nb) serves as an electron donor dopant in titania. The transition metal oxides are joined to functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) supports in order to synthesize composite supports. Pt is then deposited to form electrocatalysts which are characterized before fabrication into anodes for tests as an electrochemical hydrogen pump. Comparisons are made between the control from Pt-CNT to Pt-TiOx-CNT and Pt-Ti0.9Nb0.1Ox-CNT in order to demonstrate advantages.

  8. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Swartz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2 by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals.

  9. Catalyst Deactivation Simulation Through Carbon Deposition in Carbon Dioxide Reforming over Ni/CaO-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Major problem in CO2 reforming of methane (CORM process is coke formation which is a carbonaceous residue that can physically cover active sites of a catalyst surface and leads to catalyst deactivation. A key to develop a more coke-resistant catalyst lies in a better understanding of the methane reforming mechanism at a molecular level. Therefore, this paper is aimed to simulate a micro-kinetic approach in order to calculate coking rate in CORM reaction. Rates of encapsulating and filamentous carbon formation are also included. The simulation results show that the studied catalyst has a high activity, and the rate of carbon formation is relatively low. This micro-kinetic modeling approach can be used as a tool to better understand the catalyst deactivation phenomena in reaction via carbon deposition. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 10th May 2011; Revised: 16th August 2011; Accepted: 27th August 2011[How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, N.A.S. Amin, and D.H.W. Ling. (2011. Catalyst Deactivation Simulation Through Carbon Deposition in Carbon Dioxide Reforming over Ni/CaO-Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 129-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.1213.129-136][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.1213.129-136 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/1213 ] | View in  |  

  10. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech.......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  11. Modeling and parametric simulations of solid oxide fuel cells with methane carbon dioxide reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A 2D model is developed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). ► CH4 reforming by CO2 (MCDR) is included. ► SOFC with MCDR shows comparable performance with methane steam reforming SOFC. ► Increasing CO electrochemical oxidation greatly enhances the SOFC performance. ► Effects of potential and temperature on SOFC performance are also discussed. - Abstract: A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fed with CO2 and CH4 mixture. The electrochemical oxidations of both CO and H2 are included. Important chemical reactions are considered in the model, including methane carbon dioxide reforming (MCDR), reversible water gas shift reaction (WGSR), and methane steam reforming (MSR). It’s found that at a CH4/CO2 molar ratio of 50/50, MCDR and reversible WGSR significantly influence the cell performance while MSR is negligibly small. The performance of SOFC fed with CO2/CH4 mixture is comparable to SOFC running on CH4/H2O mixtures. The electric output of SOFC can be enhanced by operating the cell at a low operating potential or at a high temperature. In addition, the development of anode catalyst with high activity towards CO electrochemical oxidation is important for SOFC performance enhancement. The model can serve as a useful tool for optimization of the SOFC system running on CH4/CO2 mixtures

  12. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, S. [Universita di Messina (Italy); Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S. [Istituto CNR-TAE, Messina (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  13. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  14. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  15. Thermal and chemical analysis of carbon dioxide reforming of methane using the out-of-pile test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of steam reforming of natural gas (its main composition is methane(CH4)) using nuclear heat (10 MW, 1178 K) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the prototype. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream to an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 : 30 and has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm3/h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is presently under construction. Reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide CO2 (CO2 reforming) using the out-of-pile test facility is also being considered. In recent years, catalytic reforming of natural gas with CO2 to synthesis gas (CO and H2) has been proposed as one of the most promising technologies for utilization of those two greenhouse gases. Numerical analysis on heat and mass balance has practical significance in CO2 reforming when the steam reforming process is adopted in the out-of-pile test. Numerical analysis of CO2 reforming and reforming of natural gas with CO2 and steam (CO2+H2O reforming) have been carried out using the mathematical model. Results such as the methane conversion rate, product gas composition, and the components temperature distribution considering the effects of helium gas temperature, reforming pressure, molar ratio of process gases and so on have been obtained in the numerical analysis. Heat and mass balance of the out-of-pile test facility considering chemical reactions are evaluated well. The methane conversation rates are about 0.36 and 0.35 which correspond to the equilibrium at 1085 and 1100 K for CO2 reforming

  16. Thermal and chemical analysis of carbon dioxide reforming of methane using the out-of-pile test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Ziyong [Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University (China); Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of steam reforming of natural gas (its main composition is methane(CH{sub 4})) using nuclear heat (10 MW, 1178 K) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the prototype. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream to an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 : 30 and has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm{sup 3}/h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is presently under construction. Reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2} reforming) using the out-of-pile test facility is also being considered. In recent years, catalytic reforming of natural gas with CO{sub 2} to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) has been proposed as one of the most promising technologies for utilization of those two greenhouse gases. Numerical analysis on heat and mass balance has practical significance in CO{sub 2} reforming when the steam reforming process is adopted in the out-of-pile test. Numerical analysis of CO{sub 2} reforming and reforming of natural gas with CO{sub 2} and steam (CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O reforming) have been carried out using the mathematical model. Results such as the methane conversion rate, product gas composition, and the components temperature distribution considering the effects of helium gas temperature, reforming pressure, molar ratio of process gases and so on have been obtained in the numerical analysis. Heat and mass balance of the out-of-pile test facility considering chemical reactions are evaluated well. The methane conversation rates are about 0.36 and 0.35 which

  17. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy. PMID:20078033

  18. Carbon dioxide reforming of methane on monolithic Ni/Al2O3-based catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.O.Soloviev; A.Yu.Kapran; S.N.Orlyk; E.V.Gubareni

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-alumina catalysts supported on cordierite monoliths of honeycomb structure surpass essentially the conventional granulated ones with respect to the output in carbon dioxide reforming of methane.Adjusting the surface acid-base properties of catalysts by introduction of alkali metal(Na,K)oxides inhibits the carbonization and as a result,improves the operational stability of these catalysts.An effect of promotion of nickel-alumina based composite doped by lanthanum oxide is found.This effect,caused by an additional route for the CO2 activation on Ni-La2O3/Al2O3/cordierite catalyst,is displayed in increase of methane conversion under conditions of an oxidant excess.

  19. Dry reforming of coke oven gases over activated carbon to produce syngas for methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bermudez; B. Fidalgo; A. Arenillas; J.A. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbn, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The dry reforming of coke oven gases (COG) over an activated carbon used as catalyst has been studied in order to produce a syngas suitable for methanol synthesis. The primary aim of this work was to study the influence of the high amount of hydrogen present in the COG on the process of dry reforming, as well as the influence of other operation conditions, such us temperature and volumetric hourly space velocity (VHSV). It was found that the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction takes place due to the hydrogen present in the COG, and that its influence on the process increases as the temperature decreases. This situation may give rise to the consumption of the hydrogen present in the COG, and the consequent formation of a syngas which is inappropriate for the synthesis of methanol. This reaction can be avoided by working at high temperatures (about 1000{sup o}C) in order to produce a syngas that is suitable for methanol synthesis. It was also found that the RWGS reaction is favoured by an increase in the VHSV. In addition, the active carbon FY5 was proven to be an adequate catalyst for the production of syngas from COG. 25 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Nanocrystalline MgO supported nickel-based bimetallic catalysts for carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkani, Fereshteh [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Rezaei, Mehran [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area and plate-like shape was employed as catalyst support for preparation of nickel-based bimetallic catalysts in methane reforming with carbon dioxide. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), Temperature programmed oxidation and desorption (TPO-TPD), Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric (TGA-DTG), H{sub 2} chemisorption and Transmission and electron microscopies (TEM and SEM) analyses. CO{sub 2}-TPD data showed the high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of catalysts which improves the resistance of catalysts against the carbon formation. The H{sub 2} chemisorption results also indicated that the addition of Pt to nickel catalyst improved the nickel dispersion. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts showed a high activity and stability during the reaction with a low amount of deposited carbon. Addition of Pt to nickel catalyst improved both the activity and resistivity against carbon formation. (author)

  1. Tungsten Promoted Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Synthesis Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Tian-cun; Thomas Suhartanto; Andrew P. E. York; Malcolm L. H. Green

    2004-01-01

    A series of tungsten promoted alumina supported nickel catalysts has been prepared for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane to synthesis gas. The catalysts have been characterized by means of XRD, TEM,and Laser Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the addition of tungsten to the nickel catalyst can stabilize the catalyst and increase the resistance to carbon deposition. Adding a suitable amount of tungsten can also increase the catalyst activity to be close to that of supported noble metal catalysts. The carburisation of the tungsten modified nickel catalyst decreases the catalyst activity at lower reaction temperatures(<1123K),but has no effect on the catalyst performance at higher reaction temperatures. The alumina supported nickel catalyst modified by 0. 67 % (mass fraction)WOs has the equivalent equilibrium constant of the dry reforming reaction to that of alumina supported 5% (mass fraction) Ru at 873 K, and also has a lower activation energy for dry reforming than the latter.

  2. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that

  3. Stability and activity of carbon nanofiber-supported catalysts in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasterecht, van T.; Ludding, C.C.I.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel, cobalt, copper and platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon nano-fibers were evaluated with respect to their stability, catalytic activity and selectivity in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol (230 ¿, autogenous pressure, batch reactor). The initial surface-specific activities

  4. Stability and activity of carbon nanofiber-supported catalysts in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haasterecht, T.; Ludding, C.C.I.; de Jong, K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel, cobalt, copper and platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon nano-fibers were evaluated with respect to their stability, catalytic activity and selectivity in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol (230 ◦C, autogenous pressure, batch reactor). The initial surface-specific activities

  5. Definition of a Thermodynamic Parameter to Calculate Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Catalytic Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Pons

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global warming, reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in oil and gas processes is an environmental and financial issue for process design and comparison. Environmental impact of a system can be determined by life cycle assessment (LCA. However this method presents limitations. Exergy is a thermodynamic function often chosen to complete LCA as it enables quantifying energetic efficiency of a process and takes into account the relation between the considered process and its environment. The aim of this work is to build a correlation between CO2 emissions and a thermodynamic quantity which depends on exergy. For the process under consideration, this correlation has the following asset: it enables CO2 emissions calculation without performing an LCA, when operating conditions are modified. The process studied here is naphtha catalytic reforming.

  6. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M; Grimes, P; Tewari, A; Sambhy, V; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper reports successful tests of a technique for coating the electrodes with polystyrene which, in conjunction with older common-sense techniques, appears to solve the problem. This kind of design is applicable to cars run on hydrogen fuel, on reformed methanol or even direct methanol. Developing a test methodology was a major part of the work. A foreword by one of the sponsors at NSF discusses the larger importance of this work for energy security and the environment.

  7. Methane dry reforming catalysts for the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of carbon dioxide reforming of methane (dry reforming) is a very attractive way to convert low-cost reactants in synthesis gas (CO + H2).Moreover, the reaction also has very important environmental effects because both methane and carbon dioxide are greenhouse gases, and may become valuable raw materials. One of the advantages of the dry reforming compared with the conventional steam reforming is the low H2:CO relationship in the product, which is preferred for the synthesis of oxoalcohols and oxygenated compounds. Although noble metals based catalysts have been proved to be less sensitive to coke, the high cost and restricted availability limit their use in this process.From an industrial standpoint, it is more desirable to develop nickel-based catalysts, which are resistant to carbon deposition and exhibit stable operation for extended periods of time.In this work nickel-alumina catalysts, pure or promoted with rhodium or ruthenium, were prepared using different techniques, employing aluminum and nickel alkoxides, and characterized and selected according to their catalytic activity and coking resistance.These catalysts are to be used in an inert ceramic membrane reactor.The nickel precursor is a nickel alkoxide incorporated to the matrix precursor of alumina, which at the same time is an aluminum alkoxide.Under this scheme, catalysts with a 14% nickel charge were prepared using three preparation methods: pC0: characteristics: hydrolysis and acid peptization with HNO3. A1C0: characteristics: thermal decomposition. A1C0H: characteristics: thermal decomposition and subsequent hydrothermal treatment.To sum up, three Ni-A12O3 catalysts, three Ni-Rh-A12O3 catalysts, and three Ni-Ru-A12O3 catalysts were prepared.Each catalyst was prepared using the three methods: pC0-Ni-X, A1C0-Ni-X, and A1C0H-Ni-X, (X= Ru or Rh).The precursors of alumina and nickel were aluminum sec-butoxide and nickel 1-methoxide-2-propoxide. Microstructure characterization was studied by

  8. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  9. Mixtures of Steel-Making Slag and Carbons as Catalyst for Microwave-Assisted Dry Reforming of CH4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose M. BERMUDEZ; Beatriz FIDALGO; Ana ARENILLAS; J. Angel MENENDEZ

    2012-01-01

    The use of steel-making slag as catalysts for microwave-assisted dry reforming of CH4 was studied.Two carbon materials (an activated carbon and a metallurgical coke),mixtures of the carbon materials and Fe-rich slag,and mixtures of the carbon materials and Ni/Al2O3 were tested as catalysts.The mixtures of slag with carbons gave rise to higher and steadier conversions than those achieved over the carbon materials alone.In addition,the use of the metallurgical coke mixed with metal-rich catalysts gave rise to remarkable results.Thus,no CH4 and CO2 conversions were achieved when coke was used alone,whereas high conversions were obtained when it was mixed with the metal-rich catalysts.

  10. Nickel-carbon nanocomposites prepared using castor oil as precursor: A novel catalyst for ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, Neftalí L. V.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Krolow, Mateus; Santos, Cláudia C. G.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    A novel and simple method to prepare nickel-based catalysts for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. The present method was developed using castor oil as a precursor. The results clarify that the nickel-carbon (Ni/C) catalyst has a high activity for ethanol steam reforming. It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be modified according to the experimental conditions employed. Moreover, it is interesting to note that the increase in the catalytic activity of the Ni/C nanocomposite over time, at 500 and 600 °C of reaction temperature, may be associated with the formation of filamentous carbon. The preliminary results indicate that the novel methodology used, led to the obtainment of materials with important properties that can be extended to applications in different catalytic process.

  11. Steam reforming of cyclic model compounds of bio-oil over Ni-based catalysts: Product distribution and carbon formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) of furfural, 2-methylfuran, and guaiacol have been investigated in the temperature range 400-800°C at a steam to carbon (S/C)-ratio of 5 and oxygen to carbon (O/C)-ratio of 0.2-1.4 over Ni/CeO2-K/MgAl2O4. Carbon oxides and H2 were the major...... products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural, while the by-products were methane, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone. Temperatures of 500°C or above were needed to minimize the formation of by-products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural. Phenolics, like benzenediols and phenol, were produced in high...... yields in the SR of guaiacol and temperatures of 780°C were needed to totally convert guaiacol to carbon oxides and H2.Carbon deposition was observed in the SR of all three model compounds and was most severe for guaiacol followed by furfural and 2-methylfuran. The carbon deposition could be reduced...

  12. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C.; Nahil, MA; Miskolczi, N; Huang, J; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-refo...

  13. Evaluation of Impact Damage Tolerance in Carbon Fabric/epoxy-matrix Composites by Electrical Resistance Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhipeng; XIE Xiaolin; HONG Zhen; LU Chao; WANG Gaochao

    2012-01-01

    Impact damage tolerance is provided in intensity design on composites.The compression intensity of impacted composites requires more than 60% of its original intensity.The influence of impact on compressive intensity and electrical resistance of carbon fabric/epoxy-matrix composites was studied in this paper.The experimental results shows that impact can cause damage in composites,degenerate compressive intensity,and increase resistance.The electrical resistance change rate was used as an evaluation indicator of impact damage tolerance of composites.Impact damage,which results from the applying process of composites,can be identified in time by electrical resistance measurement.So,the safety performance of composites can also be improved.

  14. Syngas from CO2 Reforming of Coke Oven Gas: synergetic effect of activated carbon / Ni-γAl2O3 Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The CO2 reforming of coke oven gas for the production of synthesis gas has been studied over an activated carbon, an in-lab prepared Ni/Al2O3 catalyst and physical mixtures of both materials in different proportions (AC + Ni) at 800 °C. It was found that there are two possible coexisting reaction pathways: the direct dry reforming of methane (decomposition of methane followed by gasification of the carbon deposits) and the reverse water gas shift reaction followed by the steam reforming ...

  15. Damage Tolerance Enhancement of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites by Nanoreinforcement of Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Joel Stewart

    Nanocomposites are a relatively new class of materials which incorporate exotic, engineered nanoparticles to achieve superior material properties. Because of their extremely small size and well-ordered structure, many nanoparticles possess properties that exceed those offered by a wide range of other known materials, making them attractive candidates for novel materials engineering development. Their small size is also an impediment to their practical use, as they typically cannot be employed by themselves to realize those properties in large structures. Furthermore, nanoparticles typically possess strong self-affinity, rendering them difficult to disperse uniformly into a composite. However, contemporary research has shown that, if well-dispersed, nanoparticles have great capacity to improve the mechanical properties of composites, especially damage tolerance, in the form of fracture toughness, fatigue life, and impact damage mitigation. This research focuses on the development, manufacturing, and testing of hybrid micro/nanocomposites comprised of woven carbon fibers with a carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy matrix. Material processing consisted of dispersant-and-sonication based methods to disperse nanotubes into the matrix, and a vacuum-assisted wet lay-up process to prepare the hybrid composite laminates. Various damage tolerance properties of the hybrid composite were examined, including static strength, fracture toughness, fatigue life, fatigue crack growth rate, and impact damage behavior, and compared with similarly-processed reference material produced without nanoreinforcement. Significant improvements were obtained in interlaminar shear strength (15%), Mode-I fracture toughness (180%), shear fatigue life (order of magnitude), Mode-I fatigue crack growth rate (factor of 2), and effective impact damage toughness (40%). Observations by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultrasonic imaging showed significant differences in failure behavior

  16. Nickel catalysts supported on MgO with different specific surface area for carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luming; Zhang; Lin; Li; Yuhua; Zhang; Yanxi; Zhao; Jinlin; Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, three kinds of MgO with different specific surface area were prepared, and their effects on the catalytic performance of nickel catalysts for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane were investigated. The results showed that MgO support with the higher specific surface area led to the higher dispersion of the active metal, which resulted in the higher initial activity. On the other hand, the specific surface area of MgO materials might not be the dominant factor for the basicity of support to chemisorb and activate CO2, which was another important factor for the performance of catalysts. Herein, Ni/MgO(CA) catalyst with proper specific surface area and strong ability to activate CO2exhibited stable catalytic property and the carbon species deposited on the Ni/MgO(CA) catalyst after 10 h of reaction at 650 ?C were mainly activated carbon species.

  17. Survey of reformed continuous flow carbon nanotubes column efficiency in removal of natural organic matters from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Naghizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Natural organic matters (NOMs are a mixture of chemically complex polyelectrolytes with varying molecular weights, produced mainly from the decomposition of plants and animal residues. Various purification methods are used for removal of NOMs from water. The objective of this study was to remove NOMs from aqueous solution using reformed continuous carbon nanotubes column. Materials and Methods: The removal of NOMs from aqueous solution using reformed continuous carbon nanotubes column was studied. Effect of several variables such as zero point of pH (pHZPC, pH, influent concentration of natural organic matters were studied and different isotherms were assessed. Results: Investigation of pH effect showed that the adsorbability of NOMs increased with decreasing of pH. The experiments indicated that carbon nanotubes (CNT samples exhibit pHZPC around 6. Results from Freundlich, Langmuir, and BET isotherm experiments revealed that the correlation coefficient R2 in Freundlich model was higher than that of Langmuir. In addition, experiments of continuous flow in different initial concentrations of NOMs showed that the adsorption capacities of CNT were 53.46, 30.40, and 24.75 mg/g for NOMs initial concentrations of 10, 5, and 3 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: The present study shows that CNTs have high potential for adsorption of NOMs from aqueous solution

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of sevelamer carbonate in hyperphosphatemic patients who have chronic kidney disease and are not on dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketteler, M.; Rix, M.; Fan, S.;

    2008-01-01

    supplemented with native vitamin D (400 IU). The primary efficacy parameter was the change from baseline in serum phosphorous. Secondary measures included the percentage of serum phosphorus responders; changes in serum lipids, calcium-phosphorus product, and bicarbonate; and safety and tolerability. RESULTS....... There were statistically significant decreases in serum calcium-phosphorus product and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the end of treatment and a statistically significant increase in mean serum bicarbonate levels (from 16.6 to 18.2 mEq/L). Sevelamer carbonate was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS......: Sevelamer carbonate is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for the control of phosphorous levels in hyperphosphatemic patients who have chronic kidney disease and are not on dialysis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  19. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Aishah Saidina Amin; Istadi Istadi; New Pei Yee

    2010-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bed reactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactions involved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM) and reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS). The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and mole raction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed...

  20. Renewable hydrogen: carbon formation on Ni and Ru catalysts during ethanol steam-reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Sehested, J.;

    2007-01-01

    Biomass is probably the only realistic green and sustainable carbonaceous alternative to fossil fuels. By degradation and fermentation, it can be converted into bioethanol, which is a chemical with a range of possible applications. In this study, the catalytic steam-reforming of ethanol for the p...

  1. Cadmium tolerance of carbon assimilation enzymes and chloroplast in Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Rong-Rong; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Tang, Ye-Tao; Hu, Peng-Jie; Qiu, Hao; Chen, Hong-Ru; Shi, Tai-Hong; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-15

    To better understand the photosynthesis under stress, the effect of cadmium on carbon assimilation and chloroplast ultrastructure of a newly found Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata in China was investigated in solution culture. The shoot and root Cd concentrations increased with increase in Cd supply, reaching maxima of 1109 and 5604mgkg(-1) dry weight at 75microM Cd, respectively. As Cd supply to P. divaricata increased, the shoot and root dry weight, leaf water content (except 75microM Cd), concentrations of chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyll a/b ratio and the concentration of carotenoids were not depressed at high Cd. However, the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and intercellular CO(2) concentration were significantly affected when the Cd concentration reached 10, 10, 25 and 75microM, respectively. Meanwhile, carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) activity and Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) content reached maxima in the presence of 50 and 5microM Cd, respectively. In addition, CA activity correlated positively with shoot Cd in plants treated with Cd at a range of 0-50microM. Moreover, the activities of NADP(+)-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13), Rubisco and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) were not significantly suppressed by increased Cd supply. Although the mesophyll cell size was reduced, chloroplast ultrastructure remained intact at the highest Cd treatment. Our finding revealed that P. divaricata chloroplast and the enzymes of carbon assimilation tolerate high levels of Cd, demonstrating its potential in possible application in phytoremediation. PMID:19683362

  2. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  3. Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagaoka, K.; Seshan, K.; Lercher, J.A.; Aika, A.; Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisc, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    The greater resistance to coke deposition for Pt/ZrO2 compared to Pt/Al2O3 in the CH4/CO2 reaction has been attributed to the higher reactivity of coke with CO2 on Pt/ZrO2 [1]. Hence, in this communication, the reaction of coke derived from methane (CHx: which is an intermediated in the reforming re

  4. Energy consumption and carbon emission-based productivity change and industrialization in post-reform China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shiyi; Amelia U. Santos-Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of productivity growth in China. It also analyses the sustainability of the country's industrial growth by estimating sectoral productivity, accounting for energy usage and emission since the start of the market-oriented reforms in the late 1970s. The growth accounting analysis indicates that productivity is the most significant driver of growth. Energy and capital are also important factors promoting China's industrial growth. The substantial productiv...

  5. Ni-SiO₂ catalysts for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane: varying support properties by flame spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Emma C; Scott, Jason; Amal, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Silica particles were prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as a support for nickel catalysts. The impact of precursor feed rate (3, 5 and 7 mL/min) during FSP on the silica characteristics and the ensuing effect on catalytic performance for the carbon dioxide, or dry, reforming of methane (DRM) was probed. Increasing the precursor feed rate: (i) progressively lowered the silica surface area from ≈340 m2/g to ≈240 m2/g; (ii) altered the silanol groups on the silica surface; and (iii) introduced residual carbon-based surface species to the sample at the highest feed rate. The variations in silica properties altered the (5 wt %) nickel deposit characteristics which in turn impacted on the DRM reaction. As the silica surface area increased, the nickel dispersion increased which improved catalyst performance. The residual carbon-based species also appeared to improve nickel dispersion, and in turn catalyst activity, although not to the same extent as the change in silica surface area. The findings illustrate both the importance of silica support characteristics on the catalytic performance of nickel for the DRM reaction and the capacity for using FSP to control these characteristics.

  6. Ni-SiO2 Catalysts for the Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane: Varying Support Properties by Flame Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Lovell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica particles were prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP as a support for nickel catalysts. The impact of precursor feed rate (3, 5 and 7 mL/min during FSP on the silica characteristics and the ensuing effect on catalytic performance for the carbon dioxide, or dry, reforming of methane (DRM was probed. Increasing the precursor feed rate: (i progressively lowered the silica surface area from ≈340 m2/g to ≈240 m2/g; (ii altered the silanol groups on the silica surface; and (iii introduced residual carbon-based surface species to the sample at the highest feed rate. The variations in silica properties altered the (5 wt % nickel deposit characteristics which in turn impacted on the DRM reaction. As the silica surface area increased, the nickel dispersion increased which improved catalyst performance. The residual carbon-based species also appeared to improve nickel dispersion, and in turn catalyst activity, although not to the same extent as the change in silica surface area. The findings illustrate both the importance of silica support characteristics on the catalytic performance of nickel for the DRM reaction and the capacity for using FSP to control these characteristics.

  7. Ni-SiO₂ catalysts for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane: varying support properties by flame spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Emma C; Scott, Jason; Amal, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Silica particles were prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as a support for nickel catalysts. The impact of precursor feed rate (3, 5 and 7 mL/min) during FSP on the silica characteristics and the ensuing effect on catalytic performance for the carbon dioxide, or dry, reforming of methane (DRM) was probed. Increasing the precursor feed rate: (i) progressively lowered the silica surface area from ≈340 m2/g to ≈240 m2/g; (ii) altered the silanol groups on the silica surface; and (iii) introduced residual carbon-based surface species to the sample at the highest feed rate. The variations in silica properties altered the (5 wt %) nickel deposit characteristics which in turn impacted on the DRM reaction. As the silica surface area increased, the nickel dispersion increased which improved catalyst performance. The residual carbon-based species also appeared to improve nickel dispersion, and in turn catalyst activity, although not to the same extent as the change in silica surface area. The findings illustrate both the importance of silica support characteristics on the catalytic performance of nickel for the DRM reaction and the capacity for using FSP to control these characteristics. PMID:25774491

  8. Use of Carbon Isotope Discrimination as Tool for Improving Drought Tolerance of Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in many countries of the region, agriculture in Yemen has been strongly affected by drought conditions, and cereal production is the most concerned. So to this regard, two approaches could be adopted to solve this problem; enhancement of irrigated areas, but negative effects can also be noted as salinity (e.g. Marib, area) and development of foliar diseases. The second approaches is improvement of water use and drought resistance of wheat cultivars: this long-term strategy, which is a part of a general approach giving more attention to the sustainability of farming systems, is at the basis of the present study. Several morphophysiological mechanisms of drought tolerance involved in dehydration tolerance, As for other morphophysiological traits, the possibility of using carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in breeding for water use efficiency (WUE) in drought prone environments is related to i) the facility of measurement, ii) the existence of variability, iii) high values of heritability, and iv) a good knowledge of eventual associations between Δ and other phenological or morphophysiological traits. The use of stable isotopes has until recently been limited because of the cost of mass spectrometers designed and the requirements for sample preparation. However, the recent linkage of an automatic gas sample preparation apparatus with a dual-inlet mass spectrometer has made the technique more convenient for fast and accurate analysis of stable isotope composition of the most important elements. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the interest of (Δ) in mature kernels as a criterion for the improvement of water use efficiency and yield under drought in tetraploid wheat species. For this purpose, T. durum Om Rabi 5 was crossed by T. polonicum 9 (Tp9) which had been found to be more droughts tolerant and to have a lower □ value of the grain. The F2 population showed a wide segregation for this last trait. Further, divergent selections were made among

  9. Control of Disease Tolerance to Malaria by Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Jeney

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO are gasotransmitters that suppress the development of severe forms of malaria associated with Plasmodium infection. Here, we addressed the mechanism underlying their protective effect against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM, a severe form of malaria that develops in Plasmodium-infected mice, which resembles, in many aspects, human cerebral malaria (CM. NO suppresses the pathogenesis of ECM via a mechanism involving (1 the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2, (2 induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and (3 CO production via heme catabolism by HO-1. The protection afforded by NO is associated with inhibition of CD4+ T helper (TH and CD8+ cytotoxic (TC T cell activation in response to Plasmodium infection via a mechanism involving HO-1 and CO. The protective effect of NO and CO is not associated with modulation of host pathogen load, suggesting that these gasotransmitters establish a crosstalk-conferring disease tolerance to Plasmodium infection.

  10. Simulated experiment evidences of the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate reservoirs: an example of Feixianguan Formation, east Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir of Feixianguan Formation of the Lower Triassic in the Sichuan Basin is the deepest buried carbonate reservoir in China, with developed secondary corrosion holes, high quantities carbonate reservoir, maximum effective carbonate reservoir thickness. Also Feixianguan gas reservoir has the highest quantities of H2S. Research discovers that there are close relationships between the formation of reservoir and H2S. The mutual actions between acidity fluid and carbonate promoted the forming of secondary carbonate holes. Through the experiment of corrosion of the samples of Feixianguan carbonate reservoir in saturated aqueous solution of hydrogen sulfide, the porosity and permeability increased greatly, porosity increased 2% and permeability increased nearly two quantity degrees, also the density became light, which confirm the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate.

  11. Anode regeneration following carbon depositions in an industrial-sized anode supported solid oxide fuel cell operating on synthetic diesel reformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotić, Vanja; Schluckner, Christoph; Mathe, Jörg; Rechberger, Jürgen; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Carbon deposition is a primary concern during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fueled with carbon-containing fuels. It leads to cell degradation and thus reduces SOFC sustained operation and durability. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of carbon formation on the nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anode of an anode-supported SOFC and its regeneration. The cell was fueled with a synthetically produced diesel reformate to investigate and simulate the cell behavior under real operating conditions. For this purpose the cell was operated under load to determine the critical operating time. Rapid carbon generation, such as at open circuit voltage (OCV), can be prevented when the cell is under load. Carbon depositions were detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and further analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Industrial-size cells suitable for commercial applications were studied. This study proves the reversibility of carbon formation and the reproducibility of the regeneration process. It shows that carbon formations can be recognized and effectively, fully and cell-protecting regenerated. It indicates the excellent possibility of using SOFCs in the automotive industry as an auxiliary power unit (APU) or combined power-heat unit, operated with diesel reformate, without danger from cell degradation caused by carbon-containing fuels.

  12. Catalytic reforming of model tar compounds from hot coke oven gas with low steam/carbon ratio over Ni/MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Baohua [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang, Xueguang; Ai, Xinpeng; Yang, Jun; Li, Lin; Lu, Xionggang; Ding, Weizhong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Material Processing, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No.149, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The catalytic reforming of toluene and naphthalene was performed to investigate the possibility for directly converting tar components from hot coke oven gas (COG) with lower steam/carbon (S/C) molar ratios to light fuel gases. The NiO/MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts reduced exhibited excellent catalytic activity, stability and sulphur tolerance. The effects of various reaction conditions and S/C ratios on the catalytic performance were investigated in detail. Toluene and naphthalene were completely converted into small gas molecules at 700-800 C and S/C = 0.28. An appropriate amount of steam benefited the methanation reaction of CO and H{sub 2}. The effects of N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} or CO in COG were also discussed. Relative to N{sub 2}, CO contributed to the conversion of toluene and the formation of CH{sub 4}, but the opposite was true for CH{sub 4}. The sulphur tolerance was tested by adding H{sub 2}S in the feed gas. The reaction results were explained by a water cycle mechanism. (author)

  13. Glow Discharge Plasma-Assisted Preparation of Nickel-Based Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Guo; Wei Chu; Jun-qiang Xu; Lin Zhong

    2008-01-01

    A plasma-assisted method was employed to prepare Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for carbon dioxide reforming of methane reaction. The novel catalyst possessed higher activity and better coke-suppression performance than those of the conventional calcination catalyst. To achieve the same CH4 conversion, the conventional catalyst needed higher reaction temperature, about 50 ℃ higher than that of the N2 plasma-treated catalyst.After the evaluation test, the deactivation rate of the novel catalyst was 1.7%, compared with 15.2% for the conventional catalyst. Different from the characterization results of the calcined catalyst, a smaller average pore diameter and a higher specific surface area were obtained for the plasma-treated catalyst.The variations of the reduction peak temperatures and areas indicated that the catalyst reducibility was promoted by plasma assistance. The dispersion of nickel was also remarkably improved, which was helpful for controlling the ensemble size of metal atoms on the catalyst surface. The modification effect of plasmaassisted preparation on the surface property of alumina supported catalyst was speculated to account for the concentration increase of absorbed CO2. An enhancement of CO2 adsorption was propitious to the inhibition of carbon formation. The coke amount deposited on plasma treated catalyst was much smaller than that on the conventional catalyst.

  14. The Chinese Grain for Green Programme: assessing the carbon sequestered via land reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Martin; Moberg, Jesper; Ostwald, Madelene; Xu, Jintao

    2013-09-15

    The Grain for Green Programme (GGP) was launched in China in 1999 to control erosion and increase vegetation cover. Budgeted at USD 40 billion, GGP has converted over 20 million hectares of cropland and barren land into primarily tree-based plantations. Although GGP includes energy forests, only a negligible part (0.6%) is planted as such, most of the land (78%) being converted for protection. Future use of these plantations is unclear and an energy substitution hypothesis is valid. We estimate the overall carbon sequestration via GGP using official statistics and three approaches, based on i) net primary production, ii) IPCC's greenhouse gas inventory guidelines, and iii) mean annual increment. We highlight uncertainties associated with GGP and the estimates. Results indicate that crop- and barren-land conversion sequestered 222-468 Mt of carbon over GGP's first ten years, the IPCC approach yielding the highest estimate and the other two approaches yielding similar but lower estimates (approximately 250 Mt of carbon). The carbon stock in these plantation systems yields a mean of 12.3 t of carbon per hectare. Assessment uncertainties concern the use of growth curves not designed for particular species and locations, actual plantation survival rates, and discrepancies in GGP figures (e.g., area, type, and survival rate) at different authority levels (from national to local). The carbon sequestered in above- and below-ground biomass from GGP represents 14% (based on the median of the three approaches) of China's yearly (2009) carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use and cement production.

  15. The use of carbon-isotope discrimination to screen wheat cultivars for tolerance of salinity and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope determinations provide time-integrated measures of plant physiological activities and plant interactions with the environment. In these experiments the effects of soil salinity on carbon isotope discrimination were studied. The classical method of selection of wheat cultivars based on yield performance under saline conditions has been largely unsuccessful. Also, physiological traits such as dry matter (DM), water use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index (HI) have been used as alternatives to screening for yield. Carbon-13 discrimination (Δ) is an integrated measure of the response of photosynthetic gas exchange to environmental variables such as water availability, light, humidity, and salinity, and has been shown to be a useful tool in the selection of cultivars for drought tolerance. Despite similarities between the effects of water and salt stresses on plant growth, few attempts have been made to quantify the effect of salinity on Δ, and its potential as a breeding selection characteristic, aimed at increasing grain yield under saline conditions. The objectives of this experiment were to study the effect of soil salinity on Δ in salt- and drought-tolerant wheat cultivars under well watered and water-limiting conditions, and to evaluate the relationship between DM, WUE, and HI under the two levels of moisture

  16. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aishah Saidina Amin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bed reactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactions involved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and mole raction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition, the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The models can also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactor with certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7120.21-29][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7120.21-29 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7120

  17. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions.

  18. CO tolerant PtRu-MoO{sub x} nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiouvaras, N.; Pena, M.A.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Huerta, M.V. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de La Laguna, Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38071, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Moliner, R.; Lazaro, M.J. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, J.L.; Pastor, E. [Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de La Laguna, Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38071, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Novel nanostructured catalysts based on PtRu-MoO{sub x} nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers have been investigated for CO and methanol electrooxidation. Carbon nanofibers are prepared by thermocatalytic decomposition of methane (NF), and functionalized with HNO{sub 3} (NF.F). Electrocatalysts are obtained using a two-step procedure: (1) Pt and Ru are incorporated on the carbon substrates (Vulcan XC 72R, NF and NF.F), and (2) Mo is loaded on the PtRu/C samples. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses establish that the incorporation of Mo increases significantly the CO tolerance than respective binary counterparts. The nature of the carbon support affects considerably the stabilization of MoO{sub x} nanoparticles and also the performance in methanol electrooxidation. Accordingly, a significant increase of methanol oxidation is obtained in PtRu-MoO{sub x} nanoparticles supported on non-functionalized carbon nanofiber, in parallel with a large reduction of the Pt amount in comparison with binary counterparts and commercial catalyst. (author)

  19. Non-linear model reduction and control of molten carbonate fuel cell systems with internal reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Min

    2007-10-12

    Currently, the process design of fuel cells and the development of control strategies is mainly based on heuristic methods. Fuel cell models are often too complex for control purposes, or they are developed for a specific type of fuel cell and valid only in a small range of operation conditions. The application of fuel cell models to controller design is still limited. Furthermore, suitable and simple-to-implement design strategies for fuel cell control remain an open area. There is thus a motivation for simplifying dynamic models for process control applications and for designing suitable control strategies for fuel cells. This is the main objective of this work. As an application example, the 250 kW industrial molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system HotModule by MTU CFC Solutions, Germany is considered. A detailed dynamic two-dimensional spatially distributed cross-flow model of a MCFC from literature is taken as a starting point for the investigation. In Chapter 2, two simplified model versions are derived by incorporating additional physical assumptions. One of the simplified models is extended to a three-dimensional stack model to deal with physical and chemical phenomena in the stack. Simulations of the stack model are performed in Chapter 3 in order to calculate the mass and temperature distributions in the direction perpendicular to the electrode area. The other simplified model forms the basis for a low order reduced model that is derived in Chapter 4. The reduced-order model is constructed by application of the Karhunen-Loeve Galerkin method. The spatial temperature, concentration and potential profiles are approximated by a set of orthogonal time independent spatial basis functions. Problem specific basis functions are generated numerically from simulation data of the detailed reference model. The advantage of this approach is that a small number of basis functions suffices in order to approximate the solution of the detailed model very well. The

  20. An in-depth understanding of the bimetallic effects and coked carbon species on an active bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 dry reforming catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Gerdts, Rihards; Parker, Stewart F; Chi, Lina; Zhao, Yongxiang; Hill, Martyn; Guo, Junqiu; Jones, Martin O; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-06-29

    Ni/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3 and bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and employed in CO2 dry reforming of methane under coking-favored conditions. The spent catalysts were carefully characterized using typical characterization technologies and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The bimetallic catalyst exhibited a superior activity and anti-coking performance compared to Ni/Al2O3, while the most resistant to coking behavior was Co/Al2O3. The enhanced activity of the Ni(Co)/Al2O3 bimetallic catalyst is attributed to the reduced particle size of metallic species and resistance to forming stable filamentous carbon. The overall carbon deposition on the spent bimetallic catalyst is comparable to that of the spent Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas the carbon deposited on the bimetallic catalyst is mainly less-stable carbonaceous species as confirmed by SEM, TPO, Raman and INS characterization. This study provides an in depth understanding of alloy effects in catalysts, the chemical nature of coked carbon on spent Ni-based catalysts and, hopefully, inspires the creative design of a new bimetallic catalyst for dry reforming reactions.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Dry Reforming of Glycerol for Hydrogen Production using Ni/ZrO2 and Ni/CaO as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Nabillah Mohd Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, byproduct from the biodiesel production can be effectively utilized as the promising source of synthesis gas (syngas through a dry reforming reaction. Combination of these waste materials with greenhouse gases which is carbon dioxide (CO2 will help to reduce environmental problem such as global warming. This dry reforming reaction has been carried out in a fixed bed batch reactor at 700 °C under the atmospheric pressure for 3 hours. In this experiment, reforming reaction was carried out using Nickel (Ni as based catalyst and supported with zirconium (ZrO2 and calcium (CaO oxides. The catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized using Bruanaer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermo Gravimetric (TGA, and Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR analysis. Reaction studies show that 15% Ni/CaO give the highest hydrogen yield and glycerol conversion that peaked at 24.59% and 30.32%, respectively. This result is verified by XRD analysis where this catalyst shows low crystallinity and fine dispersion of Ni species resulted in high specific surface area which gives 44.93 m2/g that is validated by BET.  Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 21st January 2016; Revised: 24th February 2016; Accepted: 29th February 2016 How to Cite: Arif, N.M.M., Vo, D.V.N., Azizan,M.T., Abidin S.Z. (2016. Carbon Dioxide Dry Reforming of Glycerol for Hydrogen Production using Ni/ZrO2 and Ni/CaO as Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 200-209 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.551.200-209 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.551.200-209

  2. Improving high carbon dioxide tolerance and carbon dioxide fixation capability of Chlorella sp. by adaptive laboratory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengjin; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2015-06-01

    CO2 capture by microalgae is a promising method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is critical to construct a highly efficient way to obtain a microalgal strain tolerant to high CO2 concentrations with high CO2 fixation capability. In this study, two evolved Chlorella sp. strains, AE10 and AE20 were obtained after 31 cycles of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) under 10% and 20% CO2, respectively. Both of them grew rapidly in 30% CO2 and the maximal biomass concentration of AE10 was 3.68±0.08g/L, which was 1.22 and 2.94 times to those of AE20 and original strain, respectively. The chlorophyll contents of AE10 and AE20 were significantly higher than those of the original one under 1-30% CO2. The influences of ALE process on biochemical compositions of Chlorella cells were also investigated. This study proved that ALE was an effective approach to improve high CO2 tolerance of Chlorella sp.

  3. Carbon Materials as Catalysts for Decomposition and CO2 Reforming of Methane: A Review%用于甲烷分解和甲烷二氧化炭重整的碳材料催化剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz FIDALGO; J.(A)ngel MEN(E)NDEZ

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition and CO2 reforming of methane, respectively, are promising altematives to industrial steam methane reforming. In recent years, research has been focused on the development of catalysts that can operate without getting deactivated by carbon deposition, where, in particular, carbon catalysts have shown positive results. In this work,the role of carbon materials in heterogeneous catalysis is assessed and publications on methane decomposition and CO2 reforming of methane over carbon materials are reviewed. The influence of textural properties (BET surface area and micropore volume, etc.) and oxygen surface groups on the catalytic activity of carbon materials are discussed. In addition. this review examines how activated carbon and carbon black catalysts. which are the most commonly used carbon catalysts, are deactivated. Characteristics of the carbon deposits from methane are discussed and the influence of the reactivity to CO2 of fresh carbon and carbonaceous deposits for high and steady conversion during CO2 reforming of CH4 are also considered.

  4. Hydrogen production by reforming of fossil and biomass fuels accompanied by carbon dioxide capture process is the energy source for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has a significant future potential as an alternative energy source for the transportation sector as well as in residential homes and offices, H2 in fuel cell power systems provides an alternative to direct fossil fuel and biomass combustion based technologies and offer the possibility for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission based on improved H2 yield per unit of fossil fuel and biomass, compatibility with renewable energies and motivation to convert to a H2-based energy economy. Several practical techniques for H2 production to service H2 refuelling stations as well as homes and offices, all of which need to be located at the end of the energy distribution network, include: (1) the carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas; (2) reforming of gasoline; (3) reforming of crude ethanol. Locating the H2 production at the end of the energy distribution network solves the well-known problems of metal fatigue and high cost of H2 compression for long distance transportation if H2 is produced in a large centralized plant. In addition, the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the need to reduce emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere has prompted the capture and utilization of the CO2 produced from the reforming process. In this research: (1) new efficient catalysts for each reforming process was developed; (2) a new efficient catalyst for our version of the water gas shift reaction to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide was developed; (3) a new membrane separation process for production of high purity, fuel cell-grade H2 was designed; (4) a numerical model for optimum process design and optimum utilization of resources both at the laboratory and industrial scales was developed; (5) various processes for CO2 capture were investigated experimentally in order to achieve a net improvement in the absorption process; (6) the utilization of captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and/or storage in an aging oil field were investigated; (7) monitoring

  5. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  6. Carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Ni/Mo/SBA-15-La2O3 catalyst: Its characterization and catalytic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Huang; Renxiong Ma; Tao Huang; Anrong Zhang; Wei Huang

    2011-01-01

    The Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalyst was modified by La2O3 in order to improve its thermal stability and carbon deposition resistance during the CO2 reforming of methane to syngas.The catalytic performance,thermal stability,structure,dispersion of nickel and carbon deposition of the modified and unmodified catalysts were comparatively investigated by many characterization techniques such as N2 adsorption,H2-TPR,CO2-TPD,XRD,FT-IR and SEM.It was found that the major role of La2O3 additive was to improve the pore structure and inhibit carbon deposition on the catalyst surface.The La2O3 modified Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalyst possessed a mesoporous structure and high surface area.The high surface area of the La2O3 modified catalysts resulted in strong interaction between Ni and Mo-La,which improved the dispersion of Ni,and retarded the sintering of Ni during the CO2 reforming process.The reaction evaluation results also showed that the La2O3 modified Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited high stability.

  7. Characterization of the oxygen tolerance of a hydrogenase linked to a carbon monoxide oxidation pathway in Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Pin-Ching; Smolinski, Sharon; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J; Weaver, Paul F

    2002-06-01

    A hydrogenase linked to the carbon monoxide oxidation pathway in Rubrivivax gelatinosus displays tolerance to O2. When either whole-cell or membrane-free partially purified hydrogenase was stirred in full air (21% O2, 79% N2), its H2 evolution activity exhibited a half-life of 20 or 6 h, respectively, as determined by an anaerobic assay using reduced methyl viologen. When the partially purified hydrogenase was stirred in an atmosphere containing either 3.3 or 13% O2 for 15 min and evaluated by a hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange assay, nearly 80 or 60% of its isotopic exchange rate was retained, respectively. When this enzyme suspension was subsequently returned to an anaerobic atmosphere, more than 90% of the H-D exchange activity was recovered, reflecting the reversibility of this hydrogenase toward O2 inactivation. Like most hydrogenases, the CO-linked hydrogenase was extremely sensitive to CO, with 50% inhibition occurring at 3.9 microM dissolved CO. Hydrogen production from the CO-linked hydrogenase was detected when ferredoxins of a prokaryotic source were the immediate electron mediator, provided they were photoreduced by spinach thylakoid membranes containing active water-splitting activity. Based on its appreciable tolerance to O2, potential applications of this hydrogenase are discussed.

  8. Damage tolerance and assessment of unidirectional carbon fiber composites: An experimental and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mark David

    Composites are beginning to be used in a variety of different applications throughout industry. However, certification and damage tolerance is a growing concern in many aerospace and marine applications. Although compression-after-impact have been studied thoroughly, determining a damage tolerance methodology that accurately characterizes the failure of composites has not been established. An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of stacking sequence, low-velocity impact response, and residual strength due to compression and fatigue. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) captured the strains and deformation of the plate due to compression. Computational investigations integrated non-destructive techniques (C-Scan, X-Ray) to determine the extent of the damage created by the manufacturing process and impact to accurately create a representative of the pre-existing damage. Fiber/matrix cracking, delamination growth, buckling, as well as other failures mechanisms occur in compression-after-impact laminated specimens examined experimentally. The results from this study provide knowledge of the compression after impact strength of plates, and a basis for validation of detailed modeling of progressive failure from impact damaged composites.

  9. 公差配合与测量技术实验教学的改革与研究%Experimental Teaching Reform and Research of Tolerance and ;Measuring Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤霞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis to the weaknesses of the students at school in using tolerance, a new teaching reform mode of Tolerance experiment has been proposed to improve the students’ ability of using prior knowledge and the spirit of exploration, enhancing the consciousness of quality and engineering practice. It includes comprehensive testing project, accuracy measurement of CNC, accuracy measurement using coordinate measuring machine.%以对在校学生公差应用能力调研为基础,提出公差实验课改革的新的教学模式,引入综合的检测项目、真实工作场景的数控机床的精度检测、三坐标测量的实验项目,提高学生知识运用能力和探索精神,增强学生的质量意识和工程意识。

  10. CO2 mitigation by carbon nanotube formation during dry reforming of methane analyzed by factorial design combined with response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiago P. Braga; Regina C. R. Santos; Barbara M. C. Sales; Bruno R. da Silva; Antônio N. Pinheiro; Edson R. Leite; Antoninho Valentini

    2014-01-01

    A factorial experimental design was combined with response surface methodology (RSM) to opti-mize the catalyzed CO2 consumption by coke deposition and syngas production during the dry re-forming of CH4. The CH4/CO2 feed ratio and the reaction temperature were chosen as the variables, and the selected responses were CH4 and CO2 conversion, the H2/CO ratio, and coke deposition. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be a CH4/CO2 feed ratio of approximately 3 at 700 °C, producing a large quantity of coke and realizing high CO2 conversion. Furthermore, Raman results showed that the CH4/CO2 ratio and reaction temperature affect the system’s response, particularly the characteristics of the coke produced, which indicates the formation of carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbon.

  11. The carbon-tolerance mechanism of Ni-based alloy with coinage metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyang; Fu, Zhaoming; Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn

    2013-11-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we investigate the successive dehydrogenation of CH{sub 4}, as well as the diffusion of CH (the most important carbon-containing intermediate), on the Ni(111) surfaces doped with coinage metals. It is found that, although alloying of Ni with coinage metals can to some extent affect the CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation, the coking inhibition on the alloy surface mainly roots in the large diffusion barrier of CH, as well as the reduction of the number of active adsorption sites for CH{sub x}. These results give a clue for designing new catalyst with higher coking resistance.

  12. The redox-sensing regulator Rex modulates central carbon metabolism, stress tolerance response and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P Bitoun

    Full Text Available The Rex repressor has been implicated in regulation of central carbon and energy metabolism in gram-positive bacteria. We have previously shown that Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of dental caries, alters its transcriptome upon Rex-deficiency and renders S. mutans to have increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, aberrations in glucan production, and poor biofilm formation. In this study, we showed that rex in S. mutans is co-transcribed as an operon with downstream guaA, encoding a putative glutamine amidotransferase. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that recombinant Rex bound promoters of target genes avidly and specifically, including those down-regulated in response to Rex-deficiency, and that the ability of recombinant Rex to bind to selected promoters was modulated by NADH and NAD(+. Results suggest that Rex in S. mutans can function as an activator in response to intracellular NADH/NAD(+ level, although the exact binding site for activator Rex remains unclear. Consistent with a role in oxidative stress tolerance, hydrogen peroxide challenge assays showed that the Rex-deficient mutant, TW239, and the Rex/GuaA double mutant, JB314, were more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide killing than the wildtype, UA159. Relative to UA159, JB314 displayed major defects in biofilm formation, with a decrease of more than 50-fold in biomass after 48-hours. Collectively, these results further suggest that Rex in S. mutans regulates fermentation pathways, oxidative stress tolerance, and biofilm formation in response to intracellular NADH/NAD(+ level. Current effort is being directed to further investigation of the role of GuaA in S. mutans cellular physiology.

  13. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yi Ma

    Full Text Available Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn, which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems.

  14. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.;

    2016-01-01

    To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When...... infiltrated with Sr0.99Fe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ (SFM), the electronic conductivity wasenhanced. However, polarization resistance of the cells increased,suggesting that the infiltrated material is less electro-catalyticallyactive and was partly blocking the CGO surface reaction sites. Theactivity could be regained...... by infiltrating nano-sized CGO orNiCGO on top of SFM, while still sustaining the high electronicconductivity. Ohmic resistance of the electrodes was thuspractically eliminated and performance comparable to, or betterthan, state-of-the-art fuel electrodes was achieved. The Nicontaining cells were damaged by carbon...

  15. Carbon Deposition during Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane—Comparison between Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/ZrO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Aika, Ken-ichi; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2001-01-01

    The relation between coke formation and the deactivation of supported Pt catalysts during CO2 reforming of methane at temperatures above 1070 K such as used in the commercial process was studied. Temperature-programmed oxidation and temperature-programmed reaction with CO2 were applied to Pt catalys

  16. Use of carbon isotope discrimination (δ) as a potential tool for salt tolerance selection in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Δ value of the wheat grown in the green house at 16 dSm-1 and field yield of cultivars grown under saline conditions, suggesting that the simple early-non-destructive hole punch technique and carbon isotope discrimination could be used as screening tools for salinity tolerance. Work is being performed to develop plant sample preparation techniques for 13C analysis using the FANci breath test analyser. This is a low cost, simple apparatus, which requires minimal training and expertise. Initial results from the tests are promising suggesting that the FANci could be used in discrimination type studies, however, further development and testing is required. In conclusion there was a significant correlation between Δ and the field yields δ decreased with increasing salinity concentration. It appears that salinity tolerance is a trait that is correlated to Δ and thus Δ could be used as a screening tool for plant breeding. Sampling techniques using the soil water samplers allowed simple monitoring and adjustment of salinity levels. Plant sap analysis could provide us with a rapid tool for determining plant tolerance to short term drought stress. The hole punch techniques proved to be a simple and effective non-destructive sampling strategy. With some development the FANci apparatus may be used as a simple method for 13C analysis. (author)

  17. Activity, short-term stability (poisoning tolerance) and durability of carbon supported Pt-Pr catalysts for ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Patricia G.; Antolini, Ermete; Perez, Joelma

    2014-04-01

    Pt-Pr/C electrocatalysts were prepared by a modified formic acid method, and their activity for carbon monoxide and ethanol oxidation, their short term stability and durability were compared to that of commercial Pt/C and Pt-Sn/C (3:1) catalysts. By derivative voltammetry (DV) it was found that ethanol electro-oxidation takes place by two main pathways at different potentials. It was observed that, in the presence of Pr, ethanol electro-oxidation takes place mostly through the pathway at lower potential, which is the most interesting for fuel cell application. The Pt-Pr/C catalysts were less tolerant to poisoning by ethanol oxidation intermediate species than Pt/C. Durability test by a repetitive potential cycling under Ar atmosphere revealed a good structural stability of Pt-Pr/C catalysts. A repetitive potential cycling under CO atmosphere carried out on the Pt-Pr/C (1:1) catalyst, instead, indicated a structural change, likely by formation of a core-shell structure.

  18. Suppression of carbon formation in CH4–CO2 reforming by addition of Sr into bimetallic Ni–Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Fatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic catalysts, containing 5 wt% Ni + 5 wt% Co supported on γ-Al2O3 combined with different amounts of Sr promoter ranging from 0 to 1 wt%, for dry reforming reaction were prepared by the impregnation method. The dry reforming reaction was carried out at atmospheric pressure using CO2/CH4/N2 feed ratio of 17/17/2, F/W = 60 mL/min gcat and reaction temperature range of 500–700 °C. The performance of the developed catalyst was evaluated by estimating the CH4 and CO2 conversions, and by performing a long run stability test. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET, TGA, TPD, TPR, and TPO. The bimetallic catalysts provided higher activity than the monometallic-catalysts. When the bimetallic was promoted with Sr, the activity decreased slightly however, the stability enhanced. The best stability, estimated by the deactivation factor, and less carbon deposition, measured by TGA, were obtained when 5Ni5CoSr0.75 catalyst was used.

  19. Electoral reforms

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2013-01-01

    Varma proposes electoral and political reforms to reserve politics only to perfectionists who intend to dedicate their whole time and energy to serve the people of the country round the clock. It is imperative to consider these new political and electoral reforms for better, healthy and improved democracy to remove corruption, inequalities, unemployment and mis-governance. Varma’s political and electoral reforms are aimed at empowering under privileged, working class, rural and urban areas...

  20. Processing and Damage Tolerance of Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites Containing Puncture Self-Healing Thermoplastic Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Gordon, Keith L.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) has identified several commercially available thermoplastic polymers that self-heal after ballistic impact and through-penetration. One of these resins, polybutadiene graft copolymer (PB(sub g)), was processed with unsized IM7 carbon fibers to fabricate reinforced composite material for further evaluation. Temperature dependent characteristics, such as the degradation point, glass transition (T(sub g)), and viscosity of the PBg polymer were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic parallel plate rheology. The PBg resin was processed into approximately equal to 22.0 cm wide unidirectional prepreg tape in the NASA LaRC Advanced Composites Processing Research Laboratory. Data from polymer thermal characterization guided the determination of a processing cycle used to fabricate quasi-isotropic 32-ply laminate panels in various dimensions up to 30.5cm x 30.5cm in a vacuum press. The consolidation quality of these panels was analyzed by optical microscopy and acid digestion. The process cycle was further optimized based on these results and quasi-isotropic, [45/0/-45/90]4S, 15.24cm x 15.24cm laminate panels were fabricated for mechanical property characterization. The compression strength after impact (CAI) of the IM7/pBG composites was measured both before and after an elevated temperature and pressure healing cycle. The results of the processing development effort of this composite material as well as the results of the mechanical property characterization are presented in this paper.

  1. A new alkali-resistant Ni/Al2O3-MSU-1 core-shell catalyst for methane steam reforming in a direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xiongfu; Liu, Weifeng; Liu, Haiou; Qiu, Jieshan; Yeung, King Lun

    2014-01-01

    An alkali-resistant catalyst for direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) is prepared by growing a thin shell of mesoporous MSU-1 membrane on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst beads. The MSU-1 shell is obtained by first depositing a monolayer of colloidal silicalite-1 (Sil-1) on the catalyst bead as linkers and then using NaF stored in the beads to catalyze the growth of the MSU-1 layer. The resulting core-shell catalysts display excellent alkali-resistance and deliver stable methane conversion and hydrogen yield in an out-of-cell test simulating the operating conditions of an operating DIR-MCFC. Higher conversion and yield (i.e., up to over 70%) are obtained from the new core-shell catalyst with MSU-1 shell compared to the catalyst with microporous Sil-1 shell. A mathematical model of the reaction and poisoning of the core-shell catalyst is used to predict the optimum shell thickness for its reliable use in a DIR-MCFC.

  2. Fuel flexibility study of an integrated 25 kW SOFC reformer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaofan; Rao, Ashok D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    The operation of solid oxide fuel cells on various fuels, such as natural gas, biogas and gases derived from biomass or coal gasification and distillate fuel reforming has been an active area of SOFC research in recent years. In this study, we develop a theoretical understanding and thermodynamic simulation capability for investigation of an integrated SOFC reformer system operating on various fuels. The theoretical understanding and simulation results suggest that significant thermal management challenges may result from the use of different types of fuels in the same integrated fuel cell reformer system. Syngas derived from coal is simulated according to specifications from high-temperature entrained bed coal gasifiers. Diesel syngas is approximated from data obtained in a previous NFCRC study of JP-8 and diesel operation of the integrated 25 kW SOFC reformer system. The syngas streams consist of mixtures of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. Although the SOFC can tolerate a wide variety in fuel composition, the current analyses suggest that performance of integrated SOFC reformer systems may require significant operating condition changes and/or system design changes in order to operate well on this variety of fuels.

  3. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom......Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience...

  4. The Carbon Tax Reform under the Mode of Low-carbon Economy in China%低碳经济模式下的我国碳税改革思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭玲

    2012-01-01

    the mode of low-carbon economy is the main way to achieve our economic and social sustainable development. As a powerful tool to promote energy conservation and address climate change, Carbon tax is applied by the international community. With the trend of the global low carbon economy, research and design the carbon tax policy to meet the condition of our country is imperative. Reform of the carbon tax levies on oil, chemical companies, the tax base is to estimate the amount of carbon emissions, the tax burden of carbon tax should not be high, and we should set the tax relief measures to reduce the burden on enterprises.%低碳经济模式是实现我国经济社会可持续发展的主要途径。碳税作为促进节能减排、应对气候变化的有力工具被国际社会广泛应用。在全球发展低碳经济的趋势下,研究与设计符合我国国情的碳税政策势在必行。碳税改革的征收对象主要为石油、化工企业,税基采用碳排放的估算量,碳税的税负宜低不宜高,应设定减免税措施,降低企业负担。

  5. Tolerance of allogromiid Foraminifera to severely elevated carbon dioxide concentrations: Implications to future ecosystem functioning and paleoceanographic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Joan M.; Mollo-Christensen, Elizabeth; Eisenkolb, Nadine; Starczak, Victoria R.

    2009-02-01

    Increases in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2) in the atmosphere will significantly affect a wide variety of terrestrial fauna and flora. Because of tight atmospheric-oceanic coupling, shallow-water marine species are also expected to be affected by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. One proposed way to slow increases in atmospheric pCO 2 is to sequester CO 2 in the deep sea. Thus, over the next few centuries marine species will be exposed to changing seawater chemistry caused by ocean-atmospheric exchange and/or deep-ocean sequestration. This initial case study on one allogromiid foraminiferal species ( Allogromia laticollaris) was conducted to begin to ascertain the effect of elevated pCO 2 on benthic Foraminifera, which are a major meiofaunal constituent of shallow- and deep-water marine communities. Cultures of this thecate foraminiferan protist were used for 10-14-day experiments. Experimental treatments were executed in an incubator that controlled CO 2 (15 000; 30 000; 60 000; 90 000; 200 000 ppm), temperature and humidity; atmospheric controls (i.e., ~ 375 ppm CO 2) were executed simultaneously. Although the experimental elevated pCO 2 values are far above foreseeable surface water pCO 2, they were selected to represent the spectrum of conditions expected for the benthos if deep-sea CO 2 sequestration becomes a reality. Survival was assessed in two independent ways: pseudopodial presence/absence and measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is an indicator of cellular energy. Substantial proportions of A. laticollaris populations survived 200 000 ppm CO 2 although the mean of the median [ATP] of survivors was statistically lower for this treatment than for that of atmospheric control specimens. After individuals that had been incubated in 200 000 ppm CO 2 for 12 days were transferred to atmospheric conditions for ~ 24 h, the [ATP] of live specimens (survivors) approximated those of the comparable atmospheric

  6. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-12-31

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  7. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  8. Preliminary Analysis of UK Low Carbon Electricity Market Reform%英国低碳化电力市场改革方案初析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 刘春阳

    2014-01-01

    With electricity marketization for over 20 years,United Kingdom (UK) has established a relatively complete electricity market system.However,owing to global climate change and environmental factors,the UK third electricity market reform attempts to ensure that the future electricity supply is secure,low-carbon while affordable.According to documents released by the UK government in recent years,this paper summarizes and gives an account of the main contents of the UK electricity market reform,including feed-in tariff with contracts for difference in price,emissions performance standards, capacity market and carbon price floor,regulatory asset base and others,and a brief discussion of the expected results.Finally, the enlightenment significance to China”s power market construction is described.%英国电力工业市场化进行了20多年,已建立了较完善的市场体系。但由于全球气候变化和环境因素影响,英国电力市场计划实行第3次改革,其目标是推动低碳电源发展和确保电力安全,同时防止未来电价的大幅上涨。文中根据近几年英国政府部门发布的相关文件,总结介绍了英国电力市场这次改革的主要内容,包括基于差价合约的上网电价机制、容量市场的建立、碳价格机制、碳排放标准和资产监管等,并讨论了其预期效果。简要叙述了其对中国电力市场建设的启示意义。

  9. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  10. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the ‘dry’ reforming of methane over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst operating under conditions where filamentous carbon formation is prevalent

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, D.; McFarlane, AR; Silverwood, IP; Warringham, R; Norris, EL; Ormerod, RM; Frost, CD; Parker, SF

    2013-01-01

    The use of CO2 in reforming methane to produce the industrial feedstock syngas is an economically and environmentally attractive reaction. An alumina-supported nickel catalyst active for this reaction additionally forms filamentous carbon. The catalyst is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering as well as elemental analysis, temperature-programmed oxidation, temperature-programmed hydrogenation, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. Isotopic substituti...

  11. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  12. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst. PMID:27483798

  13. Hydrogen from methanol for fuel cells in mobile systems: development of a compact reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, B.; Boe, M.; Bøgild-Hansen, J.; Bröckerhoff, P.; Colsman, G.; Emonts, B.; Menzer, R.; Riedel, E.

    On-board generation of hydrogen from methanol with a reformer in connection with the use of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an attractive option for a passenger car drive. Special considerations are required to obtain low weight and volume. Furthermore, the PEMFC of today cannot tolerate more than 10 ppm of carbon monoxide in the fuel. Therefore a gas conditioning step is needed after the methanol reformer. Our main research activities focus on the conceptual design of a drive system for a passenger car with methanol reformer and PEMFC: engineering studies with regard to different aspects of this design including reformer, catalytic burner, gas conditioning, balances of the fuel cycles and basic design of a compact methanol reformer. The work described here was carried out within the framework of a JOULE II project of the European Union (1993-1995). Extensive experimental studies have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (KFA) in Germany and at Haldor Topsøe A/S in Denmark.

  14. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics...

  15. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory...... retirement age to increase more than proportionally to fertility changes in order to compensate for endogenous responses of the intensity of labor supply. The robustness of this result is checked against alternative model specifications and calibrations relevant to an economic region such as Europe.......Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...

  16. Non-catalytic plasma-arc reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide as the oxidizing agent for the production of synthesis gas or hydrogen - HTR2008-58023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's energy consumption is increasing constantly due to the growing population of the world. The increasing energy consumption has a negative effect on the fossil fuel reserves of the world. Hydrogen has the potential to provide energy for all our needs by making use of fossil fuel such as natural gas and nuclear-based electricity. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming methane with carbon dioxide as the oxidizing agent. Hydrogen can be produced in a Plasma-arc reforming unit making use of the heat energy generated by a 500 MWt Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). The reaction in the unit takes place stoichiometrically in the absence of a catalyst. Steam can be added to the feed stream together with the Carbon Dioxide, which make it possible to control the H2/CO ratio in the synthesis gas between 1/1 and 3/1. This ratio of H2/CO in the synthesis gas is suitable to be used as feed gas to almost any chemical and petrochemical process. To increase the hydrogen production further, the Water-Gas Shift Reaction can be applied. A techno-economic analysis was performed on the non-catalytic plasma-arc reforming process. The capital cost of the plant is estimated at $463 million for the production of 1 132 million Nm3/year of hydrogen. The production cost of hydrogen is in the order of $12.81 per GJ depending on the natural gas cost and the price of electricity. (authors)

  17. Investigation of carbon supported PtW catalysts as CO tolerant anodes at high temperature in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2016-09-01

    The CO tolerance mechanism and the stability of carbon supported PtW electrocatalysts are evaluated in the anode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at two different temperatures. The electrocatalysts are characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron spectroscopy. Employed electrochemical techniques include cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping, fuel cell polarization, and online mass spectrometry. At a cell temperature of 85 °C, the PtW/C catalyst shows higher CO tolerance compared to Pt/C due an electronic effect of WOx in the Pt 5d band, which reduces the CO adsorption. An increase in hydrogen oxidation activity in the presence of CO is observed for both the catalysts at a higher temperature, due to the decrease of the Pt-CO coverage. A reduction in the current densities occurs for the PtW/C catalyst in both polarization curves and cyclic voltammograms after 5000 cycles of the anode in the range of 0.1-0.7 V vs. RHE at 50 mVs-1. This decrease in performance is assigned to the dissolution of W, with a consequent increase in the membrane resistivity. However, the observed decline of performance is small either in the presence of pure H2 or in the presence of H2/CO.

  18. Utilisation of carbon isotope discrimination in the genetic improvement of drought tolerance and yield potential in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of drought tolerance in cereals is an important aim for cereal breeders. Drought tolerance related traits have been extensively described in cereals. Their study, however, is based on instantaneous measurements (e.g., gas exchange, fluorescence or water status parameters) which association with yield highly depends on the environmental conditions at the moment of assessment. Realizing these measurements on high numbers of plants, what is a prerequisite for genetic or molecular studies, is tedious and often unrealistic. As a consequence, little is known about the genetics of these traits, and they are not used or even taken into serious consideration in breeding programs. The emergence of isotopic methods may substantially modify the situation. The tremendous advantages of this criterion in breeding programs are related to i) its integrative value, ii) its low genotype x environment interactions and high heritability values, and iii) the easiness of sample preparation and automatization of isotopic analysis. Researches carried out at ENSA-INRA Montpellier (1993-2000) have essentially concerned durum wheat adaptation to Mediterranean conditions. They were carried out in closed collaboration with the CIMMYT/ICARDA Durum Wheat Program and breeding programs of Algeria, Tunisia and Yemen. Studies realized at CIMMYT mainly concerned yield potential and bread wheat

  19. Steam Reforming of Bio-oil Model Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst.......The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst....

  20. A novel Pt-Co alloy hydrogen anode catalyst with superlative activity, CO-tolerance and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G. Y.; Yano, H.; Tryk, D. A.; Watanabe, M.; Iiyama, A.; Uchida, H.

    2016-07-01

    PtCo nanoparticles, having two atomic layers of stabilized Pt skin, supported on carbon black (Pt2AL-PtCo/C), exhibited superlative mass activity for the CO-tolerant hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), together with high robustness with respect to air exposure, as a novel anode catalyst in reformate gas-based polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The high area-specific HOR activity and CO tolerance are consistent with DFT calculations.PtCo nanoparticles, having two atomic layers of stabilized Pt skin, supported on carbon black (Pt2AL-PtCo/C), exhibited superlative mass activity for the CO-tolerant hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), together with high robustness with respect to air exposure, as a novel anode catalyst in reformate gas-based polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The high area-specific HOR activity and CO tolerance are consistent with DFT calculations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, TEM images and particle size distribution histograms of all catalysts, and details of the DFT calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00778c

  1. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-...... of CH4. Significant deactivation of the catalyst was observed for all of the compounds and was mainly due to carbon formation. The carbon formation was highest for alcohols due to a high formation of olefins, which are potent coke precursors....

  2. [Curricular reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga Filho, C; Rosa, A R

    1980-01-01

    Advocating the thesis that the planning of medical education must be oriented toward the articulastion of instruction with care, the authors note that the curricular reforms of the last 25 years, though reflected in the teaching-learning process, have led to no improvement in medical practice or in the health of the population. This failing, they assert, stems from the fact that these reforms begin and end within the educational institution itself, and ignore the interrelations between the education system and the user of the professional, and results in the production of physicians who are individualistic and of narrow vision. The article refers to the slight importance attached to the complementarity and interdependence of teaching and care work, and to the restriction of teaching to episodic contacts between specialized professors and groups of anonymous students, each in the limited confines of his own discipline, and the relegation of the student to the status of spectator and possible assistant in care work entrusted to him without any responsibility. PMID:7398573

  3. 低碳经济视域下的煤炭行业供应链管理改革%Low Carbon Economy From the Perspective of Supply Chain Management Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞

    2013-01-01

    Based on the low carbon economy and coal enterprises supply chain management relations as the breakthrough point, in-depth analysis of the current coal enterprises to implement supply chain management obstacle factors, put forward coal enterprises to implement supply chain management reform measures, for a low carbon economy from the perspective of industry of our country coal lasting, stable development of reference.%以低碳经济与煤炭企业供应链管理的联系为切入点,深入分析了当前煤炭企业实施供应链管理的障碍因素,进一步提出煤炭企业实施供应链管理的改革措施,为低碳经济视域下我国煤炭行业的持久、稳定发展提供借鉴。

  4. Low carbon society' ethical challenges and its value system urgently to be reformed%低碳社会的伦理挑战及亟需价值观变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池升明

    2011-01-01

    低碳社会是一种通过创建低碳生活,发展低碳经济,培养可持续发展、绿色环保、文明的低碳文化理念,形成具有低碳消费意识的"橄榄形"公平社会。它与科学发展观的精神实质相同,它的构建会遇到一系列艰难的挑战,它的构建亟需倡导价值观变革。%Low carbon society is an equitable society with low carbon life and low carbon economy in which people will have a low carbon consumer consciousness. It takes the ideas of Sustainable Development, Green Initiative and Civilization as its culture concept. Besides, its spiritual essence is identical to that of the Scientific Concept of Development. In the process of building low carbon society, we will meet with a series of difficult challenges. Under this circumstances, the value system deadly needs to be reformed.

  5. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  6. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The sho...

  7. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  8. Rhodium based clusters for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4, tolerant to methanol and carbon monoxide, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Borja-Arco, E.; Altamirano-Gutierrez, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Queritaro (Mexico); Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Rhodium (Rh6(CO)16) and novel Rh-based clusters were prepared using thermolysis techniques under different conditions in N2 and H2 reaction media, as well as in n-nonane, o-xylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide. The clusters were used as novel electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the absence and presence of 1.0 and 2.0 M methanol solutions. The catalysts were also used for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) with pure hydrogen (H2) and in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO). Rotating disk electrode measurements were used to analyze the materials. The study showed that the electrocatalyst support ratio plays a significant role in the electrochemical behaviour of the materials. Rh6(CO)16 and Rh2(1,2-DCB) presented the best electrocatalytic behaviour for ORR and HOR in the absence and presence of methanol and CO. The study demonstrated that the rhodium-based materials are capable of performing ORR and HOR while being tolerant of both methanol and CO. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Unprecedented simultaneous enhancement in strain tolerance, toughness and strength of Al2O3 ceramic by multiwall-type failure of a high loading of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a remarkable load-bearing ability. Recently, however, multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) have been shown to possess dramatically higher load-bearing ability when intimately embedded in an oxide ceramic (Al2O3), because the load could be transferred not to only their outermost walls but also their generally unloaded inner walls via the strong interwall shear resistance originating from residual compressive stresses. This phenomenon is characterized by an uncommon, highly energy-dissipating, multiwall-type failure of individual MWCNTs during hybrid fracture, with no evidence of pullout. Here, we demonstrate that this nanoscale in-MWCNT load-transfer process, at an optimized, high loading of MWCNTs (10 vol%) and in a pore-free and uniform platform, leads to unprecedented, dramatic simultaneous enhancement in strain tolerance (81%), fracture toughness (52.2%), and flexural strength (22%) of the Al2O3 ceramic matrix. The extent of toughening by this mechanism is also the highest ever reported. This unprecedented performance by using a high loading of functional MWCNTs, namely, toughening, strengthening, softening and lightening, simultaneously and at this level, has implications for many functional and structural applications. (paper)

  10. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 1. Patterns of carbon metabolism within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Fomina, Irina R; Nazarova, Galina N; Soukhovolsky, Vladislav G; Khlebopros, Rem G; Nishio, John N

    2010-09-01

    The localization of the key photoreductive and oxidative processes and some stress-protective reactions within leaves of mesophytic C(3) plants were investigated. The role of light in determining the profile of Rubisco, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, catalase, fumarase, and cytochrome-c-oxidase across spinach leaves was examined by exposing leaves to illumination on either the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces. Oxygen evolution in fresh paradermal leaf sections and CO(2) gas exchange in whole leaves under adaxial or abaxial illumination was also examined. The results showed that the palisade mesophyll is responsible for the midday depression of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. The photosynthetic apparatus was more sensitive to the light environment than the respiratory apparatus. Additionally, examination of the paradermal leaf sections by optical microscopy allowed us to describe two new types of parenchyma in spinach-pirum mesophyll and pillow spongy mesophyll. A hypothesis that oxaloacetate may protect the upper leaf tissue from the destructive influence of active oxygen is presented. The application of mathematical modeling shows that the pattern of enzymatic distribution across leaves abides by the principle of maximal ecological utility. Light regulation of carbon metabolism across leaves is discussed.

  11. Hydrogen production and CO{sub 2} fixation by flue-gas treatment using methane tri-reforming or coke/coal gasification combined with lime carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmann, M. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Steinfeld, A. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The production of hydrogen and the fixation of CO{sub 2} can be achieved by treatment of flue gases derived from fossil fuel fired power plants via catalytic methane tri-reforming or by coal gasification in the presence of CaO. A two-step process is designed to be carried out in two reactors: a) a catalytic gasifier or steam-reformer, operating exothermally at 900-1000 K, with inputs of the flue gas, a carbonaceous source, steam and air, as well as CaO from the calciner, and outputs of H{sub 2}, and of ''spent'' CaCO{sub 3} to the calciner; b) a calciner, operating endothermally at 1100-1300 K, with inputs of spent CaCO{sub 3} from the gasifier, make-up fresh CaCO{sub 3}, and outputs of CO{sub 2}, as well as of CaO, partly recycled to the gasifier and partly processed in a cement plant. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations along with mass/energy balances indicate that for flue-gas treatment by tri-reforming, CO{sub 2} emission avoidance of up to {proportional_to}59% and fossil fuel savings of up to {proportional_to}75% may be attained when concentrated solar energy is supplied as high-temperature process heat for the calcination step, all relative to conventional H{sub 2} production by coal gasification. If instead fossil fuel would be used to drive the calcination step, the CO{sub 2} emission avoidance and the fuel savings would be only 20% and 67%, respectively. Estimated annual H{sub 2} production from a coal-fired 500 MWe burner by the proposed flue-gas treatment using either CH{sub 4}-tri-reforming or coal gasification would amount to 0.7 x 10{sup 6} or 0.6 x 10{sup 6} metric tons H{sub 2}, respectively. Estimated fossil fuel consumption for H{sub 2} production by tri-reforming or coke gasification would be 149 or 143 GJ fuel/ton H{sub 2}. (author)

  12. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  13. The Management Reform of Enterprises in the Context of Low -carbon Economy%低碳经济背景下企业管理变革的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冉冉; 龙如银

    2015-01-01

    低碳经济是我国当今社会经济发展的必然要求。作为我国社会经济发展和节能减排的重要微观主体,企业必须遵循低碳经济发展模式,依据低碳经济理念实施管理变革,创建低碳管理体系。文章界定企业低碳管理的内涵及要素体系,认为低碳管理是指企业依据低碳理念,以效益和责任相统一为目标,以低碳技术为核心,降低企业能耗,实现资源高效利用和经济与环境双赢的管理模式,并采用比较研究的方法对比分析传统企业管理模式与低碳管理模式下企业文化、战略管理和企业职能管理的区别。%Low -carbon economy is the inevitable requirement of China’s current socio -economic development.As the important microscopic principal of China’s socio -economic development and energy conservation,enterprises must ad-here to the development model of low -carbon economy,implement the management reform and create a low -carbon man-agement system based on the concept of low -carbon economy.This paper defines the connotation and elements of enterpri-ses low -carbon management,and points out that low -carbon management is based on the low -carbon concept and low -carbon technology,which aims at unifying the benefits and responsibilities,reducing energy consumption of enterprises,re-alizing the efficient use of resources and the win -win management model of economic development and environmental pro-tection.Using the method of comparative study,the difference between corporate culture,strategic management and corpo-rate functions management under the traditional enterprises management mode and the low carbon management mode are an-alyzed.

  14. Report on the consultants meeting on identification of crop species/cultivars for drought and salinity tolerance for sustained crop yields by using nuclear techniques, in particular the carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Consultants Meeting on Identification of Crop Species/Cultivars for Drought and Salinity Tolerance for Sustained Crop Yields by Using Nuclear Techniques, in Particular the Carbon Isotope Discrimination. was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from 12-16 November 2001. This meeting was conducted in conjunction with a Group Meeting on Novel Approaches for Improving Crop Tolerance to Salinity and Drought. Five consultants from Australia, Mexico, Pakistan, UK and the USA and one representative from FAO attended the Consultant Meeting and nine participants from Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Israel, Pakistan, South Africa and the USA attended the Group Meeting. First two days of the meeting consisted of five technical sessions during which the participants presented papers on various approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought and the role of nuclear techniques in identification of plants tolerant to the above abiotic stresses. After the presentations, two working groups were formed: one consisting of the participants of the Consultants Meeting and the other the participants of the Group Meeting. The consultants proposed various strategies for using the carbon isotope discrimination technique as a selection tool for identifying higher yielding crop genotypes especially in wheat and rice cropping systems under drought and saline conditions. A proposal was formulated to address the above issues in a framework of a CRP. The participants of the Group Meeting reviewed conventional and molecular approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought and research priorities were identified for future work on crop productivity improvement under the above stress factors. Recommendations of both working groups were presented at the final session of the meeting. This report provides the details of the proposal formulated by the consultants. Refs

  15.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth;

    -directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear......This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  16. Chemical looping reforming of generator gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiara, T.; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, P.

    2010-02-15

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the carbon deposition during reforming of hydrocarbons in a Chemical Looping Reformer (CLR). This knowledge is needed to asses the viability of the CLR technology in reforming tar from biomass gasification preserving lighter hydrocarbons and minimizing the carbon formation during the process. Two different setups were used to test the reactivity of the different samples in the conditions of interest for the tar reforming process: 1) Fixed bed flow reactor (FR), and 2) Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the experiments, the gas atmosphere was switched from reducing to oxidizing atmosphere in every cycle. During the oxidizing cycle, the carrier was regenerated using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Four different oxygen carriers based on nickel (Ni40 and Ni60), manganese (Mn) and ilmenite (Fe) were tested. In the tests, toluene was used to simulate the tars. The Fe and the Mn carrier reacted to a small extent with methane at the highest temperature studied, 800 degrees C. The Ni-carriers did not react at 600 degrees C at first, but they showed some reactivity after having been activated at the higher temperature. Carbon formation occurred with the Ni-carriers, more so with the Ni60 than the Ni40. Ni40, Mn and Fe were activated at the higher temperature. However, Fe showed only low capacity. Ni60 showed no capability of tar reforming. Ni40 showed a high tendency to carbon formation at 800 degrees C, but the formation could be lowered by changing some parameters. Mn formed almost no carbon. Ni40 and Mn were chosen for further studies. Carbon deposition occurred for both Ni40 and Mn, but the amount deposited for Ni40 was about 10 times bigger. Ni40 reacted with the methane and toluene only at 800 degrees C. The conversion over Mn was not as big as for toluene alone. Carbon was formed from carbon monoxide on the Ni40 carrier and on the Mn, but to a much less extent on the latter one. The presence of hydrogen decreased

  17. Effects of sol-gel method and lanthanum addition on catalytic performances of nickel-based catalysts for methane reforming with carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiancai; HU Quanhong; YANG Yifeng; CHEN Juanrong; LAI Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    The nickel-based catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel method and used for the CH4 reforming with CO2. The effects of the sol-gel method on the specific surface area, catalytic activity, desorption, and reduction performances of catalysts were investigated with BET, TPR, and TPD. Compared with the catalyst prepared by the impregnation method, the results indicated that the catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method had larger specific surface area, showing higher catalytic activities and exhibiting perfect desorption and reduction per-formances. In addition, the modification effects of adding La were studied, and it was found that the 0.75NLBT catalyst constituted of 5wt.%Ni-0.75wt.%La was optimal.

  18. Study in the hydrogen yield and carbon conversion rate of bio-oil - methanol catalytic reforming%生物油-甲醇催化重整制氢的氢产率及碳转化率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红睿; 张瑞芹; 徐兴敏; 刘永刚; 张长森

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of Bio-oil and methanol as raw material was reformed with catalyst for hydrogen production. Orthogonal test design was made in the fixed micro-reactor to systematically examine the ratio of bio-oil and methanol mixture, reaction temperature, steam carbon ratio, and sample flow rate. Under the optimum condition, the hydrogen yield and carbon conversion rate should be arrived at respectively 34.89% and 63.34%.%采用生物油-甲醇催化重整制氢.在微型固定反应装置上通过正交法试验设计,对生物油甲醇混合比例、反应温度、水碳比、进样流速等因素进行了系统的试验.在选择的最佳反应条件下,氢气产率和碳转化率分别为34.89%及63.34%.

  19. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K. [HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Lynby (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  20. A study of the methane's hydroxyl-activate-reforming with carbon dioxide over nickel%镍基上羟基活化催化CH4-CO2重整的理论计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文媛; 胡林; 龙威; 杜瑞焕; 陈丽萍

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of methane's hydroxyl-activate-reforming with carbon dioxide on nickel has been investiga ted by DFT, MP2/6-311 + G(2d,p) method, Comparison of the reforming reaction mechanism and explore the vari ous channels. The results have showed that the reforming reaction divided into 22 steps, the activation enthalpy of important five steps were: 44. 718,201.353,265. 713,104.603,61.739 and 99. 331 kJ ? mol-1. The rate-controlling step was the generation of hydroxyl process, and the most decomposition of methane was took off one hydrogen at om, CH3Ni has more high activity. There are two ways in the reaction between hydroxyl and CH3 Ni. The product is CH2OH , which could cleaved into formaldehyde.%采用DFT(B3LYP)结合二级微扰MP2/6-311+G(2d,p)方法计算镍基催化剂上羟基活化催化CH4-CO2 重整制合成气的反应机理,比较并探究了重整反应机理中的各种通道.计算结果表明,重整反应包含22步,关键反应式1-1,2,3,4-1,4-2,6-4的正反应活化能分别为44.718,201.353,265.713,104.603,61.739和99.331kJ·mo1-1.重整的速控步是式3表示的羟基的产生过程,甲烷的分解以脱1个H为主,基团CH3Ni具有较高的活性,可以通过2种方式与羟基反应,生成CH2OH基团继而裂解成甲醛.

  1. Biogas reforming process investigation for SOFC application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of fuel processor and experimental validation was made. • Simulations made to find syngas composition varying fuel processor operating conditions. • Experimental tests were carried out on SOFC mono-cell to obtain polarization curves. • The best conditions for SOFC/fuel processor integrated systems were defined. - Abstract: In recent years, research efforts on fuel cells have been addressed on the development of multifuel reformers with particular emphasis toward the potential use of non-traditional fuels. Among these, biogas is considered very promising to be used as syngas source for fuel cell system applications. The interest on this hydrogen source is focused mainly to supply high temperature fuel cells (HTFC). This paper reports a wide experimental research investigation on SOFC device supplied by syngas produced with different biogas reforming processes (steam reforming, autothermal reforming and partial oxidation). Thermodynamic simulations have been performed to determine the reformed gas composition varying process, reaction temperature and steam to carbon – oxygen to carbon ratios. Syngas mixtures obtained were experimentally tested in order to evaluate the performance of a SOFC mono-cell. Furthermore, an analysis of the combination: fuel processor with a SOFC stack has been determined in order to assess the total energy efficiency

  2. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality and

  3. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

  4. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  6. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  7. CO-Tolerant Pt–BeO as a Novel Anode Electrocatalyst in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjung Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs requires less expensive catalysts and higher operating voltage. Substantial anodic overvoltage with the usage of reformed hydrogen fuel can be minimized by using CO-tolerant anode catalysts. Carbon-supported Pt–BeO is manufactured so that Pt particles with an average diameter of 4 nm are distributed on a carbon support. XPS analysis shows that a peak value of the binding energy of Be matches that of BeO, and oxygen is bound with Be or carbon. The hydrogen oxidation current of the Pt–BeO catalyst is slightly higher than that of a Pt catalyst. CO stripping voltammetry shows that CO oxidation current peaks at ~0.85 V at Pt, whereas CO is oxidized around 0.75 V at Pt–BeO, which confirms that the desorption of CO is easier in the presence of BeO. Although the state-of-the-art PtRu anode catalyst is dominant as a CO-tolerant hydrogen oxidation catalyst, this study of Be-based CO-tolerant material can widen the choice of PEMFC anode catalyst.

  8. 生物质气化尾气CO2联合微波重整甲苯制备合成气%Toluene reforming by carbon dioxide recycled from biomass gasification into syngas production under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙之; 宋占龙; 马春元; 王孚懋; 田原宇

    2014-01-01

    The quality of gaseous products can be deteriorated by tar, CO2 and other impurities during the process of biomass gasification. Based on the those impurities analysis, tar conversion by CO2 is performed in this paper. Toluene was chosen as a model compound in this study, and it was used for converting into syngas production over a biomass-derived char. Biomass char is obtained from the pyrolysis of corn straw at a microwave-assisted experimental system. The influences of heating method includes microwave heating (MH) and electrical heating (EH) as well as CO2 flow rate on toluene conversion, syngas yield and carbon loss. The results show that toluene conversion from microwave heating is significantly higher than that from electrical heating under the same circumstances. And it is revealed that a maximum difference of toluene conversion between microwave heating and electrical heating is reached up to 15.58%at CO2 flow rate of 80 mL/min. When a certain amount of CO2 is imported, toluene conversion can be improved effectively. The highest toluene conversion of 93.73%is achieved under microwave heating at CO2 flow rate of 80 mL/min, while toluene conversion under electrical heating is reached a peak of 82.13%, corresponding to CO2 flow rate of 40 mL/min. Moreover, the introduction of CO2 can regulate the conversion of toluene into syngas production with a suitable ratio of H2 and CO. At the same time, an excess of CO2 can result in a loss of carbon contained in biomass-derived char. The carbon consumed through the gasification of CO2 can be converted into part of syngas production, which can impose a direct contribution to total syngas yield. With the increase of CO2 flow rate, a higher syngas yield from carbon consumption is achieved. The maximum contribution of carbon consumption to syngas yield is 15.40% under microwave heating at CO2 flow rate of 120 mL/min. According to the results, it is found that the highest yield of syngas derived from toluene reforming by

  9. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to "treat" and…

  10. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  11. Land Reform and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Stanton; Peter Rosset; James Boyce

    2005-01-01

    Land reform, equitable distribution, economic development, environmental quality, land reform strategies, Brazil, Landless Workers’ Movement, East Asia, rural poverty, land productivity, sustainable agriculture, comparative advantage, small farms.

  12. Syngas and hydrogen production from the natural gas reforming with carbon dioxide; Producao de gas de sintese e hidrogenio a partir da reforma do gas natural com dioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacifico, Jose Adair; Silva, Hollyson William da; Moura, Diego de Lima; Soares, Cicero Henrique Macedo; Abreu, Cesar Augusto Moraes de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: adairpacifico@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to establish operational previews for the catalytic reforming of methane with carbon dioxide process a unidimensional Kunii-Levenspiel heterogeneous model was elaborated for the fluidized bed reaction system. Simulations showing the reactants (CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}) and products (CO + H{sub 2}) concentration outlines are accomplished, showing the effect of temperature. The operational system composed by the fluidized bed reactor has the following dimensions: (Ht 1,180 mm, Dint = 56 mm) and a 4.98 wt.% Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts (mcat 224.74g), operating at 1,023.15K, 1,073.15K, and 1,123.15K and atmospheric pressure. Under the conditions above and adopting a Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic law for catalysts decomposition of methane and not catalytic heterogeneous kinetic law for gas shift and Boudouard reverse reaction. The adopted mathematic model it allowed the establishing of profile concentration for the reactants and products showing. Conversion at 97.89% and 85.45% for the CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}, at 1,123.15K. (author)

  13. Comments on UN Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangHongxi; ZhangYaowu

    2004-01-01

    On October 9-13 2004, United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan paid an official visit to China.During his stay, he had discussions with Chinese leaders on UN reform and changes in the international situation and etc. In recent 59th UN General Assembly Session, UN reform was also one of the hot topics.

  14. Educational Reform in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

  15. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small...

  16. Iridium nanoparticles supported on hierarchical porous N-doped carbon: an efficient water-tolerant catalyst for bio-alcohol condensation in water

    OpenAIRE

    Di Liu; Xiufang Chen; Guoqiang Xu; Jing Guan; Quan Cao; Bo Dong; Yunfei Qi; Chunhu Li; Xindong Mu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons were synthesized successfully by a controllable one-pot method using glucose and dicyandiamide as carbon source and nitrogen source via hydrothermal carbonization process. The nitrogen-doped materials, possessing high nitrogen content (up to 7 wt%), large surface area (>320 m2 g−1) and excellent hierarchical nanostructure, were employed as catalyst supports for immobilization of iridium nanoparticles for bio-alcohol condensation in water. The introdu...

  17. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. PMID:24561628

  19. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  20. ANeededReform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, interest rate liberalization has become a hot topic amidst China’s ifnancial reforms. The People’s Bank of China (PBC) expanded the lfoating range of deposit and loan interest rates in 2012, and eliminated the lfoor on lending rates on July 20, 2013, a clear indication of the government’s intention to liberalize interest rates in future ifnancial reforms. Jia kang, Director of the Research Institute of Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance, and meng yan, an associate researcher at the Research Institute of Fiscal Science, believe that the interest rate liberalization is vital to China’s ifnancial reforms. Excerpts of their thoughts follow.

  1. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  2. A metabolomic study in oats (Avena sativa) highlights a drought tolerance mechanism based upon salicylate signalling pathways and the modulation of carbon, antioxidant and photo-oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Heald, Jim; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Winters, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Sanz, Mariluz; Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Although a wealth of information is available on the induction of one or several drought-related responses in different species, little is known of how their timing, modulation and crucially integration influence drought tolerance. Based upon metabolomic changes in oat (Avena sativa L.), we have defined key processes involved in drought tolerance. During a time course of increasing water deficit, metabolites from leaf samples were profiled using direct infusion-electrospray mass spectroscopy (DI-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ESI-MS/MS and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The involvement of metabolite pathways was confirmed through targeted assays of key metabolites and physiological experiments. We demonstrate an early accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) influencing stomatal opening, photorespiration and antioxidant defences before any change in the relative water content. These changes are likely to maintain plant water status, with any photoinhibitory effect being counteracted by an efficient antioxidant capacity, thereby representing an integrated mechanism of drought tolerance in oats. We also discuss these changes in relation to those engaged at later points, consequence of the different water status in susceptible and resistant genotypes.

  3. Basic Education Reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Wang

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform merged the experimental dual (planned and market price systems into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic education reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the introductory dual-track (key school and regular school systems into a universal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes of basic education reform. It discusses the following questions: Is basic education reform also a story of success? What significant lessons can the Chinese reform experience offer to other comparable developing countries?

  4. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  5. Iridium nanoparticles supported on hierarchical porous N-doped carbon: an efficient water-tolerant catalyst for bio-alcohol condensation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Chen, Xiufang; Xu, Guoqiang; Guan, Jing; Cao, Quan; Dong, Bo; Qi, Yunfei; Li, Chunhu; Mu, Xindong

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons were synthesized successfully by a controllable one-pot method using glucose and dicyandiamide as carbon source and nitrogen source via hydrothermal carbonization process. The nitrogen-doped materials, possessing high nitrogen content (up to 7 wt%), large surface area (>320 m2 g-1) and excellent hierarchical nanostructure, were employed as catalyst supports for immobilization of iridium nanoparticles for bio-alcohol condensation in water. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the carbon framework significantly improved iridium nanoparticles dispersion and stabilization. The novel iridium catalysts exhibited superior catalytic activity in the aqueous phase condensation of butanol, offering high butanol conversion of 45% with impressive 2-ethylhexanol selectivity of 97%. The heterogeneous catalysts had great advantages of easy recovery and high catalytic stability. The outstanding catalytic performance could be attributed to excellent dispersion of iridium nanoparticles, stronger iridium-support interactions and interaction of nitrogen species with alcohol substrates.

  6. Basic Education Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chengzhi Wang; Quanhua Zhou

    2002-01-01

    China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform merged the experimental dual (planned and market) price systems into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic education reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the introductory dual-track (key school and regular school) systems into a universal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes of basic education reform. It disc...

  7. Reforming Indonesia's pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Leechor, Chad

    1996-01-01

    Indonesia's nascent capital markets stand to benefit significantly from a thriving pension industry. Now is the time to reform the pensions system, while it has a vibrant economy, rapidly rising income, and a young and growing workforce. The author suggests three main reforms. First, to reconsider the role of mandatory defined contribution (Jamsostek) plan. Second, to make employer sponsored pensions more attractive and affordable by: simplifying and expediting registration and approval proce...

  8. Health care reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Marušič Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel Valentina

    2016-01-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good da...

  9. The Mexican Energy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Mitja; Rosenørn Engel, Line; Rasmussen, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    With the newly enacted energy reform, the Mexican Government introduced a variety of neoliberal measures to increase sectorial productivity. The debate within Mexico has centred on whether or not the liberalisation of the energy sector will benefit the Mexican economy. Based on a paradox of conflicting demands of securing economic development by state control or open market policies, this project analysis how Mexico attempts to balance these demands by the means of the Mexican energy reform. ...

  10. Promoting or Preventing Reforms?

    OpenAIRE

    Menno Fenger

    2006-01-01

    In the dominant perspective on trade unions, stronger trade unions are supposed to lead to higher wages and less extensive welfare reforms. This article focuses on the role of trade unions in the processes of welfare reform in Central and Eastern European countries in the last decade, and aims to assess the extent to which this role is comparable to that of trade unions in Western countries. The article analyses key characteristics of trade unions' roles and positions in Bulgaria, Croatia, Mo...

  11. Evaluation of Structural Fiscal Transformation Reforms in Turkey: Reform Fatigue and Reform Ownership Problems

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Hakkı Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive features of the IMF supported fiscal adjustment programs is the implementation of structural fiscal reforms.Turkeycompleted many structural reforms aiming at an efficient market system and an effective public sector from 2000 to 2005. However due to the resistance against the reforms and changes experienced particularly in the second half of 2000 and 2002 and to the lack of “commitment” and “ownership” in the reforms the reforms were neither designed duly nor implemented completel...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of steam reforming of methane with statistical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Application of the statistical models in steam reforming of methane has been studied. • Quadratic polynomial equations for main factors in product was successfully fitted to the results of thermodynamic analysis. • Insignificant operative parameters were determined in polynomial equations. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of steam reforming of methane has been studied by method of Gibbs free energy minimization for hydrogen or syngas production in the ranges of steam to methane from 0.5 to 3, reaction pressure from 1 to 50 bar and operative temperature from 600 to 1200 K. The important considered parameters were methane conversion, selectivity of hydrogen, selectivity of carbon monoxide, hydrogen per carbon monoxide ratio, steam per carbon monoxide ratio and coke formation. Furthermore, this study investigates on the application of the statistical models in steam reforming of methane. The effect of parameters was determined via an orthogonal second order design

  13. Air-tolerant Fabrication and Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Encapsulating 1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iihara, Yu; Ohashi, Kenji; Murayama, Tomoko; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The thermally-triggered n-type doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated using 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, a novel n-type dopant. Through a simple thermal vacuum process, the phosphine compounds are moderately encapsulated inside single-walled carbon nanotubes. The encapsulation into SWNTs is carefully characterized using Raman/X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This easy-to-handle doping with air-stable precursors for n-type SWNTs enables the large-scale fabrication of thermoelectric materials showing an excellent power factor exceeding approximately 240 μW mK(-2) .

  14. Solar Upgrade of Methane Using Dry Reforming In Direct Contact Bubble Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ali, Khalid; Kodama, Satoshi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Hidetoshi; Tamaura, Yutaka; Chiesa, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The reforming behavior of a direct contact bubbling CH4-CO2 mixture, was quantitatively investigated, in an alkali carbonate based molten salt system containing suspended Ni-Al2O3 catalyst. A thermodynamical process of a solar reformer of dry methane reforming was proposed to operate in a temperature range of 600-800oC. The selectivity of the thermal fluid have been validated according to specific requirements including lower melting point, thermal and chemical stability, acting simultaneousl...

  15. Electrocatalytic studies of osmium-ruthenium carbonyl cluster compounds for their application as methanol-tolerant cathodes for oxygen reduction reaction and carbon monoxide-tolerant anodes for hydrogen oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Arco, E.; Uribe-Godinez, J.; Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Escobedo (Mexico); Altamirano-Gutierrez, A.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Querataro (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details of an electrokinetic study of novel electrocatalytic materials capable of performing both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Osmium-ruthenium carbonyl cluster compounds (Os{sub x}Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub n}) were synthesized by chemical condensation in non-polar organic solvents at different boiling points and refluxing temperatures. Three different non-polar organic solvents were used: (1) n-nonane; o-xylene; and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. The electrocatalysts were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A rotating disk electrode technique was used to analyze the materials. Results of the analysis showed that the materials performed ORR in both the presence and absence of carbon monoxide (CO), and that electrocatalysts were not poisoned by the presence of CO. Cyclic voltamperometry for the disk electrodes showed that the electrochemical behaviour of the compounds in the acid electrolyte was similar in the presence or absence of methanol. The Tafel slope, exchange current density and the transfer coefficient were also investigated. The electrokinetic parameters for the ORR indicated that the materials with the highest electrocatalytic activity were synthesized in 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Electrocatalytic activity during HOR were prepared in n-nonane. It was concluded that the new materials are good candidates for use as both a cathode and an anode in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PUZhong-ying

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics,catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China.The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units.This paper introduces the properties of PSVI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units.The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity,under the same reaction conditions,the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst.Among the SR reforming catalysts,the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref.Cat A.The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%-3% and 3%,respectively ,higher than those of Cat A,and the run length was 30%-40% longer as well,which exhibits good prospect of application.

  17. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Iedema, Rick; Degeling, Pieter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Kam Yin Chan, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum re-form can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the pa...

  18. Rorty the Reformer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Cormier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rorty should be read as a reformer, rather than a revolutionary transformer. While the reformer aims to improve what is already good, the revolutionary transformer seeks to dispense with the merely good in a quest for the absolutely best. For Rorty this choice was a bad choice. In order to make the case that Rorty was a reformer,we explicate Rorty’s views on truth. These views argue that we can obtain consensus about what is worth preserving and improving without reference to either rightness, truth, or objectivity. For after all, there is no way for philosophers to get outside the circle of language within which we debate about what we take to be authoritative and aceptable.

  19. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  20. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  1. Single Step Bi-reforming and Oxidative Bi-reforming of Methane (Natural Gas) with Steam and Carbon Dioxide to Metgas (CO-2H2) for Methanol Synthesis: Self-Sufficient Effective and Exclusive Oxygenation of Methane to Methanol with Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Mathew, Thomas; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya

    2015-07-15

    Catalysts based on suitable metal oxide supports, such as NiO/MgO and CoO/MgO, were shown to be active for single step bi-reforming, the combined steam and dry reforming of methane or natural gas with H2O and CO2 exclusively to metgas (CO-2H2) for efficient methanol synthesis. Reactions were carried out in a tubular flow reactor under pressures up to 42 bar at 830-910 °C. Using a CH4 to steam to CO2 ratio of ∼3:2:1 in the gas feed, the H2/CO ratio of 2:1 was achieved, which is desired for subsequent methanol synthesis. The needed 2/1 steam/CO2 feed ratio together with the reaction heat for the endothermic bi-reforming can be conveniently obtained by the complete combustion of a quarter part of the overall used methane (natural gas) with oxygen of the air (oxidative bi-reforming). Complete combustion of a part of methane followed by bi-reforming leads to the production of metgas (H2/CO in 2:1 mol ratio) for self-sufficient exclusive methanol synthesis. The long sought after but elusive efficient and selective oxygenation of methane to methanol is thus achieved in an effective and economic way without any oxidation byproduct formation according to CH4 + 1/2O2 → CH3OH.

  2. Single Step Bi-reforming and Oxidative Bi-reforming of Methane (Natural Gas) with Steam and Carbon Dioxide to Metgas (CO-2H2) for Methanol Synthesis: Self-Sufficient Effective and Exclusive Oxygenation of Methane to Methanol with Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Mathew, Thomas; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya

    2015-07-15

    Catalysts based on suitable metal oxide supports, such as NiO/MgO and CoO/MgO, were shown to be active for single step bi-reforming, the combined steam and dry reforming of methane or natural gas with H2O and CO2 exclusively to metgas (CO-2H2) for efficient methanol synthesis. Reactions were carried out in a tubular flow reactor under pressures up to 42 bar at 830-910 °C. Using a CH4 to steam to CO2 ratio of ∼3:2:1 in the gas feed, the H2/CO ratio of 2:1 was achieved, which is desired for subsequent methanol synthesis. The needed 2/1 steam/CO2 feed ratio together with the reaction heat for the endothermic bi-reforming can be conveniently obtained by the complete combustion of a quarter part of the overall used methane (natural gas) with oxygen of the air (oxidative bi-reforming). Complete combustion of a part of methane followed by bi-reforming leads to the production of metgas (H2/CO in 2:1 mol ratio) for self-sufficient exclusive methanol synthesis. The long sought after but elusive efficient and selective oxygenation of methane to methanol is thus achieved in an effective and economic way without any oxidation byproduct formation according to CH4 + 1/2O2 → CH3OH. PMID:26086090

  3. Sulfur-Tolerant Autothermal Reforming Catalysts for Aviation Fuel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) approach commercialization, interest in broader applications of this technology is mounting. While the first commercialized...

  4. 大孔碳载Ir催化剂对氧还原的电催化性能和抗甲酸能力%Electrocatalytic Performance and Formic Acid Tolerance Ability of Macropore Carbon Supported Ir Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春艳; 徐斌; 唐亚文; 曹高萍; 杨裕生; 陆天虹

    2011-01-01

    The electrocatalytic performance and formic acid tolerance ability of the Vulcan XC-72 carbon black supported Ir(Ir/XC) catalyst and the macropore carbon supported Ir(Ir/MC) catalyst in the direct formic acid fuel cell were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy( EDS), X-ray diffraction(XRD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical technique. It is found that the electrocatalytic performance of the Ir/MC catalyst for the oxygen reduction is better than that of the Ir/XC catalyst. The onset reduction potential of oxygen at the Ir/MC catalyst is 0. 1 V more positive than that at the Ir/XC catalyst. The limiting current density of the oxygen reduction at the Ir/MC catalyst is 30% larger than that at the Ir/XC catalyst. This could be only attributed to the large pore diameter and porosity as well as high graphitization extent because the average diameters and relative crystallinity of the two catalysts are similar. In addition, both catalysts have good formic acid tolerance ability. Therefore, MC is a better carbon carrier of the catalyst than XC.%采用X射线能量色散谱(EDS)、X射线衍射(XRD)、拉曼光谱和电化学等技术研究了直接甲酸燃料电池(DFAFC)中Vulcan XC-72碳黑载Ir(Ir/XC)和大孔碳载Ir(Ir/MC)催化剂对氧还原的电催化性能和抗甲酸能力.发现Ir/MC催化剂对氧还原的电催化性能优于Ir/XC催化剂,氧起始还原电位比在Ir/XC催化剂上正移0.1 V,极限电流密度比在Ir/XC催化剂上大30%左右.由于在Ir/MC和Ir/XC催化剂中Ir粒子的平均粒径和结晶度相似,因此,两种催化剂的性能差别可归结于与XC相比MC有较大的孔径和孔率及较高的石墨化程度,这说明MC是一种比XC更好的催化剂碳载体.另外,两种催化剂都有很好的抗甲酸能力.

  5. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  6. Performance analysis of a SOFC under direct internal reforming conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) under direct internal reforming conditions. A detailed solid-oxide fuel cell model is used to study the influences of various operating parameters on cell performance. Significant differences in efficiency and power density are observed for isothermal and adiabatic operational regimes. The influence of air number, specific catalyst area, anode thickness, steam to carbon (s/c) ratio of the inlet fuel, and extend of pre-reforming on cell performance is analyzed. In all cases except for the case of pre-reformed fuel, adiabatic operation results in lower performance compared to isothermal operation. It is further discussed that, though direct internal reforming may lead to cost reduction and increased efficiency by effective utilization of waste heat, the efficiency of the fuel cell itself is higher for pre-reformed fuel compared to non-reformed fuel. Furthermore, criteria for the choice of optimal operating conditions for cell stacks operating under direct internal reforming conditions are discussed.

  7. Stepping Forward In Political Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the bulk of foreign media reports about China's reforms have limited their focus to changes in China's economic setup with little mention paid to its political reform.Actually,since China carried out the reform and opening-up policy in 1978,it has not only made fundamental changes to its economic system but also implemented a series of important reforms to its political institutions.

  8. Stepping Forward In Political Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the bulk of foreign media reports about China’s reforms have limited their focus to changes in China’s economic setup with little mention paid to its political reform.Actually,since China carried out the reform and opening-up policy in 1978,it has not only made fundamental changes to its economic system but also implemented a series of important reforms to its political institutions

  9. Board Governance: Transformational Approaches Under Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastocki, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Previous successes of healthcare organizations and effective governance practices in the pre-reform environment are not predictive of future success. Healthcare has been through numerous phases of growth and development using tried-and-true strategies. The challenge is that our toolbox does not contain what is needed to build the future healthcare delivery systems required in the post-reform world. Healthcare has had a parochial focus at the local level, with some broadening of horizons at the state and national levels. But healthcare delivery is now a global issue that requires a totally different perspective, and many countries are confronting similar issues. US healthcare reform initiatives have far-reaching implications. Compounding the reform dynamics are the simultaneously occurring, gamechanging accelerants such as enabling information technologies and mobile health, new providers of healthcare, increased consumer demands, and limited healthcare dollars, to name a few. Operating in this turbulent environment requires transformational board, executive, and physician leadership because traditional ways of planning for incremental change and attempting to time those adjustments can prove disastrous. Creating the legacy healthcare system for tomorrow requires governing boards and executive leadership to act today as they would in the desired future system. Boards need to create a culture that fosters.innovation with a tolerance for risk and some failure. To provide effective governance, boards must essentially develop new skills, expertise, and ways of thinking. The rapid rate of change requires board members to possess certain capabilities, including the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty while demonstrating flexibility and adaptability, all with a driving commitment to metrics and results. This requires development plans for both individual members and the overall board. In short, the board needs to function differently, particularly regarding the

  10. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  11. Reformer Takes French Reins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The painful reforms chosen by French voters to rejuvenate their sluggish economy have smoothed the way for Nicolas Sarkozy to take up France’s top political job.The 52-year-old leader of the ruling right-wing Union

  12. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  13. The Stuttgart Reform Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews curriculum reform being implemented at the Library School of Stuttgart for students planning to work in public libraries. Components of the new curriculum include core courses in library science, electives in special areas of librarianship, seminars in chosen subject disciplines, and field work in libraries and government agencies. (LRW)

  14. Reforming Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For China, the recently established UN Human Rights Council is a victory of multilateralism This spring witnessed a significant reform in the United Nations human rights protection mechanism. On March 15, the UN General Assembly approved a draft resolution, with a 170 to 4 vote and 3 abstentions, to create a Human Rights Council (HRC). Then, March 23, the UN Economic and

  15. China Launched VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to boost domestic demand,reduce the tax burden on companies,encourage technological upgrades and push for industrial restructuring,China decided to extend its value-added tax(VAT) reform to all industries nationwide beginning January 1,2009.

  16. China Expands VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's top taxation watchdog said on October 1st this yearthat two more provinces are ready to pilot a reform of replacing turnover tax with value-added tax (VAT) in a bid to lower the overall tax burden and boost certain sectors.

  17. Natural Resources and Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammad; Djankov, Simeon

    2009-01-01

    The authors use a sample of 133 countries to investigate the link between the abundance of natural resources and micro-economic reforms. Previous studies suggest that natural resource abundance gives rise to governments that are less accountable to the public and states that are oligarchic, and that it leads to the erosion of social capital. These factors are likely to hamper economic refo...

  18. Reforming Rail Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  19. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... of the cohesion countries - have a significant role in driving the process of budgetary reform....

  20. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  1. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  2. Energy Price Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Market-based reform of energy prices is the most effective approach to enhancing energy efficiency. The policies of energy conservation and enhancing energy efficiency in the 1 lth Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) work directly to set up a series of reform measures related to energy pricing by market mechanism. Energy price reform will deeply influence China's industrial interest pattern, and its development in the next five years and even 10 or 20 years.This paper analyzes the significance, timing, present status and problems related to energy price reform, and discusses the goal, principle and measures of coal, electricity, oil and gas price reform separately.

  3. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  4. 低碳经济发展新趋势与国有企业改革路径关联性研究%Research on Relationship Between New Trend of Low Carbon Economic Development and Way of Reforming State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守义

    2014-01-01

    在全球金融危机深入演化的态势下,全球经济加速重构,低碳经济成为发达资本主义国家新的经济增长极,我国低碳经济也呈现出了新的发展趋势。而我们要在全球分工体系中抢占优势,实现美丽中国梦,必须走出一条新型低碳经济发展之路。国有企业作为市场主体,目前正处在改革的关键期,其改革路径的选择也理应在低碳型的可持续发展新模式下进行,低碳经济发展新趋势与国有企业改革路径两者之间高度关联。%Under the situation that the global financial crisis is in deep evolution,the structure of the global economy is accelerating to reorganize and low carbon economy has become a new economic growth pole of the developed cap-italist countries.Low carbon economy in our country has also shown a new development trend.If China wants to have advantageous momentum for the global division system and realize the brilliant Chinese dream,we must take up the raod of a new type of low carbon economy.The state-owned enterprises which are considered to be the prin-cipal part of market is in the critical period of reform.The choice of their reform paths should also be in low carbon under the new mode of sustainable development.There exists intimate relatedness between the new trend of devel-opment of the low carbon economy and the reform paths of the state-owned enterprises.

  5. Estudo microestrutural do catalisador Ni/gama-Al2O3: efeito da adição de CeO2 na reforma do metano com dióxido de carbono Microstructural study of Ni/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst: addition effects of CeO2 on carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoninho Valentini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide reforming of methane was carried out over nickel catalysts supported on the gamma-Al2O3/CeO2 system prepared by wet impregnation. With the increase of the CeO2 weight in the catalyst, a higher stability was observed in the catalytic activity, together with an excellent resistance to carbon deposition and a better Ni dispersion. The catalysts were characterized by means of surface area measurements, TPR, H2 chemisorption, XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS and TEM. An interaction between Ni and CeO2 was observed to the Ni/CeO2 sample after activation in a H2 atmosphere above 300 ºC. Such behavior has a significantly influence on the catalytic activity.

  6. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  7. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  8. Fabrication of a Flexible Micro CO Sensor for Micro Reformer Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Man Lo; Chi-Chung Chang; Chi-Yuan Lee

    2010-01-01

    Integration of a reformer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is problematic due to the presence in the gas from the reforming process of a slight amount of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisons the catalyst of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell subsequently degrading the fuel cell performance, and necessitating the sublimation of the reaction gas before supplying to fuel cells. Based on the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to manufacture flexible ...

  9. Assembly and operation experience of EVA II steam reforming bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main test component of the experimental facility EVA-II/ADAM-II is a helium heated steam reformer bundle with 30 tubes. The tubes are filled with a catalyst of raschig ring type. The main test of the component were related to the power dependence. A series of experiment dealt with the influence of steam/methane ratio on the carbon deposit formation

  10. Optimizing a steam-methane reformer for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Kok, J.B.W.; Westendorp, G.

    2009-01-01

    By means of steam reforming, natural gas is converted to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The reactions take place in reactor tubes which are covered with catalyst at the inside, where the reactive mixture flows. At the outside they are heated by combustion of natural gas with air. In this paper the con

  11. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...... (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs...

  12. 活性碳纤维耦合喹啉铁的pH-tolerant性能研究%pH-tolerant performance of activated carbon fibers coupled with 8-hydroxyquinoline ferric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志飞; 李代文; 姚玉元; 吕汪洋; 黄三庆; 陈文兴

    2015-01-01

    The application of Fenton reaction is restricted to a narrow pH range (2‐3 5.) ,which has long been a technological bottleneck .Therefore ,the development of a pH‐tolerant Fenton‐like catalyst is an active and chal‐lenging research front in the field of environmental catalysis .In this work ,the pH‐tolerant performance of the novel Fenton‐like catalytic fibers (QuFe@ ACFs) based on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) coupled with 8‐hydroxyquinoline ferric (QuFe) was evaluated by a simple impregnation method .The UV‐Vis spectroscopy measurements showed that the reactive brilliant red M‐3BE (RR M‐3BE) was completely degraded in 32 min . Probe compound O‐phenylenediamine combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and UV‐Vis spectroscopy were employed to demonstrate the catalytic stability of QuFe@ ACFs ,and the experimen‐tal results showed that QuFe@ ACFs exhibited excellent catalytic ability and recycle utilization performance across a wide pH range from 3 to 9 ,brought remarkable pH‐tolerant performance .To sum up ,the QuFe@ACFs prepared by an extremely simple impregnation method ,breaks the technological bottleneck for Fenton treatment ,providing new ideas for preparing novel pH‐tolerant Fenton‐like catalysts with excellent catalytic ac‐tivity .%pH值适应范围窄一直是制约芬顿反应发展的技术瓶颈,因此,开发pH‐tolerant类芬顿催化剂成为环境催化领域的研究热点和难点。采用活性碳纤维(ACFs)耦合喹啉铁(QuFe)制得一种新型pH‐tolerant类芬顿催化纤维(QuFe@ ACFs),该催化纤维在中性条件下可以活化双氧水有效降解活性艳红 M‐3B E。采用自由基捕获剂邻苯二胺,结合电子顺磁共振波谱、紫外‐可见光谱等对催化纤维的重复稳定性进行了重点考察。结果显示,QuFe@ ACFs在pH值为3~9范围内均具有良好的催化性能和重复使用性,表现出了

  13. Pension Reform in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Okamoto

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to establish guidelines for public pension reform in Japan, using a numerical simulation approach. The paper introduces the example of a minimum guaranteed pension in the Swedish pension system and compares this with the basic pension in Japan’s public pension system, with regard to methods of income redistribution through a public pension scheme. Simulation results show that the switch from the basic pension to the guaranteed pension does not always generate favorable results...

  14. Immigration Reform: 1986 & Today

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In 1986 president Ronald Reagan passed the largest immigration bill in American history. He granted amnesty to nearly three million undocumented immigrants, but many still considered this immigration bill to be a failure. The 1986 Amnesty Act, more properly known as the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), was supposed to secure the border, crack down on businesses that continued to hire undocumented immigrants and put an end to illegal immigration here in the United States. It ...

  15. Ready for RMB Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Now that the global recovery has taken hold and with the Chinese economy gaining ground,China’s central bank—the People’s Bank of China—has decided to proceed with reform of the renminbi(yuan) exchange rate regime and improve the flexibility.The central bank’s spokesman on June 20 addressed a number of concerns over the issue in a statement posted on its website.Edited excerpts follow:

  16. Ready for RMB Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Now that the global recovery has taken hold and with the Chinese economy gaining ground,China's central bank-the People's Bank of China-has decided to proceed with reform of the renminbi(yuan)exchange rate regime and improve the flexibility.The central bank's spokesman on June 20 addressed a number of concerns over the issue in a statement posted on its website.Edited excerpts follow:

  17. Financial Reforms and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Chandan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I assess the impact of financial reforms on corruption using a panel of 85 countries for 1984-2005. I find that several, but not all, of the policies targeted towards financial liberalization reduce corruption. Specifically, the abolition of entry barriers, credit controls, and excessive reserve requirements along with improvements in the security markets and banking supervision are associated with lower corruption.

  18. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  19. Political Reform at Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    How to promote the reform of political institutions is one of the thorny issues facing China.The recent publication of the first book systematically illustrating the overall plan of the reform of China’s political institutions,Storming the Fortress:A Research Report on the Reform of China’s Political Institutions After the 17th Party Congress (abbreviated as Storming the Fortress) has attracted a lot of public attention.Besides the sensitive topic,the identities of the authors also con- tribute to the book’s bestselling.Most authors of the book are from the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC),an important think tank of the CPC.Because of this many people believe that the book represents the official standpoint.Beijing Review reporter Feng Jianhua conducted an interview with Professor Zhou Tianyong,Chief Compiler of the book and Deputy Director of the Research Office of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.

  20. Software fault tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinov, Tofik Hasanaga; Mostafa, Jalilian Shahrukh

    2009-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce errorfree software, software fault tolerance is and will contiune to be an important consideration in software system. The root cause of software design errors in the complexity of the systems. This paper surveys various software fault tolerance techniquest and methodologies. They are two gpoups: Single version and Multi version software fault tolerance techniques. It is expected that software fault tolerance research will benefit from this research...

  1. Carbon Nanofibers-Supported Ni Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Bio-Oil through Low-Temperature Reforming%一种适用于生物油低温制氢的碳纳米纤维促进的镍催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇; 姜沛汶; 李全新

    2013-01-01

      氢气作为一种高热值的清洁能源广泛地应用于工业中.研究证明:生物质通过化学过程可以转化为多种气体燃料(氢气),液体燃料以及高附加值的化学品.生物质作为一种环境友好型再生洁净能源,其研究越来越受到关注.本文旨在探讨利用生物油为原料,通过水蒸汽重整方法制备富氢合成气的过程.利用均匀浸渍的方法制备了一种高分散的碳纳米纤维促进的镍(Ni/CNFs)催化剂,并将普通的Al2O3作为载体的Ni/Al2O3催化剂和Ni/CNFs作对比.研究了重整温度以及水蒸汽和碳摩尔比(nS/nC)对生物油水蒸汽重整制氢的影响.结果表明:碳纳米纤维作为载体用于生物油水蒸汽重整制氢的效果要远优于普通的Al2O3载体,利用22%Ni/CNFs催化剂时,在实验温度范围内(350-550°C),最高生物油转化率和氢气产率分别达到了94.7%和92.1%,通过研究重整条件以及对催化剂进行表征探讨了生物油在水蒸汽重整过程中催化剂的构效关系.%Hydrogen is a clean energy with high heat value that has been widely used in industry. Previous studies indicate that biomass can be converted in to gaseous fuels (hydrogen), liquid fuels and other chemicals. Biomass is the only renewable carbon resource and has attracted increasing attention because of the increasing price of oil and its environmental friendliness. To decrease energy consumption and minimize cost, it is very important to develop a process to produce hydrogen from bio-oil by low temperature steam reforming over non-noble metal catalysts. This work reports a carbon nanofibers-supported Ni (Ni/CNFs) catalyst prepared by the homogeneous impregnation method. The Ni/CNFs catalyst was successful y used to produce hydrogen via low-temperature (350-550 °C) steam reforming of bio-oil. The effects of temperature and water steam/carbon molar ratio (nS/nC) on the reforming of bio-oil were investigated. The highest carbon

  2. Cooling of a Diesel Reformate Fuelled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Internal Reforming of Methane: A Modelling Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaowei; Alexander Kromp

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a system combining a diesel reformer using catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) applications is modeled with respect to the cooling effect provided by internal reforming of methane in anode gas channel.A model mixture consisting of 80% n-hexadecane and 20% 1-methylnaphthalin is used to simulate the commercial diesel.The modelling consists of several steps.First,equilibrium gas composition at the exit of CPOX reformer is modelled in terms oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratio,fuel utilization ratio and anode gas recirculation.Second,product composition,especially methane content,is determined for the methanation process at the operating temperatures ranging from 500 ℃ to 520 ℃.Finally,the cooling power provided by internal reforming of methane in SOFC fuel channel is calculated for two concepts to increase the methane content of the diesel reformate.The results show that the first concept,operating the diesel reformer at low O/C ratio and/or recirculation ratio,is not realizable due to high probability of coke formation,whereas the second concept,combining a methanation process with CPOX,can provide a significant cooling effect in addition to the conventional cooling concept which needs higher levels of excess air.

  3. Toxicity of cobalt-complexed cyanide to Oncorhynchus mykiss, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia: Potentiation by ultraviolet radiation and attenuation by dissolved organic carbon and adaptive UV tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Theodorakos, P.; Brown, Z.A.; Johnson, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    hazard to aquatic life through photochemically induced processes. Factors that decrease UV exposure such as dissolved organic carbon or increased pigmentation would diminish toxicity. ?? 2007 ecomed publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hu??thig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  4. Genomic insights into growth and survival of supercritical-CO2 tolerant bacterium MIT0214 under conditions associated with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Hernandez, H.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 has the potential to significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with fossil fuel combustion. The largest potential for storing captured CO2 in the United Sates is in deep geologic saline formations. Currently, little is known about the effects of CO2 storage on biologically active microbial communities found in the deep earth biosphere. Therefore, to investigate how deep earth microbial communities will be affected by the storage of CO2 we have enriched for a microbial consortium from the saline formation waters of the Frio 2 project site (Texas Gulf Coast) that is capable of growth in nutrient media under a supercritical CO2 headspace (Hernandez, et al). The cultivation of actively growing cells in an environment containing scCO2 is unexpected based on previous experimental evidence of microbial sterilization attributed to the acidic, desiccating, and solvent-like properties of scCO2. We have isolated strain MIT0214 from this supercritical CO2 based enrichment and have sequenced its genome using the Illumina platform followed by de novo assembly of reads and targeted Sanger sequencing to reduce gaps in the draft assembly. The genome of strain MIT0214 is approximately 5,551,062 base pairs with 35% GC-content and is most similar to nonpathogenic Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14597. Annotation of the draft assembly of the MIT0214 genome by the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server revealed 5538 coding sequences where 4145 of the coding sequences were assigned putative functions. These functions were enriched in cell wall and capsule formation, phage/prophage and plasmids, gene regulation and signaling, and nitrogen and sulfur metabolism relative to the genome of the most closely-related surface-isolated B. cereus reference (ATCC 14597) and in total 773,416 bp of the MIT0214 genome content was distinct from the B. cereus reference. Notably, this set of distinct sequences were most

  5. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  6. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  7. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  8. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  9. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  10. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    400 ppm of the carbon in the feed at approx. 600 °C. The different promoters did not influence the product distribution to any significant extent. Selective poisoning with small amounts of K2SO4 on Ni–CeO2/MgAl2O4 at 600 °C decreased carbon deposition from 900 to 200 ppm of the carbon in the feed...

  11. TAX REFORM IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Rup Khadka

    1998-01-01

    Globalization has forced many governments to change their economic policies, including tax policies, in the recent years. It has had an even greater impact on Singapore’s economy due to the high degree of its openness with respect to trade and investment. In this context, Singapore undertook a major restructuring of its tax system in the early 1990s. The introduction of a modern value added tax system (goods and services tax) was a part of the overall tax reform package. This paper examines h...

  12. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  13. Operation of an industrial steam reformer under severe condition : a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayegan, J. [Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Yousef Motamed Hashemi, M.M. [Southern California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mork Family Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences; Vakhshouri, K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Steam reforming involves the reaction of hydrocarbons with water vapours in order to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Reformers typically use nickel catalysts to accelerate reforming reactions. Large quantities of heat are needed to react the hydrocarbons. This article described a 2-D model designed to simulate steam reformers with lower generating Reynolds numbers, a higher tube diameter, and the non-availability of extra steam in the feed. Reformer feed gas was a mixture of fresh natural gas and off-gas streams. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) content was higher than conventional steam reformers. The steady state operation of a large-scale Midrex reformer was investigated in order to obtain furnace-side and reactor-side equations. A Roesler flux-type model was used to model the furnace-side. The reactor side model used a fluid radial Peclet number as well as an extension of Ergun's equation in order to estimate pressure drop. Reactions were evaluated by a set of first order kinetic expressions. Thermodynamic properties of combustion products and process gases were obtained using SRK equations of state. Axial and radial temperature profiles were obtained, and the effect of the catalyst loading profile was investigated. The study showed that the 2-D model was adequate but not entirely accurate. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the effects of catalyst loading profiles and the risks of carbon formation. 30 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  15. Kosovo : Health Financing Reform Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present information on the different health financing reform options available to Kosovo, which can help the government to make informed policy decisions about financing reforms. The report focuses on the key insurance functions of revenue collection and management, risk pooling, and purchasing of health care, as well as the supportive regulatory and gove...

  16. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  17. Curriculum Reform: Discovering the Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuca, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Contends that intensive activity and rapid change in curriculum reform is at an end; that areas of urban and vocational education in the reform process have been ignored; and that the level of knowledge in curriculum and instruction has not advanced. Appeals for exploratory research to establish the foundation for constructing a theory of…

  18. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  19. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  20. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  1. Temperature-programmed oxidation of coked noble metal catalysts after autothermal reforming of n-hexadecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, E.I.; Linnekoski, J.A.; Krause, A.O.I.; Veringa Niemelae, M.K. [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Research Group Industrial Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kaila, R.K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1001, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexadecane was carried out on zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic noble metal (Rh, Pt) catalysts at 600, 700, and 800 C. After ATR, the reactivity of coke deposits (2.8-9.9 wt%) on the catalysts was investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Analysis of the results obtained from ATR and TPO experiments at various temperatures and on the different catalysts gave information on the reaction conditions where the detrimental coke can be minimized and allows estimating the nature of carbon deposits. H{sub 2} production increased with temperature on the tested Rh-containing catalysts and the ZrO{sub 2} support, but decreased as a function of temperature on the Pt catalyst. The formation of coke was least at 800 C, evidently due to the intensifying reaction of carbon and steam with increasing temperature, as well as to the better activity of the catalysts. The amount of coke formed was highest at 700 C. Comparison of the TPO profiles obtained for the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts with the bimetallic RhPt revealed differences in the nature of carbon deposits on their surface. At 600 C, the coke formed on the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts was located mostly on the support, whereas on the bimetallic RhPt catalyst the formation of this type of coke was suppressed. The bimetallic RhPt catalyst also exhibited better tolerance toward coking at 700 C. Therefore, although the selectivity toward hydrogen was not related to the amount of coke formed, the deactivation patterns differed on the mono- and bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  2. An operando surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) study of carbon deposition on SOFC anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaxi; Liu, Mingfei; Lee, Jung-pil; Ding, Dong; Bottomley, Lawrence A; Park, Soojin; Liu, Meilin

    2015-09-01

    Thermally robust and chemically inert Ag@SiO2 nanoprobes are employed to provide the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect for an in situ/operando study of the early stage of carbon deposition on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The enhanced sensitivity to carbon enables the detection of different stages of coking, offering insights into intrinsic coking tolerance of material surfaces. Application of a thin coating of gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) enhances the resistance to coking of nickel surfaces. The electrochemically active Ni-YSZ interface appears to be more active for hydrocarbon reforming, resulting in the accumulation of different hydrocarbon molecules, which can be readily removed upon the application of an anodic current. Operando SERS is a powerful tool for the mechanistic study of coking in SOFC systems. It is also applicable to the study of other catalytic and electrochemical processes in a wide range of conditions. PMID:25599129

  3. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  4. Internal reforming development for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. L.

    1987-02-01

    Internal reforming of natural gas within a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should simplify the overall system design and make the SOFC an attractive means for producing electrical power. This program was undertaken to investigate the catalytic properties of nickel cermets, which are prime candidates for SOFC anodes. The initial task in this program was an extensive literature search for information on steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. The second task was to modify and calibrate the reactor systems that were used in the experimental kinetic studies. Two systems were used in this investigation; a continuously stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and a plug flow reactor system (PFR). In the third task, 16 nickel-zirconia cermets were prepared using four procedures, tape casting, Westinghouse slurry, incorporation of performers, and granulation. The catalytic behavior of three cermets was determined in the fourth task. The reaction was first order with respect to methane and -1.25 for steam. Ethane and propane in the feed did not affect the methane conversion rate. The cermet has a higher initial tolerance for sulfur than standard nickel reforming catalysts. The final task was a mechanistic study of the steam reforming reaction on nickel and nickel-zirconia catalysts.

  5. An Analysis of Biogas Reforming Process on Ni/YSZ and Ni/SDC Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Szmyd

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of biogas to electricity presents an attractive niche application for fuel cells. Thus attempts have been made to use biogas as a fuel for high temperature fuel cell systems such as SOFC. Biogas can be converted to hydrogen-rich fuel in a reforming process. For hydrocarbon-based fuel, three types of fuel conversion can be considered in reforming reactions: an external reforming system, an indirect internal reforming system and a direct internal reforming system. High-temperature SOFC eliminates the need for an expensive external reforming system. The possibility of using internal reforming is one of the characteristics of high temperature fuel cells like SOFC. However, for high-temperature operation, thermal management of the SOFC system becomes an important issue. To properly carry out thermal management, both detailed modeling and numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the SOFC system is required. In the present work, the process of reforming biogas on a Ni/YSZ and a Ni/SDC catalyst has been numerically and experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, steam-to-carbon ratios and several different fuel compositions were taken. A numerical model containing methane/steam reforming reaction, dry reforming reaction and shift reaction has been proposed to predict the gas mixture composition at the outlet of the reformer. The results of the numerical computation were compared with experimental data and good agreement has been found. The results indicate the importance of combined, numerical and experimental studies in the design of SOFC reformers. The combined approach used leads to the successful prediction of the outlet gas composition for different modelling conditions.

  6. Toleration and its enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the development of freedom of expression in Danish constitutional law, to freedom of the press in European human rights law - the Jersild case- to a right to mock and ridicule other faiths in recent Danish practice, the essay of Locke on toleration is examined, its...... background in arminist protestant theology of toleration considered, its conclusion that only faiths that demand allegiance and obedience to foreign powers can be excluded from toleration is highlighted....

  7. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-04-21

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. MERICAN CULTURAL TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG RUIXIAO

    2014-01-01

    As an emigrant country, the essential characteristic of America culture is its tolerance. It contributes to the formation the diversity of American culture. By tracing back to American history, this essay shows what caused American cultural tolerance. Through describing briefly the manifestation of American cultural tolerance from certain aspects and analyzing the major factors, it will give us a clue about the reason why America can be always prosperous. At last, the paper shows the limitation as well as advantages about the tolerance from the point of current status.

  9. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present......, the paper aims to identify drivers and obstacles to learning-based institutional reform. We argue that the ineffectiveness of implementation systems has been a key driver of reform requirements, but that the need for agreement amongst a large number of interdependent decision makers has been an obstacle...

  10. Effect of initial nickel particle size on stability of nickel catalysts for aqueous phase reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasterecht, Van Tomas; Swart, Marten; Jong, De Krijn P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation behavior by crystallite growth of nickel nanoparticles on various supports (carbon nanofibers, zirconia, SiC, α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3) was investigated in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol. Supported Ni catalysts of ∼10 wt% were prepared by impregnation of carbon nanofibers

  11. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  12. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart;

    2013-01-01

    methanol is converted to a hydrogen rich gas with CO2 trace amounts of CO, the increased operating temperatures allow the fuel cell to tolerate much higher CO concentrations than Nafion-based membranes. The increased tolerance to CO also enables the use of reformer systems with less hydrogen cleaning steps...... and requirements for hydrogen purity, reducing the complexity of the reformer systems. Using hydrogen containing CO, affects the steady-state as well as dynamic electrical performance of the fuel cell, but stable operation is still possible with concentrations up to 3%. The typical polymer used in HTPEM fuel cells...

  13. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Justesen, Kristian Kjær;

    methanol is converted to a hydrogen rich gas with CO2 trace amounts of CO, the increased operating temperatures allow the fuel cell to tolerate much higher CO concentrations than Nafion-based membranes. The increased tolerance to CO also enables the use of reformer systems with less hydrogen cleaning steps...... and requirements for hydrogen purity, reducing the complexity of the reformer systems. Using hydrogen containing CO, affects the steady-state as well as dynamic electrical performance of the fuel cell, but stable operation is still possible with concentrations up to 3%. The typical polymer used in HTPEM fuel cells...

  14. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  15. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesti...... the gas composition of the reformer and the affects to the HT-PEM fuel cell. Additional,a focus on the dynamics and system control of the RMFC have been studied, which have also been a big part of the motivation for this work.......Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesting...... topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of mixed and dry reforming of methane for solar thermal applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Sun; T. Ritchie; S. S. Hla; S. McEvoy; W. Stein; J. H. Edwards

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of the reforming of methane with carbon dioxide alone ("dry reforming") and with carbon dioxide and steam together ("mixed reforming") is performed as part of a project which investigates the suitability of these endothermic reactions for the storage of solar thermal energy.The Gibbs free energy minimization method was employed to identify thermodynamically optimal operating conditions for dry reforming as well as mixed reforming with a desired H2/CO molar ratio of 2.The non-stoichiometric equilibrium model was developed using FactSage software to conduct the thermodynamic calculations for carbon formation,H2/CO ratio,CH4 conversion and H2 yield as a function of reaction temperature,pressure and reactant molar ratios.Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that in the mixed reforming process,optimal operating conditions in a carbon-free zone are under H2O/CH4/CO2 =1.0/1.0/0.5,p =1 to 10 bar and T =800 to 850 ℃ for the production of syngas with a H2/CO molar ratio of 2.Under the optimal conditions,the maximum H2 yield of 88.0% is achieved at 1 bar and 850 ℃ with a maximum CH4 conversion of 99.3%.In the dry reforming process,a carbon formation regime is always present at a CO2/CH4 molar ratio of 1 for T =700-1000 ℃ and p =1-30 bar,whereas a carbon-free regime can be obtained at a CO2/CH4 molar ratio greater than 1.5 and T>800 ℃.

  17. Rare-earth oxides promoted nickel based catalysts for steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of ceria, samaria and praseodymia as promoters for nickel based catalysts for the steam reforming of methane has been studied. The catalysts, prepared by a two-step impregnation method, showed significant enhancement of activity for methane steam reforming. The activity increased linearly with increased loading of the rare-earth oxides. The positive effect of the rare-earth oxides on the steam reforming activity decreased as CeO2>Pr2O3>Sm2O3. The ceria-containing catalysts exhibited excellent anti-coking ability comparable to that of advanced commercial catalysts. This was explained in terms of the larger adsorption of water on the surface of ceria and the resulting relatively high rates of carbon gasification. The selectivity of the nickel-ceria catalysts to hydrogen and carbon dioxide production during methane steam re-forming was also significantly improved due to the increase of importance of the water gas shift reaction

  18. A Cornerstone of Health Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to ensure fair and affordable health services for all Chinese citizens and to set up a healthcare system that covers both urban and rural residents, the Chinese Government put forward a strategic task of deepening the healthcare system reform. The major objective of this reform is to provide medical service as a public service. In an interview with Beijing-based Guangming Daily, Li Weiping, a fellow researcher at the Institute of Medicine and Economy under the Ministry of Health, says that public hospitals are key to making this reform work and medical workers will need to drive this process forward.

  19. Land Law Reform : Achieving Development Policy Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, John W.; Giovarelli, Renée; Rolfes, Jr., Leonard; Bledsoe, David; Mitchell, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This book examines issues at the forefront of the debate on land law reform, pays particular attention to how reform options affect the poor and disadvantaged, and recommends strategies for alleviating poverty more effectively through land law reform. It reviews the role of the World Bank in land law reform, examining issues of process as well as substance. It also identifies key challenge...

  20. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  1. Loss Tolerant Optical Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C; Gilchrist, A; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2005-01-01

    We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs a new encoding approach that incrementally adds qubits and is tolerant to photon loss errors. The scheme employs a circuit model but uses techniques from cluster state computation and achieves comparable resource usage. To illustrate our techniques we describe a quantum memory which is fault tolerant to photon loss.

  2. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv...

  3. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    to the political and social relationship between the subject and the objects of toleration. Finally, toleration is often argued to be a normative requirement on the basis of the way it affects the object or receiver of toleration, e.g. on the basis of the good of or right to freedom from non-interference which....... The chapter relates the different possible meanings of groups toleration to widespread criticisms of multiculturalism for being excessively 'groupist' (e.g. to essentialise or reify groups), to promote group rights over individual rights, or to deny or ignore the internal heterogeneity of groups...... or the multiple identity affiliations of individuals. The chapter suggests that some of these standard criticisms of multiculturalism for being overly tolerant of minority groups, or being so in a way elevating groups over individuals, are less pressing on some understandings of the meaning of 'group...

  4. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    respecting the plurality of conceptions of the good in society, whereas political compromise embodies the disagreements in coercive laws. This difference between toleration and compromise has two important consequences. First, political compromise is justified in a different manner than is toleration...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature...

  5. A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living.

  6. Kinetics of methane steam reforming over Ni/Ce-ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' This paper investigates the steam reforming of methane over Ni catalyst on Ce-ZrO2 support with different Ce/Zr ratios. Firstly, the pretreatment conditions of each catalyst were investigated in order to provide the best performance toward methane steam reforming. Ni/Ce- ZrO2 with the Ce/Zr ratio of 3/1 showed the best performance in terms of activity and stability. Essential kinetic information for this catalyst was determined. The reaction order in methane was always 1. The catalyst showed a positive effect of hydrogen and a negative effect of steam on the methane steam reforming reactivity. The negative effect of steam became weaker with increasing hydrogen partial pressure and temperature, whereas the positive effect of hydrogen became slightly stronger with increasing steam partial pressure but seemed to be independent of temperature. Addition of carbon monoxide promoted the conversion of methane, whereas addition of carbon dioxide inhibited the reforming rate. Methane steam reforming mechanism proposed by Boudart et al. (1972) can be applied to explain the experimental results for the steam reforming of methane over Ni/Ce-ZrO2. In addition, the experimental data can be well fitted to the methane steam reforming rate equation reported by Dick et al. (2000). (author)

  7. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  8. Green, Reform, Win-Win

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Boao Forum for Asia this year enjoys three high lights, namely "Green, Reform and Win-Win".The old but hot topics attracted accumulated attention from the whole world, and more fresh ideas were ushered in.

  9. In silico search for novel methane steam reforming catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yue; Lausche, Adam C; Wang, Shengguang; Khan, Tuhin Suvra; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix; Nørskov, Jens K.; Bligaard, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for screening transition metal and metal alloy catalysts based on their predicted rates and stabilities for a given catalytic reaction. This method involves combining reaction and activation energies (available to the public via a web-based application ‘CatApp’) with a microkinetic modeling technique to predict the rates and selectivities of a prospective material. This paper illustrates this screening technique using the steam reforming of methane to carbon m...

  10. Deepening Health Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; World Health Organization,; Ministry of Finance, P.R.C.; National Health and Family Planning Commission, P.R.C.; Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, P.R.C.

    2016-01-01

    At a meeting in July 2014 in Beijing, we committed to working together on a flagship report that would help set the direction for health sector reform in China. This report, Deepening Health Reform in China, is the result. Using the successful model offered by previous flagship reports like China 2030 and Urban China, this report primarily offers a blueprint for a new direction for China’s health sector. The report’s main theme is the need for China to transition...

  11. Reforming Institutions: Where to Begin?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Idrees Khawaja; Sajawal Khan

    2009-01-01

    No society is devoid of institutions but many live with poor institutions. Institutions promote growth. This is a view now held firmly and widely. The task then is to ‘engineer’ growth-promoting institutions. Endogeneity characterises institutions; for example, groups enjoying political power influence economic institutions, but political power itself is a function of wealth. Given endogeneity, if the task is to design institutional reforms, the question then arises, as to what to reform firs...

  12. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  13. Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2013-09-23

    Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297-773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. An integrated system of gasoline reformer and three way converter for on-board hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-board exhaust gas assisted gasoline reforming has been investigated using a compact prototype system consisting of a fuel reformer integrated with a three way catalytic converter (TWC) connected to a V6 engine running at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, the integrated fuel reformer and TWC were designed and constructed to supply reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR) stream to the gasoline-fuelled HCCI V6 engine as supplement fuel to improve engine performance and reduce NOx emissions. To find the optimum operating conditions of the engine-reformer system (in terms of hydrogen production and thermal efficiency), the effect of oxygen to carbon ratio (O2/C) in the reactor input mixture, and the different engine operating conditions were investigated. The reactor outlet temperature appears to be strongly correlated to the production of hydrogen, concentrations up to 12.8% of hydrogen in the reformer products were achieved from commercial unleaded gasoline. Uncompleted reforming of gasoline was assumed from significant quantities of hydrocarbons in the product measured by Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR). This novel design of an integrated fuel reformer and three-way catalytic converter (TWC) that can be fitted in the EGR loop was applied to extend the lower boundary of the (HCCI) operating window.(author)

  15. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Monica, E-mail: monica.dan@itim-cj.ro; Mihet, Maria, E-mail: maria.mihet@itim-cj.ro; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  16. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  17. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm3/h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm3). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  18. Reforming the European Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ezra Bigio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An unbridled globalization based on a simple premise about earnings and profit may be detrimental to the livelihood of many thousands of individuals. The greed and utter selfishness that result from the adherence to this sort of business practice are the two things that generate more unemployment, misery and degradation than most other characteristics of the human species. These considerations present the challenge for Western societies and call for the implementation of other principles, standards and procedures, such as cooperation, cohesion, development objectives and social responsibility. In the first part of the paper this approach is tested in the case of the EU-US foreign exchange relationships. The second part of the paper raises more general and fundamental issues. While adhering to the Schumpeter-type innovation environment, it aims to introduce the social dimension ahead of the immediate competitiveness and, therefore, argues for the fundamental reform of the catechism of the capitalist manager. The EU, due to its advanced integration, is relatively well-equipped to move towards the new economic system.

  19. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  20. Tolerance Induction in Liver

    OpenAIRE

    M.H Karimi; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tol...

  1. Diesel auto-thermal reforming for solid oxide fuel cell systems: Anode off-gas recycle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diesel reformation with solid oxide fuel cell anode off-gas recycle simulation. • Thermodynamic modeling complemented experiments to optimize fuel reformation. • Comparisons of diesel reforming with anode off-gas recycle and direct water/air. • Single-tube reformer with Rh/CeO2–ZrO2 catalyst for diesel autothermal reforming. - Abstract: Diesel auto-thermal reformation (ATR) with solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack anode off-gas recycle (AOGR) has a reliable steam recycling supply to the reformer and improves overall system efficiency. For the lab-scale experiments, it is crucial to develop a cost-effective technique to simulate the AOGR effects on hydrocarbon catalytic reformation due to safety and cost considerations of providing the full recycle composition in the absence of fuel cell stack hardware. The present work combined thermodynamic modeling and experiments to compare diesel ATR performance with AOGR and with direct water/air inputs as recycle simulation (RS). Variations of input water and air flow were employed to simulate the effects of recycle gas on syngas production and to analyze the contribution of recycled CO2 dry reforming. A single-tube reformer with Rh/CeO2–ZrO2 catalyst was used for diesel ATR experiments with a photo-acoustic micro-soot meter to monitor carbon formation in the reformate effluent. Experimental results suggest water and air input flows are two key variables to simulate performance of diesel ATR with AOGR, whereas gas hourly space velocity and reforming temperature do not significantly affect the recycle simulation process in syngas production. The optimum AOGR ratio for an SOFC stack with 65% fuel utilization was identified as 45% for diesel ATR to achieve maximum syngas production and reforming efficiency with a given input air flow

  2. Steam reforming of methane using double-walled reformer tubes containing high-temperature thermal storage Na2CO3/MgO composites for solar fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-walled reactor tubes containing thermal storage materials based on the molten carbonate salts—100 wt% Na2CO3 molten salt, 90 wt% Na2CO3/10 wt% MgO and 80 wt% Na2CO3/20 wt% MgO composite materials—were studied for the performances of the reactor during the heat charging mode, while those of methane reforming with steam during heat discharging mode for solar steam reforming. The variations in the temperatures of the catalyst and storage material, methane conversion, duration of reforming for obtaining high levels of methane conversion (>90%), higher heating value (HHV) power of reformed gas and efficiency of the reactor tubes were evaluated for the double-walled reactor tubes and a single-wall reactor tube without the thermal storage. The results for the heat charging mode indicated that the composite thermal storage could successfully store the heat transferred from the exterior wall of the reactor in comparison to the pure molten-salt. The double-walled reactor tubes with the 90 wt% Na2CO3/10 wt% MgO composite material was the most desirable for steam reforming of methane to realize large HHV amounts of reformed gas and higher efficiencies during heat-discharging mode. - Highlights: • Double-walled reactor tubes containing high-temperature thermal storage are examined for solar steam reforming. • The reactor performances were evaluated for the heat charging, while those of steam reforming for heat discharging. • The 90 wt% Na2CO3/10 wt% MgO composite material was the most desirable for steam reforming of methane by the reactor tubes

  3. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status. PMID:12159575

  4. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. PMID:27044689

  5. Numerical analysis of performance of steam reformer of methane reforming hydrogen production system connected with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane conversion rate and hydrogen output are important performance indexes of the steam reformer. The paper presents numerical analysis of performance of the reformer connected with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTR-10. Setting helium inlet flow rate fixed, performance of the reformer was examined with different helium inlet temperature, pressure, different process gas temperature, pressure, flow rate, and different steam to carbon ratio. As the range concerned, helium inlet temperature has remarkable influence on the performance, and helium inlet temperature, process gas temperature and pressure have little influence on the performance, and improving process gas flow rate, methane conversion rate decreases and hydrogen output increases, however improving steam to carbon ratio has reverse influence on the performance. (authors)

  6. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350W high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker;

    suited for reformer systems, where high CO tolerance is required. This enables the use fuels based on e.g. liquid alcohols. This work presents the control strategies of a methanol refoermer for a 350W HTPEM FC system. The system examined is the Serenergy H3-350 Mobile Battery Charger, an integrated...

  7. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    The mechanisms by which various fuel component hydrocarbons related to both heavy petroleum and coal-derived liquids are converted to hydrogen without forming carbon were investigated. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in autothermal reforming (ATR) were shown to be responsible for the observed fuel-specific carbon formation characteristics. The types of carbon formed in the reformer were identified by SEM and XRD analyses of catalyst samples and carbon deposits. From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation. The effects of propylene addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics, synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Indications that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation were found. The conversion and degradation effects of the sulfur additive (thiophene) were examined.

  8. REFORMING CIVIL SERVICE IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Administrative reform and, in particular, the civil service reform in Kazakhstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union in the past 25 years, was due not only need to implement state-building in the former Soviet republics, but also influenced by global trends.The aim of this paper is a comprehensive description of the main stages of the reform of the civil service in the post-Soviet Kazakhstan. The article used the methods of institutional and diachronic analysis (the study of the successive in real historical time steps. Since 1995, Kazakhstan’s leadership proclaimed the establishment of a modern, efficient public service system a strategic priority of its policy. Analyzing the world experience and learning from their own miscalculations, the authorities have made significant progress in this area. At the same time, the unwillingness to make the final choice in favor of the positional model of public service, based on the competitive selection of cadres of public servants, their generous financial reward to bring you to the civil service people from the business, or career model, involving, on the contrary, «closed» career combined intangible benefits and guarantees for public servants, considerably reduces the effectiveness of the reforms. In 2015, President Nursultan Nazarbayev announced a new ambitious program of modernization of the civil service in Kazakhstan. However, the government of Kazakhstan announced plans to reform demonstrate actual recognition of the serious flaws and shortcomings in the implementation of civil service reforms in the early stages.

  9. Marginal Tax Rates and Health Care Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Sheiner, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Points out some of the important considerations and compares how two competing health reform initiatives, the Clinton administration's "Health Security Act" and Representative Cooper's "Managed Competition Act," deal with health care reform.

  10. School Finance Reform: Courts and Legislatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald D.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines how legal arguments advocating school finance reform do not provide an adequate basis for dealing with practical problems of implementing such policies. Guidelines for reform of fiscal policy are suggested. (DE)

  11. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology.

  12. Reel Reform: Documentaries Spur Debate about Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Three new American documentaries including "Waiting for Superman," "The Lottery, Race to Nowhere" and one British entry, "We are the People We've Been Waiting For," have animated school reform debates. Each of these documentaries seeks to disturb the entrenched thinking by claiming that our educational institutions are suffering from a malaise…

  13. Board Reforms and Firm Value: Worldwide Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Li; Mingyi Hung; Larry Fauver; Alvaro Taboada

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of corporate board reforms on firm value in 41 countries. Using a difference-in-differences design, we find that firm value increases after enactment of the reforms. The valuation increase is associated with both the intensity and major components of the reform, including board independence, audit committee, and the separation of the roles of chief executive officer and chairman. We also find that the effect of these reforms primarily exists in countries with weak legal ...

  14. Entrepreneurship and reforms in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We examine how institutional and policy reforms affect the relationship between entrepreneurship and growth. We perform Arellano-Bond GMM estimations on annual data (over the period 1990-2002) from a large group of developing countries and focus in particular on the interplay between policy and institutional reforms and entrepreneurship. We find that the joint effect of trade reform and entrepreneurship on growth is negative, suggesting that trade reform diminishes the positive effects of ent...

  15. A Guide to Health Care Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, David M.

    1994-01-01

    There are four rationales for health care reform: increasing the efficiency of health delivery; reforming the market for health insurance; providing universal coverage; and reducing the federal deficit. These goals are reflected in most reform proposals. Achieving these goals involves several problems, however. Paying for universal coverage may lead to labor supply or demand reductions. In addition, reform involves large federal risks that must be dealt with through deficit financing, reduced...

  16. What Determines the Likelihood of Structural Reforms?

    OpenAIRE

    Agnello, Luca; Castro, Vitor; Jalles, João Tovar; Sousa, Ricardo M.

    2014-01-01

    We use data for a panel of 60 countries over the period 1980-2005 to investigate the main drivers of the likelihood of structural reforms. We find that: (i) external debt crises are the main trigger of financial and banking reforms; (ii) inflation and banking crises are the key drivers of external capital account reforms; (iii) banking crises also hasten financial reforms; and (iv) economic recessions play an important role in promoting the necessary consensus for financial, capital, banking ...

  17. Political Institutions and Incentives for Economic Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Kira Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Political institutions matter for the incentives of politicians to implement economic reforms. This dissertation presents tools of analysis for understanding how political institutions constrain and shape the incentives of political decision-makers. Thus, it identifies reasons for why current governments might not enact sufficiently large economic reforms, delay necessary reforms, or take the wrong reform steps, as they are commonly perceived to do. In particular, the dissertation analyzes th...

  18. RIPP开发的催化重整技术%NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮仲英

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics, catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China. The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units. This paper introduces the properties of PS-VI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units. The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity, under the same reaction conditions, the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst. Among the SR reforming catalysts, the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref. Cat A. The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%~3% and 3%, respectively, higher than those of Cat A, and the run length was 30%~40% longer as well, which exhibits good prospect of application.

  19. Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell Systems - and their use in Electric Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær

    PEM fuel cells are widely regarded as a promising technology which has the potential to replace more polluting and less efficient internal combustion engines in many applications. They do, however, have the drawback that their hydrogen fuel is cumbersome and energy consuming to store and transport....... Alternative system topologies that use a liquid fuel is therefore of great interest. One such topology is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system where a mixture of liquid methanol and water is reformed via the steam reformation process to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Most of the hydrogen is then used...... in a fuel cell and the rest is passed to a catalytic burner which supplies the process heat for the reformer. This makes RMFCs complex systems where the different parts of the system affect each other and it makes demands on the way they are integrated with the loads they supply. This PhD study has...

  20. Tolerance and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Marius Hansteen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  1. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  2. The Danish structural reform of government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The reform of the three-tier system of government that the Danish society is about to implement is in accordance with the Danish tradition of structural reforms in the pre-war period. The agenda of the current reform derives naturally from the political debates and analyses that have taken place...

  3. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  4. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  5. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  6. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform...

  7. Reform of China's Pension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanzhongWang

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes development and reform of China's pension system. It introduces the evolution of China's pension system reform and discusses its strengths and problems.The paper then proposes some suggestions on the direction of China's pension reform. The last section is devoted to a discussion of China's corporate occupational pension, which is a fast-developing area of the pension system.

  8. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...... reveal how important these identified QTLs are in terms of improving heat tolerance in wheat. Similar approach of plant phenotyping based gene discovery can be used to understand other physiological traits in plants in response to different abiotic stresses, which may lead to identification of genes...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...

  9. Control and Experimental Characterization of a Methanol Reformer for a 350 W High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker;

    the high temperature waste gas from a cathode air cooled 45 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack. The MEAs used are BASF P2100 which use phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole type membranes; an MEA with high CO tolerance and no complex humidity requirements. The methanol reformer used is integrated into a compact...... and burner and the behaviour of the CO concentration of the reformate gas....... unit that allows the use of waste heat from the fuel cell stack in the reformer system, and a burner unit is also integrated to supplement provide heat using the stack anode hydrogen. The reformer is initially placed in an experimental system capable of emulating the interfaces to the fuel cell system...

  10. Review on dry reforming of methane, a potentially more environmentally-friendly approach to the increasing natural gas exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eLavoie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the actual growth of the natural gas industry in the US as well as the potential and availability of this non-renewable carbon source worldwide, reforming of methane gas is getting increasing attention. Methane can be used for the production of heat or electricity, as well, it can be converted to syngas, a building block that could lead to the production of liquid fuels and chemical, a very promising pathway in light of the increasing price of oil. Amongst the different reforming techniques, dry reforming could represent a very interesting approach both to valorize a cheap source or carbon (CO2 as well as to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the increasing worldwide fossil-based methane consumption. In this short review, attention will be given on the thermodynamics of dry reforming followed by an investigation on dry reforming using heterogeneous catalyst by focusing on the mots popular elements used in literature for dry reforming. Attention will as well be given to different other emerging techniques that may allow countering at one point the high thermodynamic penalties that accompanies conversion of methane using carbon dioxide.

  11. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  12. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  13. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already...

  14. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already...

  15. Carbon-resistant Ni-Zr0.92Y0.08O2-δ supported solid oxide fuel cells using Ni-Cu-Fe alloy cermet as on-cell reforming catalyst and mixed methane-steam as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Bin; Li, Meng; Luo, Jing-li; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Two types of anode-supported cell are fabricated by tape casting, screen printing and sintering processes. The first one is a conventional anode supported cell (ASC); and the other, namely CASC, contains an extra layer of Ni-Cu/Ni-Fe alloys-BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (NCF-BZCYYb) cermet catalyst on the surface of the anode-support. Using CH4-3 mol. % H2O as the fuel, the initial performance of the CASC is moderately improved, compared with that of the ASC; the power density of the CASC and ASC at 500 mA cm-2 and 800 °C remain stable on the level of 470 mW cm-2 for approximately 11 and 0.8 h, respectively, before cell disintegration caused by carbon formation. The performances of the CASC in the fuel of CH4-33.3 mol. % H2O are significantly increased above the level of the ASC, demonstrating an initial peak power density ranging from 280 to 1638 mW cm-2 at temperatures between 600 and 800 °C and a stable power density of 485 mW cm-2 at 500 mA cm-2 and 800 °C for 48 h. Carbon deposition in the anode region of the tested CASC cell is not detected, as the NCF-BZCYYb is a more active catalyst than the Ni-Zr0.92Y0.08O2-δ (YSZ) anode-support for CH4 steam reforming.

  16. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  17. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China's western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.It will also change resource tax rates on crude oil and natural gas.

  18. When School Reform Goes Wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2007-01-01

    In this much-needed volume, Nel Noddings uses her extensive experience at every level of schooling to challenge the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Noddings invites readers to think critically about the ideas underlying NCLB, the reform movement that shaped it, and the processes it has put into play. She considers such questions as: Is money the…

  19. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  20. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  1. Misrecognition and Science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-01-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and…

  2. FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezierski, Kelly; Tadd, Andrew; Schwank, Johannes; Kibler, Roland; McLean, David; Samineni, Mahesh; Smith, Ryan; Parvathikar, Sameer; Mayne, Joe; Westrich, Tom; Mader, Jerry; Faubert, F. Michael

    2010-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were

  3. Kinetic Studies on State of the Art Solid Oxide Cells – A Comparison between Hydrogen/Steam and Reformate Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg;

    2015-01-01

    reformate fuels hydrogen/carbon-dioxide and hydrogen/methane/steam. It was found that the kinetics at the fuel electrode were exactly the same in both reformates. The hydrogen/steam fuel displayed slightly faster kinetics than the reformate fuels. Furthermore the gas conversion impedance in the hydrogen....../steam fuel split into two processes with opposing temperature behavior in the reformate fuels. An 87.5% reduction in active electrode area diminishes the gas conversion impedance in the hydrogen/steam fuel at high fuel flow rates. In both reformates, the second and third lowest frequency processes merged...... into a single process as the gas conversion was reduced. The SOC with finer electrode microstructure displayed improved kinetics....

  4. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO2/H2O/CH4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO2 reforming. The CO2/CH4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO2/CH4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  5. 'A high degree of understanding and tolerance': veranderende denke oor die moderne gereformeerde kerklied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kruger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 'A high degree of understanding and tolerance': changing thoughts on the modern reformed church song Currently, churches worldwide are experiencing an unparalleled increase in new hymns. Consequently, the requirements of the modern congregational song are much more challenging and demanding. Although the principles of music theory remain a primary criterion for the evaluation of the congregational song, aspects concerning the spiritual requirements, musical taste and culture of the modern church member are becoming increasingly relevant when thinking about the congregational song. In this article the author gives a general overview as to the nature of the modern church song against the background of liturgical renewal within the reformed tradition. The profile of the postmodern church member as regards spiritual needs, musical taste and culture is outlined and connected with the current sensitivity of spirituality and emotional experience through worship and song. Lastly a connection is made between the current trends of hymnological thought and the reformed principles. It is argued that greater tolerance and understanding can lead towards a reforming, rather than a reformed attitude towards the modern congregational song. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the “Liedboek van die kerk” (2001.

  6. The Achievements and Prospects of Court Reforms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liming

    2006-01-01

    Judicial reform has become an important issue of Chinese people.At the end of 2004,"The Preliminary Comment on the Judicial System and Working Mechanism form the Central Leading 'Group of Judicial System Reform'" is conferred by the central group of judicial reform.This paper analyses the achievements China has made in the last five years,especially in the area of court reform,judge reform,evidence reform,judge reform.Beyond this,this paper also expounds the prospect of China's judicial reform in improving the judicial independence,the judge quality,the court organization reforms and the reforms in evidence system.

  7. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Hydrogen Production Process from Glycerol using Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeongpil; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae-Ok; Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [JNK Heaters, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dong Ju [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    For improved sustainability of the biorefinery industry, biorefinery-byproduct glycerol is being investigated as an alternate source for hydrogen production. This research designs and optimizes a hydrogen-production process for small hydrogen stations using steam reforming of purified glycerol as the main reaction, replacing existing processes relying on steam methane reforming. Modeling, simulation and optimization using a commercial process simulator are performed for the proposed hydrogen production process from glycerol. The mixture of glycerol and steam are used for making syngas in the reforming process. Then hydrogen are produced from carbon monoxide and steam through the water-gas shift reaction. Finally, hydrogen is separated from carbon dioxide using PSA. This study shows higher yield than former U.S.. DOE and Linde studies. Economic evaluations are performed for optimal planning of constructing domestic hydrogen energy infrastructure based on the proposed glycerol-based hydrogen station.

  8. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons in a novel circulating fluidized bed reactor-regenerator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.; Yan, Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Chemcial Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to demonstrate the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons in a circulating fluidized bed reactor-regenerator system (CFBRR). Heptane was the higher hydrocarbon used in this study. The process simulation of the riser steam reformer, catalyst regenerator, and downer indicate that the impact of catalyst deactivation is negligible because of the large mass flow ratio of solid to gas stream and the catalyst regenerator. The carbon deposited on the catalyst can be either gasified efficiently in the steam reformer or burned with air in the catalyst regenerator. The burning of carbon on the catalyst supplies the heat required for endothermic steam reforming of heptane and methane. This method has potential advantages for both energy consumption as well as hydrogen production.

  9. La-Ce-Ni-O monolithic perovskite catalysts potential for gasoline autothermal reforming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Aidu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ont. (Canada); Wang, Shudong; Fu, Guizhi; Ni, Changjun; Wu, Diyong [Department of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2005-03-18

    Hydrogen generation from gasoline is essentially one of the critical technologies for the commercialization of small-scale fuel cells auxiliary/backup power systems, so catalysts suitable for autothermal reforming (ATR) of gasoline are desperately needed. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3} with a crystal structure of perovskite was developed both in pellet and on cordierite substrate by citrate method. Autothermal reforming of gasoline or its surrogates, n-octane with or without thiophene additive, was carried out on either bulk perovskite pellet or monolithic perovskite catalyst. During the 220-h long-term test, the pellet catalyst exhibited high thermal stability and activity with hydrogen yield approaching to the theoretical maximum value and only minor amount of CH{sub 4} slipping through. It possessed fairly good sulfur tolerance, almost immune to 5ppmw sulfur although could still be seriously poisoned when subjected to high concentration of sulfur or gasoline. The monolithic perovskite catalysts were developed by screening slurries, binders as well as substrates with or without pre-washcoating CeZrO{sub 2}. The monolithic La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3} formed in situ on the raw cordierite monolith could be an effective catalyst for ATR of gasoline, exhibiting superior performance to the catalyst of 0.3wt.%Rh/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}/cordierite at a temperature range 650-800{sup o}C. On whatever the pellet or monolithic catalysts, the active sites were presumably the in situ reduced Ni{sup 0} which were well dispersed and stabilized by the perovskite crystal structure. The good performances of La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3}, better thermal stability and immunity to carbon foul and sulfur poison than LaNiO{sub 3} could be ascribed to the increased oxygen mobility with the presence of sesquioxide of cerium.

  10. Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anna M. Venezia; Fabrizio Puleo; Valeria La Parola; Giuseppe Pantaleo; Hongjing Wu; Leonarda F. Liotta

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside...

  11. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  12. Reducing rebound effect through fossil subsidies reform: A comprehensive evaluation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Bao, Qin; Ren, Xusheng;

    2017-01-01

    China has committed a sharp reduction in its carbon intensity by 2020 and proposed to take integrated policy package including energy subsidy reform to achieve this goal. While energy efficiency improvement is the key influencing factor for this goal, its effectiveness is significantly determined...

  13. A Novel Study of Methane-Rich Gas Reforming to Syngas and Its Kinetics over Semicoke Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-size gasification unit is improved through process optimization to simulate industrial United Gas Improvement Company gasification. It finds that the reaction temperature has important impacts on semicoke catalyzed methane gas mixture. The addition of water vapor can enhance the catalytic activity of reforming, which is due to the fact that addition of water vapor not only removes carbon deposit produced in the reforming and gasification reaction processes, but also participates in gasification reaction with semicoke to generate some active oxygen-containing functional groups. The active oxygen-containing functional groups provide active sites for carbon dioxide reforming of methane, promoting the reforming reaction. It also finds that the addition of different proportions of methane-rich gas can yield synthesis gas with different H2/CO ratio. The kinetics study shows that the semicoke can reduce the activation energy of the reforming reaction and promote the occurrence of the reforming reaction. The kinetics model of methane reforming under the conditions of steam gasification over semicoke is as follows: k-=5.02×103·pCH40.71·pH20.26·exp(−74200/RT.

  14. Stability and activity of molybdenum carbide catalysts for the oxidative reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, David Charles

    Molybdenum carbide catalysts have been studied for oxidative reforming, in particular, the effect on reforming activity of the method by which they were synthesized, their stability under conditions of varying mass transfer, and the measurement of their inherent reaction kinetics. These catalysts show promise as possible alternatives to both conventional supported nickel catalysts, as well as to the rare and expensive noble metal catalysts. Samples of Mo 2C were synthesized in house and compared to a commercial sample of Mo2C for the CO2 (dry) reforming of methane. It was found that high surface areas, previously thought to be important for activity, were not a property of the Mo2C, but instead were attributable to large amounts of excess carbon. This carbon had a detrimental effect on catalyst stability under dry reforming conditions, because it enhanced deposition of refractory carbon via methane cracking. The commercial sample of Mo 2C, while of low surface area and containing no excess carbon, behaved more stably over time. In another investigation, Mo2C was studied for its stability under varying mass transfer conditions, because of evidence showing that the Mo2C can undergo redox chemistry at reforming conditions. Under dry reforming conditions, it was found that some feed mixtures are net oxidizing, but that oxidation in the presence of such feed mixtures could be prevented by operating under mass transfer limited conditions, which resulted in sufficiently high partial pressures of CO and H2 in the catalyst boundary layer. Similar stability was achieved by co-feeding CO to the catalyst bed, which allowed for stable operation under conditions that were not mass transfer limited. Using this approach, measurements of the intrinsic reaction kinetics of Mo2C for dry reforming were successfully achieved. These results pointed to a strong dependence of dry reforming rate on both CH4 and CO2 partial pressures, as well as evidence for a reaction mechanism unique from

  15. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related...... competences the data from the research show that neither in-depth language skills nor employment related competences seem to be attained. Was has happened to adult education during the recent years is an increased test training where in-depth work with language skills and other competences is left out....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  16. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related...... competences the data from the research show that neither in-depth language skills nor employment related competences seem to be attained. Was has happened to adult education during the recent years is an increased test training where in-depth work with language skills and other competences is left out....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  17. Duplex steam reformer: alternate catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing feasibility of a duplex steam reformer tube for potential use in a high temperature gas cooled reactor has been successfully demonstrated. This technique consists of explosively expanding the inner tube into the outer tube. To successfully achieve the desired 0 to 3 mil radial gap between the tubes it is necessary to perform the expansion in two steps with an intermediate anneal. A catalyst design that would have replaced the conventional Raschig rings with a metal supported catalyst has been evaluated and it has been concluded that further development and testing are needed before fabrication of a full scale prototype is warranted. Consequently, the immediate efforts are directed towards reevaluating the incentives for developing a catalyst and the probability of successfully developing a catalyst that could be used for steam reforming

  18. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China plans to increase resource tax to curb waste,but the plans raise fears of inflation After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China’s western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.

  19. Immigration Reform: Implications for Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Philip L.

    2006-01-01

    About half of U.S. farm workers are not authorized to work in the United States. Pending immigration reforms aim to prevent the entry and employment of more unauthorized foreigners, but they differ on what to do about unauthorized workers already in the United States. These unauthorized workers are not likely to disappear overnight, and agricultural adjustments to a legal work force are likely to be determined by enforcement patterns, the structure of new guest worker programs, and the speed ...

  20. CHINA'S BANKING REFORM in Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erh-Cheng Hwa; Yang Lei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction The World Bank(1997)once claimed that China's financial sector was the soft-beily in the economy.Financial sector reform has long been argued as necessary to raise efficiency in the use of the capital and in rebalancing the economy toward consumption-based growth,without which the country's growth sustain ability is in jeopardy(see Lardy(1998);Prasad(2007)).

  1. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  2. Administrative Dimensions of Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The best tax policy in the world is worth little if it cannot be implemented effectively. Tax policy design in developing countries must therefore take the administrative dimension of taxation carefully into account. What can be done may to a considerable extent determine what is done in any country. This paper discusses the relationship between tax policy and tax administration. When can policy lead administration? When must policy initiatives wait on administrative reform? How exactly can b...

  3. Reforming land rights in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaido, T.

    2004-01-01

    "Advocates of reforms in land rights and land markets frequently posit two important hypotheses: (1) African countries must grant land titles to farmers because titles increase land tenure security and facilitate access to input, land, and financial markets; and (2) land markets constitute the most efficient mechanism for allocating resources and improving access to productive resources by the poor, especially women and other marginalized groups... Research must focus on understanding the dyn...

  4. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  5. Full Tolerant Archiving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

    2013-10-01

    The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

  6. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    requirements for a dedicated software environment for fault tolerant control systems design. The second detailed study addressed the detection of a fault event and determination of the failed component. A variety of algorithms were compared, based on two fault scenarios in the speed governor actuator setup......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...

  7. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  8. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  9. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  10. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  11. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is drive...

  12. Socially-tolerable discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  13. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nezhadahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  14. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C2H6) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  15. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be...... as wholes, rather than as sets of isolated relations. We explain this by showing how certain cases of toleration are multi-dimensional and how the descriptive concept of toleration might be understood intersectionally. We exemplify this by drawing on case studies of mosque controversies in Germany...

  16. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided that one views them...... and Denmark. Finally, we propose that intersectionality is not only relevant to the descriptive concept of toleration but also captures an important aspect of normative theories of toleration. We illustrate this by discussing ideals of respect-based toleration, which we also apply to the case studies....

  17. Fabrication of a Flexible Micro CO Sensor for Micro Reformer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a reformer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is problematic due to the presence in the gas from the reforming process of a slight amount of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisons the catalyst of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell subsequently degrading the fuel cell performance, and necessitating the sublimation of the reaction gas before supplying to fuel cells. Based on the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology to manufacture flexible micro CO sensors, this study elucidates the relation between a micro CO sensor and different SnO2 thin film thicknesses. Experimental results indicate that the sensitivity increases at temperatures ranging from 100–300 °C. Additionally, the best sensitivity is obtained at a specific temperature. For instance, the best sensitivity of SnO2 thin film thickness of 100 nm at 300 °C is 59.3%. Moreover, a flexible micro CO sensor is embedded into a micro reformer to determine the CO concentration in each part of a micro reformer in the future, demonstrating the inner reaction of a micro reformer in depth and immediate detection.

  18. Fabrication of a flexible micro CO sensor for micro reformer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2010-01-01

    Integration of a reformer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is problematic due to the presence in the gas from the reforming process of a slight amount of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisons the catalyst of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell subsequently degrading the fuel cell performance, and necessitating the sublimation of the reaction gas before supplying to fuel cells. Based on the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to manufacture flexible micro CO sensors, this study elucidates the relation between a micro CO sensor and different SnO2 thin film thicknesses. Experimental results indicate that the sensitivity increases at temperatures ranging from 100-300 °C. Additionally, the best sensitivity is obtained at a specific temperature. For instance, the best sensitivity of SnO2 thin film thickness of 100 nm at 300 °C is 59.3%. Moreover, a flexible micro CO sensor is embedded into a micro reformer to determine the CO concentration in each part of a micro reformer in the future, demonstrating the inner reaction of a micro reformer in depth and immediate detection. PMID:22163494

  19. High-temperature gas-cooled-reactor steam-methane reformer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the long distance transportation of process heat energy from a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) heat source, based on the steam reforming reaction, is currently being evaluated as an energy source/application for use early in the 21st century. The steam-methane reforming reaction is an endothermic reaction at temperatures approximately 7000C and higher, which produces hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The heat of the reaction products can then be released, after being pumped to industrial site users, in a methanation process producing superheated steam and methane which is then returned to the reactor plant site. In this application the steam reforming reaction temperatures are produced by the heat energy from the core of the HTGR through forced convection of the primary or secondary helium circuit to the catalytic chemical reactor (steam reformer). This paper summarizes the design of a helium heated steam reformer utilized in conjunction with a 1170 MW(t) intermediate loop, 8500C reactor outlet temperature, HTGR process heat plant concept. This paper also discusses various design considerations leading to the mechanical design features, the thermochemical performance, materials selection and the structural design analysis

  20. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  3. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  4. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  5. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in fluidized bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Kim

    2006-10-15

    Hydrogen is considered to be an important potential energy carrier; however, its advantages are unlikely to be realized unless efficient means can be found to produce it without generation of CO{sub 2}. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) represent a novel, energy-efficient hydrogen production route with in situ CO{sub 2} capture, shifting the reforming and water gas shift reactions beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits. The use of fluidized bed reactors for SE-SMR has been investigated. Arctic dolomite, a calcium-based natural sorbent, was chosen as the primary CO{sub 2}-acceptor in this study due to high absorption capacity, relatively high reaction rate and low cost. An experimental investigation was conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor of diameter 0.1 m, which was operated cyclically and batch wise, alternating between reforming/carbonation conditions and higher-temperature calcination conditions. Hydrogen concentrations of >98 mole% on a dry basis were reached at 600 C and 1 atm, for superficial gas velocities in the range of {approx}0.03-0.1 m/s. Multiple reforming-regeneration cycles showed that the hydrogen concentration remained at {approx}98 mole% after four cycles. The total production time was reduced with an increasing number of cycles due to loss of CO{sub 2}-uptake capacity of the dolomite, but the reaction rates of steam reforming and carbonation seemed to be unaffected for the conditions investigated. A modified shrinking core model was applied for deriving carbonation kinetics of Arctic dolomite, using experimental data from a novel thermo gravimetric reactor. An apparent activation energy of 32.6 kj/mole was found from parameter fitting, which is in good agreement with previous reported results. The derived rate expression was able to predict experimental conversion up to {approx}30% very well, whereas the prediction of higher conversion levels was poorer. However, the residence time of sorbent in a continuous

  6. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in fluidized bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Kim

    2006-10-15

    Hydrogen is considered to be an important potential energy carrier; however, its advantages are unlikely to be realized unless efficient means can be found to produce it without generation of CO{sub 2}. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) represent a novel, energy-efficient hydrogen production route with in situ CO{sub 2} capture, shifting the reforming and water gas shift reactions beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits. The use of fluidized bed reactors for SE-SMR has been investigated. Arctic dolomite, a calcium-based natural sorbent, was chosen as the primary CO{sub 2}-acceptor in this study due to high absorption capacity, relatively high reaction rate and low cost. An experimental investigation was conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor of diameter 0.1 m, which was operated cyclically and batch wise, alternating between reforming/carbonation conditions and higher-temperature calcination conditions. Hydrogen concentrations of >98 mole% on a dry basis were reached at 600 C and 1 atm, for superficial gas velocities in the range of {approx}0.03-0.1 m/s. Multiple reforming-regeneration cycles showed that the hydrogen concentration remained at {approx}98 mole% after four cycles. The total production time was reduced with an increasing number of cycles due to loss of CO{sub 2}-uptake capacity of the dolomite, but the reaction rates of steam reforming and carbonation seemed to be unaffected for the conditions investigated. A modified shrinking core model was applied for deriving carbonation kinetics of Arctic dolomite, using experimental data from a novel thermo gravimetric reactor. An apparent activation energy of 32.6 kj/mole was found from parameter fitting, which is in good agreement with previous reported results. The derived rate expression was able to predict experimental conversion up to {approx}30% very well, whereas the prediction of higher conversion levels was poorer. However, the residence time of sorbent in a continuous

  7. A Framework for Assessing Corporate Governance Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Hermalin, Benjamin E.; Weisbach, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    In light of recent corporate scandals, numerous proposals have been introduced for reforming corporate governance. This paper provides a theoretical framework through which to evaluate these reforms. Unlike various ad hoc arguments, this framework recognizes that governance structures arise endogenously in response to the constrained optimization problems faced by the relevant parties. Contract theory provides a set of necessary conditions under which governance reform can be welfare-improvin...

  8. Third Round of Tax Reforms Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYIYI

    2004-01-01

    China's third round of tax reform is underway.Premier Wen Jiabao declared the three main lpoints of this tax reform in this year's 'state-of-the-art' government working report:to shift gradually from production-oriented value added tax(VAT) to consumption-oriented,the reform of export tax rebate system and to eliminate the agricultural tax in five yeaars.

  9. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  10. Hydrogen Generation from Plasmatron Reforming Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-bing; HU You-ping; LI Ge-sheng; GAO Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through plasmatron reforming of ethanol has been carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The reforming of pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol-water have been studied. The gas chromatography (GC) analysis has shown that in all conditions the reforming yield was H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 as the main products, and with little C2* . The hydrogen-rich gas can be used as fuel for gasoline engine and other applications.

  11. Economics and politics of alternative institutional reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Caselli, Francesco; GENNAIOLI, NICOLA

    2007-01-01

    We compare the economic consequences and political feasibility of reforms aimed at reducing barriers to entry (deregulation) and improving contractual enforcement (legal reform). Deregulation fosters entry, thereby increasing the number of firms (entrepreneurship) and the average quality of management (meritocracy). Legal reform also reduces financial constraints on entry, but in addition it facilitates transfers of control of incumbent firms, from untalented to talented managers. Since when ...

  12. Preface - rethinking structural reform in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Kay; Michael J. Chriszt

    2004-01-01

    The process of structural reform in Latin America has thus far been uneven, and various economic crises have raised doubts about reforms’ effectiveness and have caused public support for further reforms to wane. To promote and highlight research exploring structural reform’s impact on economic growth and income distribution in Latin America, the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) cosponsored the conference “Rethinking Structural Reform in Latin Ameri...

  13. Risks of Public Service Reform in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Barabashev; T. Zaytseva; Mihail Krasnov; Alexander Obolonsky

    2007-01-01

    Public service reform in Russia is inevitable, otherwise the problems will continue to pile up for public service and this may result in further public administration deterioration. But how to tackle these problems and how to conduct public service reform? Should the world experience be applied or not? It seems that the Russian experience of the past decade gave the answer. The initial attempts to reform public service in Russia are already based on the world experience, with parts of it appl...

  14. Medicare Reform: Fundamental Problems, Incremental Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Mark McClellan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Medicare reform debate. I begin by reviewing some of the features of Medicare and then turn to a discussion of reforms, both on the benefits side and on the financing side of the program. The reform proposals raise difficult policy and political issues, and could have important implications for the federal budget, the efficiency of the health sector, and the well-being of the elderly and disabled.

  15. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts. PMID:8034391

  16. Land reform in Africa: lessons from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Naerssen, A.L. van; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' paradigm, however, can be questioned on economic, ecological and social grounds. The history of land tenure reform in Kenya, especially that of group titles in the semiarid areas, is a case in point....

  17. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  18. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  19. Methane reforming with fast nuclear reactor steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the concept of utilizing nuclear fast reactor (FR) with a sodium coolant for methane steam reforming. Steam conditions of a power FR, e.g. the BN-600 now operating in Russia: steam pressure P=13.2 MPa and steam temperature T=500degC, do not absolutely comply with the catalytic reactor working parameters, which produces a synthetic gas (syngas), a mix of hydrogen and carbon oxide. In this connection, the present paper addresses a possibility of utilizing steam produced in one of three independent the BN-600 loops in an amount of 640 t/h for preparing a gas-steam mixture with T=500degC and its additional heating in a converter up to the operating temperature, T=850degC, at the expense of natural gas burning or electrical energy supplying. In this case, the fraction of burned natural gas burning or electrical energy supplying. In this case, the fraction of burned natural gas significantly decreases. It is estimated that steam parameters of the BN-600 afford to obtain ∼3·105 nm3/h of hydrogen. It is also considered a concept of nuclear heat transfer to remote regions to be achieved with the aid of syngas incoming from the converter, its cooling further and transmitting through a pipeline to the place of its utilization, where it is restored into methane with the heat extraction. (author)

  20. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  1. What Makes Reforms Likely?: Timing and Sequencing of Structural Reforms in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    The wave of structural reforms in Latin America and elsewhere has stimulated the development of a wide body of theoretical literature on the political economy of reform, i. e. , the study of the political constraints that condition the timing, speed and sequencing of reforms. This paper tests some of the hypotheses associated with these theoretical models, using a set of structural reform indicators for approximately twenty Latin American countries for the period 1985-1995. Although there is ...

  2. Evaluation of an integrated methane autothermal reforming and high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance and efficiency of an integrated autothermal reforming and HT-PEMFC (high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system fueled by methane. Effect of the inclusion of a CO (carbon monoxide) removal process on the integrated HT-PEMFC system was considered. An increase in the S/C (steam-to-carbon) ratio and the reformer temperature can enhance the hydrogen fraction while the CO formation reduces with increasing S/C ratio. The fuel processor efficiency of the methane autothermal reformer with a WGS (water gas shift reactor) reactor, as the CO removal process, is higher than that without a WGS reactor. A higher fuel processor efficiency can be obtained when the feed of the autothermal reformer is preheated to the reformer temperature. Regarding the cell performance, the reformate gas from the methane reformer operated at Tin = TR and with a high S/C ratio is suitable for the HT-PEMFC system without a WGS reactor. When considering the HT-PEMFC system with a WGS reactor, the CO poisoning has less significant impact on the cell performance and the system can be operated over a broader range to minimize the required total active area. A WGS reactor is necessary for the methane autothermal reforming and HT-PEMFC integrated system with regard to the system efficiency. - Highlights: • An integrated autothermal reforming and HT-PEMFC system was studied. • The HT-PEMFC system with and without a CO removal process was considered. • Parametric analysis was performed to obtain a high system efficiency. • The HT-PEMFC system with the WGS reactor can be run over a broader range. • The efficiencies of the HT-PEMFC systems without and with a WGS reactor were reported

  3. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  4. Structure and Anti-carbon Capacity of ZrO2-Al2O3 Mixed Oxides in Ni-Based Catalyst for CH/CO2 Reforming%用于CH4/CO2重整反应Ni/ZrO2-Al2O3催化剂的结构和抗积炭性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣梅; 高晓; 李翔

    2011-01-01

    在表面活性剂P123作用下,通过无机盐的双水解反应制备了介孔ZrO2-Al2O3复合氧化物.研究发现,所得样品具有较大的比表面积和可调变的孔结构.ZrO2可嵌入到Al2O3骨架中形成固溶体,因而热稳定性增加;与Al2O3相比,适量ZrO2加入使ZrO2-Al2O3的酸密度和酸强度增加.在CH4/CO2干气重整反应中,Ni/ZrO2-Al2O3催化剂活性略低于Ni/Al2O3,但表现出优良的抗积炭性能.这不仅与Ni分散度有关,而且与因氧化物载体缺陷位和小晶粒而造成的电子效应密切相关.%In the presence of P123 surfactant, mesoporous ZrO2-Al2O3 mixed oxides were prepared using inorganic salts as precursors by a bihydrolysis route. The results showed that the mixed oxides bear high surface area and controlling pore structure. Some solid solution can be formed through the incorporation of zirconium to the alumina framework. The introduction of a proper amount of zirconia to alumina increased the acid sites number and acidic strength of the mixed oxides as compared with pure alumina. Methane reforming with CO2 was used to detect the activity and stability of the Ni-based catalysts. The Ni/ZrO2-Al2O3 catalysts exhibit higher anti-carbon capacity than Ni/Al2O3. but possess slightly low activity. The improvement of anti-carbon capacity is ascribed to the dispersion of the active component and support effect induced by deficiencies and fine crystal size of the support.

  5. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  6. Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Structures Based on LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxu Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control system may lose the performance to suppress the structural vibration due to the faults in sensors or actuators. This paper designs the filter to perform the fault detection and isolation (FDI and then reforms the control strategy to achieve the fault tolerant control (FTC. The dynamic equation of the structure with active mass damper (AMD is first formulated. Then, an estimated system is built to transform the FDI filter design problem to the static gain optimization problem. The gain is designed to minimize the gap between the estimated system and the practical system, which can be calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The FDI filter is finally used to isolate the sensor faults and reform the FTC strategy. The efficiency of FDI and FTC is validated by the numerical simulation of a three-story structure with AMD system with the consideration of sensor faults. The results show that the proposed FDI filter can detect the sensor faults and FTC controller can effectively tolerate the faults and suppress the structural vibration.

  7. An Evaluation of the 2014 Subsidy Reforms in Morocco and a Simulation of Further Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Verme, Paolo; El-Massnaoui, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Under increasing budget pressure, Morocco carried out an extensive set of subsidy reforms in 2014 and is planning for further reforms for 2015–2017, which will eliminate most consumers' subsidies. This paper evaluates (ex post) the 2014 reforms and simulates (ex ante) the impact on household welfare, poverty, and the government budget of the total elimination of subsidies. The paper consid...

  8. In-Space Propulsion, Logistics Reduction, and Evaluation of Steam Reformer Kinetics: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Kulis, M. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Human space missions generate waste materials. A 70-kg crewmember creates a waste stream of 1 kg per day, and a four-person crew on a deep space habitat for a 400+ day mission would create over 1600 kg of waste. Converted into methane, the carbon could be used as a fuel for propulsion or power. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is investing in space resource utilization with an emphasis on repurposing logistics materials for useful purposes and has selected steam reforming among many different competitive processes as the preferred method for repurposing organic waste into methane. Already demonstrated at the relevant processing rate of 5.4 kg of waste per day, high temperature oxygenated steam consumes waste and produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen which can then be converted into methane catalytically. However, the steam reforming process has not been studied in microgravity. Data are critically needed to understand the mechanisms that allow use of steam reforming in a reduced gravity environment. This paper reviews the relevant literature, identifies gravity-dependent mechanisms within the steam gasification process, and describes an innovative experiment to acquire the crucial kinetic information in a small-scale reactor specifically designed to operate within the requirements of a reduced gravity aircraft flight. The experiment will determine if the steam reformer process is mass-transport limited, and if so, what level of forced convection will be needed to obtain performance comparable to that in 1-g.

  9. Preparation of Hydrogen through Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴层; 颜涌捷; 李庭琛; 亓伟

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen was prepared via catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil which was obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor. Influential factors including temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of bio-oil, mass ratio of steam to bio-oil (S/B) as well as catalyst type on hydrogen selectivity and other desirable gas products were investigated. Based on hydrogen in stoichiometric potential and carbon balance in gaseous phase and feed, hydrogen yield and carbon selectivity were examined. The experimental results show that higher temperature favors the hydrogen selectivity by H2 mole fraction in gaseous products stream and it plays an important role in hydrogen yield and carbon selectivity. Higher hydrogen selectivity and yield, and carbon selectivity were obtained at lower bio-oil WHSV. In catalytic steam reforming system a maximum steam concentration value exists, at which hydrogen selectivity and yield, and carbon selectivity keep constant. Through experiments, preferential operation conditions were obtained as follows: temperature 800~850℃, bio-oil WHSV below 3.0 h-1, and mass ratio of steam to bio-oil 10~12. The performance tests indicate that Ni-based catalysts are optional, especially Ni/a-Al2O3 effective in the steam reforming process.

  10. Quality assurances and tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschling, G.

    1991-12-31

    This book presents a comprehensive statistical solution to tolerance problems to be used as an alternative to the conventional arithmetic approach that is used for tolerancing. The book is a translation from an original text in German. The classificatio nof the book would be as a reference text for engineers who are working in the production and quality control fields, particularly in process control. Academics who are teaching such subjects as statistical process control of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing will also find the book useful.

  11. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...

  12. Responding to reform: 5 strategies for reinventing the revenue cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Among of the biggest challenges that will affect hospital revenue cycles in an era of reform, five are related to the following concerns: Reduced payment, Compliance reforms, Quality improvement initiatives, Payment reform, Expansion of insurance coverage.

  13. EVALUATING HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN BIOGAS REFORMING IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. A. Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syngas and hydrogen production by methane reforming of a biogas (CH4/CO2 = 2.85 using carbon dioxide was evaluated in a fixed bed reactor with a Pd-Ag membrane in the presence of a nickel catalyst (Ni 3.31% weight/γ-Al2O3 at 773 K, 823 K, and 873 K and 1.01×105 Pa. Operation with hydrogen permeation at 873 K increased the methane conversion to approximately 83% and doubled the hydrogen yield relative to operation without hydrogen permeation. A mathematical model was formulated to predict the evolution of the effluent concentrations. Predictions based on the model showed similar evolutions for yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide at temperatures below 823 K for operations with and without the hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen yield reached approximately 21% at 823 K and 47% at 873 K under hydrogen permeation conditions.

  14. A Phenomenological Study on the Synergistic Role of Precious Metals in the Steam Reforming of Logistic Fuels on Trimetal-Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Majeed Azad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel processors are required to convert sulfur-laden logistic fuels (jet fuels, diesel, and coal into fuel cell quality hydrogen-rich reformate with little or no sulfur for extended periods. Sulfur poisons and deactivates the reforming catalyst, therefore, sulfur-tolerant catalysts ought to be developed. In this paper, the development, characterization, and evaluation of a series of nanoscale ceria-supported reforming catalysts containing three noble metals in low concentration (1 wt% ≤ total metal loading ≤ 1.33 wt% for the steam-reforming of kerosene (a JP-8 surrogate are reported. Their performance is quantified in terms of H2 yield, tolerance towards sulfur in the fuel, and the on-stream stability and compared with that of monometal and bimetal analogs under identical conditions. Due to the inherent cooperative synergy, a trimetal catalyst was found far superior to its mono- and bimetallic analog containing same amount of the precious metal loading in terms of quality of the reformate (measured by H2 level in steady-state as well as the catalyst longevity on-stream prior to deactivation. At the same time a mechanistic correlation between the distinct role of a given precious metal and the extent of its loading in each of the formulations and quality of the corresponding desulfurized H2-rich reformate was discovered.

  15. Whose immigration reform ?

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, David

    2014-01-01

    On October 8, 2013, thousands of migrants, community activists, religious leaders, and “pro-immigrant” politicians descended upon the National Mall and the Capitol building to demand that the US Congress pass so-called “comprehensive immigration reform.” Although two hundred protesters were arrested during the action, the Chicago-based Moratorium on Deportations remained unimpressed, and released a statement in which it decried the current “immigration reform” movement as a “scam,” and the Se...

  16. Next Round of Enterprise Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's decades of rapid growth has led some to hail the success of "state capitalism." Others say the state's hand is less important. Researcher Zhang Wenkui at the State Council's Development Research Center is in the second camp. State companies and industrial administrators have had roles to play in leading the economy. But more recentlyhe said, they've yielded to a rising private sector. Zhang suggests it's time to launch a new round of state-run enterprise reform by selling small companies and introducing private investors for big ones, thus helping China maintain high economic growth.

  17. Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukova Svetlana, Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

  18. Towards low-emission traffic? Discussion of the CO2-based car tax reform in the Helsingin Sanomat daily; Kohti vaehaepaeaestoeistae liikennettae? Keskustelu hiilidioksidiperusteisesta autoverouudistuksesta Helsingin Sanomissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, N.

    2011-07-01

    In early 2008, the Finnish car tax levied on the purchase of new passenger cars and the annual vehicle tax were reformed to become based on carbon dioxide emissions. This reform responded to the goals set by the European Union for reducing carbon dioxide emissions and harmonising car taxation in Member States. Based on the reform, the tax level was linked to each car's specific carbon dioxide emissions and the average level of car tax was cut by one sixth. The study examined how the reform was discussed in newspapers. A total of 131 articles dealing with the car tax reform and environmental topics - published in Helsingin Sanomat, Finland's widest circulating daily newspaper - were selected as research material. The material was assessed through content analysis, based on which it was classified using 67 variables. Qualitative characteristics were also studied. In connection with planning and implementation of the car tax reform, emissions from passenger cars and the reduction of such emissions were frequently discussed topics. However, texts dealing with these topics remained at a highly general level, not distinguishing between various types of emissions and failing to analyse the factors behind emission volumes. In the articles published in Helsingin Sanomat, the car tax reform was viewed as a well-designed means of managing environmental problems caused by traffic, despite including features that both reduced and increased emissions. The reform seemed an effective method for managing emissions because the texts focused on impacts in the near future, paying less attention to long-term implications. In addition, the discussion was not very comprehensive, mainly dealing with topics related to human activities, whereas impacts on the ecological environment receive little attention. The discussion was also affected by the Ministry of Finance's working method, based on which no information on the reform was distributed while the amendment was under

  19. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N2 adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  20. Production of syngas by ethanol reforming on Ni catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapan, Rafael C.; Oliveira, Amir A.M.; Donadel, Karina; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro N.; Rambo, Carlos R. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. of Combustion and Thermal Systems Engineering], Emails: catapan@labcet.ufsc.br, donadel@emc.ufsc.br, pedronovaes@emc.ufsc.br, rambo@enq.ufsc.br; Oliveira, Therezinha Maria N.; Wagner, Theodoro M. [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville, SC (Brazil). Campus Universitario Bom Retiro], E-mails: tnovais@univille.br, theowag@terra.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the recent literature, attention has been directed to the development of noble metals based catalysts for the ethanol reforming. However, the high costs and low availability of noble metals, e.g. platinum, as a resource justify the development of alternatives technologically, economically and environmentally viable such as Ni-based catalysts. Here, the thermal decomposition, partial oxidation and steam reforming of ethanol over SiO{sub 2} supported Ni was studied in a packed bed reactor in the 673 - 973 K temperature range at 1 atm. The catalyst was produced from 10% NiO, 5% of bentonite and 85% (wt.) of natural amorphous silica fibers (NASF). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evaluation revealed that particles of Ni were homogeneously distributed over the NASF. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns did not show peaks related to silicates in all spectra, which indicates that there is no, apparently, interaction between the nickel catalysts and SiO{sub 2} or devitrification The reactions of ethanol on this catalyst occurs mainly by the dehydrogenation reaction generating acetaldehyde. Further, CH{sub 3}CHO is decomposed to CH{sub 4} and CO. In parallel to this route, ethanol is dehydrated producing ethylene, which is successively dehydrogenated in Ni sites generating carbon on the surface. Also, carbon can be produced by consecutive dehydrogenation of CH{sub 4}. Both reactions contribute to increase the production of H{sub 2} to values higher than those predicted by the thermodynamic equilibrium. (author)

  1. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size.

  2. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  3. Deactivation and Coke Accumulation during CO2/CH4 Reforming over Pt Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Bitter, J.H.; Seshan, K.; Lercher, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Deactivation of Pt catalysts used in the generation of synthesis gas via CO2/CH4 reforming depends strongly on the support and the metalparticle size. Methods of Physicochemical characterization such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hydrogen chemisorption suggest that carbon formation (most likely from methane) rather than sintering is the main cause of catalyst deactivation. The rate of carbon formation decreased in the order Pt/y-Al2O3 >> Pt/TiO2 > Pt/ZrO2. Carbon was formed on the ...

  4. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal w

  5. Strategic Leadership and School Reform in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying

    2008-01-01

    This article examines school leadership in the context of Taiwanese educational reform since the mid-1990s. The goal of the inquiry is twofold: to explore the conflicts that school administrators have confronted in facilitating school reform and to analyze the strategic and innovative leadership practices that have facilitated improvements in…

  6. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  7. Teachers' emotions in a context of reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, K. van

    2003-01-01

    This book explores how Dutch secondary school teachers perceive their work and current large-scale reforms. To understand them, a social-psychological theory on emotions is used as a theoretical framework. Educational reforms can be problematic, and few are implemented successfully. Often, teachers

  8. Buildingon Success,Carrying on with Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Over the last 20 years, China has been undergoing a long period of reform in its financial system, an important part of the country's overall economic reform, and an area where many remarkable achievements has been made. This has also been a period during which China's financial sector has gradually become commercialized and market-oriented.

  9. Differences Between Two Foreign Exchange Reforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ying

    2010-01-01

    @@ Differences from that in July 2005,this reform foreign exchange system happens with different economic environment,historical background and expected,historical background and expected appreciation.Participants in the industry said frankly that China central bank started the reform again due to pressure from international markets,but it is not possible for RMB to appreciate greatly in a term.

  10. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    . This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...

  11. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  12. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijer; P. Aarts; J. Wagemakers; M. Kanie; A. Geel

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features o

  13. Understanding Parole Officers' Responses to Sanctioning Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…

  14. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  15. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  16. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  17. Egypt : Health Sector Reform and Financing Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) of the Government of Egypt (GOE) launched a comprehensive Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) aiming to develop a national health system, based on social insurance that would address existing problems in equity, access, efficiency, quality and financial sustainability. The purpose of the Health Sector Reform and Financing Review is to p...

  18. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  19. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  20. Reforms of health care system in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bara, AC; van den Heuvel, WJA; Maarse, JAM; Bara, Ana Claudia; Maarse, Johannes A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. To describe health care reforms and analyze the transition of the health care system in Romania in the 1989-2001 period. Method. We analyzed policy documents, political intentions and objectives of health care reform, described new legislation, and presented changes in financial resources of th

  1. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  2. Land reform in Africa : lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' pa

  3. Environmental consequences of electricity sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, the electricity industry is in the process of undergoing fundamental transitions. The reform process typically involves one or more of the following changes: commercialisation, privatisation, unbundling/restructuring and introduction of competition. The environmental impacts of these changes pull in different directions. There is concern that restructured electricity markets may not always incorporate adequately the environmental impacts of electricity resource development and consumption decisions. However, the electricity sector reform process also offers an opportunity to promote positive environmental changes: because the sector is already in flux, it may be easier to address environmental issues. The paper gives an overview of power sector reform in six countries where reforms have already been implemented, and concludes that reform measures will have to be accompanied by competitively neutral regulations in order to stimulate investment in environmentally sound technologies, including renewable and energy efficient technologies. (author)

  4. Evaluering af politisk-administrative reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Morten Balle;

    2015-01-01

    To af de største politisk-administrative reformer i Norden i 2000erne var reformen af arbejds- og velfærdsadministrationen i Norge (NAV-reformen) og kommunalreformen i Danmark. De to reformer har en række kendetegn til fælles – også med andre store politisk-administrative reformer. De blev vedtaget...... centrale og berørte såvel central- som lokal- og regional administration. Sidst men ikke mindst er begge reformer blevet evalueret, hvilket internationale undersøgelser har peget på har været undtagelsen snarere end reglen for reformer af denne karakter. Det er derfor interessant at analysere de to...

  5. New Policy for Power Tariff Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Yongsheng; Jin Wen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The "Opinions on Deepening Power Institutional Reform in the 11th Five-Year Period" (referred to as "Opinions" below for short) finally unveiled and appeared clearly in the vision of the public on April 6th, 2007. Being the core of the power institutional reform, the "route map" of power tariff reform in the 11th Five-Year Plan period has also been clearly oriented. However, on the whole, the power tariff reform is no drastic as one imagines. With this doubt, the Journalist discussed this issue with Mr. Huang Shaozhong, deputy director of the Department of Price & Financial Supervision under the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, also a member of the Working Group of Power Institutional Reform.

  6. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  7. Differential effects of green tax reform over economies: A case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon

    2011-12-01

    It is controversial whether or not green tax reform through a carbon tax has double dividend feature. The economic effects of green tax reform vary according to economies due to different preexisting conditions. Recent studies about the economic impacts of a carbon tax have noted the role of preexisting factor taxes in the second best world. The present study, however, explores the role of existing taxes on energy products in introducing a carbon tax, by employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea, a country that has high existing taxes on petroleum products. Above all, I find that a carbon tax is the most efficient policy instrument among three alternative taxes---an energy tax, a carbon tax and an ad valorem tax---to reduce carbon emissions in Korea under both lump-sum tax replacement and labor tax replacement. The carbon tax, however, brings about welfare and GDP loss. The economic costs can be reduced, but cannot be completely removed by revenue recycling. Second, this study explores how existing taxes on petroleum products affect the economic cost of introducing a carbon tax, by manipulating existing taxes on petroleum products. I find that the existing taxes raise the economic costs of introducing a carbon tax. Third, this study shows that the economic costs of a carbon tax can be reduced when its revenue is returned to cut preexisting taxes on petroleum products. Thus, restructuring existing taxes on energy products plays a crucial role in introducing a carbon tax. From the specific case of the Korean economy, the present study indicates that existing taxes on not only factors but also energy products are one of the main sources of economic costs in introducing a carbon tax.

  8. Commercial Application of the PS-Ⅵ Catalyst in the Revamped 0.8 Mt/a Catalytic Reforming Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leng Jiachang; Hou Zhanggui

    2006-01-01

    This article makes an analysis on the major technical difficulties encountered in the process of revamping and expanding the capacity of the continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) unit from 600 kt/a to 800kt/a at Tianjin Petrochemical Company. The requirements for expanding the CCR unit capacity to 800 kt/a have been met through adopting the low carbon-make PS-Ⅵ catalyst, properly lowering the RONC of the reformate, and appropriately retrofitting the towers and furnaces while keeping the reaction system, the catalyst regeneration system and the recycle hydrogen compressor intact. The calibration results have revealed that the liquid yield of reformate products, the octane rating of reformate, the pure hydrogen yield,the aromatics yield and the overall conversion rate all have met the revamp design targets.

  9. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  10. Prediction of Reaction Kinetic of Al- Doura Heavy Naphtha Reforming Process Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzy H. Saihod

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, genetic algorithm was used to predict the reaction kinetics of Iraqi heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process located in Al-Doura refinery in Baghdad. One-dimensional steady state model was derived to describe commercial catalytic reforming unit consisting of four catalytic reforming reactors in series process. The experimental information (Reformate composition and output temperature for each four reactors collected at different operating conditions was used to predict the parameters of the proposed kinetic model. The kinetic model involving 24 components, 1 to 11 carbon atoms for paraffins and 6 to 11 carbon atom for naphthenes and aromatics with 71 reactions. The pre-exponential Arrhenius constants and activation energies were determined after fine tuning of the model results with experimental data. The input to the optimization is the compositions for 21 components and the temperature for the effluent stream for each one of the four reactors within the reforming process while the output of optimization is 142 predicted kinetic parameters for 71 reactions within reforming process. The differential optimization technique using genetic algorithm to predict the parameters of the kinetic model. To validate the kinetic model, the simulation results of the model based on proposed kinetic model was compared with the experimental results. The comparison between the predicted and commercially results shows a good agreement, while the percentage of absolute error for aromatics compositions are (7.5, 2, 8.3, and 6.1% and the temperature absolute percentage error are (0.49, 0.5, 0.01, and 0.3% for four reactors respectively.

  11. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  12. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  13. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  14. The Evolution of Sulfide Tolerance in the Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how the function of extant microorganisms has recorded both their evolutionary histories and their past interactions with the environment is a stated goal of astrobiology. We are taking a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the diversification of sulfide tolerance mechanisms in the cyanobacteria, which vary both in their degree of exposure to sulfide and in their capacity to tolerate this inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. Since conditions were very reducing during the first part of Earth's history and detrital sulfides have been found in Archean sediments, mechanisms conferring sulfide tolerance may have been important for the evolutionary success of the ancestors of extant cyanobacteria. Two tolerance mechanisms have been identified in this group: (1) resistance of photosystem II, the principal target of sulfide toxicity; and (2) maintenance of the ability to fix carbon despite photosystem II inhibition by utilizing sulfide as an electron donor in photosystem I - dependent, anoxygenic photosynthesis. We are presently collecting comparative data on aspects of sulfide physiology for laboratory clones isolated from a variety of habitats. These data will be analyzed within a phylogenetic framework inferred from molecular sequence data collected for these clones to test how frequently different mechanisms of tolerance have evolved and which tolerance mechanism evolved first. In addition, by analyzing these physiological data together with environmental sulfide data collected from our research sites using microelectrodes, we can also test whether the breadth of an organism's sulfide tolerance can be predicted from the magnitude of variation in environmental sulfide concentration it has experienced in its recent evolutionary past and whether greater average sulfide concentration and/or temporal variability in sulfide favors the evolution of a particular mechanism of sulfide tolerance.

  15. Highly coke-resistant ni nanoparticle catalysts with minimal sintering in dry reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joung Woo; Kim, Chanyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2014-02-01

    Nickel catalysts are typically used for hydrogen production by reforming reactions. Reforming methane with carbon dioxide, called dry reforming of methane (DRM), is a good way to produce hydrogen or syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from two notable greenhouse gases. However, Ni catalysts used for DRM suffer from severe coke deposition. It has been known that small Ni nanoparticles are advantageous to reduce coke formation, but the high reaction temperature of DRM (800 °C) inevitably induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to severe coke formation and degraded activity. Here, we develop highly coke-resistant Ni catalysts by immobilizing premade Ni nanoparticles of 5.2 nm in size onto functionalized silica supports, and then coating the Ni/SiO2 catalyst with silica overlayers. The silica overlayers enable the transfer of reactants and products while preventing aggregation of the Ni nanoparticles. The silica-coated Ni catalysts operate stably for 170 h without any degradation in activity. No carbon deposition was observed by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The Ni catalysts without silica coating show severe sintering after DRM reaction, and the formation of filamentous carbon was observed. The coke-resistant Ni catalyst is potentially useful in various hydrocarbon transformations. PMID:24402833

  16. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Hugh [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Tol, Richard S.J., E-mail: richard.tol@esri.ie [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Economics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-11-15

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: > Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. > These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. > Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. > Tax revenues will fall too. > The exchequer cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} avoided is very high.

  17. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  18. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  19. The Effect of Mo2C Synthesis and Pretreatment on Catalytic Stability in Oxidative Reforming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, David C.(8392); Gilligan, Andrew J.(Washington University); Darujati, Anna R S.(Washington State University); Chellappa, Anand S.(WASHINGTON STATE UNIV); Thomson, Wiliam J.(8392)

    2003-07-10

    The role of catalyst pretreatment on the stability of Mo2C catalysts in oxidative reforming environments has been studied. Catalysts were produced by both the temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and a solution-derived (SD) synthesis method, and compared to a low surface area commercial catalyst. Using a variety of techniques, including in situ dynamic X-ray diffraction (DXRD), the effects of various hydrogen pretreatment protocols were evaluated, including catalyst thermal stability, oxidation resistance and susceptibility to coking. The high surface areas produced by the SD synthesis is attributed to the presence of excess synthesis carbon and, whereas the presence of excess synthesis carbon enhances thermal stability, it also appears to accelerate coking. It is pointed out that the lowered oxidation resistance of the high surface area catalysts is due to a combination of smaller crystallite sizes and competitive oxidation of the excess synthesis carbon, which alters the oxidation mechanism. In addition, it was also found that incomplete carburization during TPR synthesis, forms an oxycarbide and its acidity also promotes coking. Hydrogen pretreatment at 700 .C not only removes all excess synthesis carbon, but it also reduces the oxycarbide to Mo, which is easily carburized under reforming conditions. Pretreatment at 600 .C, was largely ineffective and it is concluded that high temperature pretreatment is necessary to form the stoichiometric carbide, which is required for stability during reforming. Both the TPR and SD catalysts pretreated at 700 .C, were found to be stable over a 72 h period, whereas the commercial carbide had almost identical activity but slowly deactivated over the same period, probably because of its low surface area. Finally, labeled isotope experiments revealed that carbon exchange occurs readily with bulk Mo2C at temperatures above 550 .C, lending credence to a reforming redox mechanism.

  20. Health reform: examining the alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, W

    1994-03-01

    This Issue Brief examines the major issues of the health reform debate. The issues that must be resolved before reform can be enacted include: allocation of health care resources, universal coverage versus universal access, composition of risk pools, employer and individual mandates, and distribution of health care services' costs. This report also contains short descriptions and analyses of the following proposals: McDermott-Wellstone, Clinton administration, Cooper-Breaux, Chafee-Thomas, Michel-Lott, Nickles-Stearns, and Gramm. Proposals without an individual mandate will not achieve universal coverage. An individual mandate raises significant enforcement issues. An employer mandate will not achieve universal coverage by itself. Depending on the number of hours an employee must work to be included in a mandate, an employer mandate could potentially extend health insurance coverage to as many as 85 percent of the currently uninsured. Each individual has a risk of needing health care services. Restructuring the health insurance market is accomplished by changing the way individuals and their risks are pooled. The composition of these risk pools will determine the costs of health insurance and the distribution of these costs. The theory behind medical saving accounts is that the market for health insurance currently leads to health care cost inflation because many events covered under most health insurance plans are not truly insurable. There are two issues involved in medical savings accounts--the impact on low-income individuals and individuals' ability to evaluate the quality of care they receive. The present market does not provide individuals with adequate information for assessing the quality or effectiveness of medical care. Among the critical issues in health reform is how to reduce the rate of health care cost inflation. The effect of proposals that impose explicit budget caps or price controls on health care cost inflation can be more easily estimated than

  1. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  2. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of a 5 kw, compact steam reformer - PEMFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Luis Evelio Garcia; Oliveira, Amir Antonio Martins [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: evelio@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    Here we present a thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of the methane steam reforming for production of 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell. The equilibrium analysis is based on the method of element potentials to find the state of minimum Gibbs free energy for the system and provides the equilibrium concentration of the reforming products. The objective of this analysis is to obtain the range of reforming temperature, pressure and steam-methane molar ratio that results in maximum hydrogen production subjected to low carbon monoxide production and negligible coke formation. The thermal analysis provides the heat transfer rates associated with the individual processes of steam production, gas-phase superheating and reforming necessary to produce 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell and allows for the calculation of thermal efficiencies. Then, the chemical reaction pathways for hydrogen production in steam reforming are discussed and the available chemical, adsorption and equilibrium constants are analyzed in terms of thermodynamic consistency. This analysis provides the framework for the reactor sizing and for establishing the adequate operation conditions. (author)

  3. Plasma reforming of bio-ethanol for hydrogen rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The steam-oxidative reforming of ethanol was performed in a novel miniaturized plasma reactor. • The discharge combines the advantages of the 3-D cylindrical tornado and the supersonic/subsonic discharge. • The influence of V–I characteristic on ethanol reforming was discussed. • High conversion of ethanol was experimentally confirmed. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from ethanol by non-thermal arc discharge was investigated in a novel miniaturized plasma reactor. It is observed that ethanol–water mixture was converted into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and other products. The V–I characteristic was recorded by an oscilloscope to study the effect of discharge on the ethanol reforming. In the experiments, ethanol–water mixture entered the reaction chamber through a special gas–liquid spray nozzle for a quick evaporation and a rapid mixing with air at room temperature. Assisted by a Laval nozzle electrode, non-thermal arc plasma can improve the performance of ethanol reforming. It is found that the maximum conversion rate of ethanol was 90.9% at O/C = 1.4, S/C = 1.2 and ethanol flow rate = 0.05 g/s, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 40.9% at O/C = 1.4, S/C = 1.2 and ethanol flow rate = 0.10 g/s. The ethanol reforming process produced little coke and nitrogen oxide which was less than 10 ppm in the supersonic/subsonic plasma working condition

  4. Physiochemical, exergetic and economical analysis of biogas reforming: hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Silveira, Jose Luz [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: caetanodesouza@yahoo.com.br; caetano@feg.unesp.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of biogas for production of hydrogen-rich syngas through thermochemical processes such as steam reforming and dry reforming is suggested in this study. Ultimately, these gases could be utilized by fuel cells to generate electricity and heat. The composition of biogas depends strongly on conditions where this gas is produced (thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure where biogas' feedstocks are utilized, beyond composition of own feedstock and utilized technology for biogas processing). Physicochemical analysis was performed with objective to evaluate the composition of syngas generated through reforming process, making a special attention to the content of hydrogen in the cited syngas. The adopted biogas in this study was based on the biogas generated in a small wastewater treatment system installed in Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) at Guaratingueta. The volume of constituents was 61.8% CH{sub 4} and 34.4% CO{sub 2} after purification. Some traces of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} were encountered. The suggested thermodynamic conditions detected in physical-chemical and exergetic analysis was in a range of 600- 900 deg C and 1 atm. This pressure was adopted since in this way, an equipment of pressurization and depressurization is not necessary, diminishing the costs of installation and utilization of energy. Basing on this temperature, the generation of hydrogen-rich biogas is devoted with low utilization of energy which in this case is necessary as heat source. The exergetic analysis has as objective to determinate the most convenient thermodynamic conditions for studied hydrogen production process. Calculations concerning rational and exergetic efficiencies were developed. Basing on this analysis, the suggested conditions were 1 atm and maximum 700 deg C. Ultimately, an economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of produced hydrogen depending on of imposed conditions such as cost of installation of studied reformer

  5. Radiation tolerance of Si{sub 1−y}C{sub y} source/drain n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with different carbon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Toshiyuki, E-mail: nakashima_t@cdk.co.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki (Japan); Chuo Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd., 3400 Kohoyama, Matsubase, Uki, Kumamoto (Japan); Asai, Yuki; Hori, Masato; Yoneoka, Masashi; Tsunoda, Isao; Takakura, Kenichiro [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Gonzalez, Mireia Bargallo [Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (Centre Nacional de Microelectronica — Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas) Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Simoen, Eddy [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Claeys, Cor [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yoshino, Kenji [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    The 2-MeV electron radiation damage of silicon–carbon source/drain (S/D) n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with different carbon (C) concentrations is studied. Before irradiation, an enhancement of the electron mobility with C concentration of the S/D stressors is clearly observed. On the other hand, after electron irradiation, both the threshold voltage shift and the maximum electron mobility degradation are independent on the C concentration for all electron fluences studied. These results indicate that the strain induced electron mobility enhancement due to the C doping is retained after irradiation in the studied devices. - Highlights: • We have investigated the electron irradiation effect of the Si{sub 1−y}C{sub y} S/D n-MOSFETs. • The threshold voltage variations by irradiation are independent on the C doping. • The electron-mobility decreased for all C concentrations by electron irradiation. • The strain induced mobility enhancement effect is retained after irradiation.

  6. A study of the oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of thermophilic campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, F J; Coates, D.

    1983-01-01

    The oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of different biotypes of thermophilic campylobacters were investigated by means of (a) quantitative studies, and (b) total growth studies. Oxygen tolerance of the five test organisms differed markedly and varied with the carbon dioxide concentration. At most carbon dioxide concentrations tested, Campylobacter jejuni strains NCTC 11168 and NCTC 11392 tolerated 21% oxygen (growth reduced), C coli NCTC 11353 tolerated 15% oxygen (growth reduced), and C ...

  7. Starvation, together with the SOS response, mediates high biofilm-specific tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve P Bernier

    Full Text Available High levels of antibiotic tolerance are a hallmark of bacterial biofilms. In contrast to well-characterized inherited antibiotic resistance, molecular mechanisms leading to reversible and transient antibiotic tolerance displayed by biofilm bacteria are still poorly understood. The physiological heterogeneity of biofilms influences the formation of transient specialized subpopulations that may be more tolerant to antibiotics. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify biofilm-specific tolerant mutants normally exhibited by subpopulations located in specialized niches of heterogeneous biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we demonstrated, through identification of amino acid auxotroph mutants, that starved biofilms exhibited significantly greater tolerance towards fluoroquinolone ofloxacin than their planktonic counterparts. We demonstrated that the biofilm-associated tolerance to ofloxacin was fully dependent on a functional SOS response upon starvation to both amino acids and carbon source and partially dependent on the stringent response upon leucine starvation. However, the biofilm-specific ofloxacin increased tolerance did not involve any of the SOS-induced toxin-antitoxin systems previously associated with formation of highly tolerant persisters. We further demonstrated that ofloxacin tolerance was induced as a function of biofilm age, which was dependent on the SOS response. Our results therefore show that the SOS stress response induced in heterogeneous and nutrient-deprived biofilm microenvironments is a molecular mechanism leading to biofilm-specific high tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin.

  8. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  9. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  10. Reform in teaching preclinical pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Kun; Yao, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Qiao-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pathophysiology is a scientific discipline that studies the onset and progression of pathological conditions and diseases, and pathophysiology is one of the core courses in most preclinical medical curricula. In China, most medical schools house a Department of Pathophysiology, in contrast to medical schools in many developed countries. The staff in Chinese Departments of Pathophysiology generally consists of full-time instructors or lecturers who teach medical students. These lecturers are sometimes lacking in clinic knowledge and experiences. To overcome this, in recent years, we have been trying to bring new trends in teaching pathophysiology into our curriculum. Our purpose in writing this article was to share our experiences with our colleagues and peers worldwide in the hope that the insights we have gained in pathophysiology teaching will be of some value to educators who advocate teaching reform in medical schools.

  11. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  12. Fuel reforming and electrical performance studies in intermediate temperature ceria - gadolinia-based SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livermore, S.J.A. [CERAM Research, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Chemistry, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom); Cotton, J.W. [CERAM Research, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Chemistry, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    The methane reforming and carbon deposition characteristics of two nickel/ceria-gadolinia cermet anodes have been studied over the temperature range 550-700 C, for use in intermediate temperature ceria-gadolinia (CGO)-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), using conventional catalytic methods and temperature-programmed spectroscopy. The electrical performance and durability of planar CGO-based SOFCs with a 280-{mu}m-thick CGO electrolyte, screen printed cathode and different screen printed nickel/CGO cermet anodes have been studied over the temperature range 500-650 C. Temperature-programmed reduction has been used to study the reduction characteristics of the anodes, and indicates the presence of 'bulk' NiO particles and smaller NiO particles in intimate contact with the ceria. Both anodes show good activity towards methane steam reforming with methane activation occurring at temperatures as low as 210 C; steady-state steam reforming of methane was observed using a methane-rich mixture at 650 C, with 20% methane conversion. Post-reaction temperature-programmed oxidation has been used to determine the amount of carbon deposited during reforming and the strength of its interaction with the anode. (orig.)

  13. ICT and Public Administration Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new ICTs brought a lot of new assumptions about radical changes in our society. In the context of the arrival of a new society, public administration was supposed to witness (and to address or implement changes at different levels, such as:• citizenship (citizens becoming participants in governance or even a shift to e-democracy;• the nature of public service jobs (in terms of skills, work processes and job design;• organizational changes (from a hierarchical to a more horizontal structure, to network or even virtual organizations; and• the entire government (from classic bureaucracy to New Public Management and to network and digital governance. Technological change cannot be judged outside the social, economic and political frameworks. The massive change in our society cannot be explained only by technological (especially ICT factors. Excluding other factors may help us predict easier (but not more accurately future evolutions but as a scientific effort it is a bad practice. Much of the assumptions about technological change came from hasty generalizations. The changing nature of some collective actions, jobs in certain areas of the economy or organizations were considered as optimal (and necessary paths for the entire society (from individual to national levels. Public administration reforms are far from being a consequence of new technologies. Moreover public administration reforms do not embed ICTs and do not have a happy marriage with e-government.

  14. Maximum Hydrogen Production by Autothermal Steam Reforming of Bio-oil With NiCuZnAl Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-zhi Yan; Qi Zhai; Quan-xin Li

    2012-01-01

    Autothermal steam reforming (ATR) of bio-oil,which couples the endothermic steam reforming reaction with the exothermic partial oxidation,offers many advantages from a technical and economic point of view.Effective production of hydrogen through ATR of bio-oil was performed at lower temperature with NiCuZnAl catalyst.The highest hydrogen yield from bio-oil reached 64.3% with a nearly complete bio-oil conversion at 600 ℃,the ratio of steam to carbon fed (S/C) of 3 and the oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) of 0.34.The reaction conditions in ATR including temperature,O/C,S/C and weight hourly space velocity can be used to control both hydrogen yield and products distribution.The comparison between the ATR and common steam reforming of bio-oil was studied.The mechanism of the ATR of bio-oil was also discussed.

  15. General tolerances -- Part 2: Geometrical tolerances for features without individual tolerance indications

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1989-01-01

    This part is intended to simplify drawing indications and specifies general tolerances in three tolerance classes. It mainly applies to features which are produced by removal of material. It contains tour tables and an informative annex A with regard to concepts behind general tolerancing of dimensions, as well as an informative annex B with further information.

  16. A CAD MODEL FOR FUZZY CONCURRENT TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Research situation of concurrent tolerance design has been analyzed. As fuzzy factors are objective and unavoidable in concurrent tolerance design, fuzzy optimization theory is applied in the design. A new mathematical model of concurrent tolerance design is constructed.

  17. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates recent reforms of the Greenland coastal fisheries in order to contribute to the general lessons on reform and policy networks in the context of a changing Arctic stakeholdership. It analyses participation in fisheries governance decision-making by examining the emergence...... of participation and exclusion emerged. In this process, the identities of the participating participants were reinterpreted to fit the new patterns of influence and participation. The article argues that fishery reform does not necessarily start with the collective recognition of a problem in marine resource use...

  18. Curriculum reform in China: Challenges and reflections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Qi-quan

    2006-01-01

    With the implementation of the New Curriculum,conflicts between new and old ideas axe bound to arise.Voices supporting and protesting the reform will accompany the whole process.We have to expound our idea that quality education is an established policy that cannot be reverted,that curriculum reform must be carried out,and that any attempt to return to old curriculums may end in failure.The present paper explores the challenges to the basic curriculum reform and the relevant strategies through the analysis of educational phenomena of mainland China in recent years.

  19. Economic Reform and Alternatives for North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cargill; Elliott Parker

    2010-01-01

    This chapter assesses the potential for reform in North Korea, and considers the lessons learned from economic reform and transition in China, the Soviet Union, and Central Europe. We focus in particular on the importance of reforms in the financial regime, and argue that in the absence of a major change in North Korea?s environment, such as a crisis caused by reduced economic and/or political support from China, or increased access by the North Korean population to events in the rest of the ...

  20. Agricultural water reforms versus climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MH (Karim Koshteh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water reform policy in many countries, which their economy mostly based on agricultural sector, is main preconditions for sustainable agricultural economic development. Since water is an important input in all economic sectors and particularly in agriculture, climate changes and water scarcity are more important to be considered in this millennium. Providing sufficient water for various uses is one of the main problems that most Developing Countries involved. Agricultural Water-reforms are vital while the multi-oriented issue of sustainability is of interest as well. The pros and cons of climate changes due to global warming and water-reform policy are discussed in this project.

  1. The Research of Software Engineering Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Li-Qun; Han, Xie

    With the problem that software engineering training can't meet the needs of the community, this paper analysis some outstanding reasons in software engineering curriculum teaching, such as old teaching contents, weak in practice and low quality of teachers etc. We propose the methods of teaching reform as guided by market demand, update the teaching content, optimize the teaching methods, reform the teaching practice, strengthen the teacher-student exchange and promote teachers and students together. We carried out the reform and explore positive and achieved the desired results.

  2. Evaluating Pension System Reform in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the reform to the system of pensions in Uruguay through these variables: coverage, fiscal impact, accumulation of funds, yield, and costs associated to the operation of the Administradoras de Fondos de Ahorro Previsional (AFAPS. The reform is evaluated positively, even though elements are identified, that must be considered in the future: to extend the reform to the rest of the system that was not included before, generate the correct structure to regulate and supervise the system, fit the age of retirement to accede to benefits, and offer alternatives for investments of the AFAPS.

  3. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium  Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation  by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is  assessed by answering the following questions:  • How can we understand and explain the policy process of the reform?  • To what extent have the outputs of th...

  4. Reform Trend of China Natural Gas Price Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Wei; Liu Xinping

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas price policy reform lags behind refined oil price reform comparatively, and current natural gas price policy could not adapt to the new situation of large scale import of foreign natural gas. Natural gas price reform could refer to the reform mode of refined oil price.

  5. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  6. Activity of Ni–Cu–Al based catalyst for renewable hydrogen production from steam reforming of glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ni–Cu–Al catalyst for hydrogen production was synthesized by rising pH technique. • Experimental data were analyzed with non-stoichiometric thermodynamic calculation. • Catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposits in glycerol steam reforming was found. • Carbon removal was analyzed by TGA experiment during medium temperature oxidation. • Reforming was tested by separability kinetics of rate law and catalyst deactivation. - Abstract: In this study, the activity of Ni–Cu–Al based catalyst for renewable hydrogen production from glycerol steam reforming has been evaluated in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor under atmospheric pressure at 500–600 °C. The catalyst synthesized by the co-precipitation method with rising pH technique was characterized by the elemental analysis, Brenauer–Emmett–Teller (N2-BET) adsorption method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermodynamic analysis for glycerol steam reforming was conducted by using a non-stoichiometric methodology based on the minimization of Gibbs free energy. The obtained results revealed that the great quantity of hydrogen is produced at excess water and the formations of CH4 and CO in the glycerol steam reforming were almost negligible. The deactivation of catalyst due to the formation of carbon residues was observed. The carbons removal was measured by TGA experiment during medium temperature oxidation conditions. The kinetics on glycerol steam reforming was described by means of the separability concept of reaction rate law and deactivation model, and the kinetic parameters were calculated

  7. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic...... growth and competitiveness, the European experience shows that governments as part of already agreed environmental tax reforms (ETR) have in fact implicit carbon-energy taxes with a nominal level that in many cases exceeds this level. Still, European governments have exempt especially the energy......-intensive industries and so to some extent for the biggest polluters the incentives to improve energy efficiency and shift towards low-carbon fuels have been weaker than the nominal rates would suggest. In view of the need to increase the real level of carbon-energy taxation, while retaining the competitiveness...

  8. Effect of changing CH4/CO2 ratio on hydrogen production by dry reforming reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigation for dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide was carried out. This study was aimed to explore the effect of changing the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide in the feed gas. The experiments were carried out using seven different ratios of methane to carbon dioxide that range from 0.25 - 4.0, three different temperature 773, 823, 848 K as well as three different total feed flow rate 10, 15, 20 ml/ min. at atmospheric pressure. The runs were carried out in AMI - 2000 Zeton- Altimira micro-reactor. The results indicate that increasing the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide decreases methane conversion, increases in carbon dioxide conversion and decreases hydrogen yield at each temperature used. Changing total feed flow rate has no effect on either conversion or hydrogen yield. (authors)

  9. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, ewll-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-organisation process. Policy change on a large sca...

  10. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer; Freytag, Andreas; Plantenga, Janneke; Galasso, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    WWWforEurope Policy Brief No. 3, 14 pages Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, well-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-organisa...

  11. Policing the Peace after Yugoslavia:Police Reform between External Imposition and Domestic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Bieber

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a plethora of international organizations—from the UN and OSCE to the European Union and NATO—have been extensively involved in the reform of police forces across the post-conflict regions of former Yugoslavia. The various international actors have employed a diverse tool kit of police reform, from creating new police forces from scratch to reforming existing, ethnically divided forces. This paper will trace the different efforts in post-conflict settings by discussing po...

  12. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Man Lo; Chi-Chung Chang; Chia-Chieh Shen; Shuo-Jen Lee; Chi-Yuan Lee; Chuin-Tih Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated ...

  13. Health reform redux: learning from experience and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Johnathon S

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups.

  14. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded)or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

  15. Commitment and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, D C

    1988-11-01

    The article attempts to approach the abortion issue in a rather unconventional manner. Instead of picking a side and then trying to support it, the author demonstrates first how most people in the US are fence sitters on the issue of abortion. They support neither side with very much intensity, although most of them are currently facing the pro-abortion side. From there the author argues that the activists on both side are so extreme in their views that they both lose their legitimacy. The anti-abortionists do not seem interested in improving the quality of life for anyone other than unborn fetuses and as such they do not really seem to be "pro-life". On the other hand, pro-abortionists focus too much on the autonomy of women and seem to ignore the fact that an abortion is the ending of a potential human life. They do not put the value of the fetus into their "pro-choice" views, it is only a choice for a woman to make about her body, not a choice of one person's right over the rights of a potential person. It is this fundamental extremism that the author cites as the source of the furor over abortion. If both sides were more tolerant of each and chose sides. It is this fundamental extremism that must be replaced with persuasion if either side is to truly achieve a victory. The author's personal belief is that abortion on demand must be ended in this country.

  16. Toward stable nickel catalysts for aqueous phase reforming of biomass-derived feedstock under reducing and alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasterecht, van T.; Ludding, C.C.I.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers (CNF) can be stabilized in aqueous phase processes at elevated temperatures and pressures by tuning the reaction conditions to control Ni oxidation and leaching. As a showcase, Ni/CNF was used for the production of hydrogen via aqueous phase reform

  17. On-board diesel autothermal reforming for PEM fuel cells: Simulation and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative power sources are nowadays the only option to provide a quick response to the current regulations on automotive pollutant emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell is one promising solution, but the nature of the gas is such that the in-vehicle conversion of other fuels into hydrogen is necessary. In this paper, autothermal reforming, for Diesel on-board conversion into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells, has investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. A steady-state model has been developed to analyze the fuel processor and the overall system performance. The components of the fuel processor are: the fuel reforming reactor, two water gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor and H2 separation unit. The influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, and temperature on the process components has been analyzed in-depth and results are presented

  18. On-board diesel autothermal reforming for PEM fuel cells: Simulation and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Raffaello, E-mail: raffaello.cozzolino@unicusano.it; Tribioli, Laura [University of NiccolòCusano, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi 3 - Rome (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Alternative power sources are nowadays the only option to provide a quick response to the current regulations on automotive pollutant emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell is one promising solution, but the nature of the gas is such that the in-vehicle conversion of other fuels into hydrogen is necessary. In this paper, autothermal reforming, for Diesel on-board conversion into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells, has investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. A steady-state model has been developed to analyze the fuel processor and the overall system performance. The components of the fuel processor are: the fuel reforming reactor, two water gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor and H{sub 2} separation unit. The influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, and temperature on the process components has been analyzed in-depth and results are presented.

  19. Optimization of dry reforming of methane over Ni/YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Cosimo; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the catalytic properties of Ni/YSZ anodes as electrodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) to be operated under direct dry reforming of methane. The experimental test rig consists of a micro-reactor, where anode samples are characterized. The gas composition at the reactor outlet is monitored using a mass spectrometer. The kinetics of the reactions occurring over the anode is investigated by means of Isotherm reactions and Temperature-programmed reactions. The effect of the variation of temperature, gas residence time and inlet carbon dioxide-methane volumetric ratio is analyzed. At 800 °C, the best catalytic performance (in the carbon safe region) is obtained for 1.5 reactions, respectively. In other ranges, dry reforming and reverse water gas shift are the dominant reactions and the inlet feed reaches almost the equilibrium condition provided that a sufficient gas residence time is obtained.

  20. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Su, Yu; Sun, Junming; Yang, Cheng; Strohm, James J.; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared for steam reforming of ethanol under conditions suitable for industrial hydrogen production. The reaction conditions were varied to elucidate the differences in reaction pathways on both catalysts. On Co/ZnO, CH4 is a secondary product formed through the methanation reaction, while it is produced directly by ethanol decomposition on Rh. The difference in the reaction mechanism is shown to favor Co-based catalysts for selective hydrogen production under elevated system pressures (up to 15 bar) of industrial importance. The carbon deposition rate was also studied, and we show that Co is more prone to coking and catalyst failure. However, the Co/ZnO catalyst can be regenerated, by mild oxidation, despite the high carbon deposition rate. We conclude that Co/ZnO is a more suitable catalyst system for steam reforming of ethanol due to the low methane selectivity, low cost and possibility of regeneration with mild oxidation.

  1. Optimization of H2 production with CO2 capture by steam reforming of methane integrated with a chemical-looping combustion system

    OpenAIRE

    Pans Castillo, Miguel Ángel; Abad Secades, Alberto; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; García Labiano, Francisco; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Adánez Elorza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Methane steam reforming (SR) integrated with a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system is a new process for producing hydrogen from natural gas, allowing carbon dioxide capture with a low energy penalty. In this study, mass and enthalpy balances of an SR-CLC system were carried out to determine the autothermal operating conditions for optimal H2 production. The evaluation was conducted using iron-based oxygen carriers. Two configurations were analysed, firstly with the reformer tubes inside ...

  2. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Use Tolerance Analysis Techniques to Avoid Design, Quality, and Manufacturing Problems Before They Happen Often overlooked and misunderstood, tolerance analysis is a critical part of improving products and their design processes. Because all manufactured products are subject to variation, it is crucial that designers predict and understand how these changes can affect form, fit, and function of parts and assemblies--and then communicate their findings effectively. Written by one of the developers of ASME Y14.5 and other geometric dimension and tolerancing (GD&T) standards, Mechanical Tolerance

  3. An Algebra of Fault Tolerance

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Shrisha

    2009-01-01

    Every system of any significant size is created by composition from smaller sub-systems or components. It is thus fruitful to analyze the fault-tolerance of a system as a function of its composition. In this paper, two basic types of system composition are described, and an algebra to describe fault tolerance of composed systems is derived. The set of systems forms monoids under the two composition operators, and a semiring when both are concerned. A partial ordering relation between systems is used to compare their fault-tolerance behaviors.

  4. Determination of optimal reformer temperature in a reformed methanol fuel cell system using ANFIS models and numerical optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    In this work a method for choosing the optimal reformer temperature for a reformed methanol fuel cell system is presented based on a case study of a H3 350 module produced by Serenergy A/S. The method is based on ANFIS models of the dependence of the reformer output gas composition on the reformer...

  5. Effect of closed v. intermittent-flow respirometry on hypoxia tolerance in the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, S; Nadler, L E; Bayley, J S;

    2016-01-01

    hypoxia tolerance in closed respirometry is consistent with additional stress, caused by a build-up of ammonia and carbon dioxide and a faster rate in dissolved oxygen decline. The results indicate that these two methods of determining hypoxia tolerance in aquatic organisms are not comparable, and that...

  6. On the new era of China's economic reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤泽东

    2011-01-01

    reform and opening up, China made great achievements in economic reform, the formation of the main experience of economic reform, opening up, and combine the four cardinal principles, the combination of refml and opening up, correctly handle the reform, the relations between development and stability. In the new basis, continue to promote the modernization of the great project, China's economic reform there are many aspects need improvement arid development.

  7. Main Reform on Higher Education Systems in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main reform in current Korean higher education by briefly reviewing a historical perspective on higher education reform, then discussing the main issues of recent education reform since 1994 by focusing on legal and administrative system changes, reforms or innovations of university management, and reforms of organizational culture. Finally, the main challenges and visions of Korean higher education systems toward the 21 st century are presented.

  8. Reforming the provision of benefits on railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Gulay

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the variant of reforming of system of granting of privileges on a railway transport by principle of indemnification of guarantees only to the most unprotected, in the social sense, population is offered.

  9. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  10. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. National Reform Programs in Local Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    This paper investigates how discourse can be mobilized as a strategic resource when introducing a public sector reform program in a local government setting. We explore how actual day-to-day practices, contexts, and processes relate to the shaping and localizing of broad strategic discourses. In...... particular, we emphasize the practices in which national strategic formulations are legitimized and accepted or abandoned by the actors involved. Building on a case study conducted over a two-year time span, we show how a local actor engages with and promotes a national reform program by evoking a discourse...... with strategic intentions. First we present how the national reform program is translated into a local government by the evoking of historically produced and context dependent discourses. Next we show that locally produced discourses need to be evoked and re-attached to the national reform program in...

  12. China's Economic System Reform: Unprecedented and Dynamic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hu Yun

    2009-01-01

    China's economic reform is aimed at realizing a transformation from a planned economy to a socialist market economic system.Establishing and improving the socialist market economic system is an urgent requirement of political,economic and cultural development.

  13. Concertina Reforms with International Capital Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina ...... reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess......We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...

  14. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  15. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuo Umegaki; Yusuke Yamada; Atsushi Ueda; Nobuhiro Kuriyama; Qiang Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-prod...

  16. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shif...

  17. Equilibrium prediction of CO2 reforming of coke oven gas: Suitability for methanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel

    2012-01-01

    [EN] A thermodynamic study of the equilibrium of the CO2 reforming of coke oven gas (COG) was carried out with the aid of Aspen Plus® software. The influence of various operation conditions (temperature, pressure, COG composition and CO2/CH4 ratio) upon different parameters (conversions, yields, outlet composition, carbon production, by-products) was studied in order to evaluate the suitability of the process for producing a synthesis gas appropriate for methanol production. It was establishe...

  18. A Phenomenological Study on the Synergistic Role of Precious Metals in the Steam Reforming of Logistic Fuels on Bimetal-Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Majeed Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel processors are required to convert sulfur-laden logistic fuels into hydrogen-rich reformate and deliver to the fuel cell stack with little or no sulfur. Since sulfur poisons and deactivates the reforming catalyst, robust sulfur-tolerant catalysts ought to be developed. In this paper, the development, characterization and evaluation of a series of reforming catalysts containing two noble metals (with total metal loading not exceeding 1 weight percent supported on nanoscale ceria for the steam-reforming of kerosene is reported. Due to inherent synergy, a bimetallic catalyst is superior to its monometallic analog, for the same level of loading. The choice of noble metal combination in the bimetallic formulations plays a vital and meaningful role in their performance. Presence of ruthenium and/or rhodium in formulations containing palladium showed improved sulfur tolerance and significant enhancement in their catalytic activity and stability. Rhodium was responsible for higher hydrogen yields in the logistic fuel reformate. Duration of steady hydrogen production was higher in the case of RhPd (75 h than for RuPd (68 h; hydrogen generation was stable over the longest period (88 h with RuRh containing no Pd. A mechanistic correlation between the characteristic role of precious metals in the presence of each other is discussed.

  19. A paradox of reforming pensions in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Zabkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Recent years see intense reforming of funded pensions sub-system in Poland. Actually, what are policy objectives like at which change in design introduced in 2013 (mandatory funding) and projected in 2014 (voluntary funding) is oriented? The article briefly reports what was contemporary re-designing of the pension system at different stages about and reconstructs objectives of reforming at each stage. It finds that interlocking streams of change aimed at two goals in fact which are i) relief ...

  20. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...