WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon tetrachloride poisoning

  1. [Carbon tetrachloride poisoning: a report of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Martínez Ara, J; Valencia, M E; Mostaza, J M; Miguel, J L; Sánchez Sicilia, L

    1989-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic solvent easily obtained in our country. 3 cases of poisoning by accidental inhalation at place of work. The main clinical manifestations were acute renal failure and toxic hepatopathy. All patients, had a good evolution with dialysis therapy after a few weeks. We comment on some possible additional therapies to be used in treating patients with severe poisoning due to carbon tetrachloride.

  2. Detection of carbon tetrachloride associates in isooctane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byakov, V. M.; Lanshina, L. V.; Stepanova, O. P.; Stepanov, S. V.

    2010-07-01

    The cryoscopic and radiospectroscopic data revealed that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) n agglomerates ( n ≥ 4) could form in cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride itself. Additional arguments in favor of the formation of similar CCl4 agglomerates in isooctane were presented by analyzing the available data on positron annihilation in CCl4 solutions in isooctane.

  3. [Evaluation of the action of a fat diet on the state of the liver poisoned by carbon tetrachloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykh-zade, K S; Volgarev, M N; Piatnitskiĭ, N N; Zhminchenko, V M; Mal'tsev, G Iu

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the diet containing different amounts of fat on the liver with CCl4 poisoning were studied in two series of experiments on 150 male Wistar rats. In the first series th priming was given in the presence of the laboratory diet for 1 1/2 months. In the second series, the 1 1/2-month priming was given in the presence of the diets tested. The control animals given no priming were kept on the laboratory diet in which the fat (sunflower oil) amount constituted 23% as regards the caloricity. The experimental animals were distributed into 2 groups kept on the diets containing 27 and 43% of fat as regards the caloricity (creamery butter and sunflower oil at a ratio of 2 : 1). All three diets were isocaloric, having the identical content of protein. Change in the fat amount was compensated for the respective change in the carbohydrate content. It was found that application of the diet with the increased content of milk and vegetable fat (43% as regards the caloricity) led to a marked improvement of the liver, while early application of the test diets in the presence of CCl4 brought about a significant decrease in the lethality of the experimental animals.

  4. The effects of carbon tetrachloride on rat liver microsomes during the first hour of poisoning in vivo, and the modifying actions of promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Sawyer, B. C.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of an oral administration of carbon tetrachloride on various liver microsomal and supernatant components were studied 1hr. and 2hr. after dosing. The modifications of such early changes resulting from a concomitant administration of promethazine together with the carbon tetrachloride were also investigated. The microsomal components studied were: cytochromes P-450 and b5; inorganic pyrophosphatase; NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c reductases; NADH– and NADPH–neotetrazolium reductases; a lipid-peroxidation system associated with the oxidation of NADPH and stimulated by ADP and Fe2+. NAD– and NADP– DT-diaphorases were measured in the supernatant solution remaining after isolation of liver microsomes, and the distribution of RNA phosphorus between the microsomes and supernatant solution was also determined. Carbon tetrachloride produced a rapid fall in inorganic pyrophosphatase activity, a rather slower decrease in cytochrome P-450 content of the microsomes and small increases in the activities of NADH–cytochrome c reductase and neotetrazolium reductases. The activities of NADPH–cytochrome c reductase, the NADPH–ADP/Fe2+-linked lipid-peroxidation system, DT-diaphorases and the content of cytochrome b5 in the microsomes were unchanged. There was also a loss of RNA phosphorus from the microsomes into the supernatant solution. The RNA phosphorus redistribution, the decrease in inorganic pyrophosphatase and the increases in neotetrazolium reductase activities were at least partially prevented by a concomitant dosing with promethazine. However, the decrease in cytochrome P-450 was not affected by promethazine treatment. These early changes are discussed in terms of the liver necrosis produced by carbon tetrachloride and which is greatly retarded in its onset by the administration of promethazine. PMID:5767054

  5. Compound list: carbon tetrachloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available carbon tetrachloride CCL4 00003 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/carbon...ates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open...-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.S...ingle.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  7. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  9. Emissions of carbon tetrachloride from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo; Furlani, Francesco; Giostra, Umberto; Manning, Alistair J.; McCulloch, Archie; O'Doherty, Simon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Maione, Michela

    2016-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a long-lived radiatively active compound with the ability to destroy stratospheric ozone. Due to its inclusion in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), the last two decades have seen a sharp decrease in its large-scale emissive use with a consequent decline in its atmospheric mole fractions. However, the MP restrictions do not apply to the use of carbon tetrachloride as feedstock for the production of other chemicals, implying the risk of fugitive emissions from the industry sector. The occurrence of such unintended emissions is suggested by a significant discrepancy between global emissions as derived from reported production and feedstock usage (bottom-up emissions), and those based on atmospheric observations (top-down emissions). In order to better constrain the atmospheric budget of carbon tetrachloride, several studies based on a combination of atmospheric observations and inverse modelling have been conducted in recent years in various regions of the world. This study is focused on the European scale and based on long-term high-frequency observations at three European sites, combined with a Bayesian inversion methodology. We estimated that average European emissions for 2006-2014 were 2.2 (± 0.8) Gg yr-1, with an average decreasing trend of 6.9 % per year. Our analysis identified France as the main source of emissions over the whole study period, with an average contribution to total European emissions of approximately 26 %. The inversion was also able to allow the localisation of emission "hot spots" in the domain, with major source areas in southern France, central England (UK) and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), where most industrial-scale production of basic organic chemicals is located. According to our results, European emissions correspond, on average, to 4.0 % of global emissions for 2006-2012. Together with other regional studies, our results allow a better constraint

  10. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cole, Charles R.; Cameron, Richard J.; Johnson, Michael D.; Skeen, Rodney S.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2001-07-13

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters.

  11. Analytical methods for the determination of carbon tetrachloride in soils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, J. S.; Spokas, K.; Taylor, J.

    1999-06-01

    Improved methods for the determination of carbon tetrachloride are described. These methods incorporate purge-and-trap concentration of heated dry samples, an improved methanol extraction procedure, and headspace sampling. The methods minimize sample pretreatment, accomplish solvent substitution, and save time. The methanol extraction and headspace sampling procedures improved the method detection limits and yielded better sensitivity, good recoveries, and good performance. Optimization parameters are shown. Results obtained with these techniques are compared for soil samples from contaminated sites.

  12. Mechanism underlying carbon tetrachloride-inhibited protein synthesis in liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism underlying carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced alterations of protein synthesis in liver. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given CCl4 (1 mL/100 g body weight) and 3H-leucine incorporation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver, in vitro response of hepatocyte nuclei nucleotide triphosphatase (NTPase) to free radicals, and nuclear export of total mRNA with 3'-poly A+ were measured respectively. Survival response of HepG2 cells to CCl4 treatment was assessed by methyl thia...

  13. The Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Budget: Mystery or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, atmospheric observations show a very slow decline in CCl4 concentrations, inconsistent with the nearly zero emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage in recent years. It is now apparent that there are either unidentified industrial leakages, an unknown production source of CCl4, or large legacy emissions from CCl4 contaminated sites. In this paper we use a global chemistry climate model to assess the budget mystery of atmospheric CCl4. We explore various factors that affect the global trend and the gradient between the Northern and Southern hemispheres or interhemispheric gradient (IHG): emissions, emission hemispheric partitioning, and lifetime variations. We find a present-day emission of 30-50 Gg per yr and a total lifetime 25 - 36 years are necessary to reconcile both the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG.

  14. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  15. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  16. Recent Site-Wide Transport Modeling Related to the Carbon Tetrachloride Plume at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Cole, C R.

    2005-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride transport in the unconfined aquifer system at the Hanford Site has been the subject of follow-on studies since the Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program was completed in FY 2002. These scoping analyses were undertaken to provide support for strategic planning and guidance for the more robust modeling needed to obtain a final record of decision (ROD) for the carbon tetrachloride plume in the 200 West Area. This report documents the technical approach and the results of these follow-on, site-wide scale-modeling efforts. The existing site-wide groundwater model was used in this effort. The work extended that performed as part of the ITRD modeling study in which a 200 West Area scale submodel was developed to examine arrival concentrations at an arbitrary boundary between the 200 E and 200 W areas. These scoping analyses extended the analysis to predict the arrival of the carbon tetrachloride plume at the Columbia River. The results of these analyses illustrate the importance of developing field-scale estimates of natural attenuation parameters, abiotic degradation rate and soil/water equilibrium sorption coefficient, for carbon tetrachloride. With these parameters set to zero, carbon tetrachloride concentrations will exceed the compliance limit of 5 ?g/L outside the 200 Area Plateau Waste Management Area, and the aquifer source loading and area of the aquifer affected will continue to grow until arrival rates of carbon tetrachloride equal source release rates, estimated at 33 kg/yr. Results of this scoping analysis show that the natural attenuation parameters are critical in predicting the future movement of carbon tetrachloride from the 200 West Area. Results also show the significant change in predictions between continual source release from the vadose zone and complete source removal.

  17. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: Protective effect of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasoumi, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of an ethanolic extract of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. (EER), on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was investigated. Wistar albino rats were administered 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight extract orally for 10 consecutive days. Marker enzymes GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin were estimated in serum. Whereas, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in liver tissue as markers for oxidative stress. Histopathological assessment was also done on liver tissue. CCl(4) induced liver poisoning in all treated animals was evident by elevated serum GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin levels. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver tissue by CCl(4) was evidenced by a fall in the levels of NP-SH and TP; and an increased level of MDA concentration. EER administration for 10 days prevented the CCl(4) induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the extract also reduced the pentobarbital-induced prolongation of sleeping time in mice. The ability of rocket extract to protect the liver toxicity in rats was further confirmed by histological findings in the liver tissue. In conclusion, it was observed that Eruca sativa L. extract protects the liver against CCl(4) induced hepatic injury through its potent antioxidant activity in rats.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Centella asiatica (L in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the Centella asiatica extract in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were treated with alcohol extract of Centella asiatica orally in two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg/day for 3 mo along with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein, albumin and marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were estimated both before and after the experiment. Histopathological studies of liver were also carried out to confirm the biochemical changes. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic effects were evident by a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the serum marker enzymes and a decrease in the total serum protein and albumin. Administration of extract of Centella asiatica effectively inhibited these changes in a dose-dependent manner; maximum effect was with 40 mg/kg. Histopathological examination of liver tissue corroborated well with the biochemical changes. Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in carbon tetrachloride-treated group, while these were completely absent in the treatment group. Centella asiatica extract exhibited hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. This effect is attributed to the presence of asiaticoside (14.5% in the extract.

  19. Telmisartan ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawia, Reem T; Esmat, Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Doaa A; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the potential hepatoprotective effect of telmisartan (TLM), a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) receptor blocker, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxity in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of male Wistar rats with CCl4 1 mL kg(-1) , 1:1 mixture with corn oil for 3 days increased serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as total bilirubin, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. This is in addition to the disrupted histological architecture in the CCl4 group. Rats receiving CCl4 and co-treated with TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) , orally) showed ameliorated serum biochemical and histological changes almost to the control level. Nevertheless, rats treated with TLM (1 mg kg(-1) ) didn't show any significant changes compared to CCl4 intoxicated group. In addition, TLM rectified oxidative status disrupted by CCl4 intoxication. Interestingly, TLM protected against CCl4 -induced expressions of nuclear factor-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, in a dose related manner. Moreover, TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) significantly modified CCl4 -induced elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, TLM showed a marked decline in CD68+ cells stained areas and reduced activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme compared to CCl4 -intoxicated group. In conclusion, both doses of TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) showed significant hepato-protective effects. However, TLM at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) didn't show significant efficacy above 3 mg kg(-1) which is nearly equivalent to the human anti-hypertensive dose of 40 mg. Thus, may be effective in guarding against several hepatic complications due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 359-370, 2017.

  20. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  2. Self-Templated Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon from Carbon Tetrachloride Precursor for Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Duihai; Hu, Shi; Dai, Fang; Yi, Ran; Gordin, Mikhail L; Chen, Shuru; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-23

    A high-surface-area mesoporous carbon material has been synthesized using a self-templating approach via reduction of carbon tetrachloride by sodium potassium alloy. The advantage is the reduction-generated salt templates can be easily removed with just water. The produced mesoporous carbon has a high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution. When used as a supercapacitor electrode, this material exhibits a high specific capacitance (259 F g(-1)) and excellent cycling performance (>92% capacitance retention for 6000 cycles).

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  4. Excess enthalpies from displacement calorimetry excess enthalpies for 1,1,1- trichloroethane+carbon tetrachloride and 2-chloro-2-methylpropane+carbon tetrachloride at 298.15 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, J.C. van der; Obbink, J.H.; Meijer, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    Excess enthalpies HE are reported for the 1,1,1-trichloroethane+carbon tetrachloride and 2-chloro-2-methylpropane+carbon tetrachloride systems. The results are fitted to the formula HE = x(1−x)Σiai(1−2x)i.

  5. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, J.H. de; Hunneman, P.; Doddema, H.J.; Janssen, D.B.; Harder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 μM) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were sometim

  6. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Best, JH; Hunneman, P; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W; Doddema, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 mu M) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were somet

  7. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by pentosan polysulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zim, M C A; Silveira, T R; Schwartsmann, G; Cerski, T; Motta, A

    2002-11-01

    Few data are available in the literature regarding the effect of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) on normal and fibrotic rat livers. In addition, the combination of PPS and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has not been studied so far. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PPS on rat livers treated or not with CCl4 for the induction of liver fibrosis. The study consisted of four stages: 1) hepatic fibrosis induction with CCl4 (N = 36 rats); 2) evaluation of the effect of PPS on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis (N = 36 rats); 3) evaluation of the effect of higher doses of PPS in combination with CCl4 (N = 50 rats); 4) evaluation of the presence of an enzymatic inductor effect by PPS (N = 18 rats) using the sodium pentobarbital test which indirectly evaluates hepatic microsomal enzyme activity in vivo. Adult (60 to 70 days) male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 220 g were used. All animals receiving 0.5 ml 8% CCl4 (N = 36) developed hepatic fibrosis, and after 8 weeks they also developed cirrhosis. No delay or prevention of hepatic fibrosis was observed with the administration of 5 mg/kg PPS (N = 8) and 1 mg/kg PPS (N = 8) 1 h after the administration of CCl4, but the increased hepatotoxicity resulting from the combination of the two substances caused massive hepatic necrosis in most rats (N = 45). PPS (40 mg/kg) alone caused hepatic congestion only after 8 weeks, but massive hepatic necrosis was again observed in association with 0.5 ml CCl4 after 1 to 4 weeks of treatment. Unexpectedly, sleeping time increased with time of PPS administration (1, 2, or 3 weeks). This suggests that PPS does not function as an activator of the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Further studies are necessary in order to clarify the unexpected increase in hepatotoxicity caused by the combination of CCl4 and high doses of PPS, which results in massive hepatic necrosis.

  8. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  9. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by pentosan polysulfate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zim M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available in the literature regarding the effect of pentosan polysulfate (PPS on normal and fibrotic rat livers. In addition, the combination of PPS and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has not been studied so far. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PPS on rat livers treated or not with CCl4 for the induction of liver fibrosis. The study consisted of four stages: 1 hepatic fibrosis induction with CCl4 (N = 36 rats; 2 evaluation of the effect of PPS on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis (N = 36 rats; 3 evaluation of the effect of higher doses of PPS in combination with CCl4 (N = 50 rats; 4 evaluation of the presence of an enzymatic inductor effect by PPS (N = 18 rats using the sodium pentobarbital test which indirectly evaluates hepatic microsomal enzyme activity in vivo. Adult (60 to 70 days male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 220 g were used. All animals receiving 0.5 ml 8% CCl4 (N = 36 developed hepatic fibrosis, and after 8 weeks they also developed cirrhosis. No delay or prevention of hepatic fibrosis was observed with the administration of 5 mg/kg PPS (N = 8 and 1 mg/kg PPS (N = 8 1 h after the administration of CCl4, but the increased hepatotoxicity resulting from the combination of the two substances caused massive hepatic necrosis in most rats (N = 45. PPS (40 mg/kg alone caused hepatic congestion only after 8 weeks, but massive hepatic necrosis was again observed in association with 0.5 ml CCl4 after 1 to 4 weeks of treatment. Unexpectedly, sleeping time increased with time of PPS administration (1, 2, or 3 weeks. This suggests that PPS does not function as an activator of the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Further studies are necessary in order to clarify the unexpected increase in hepatotoxicity caused by the combination of CCl4 and high doses of PPS, which results in massive hepatic necrosis.

  10. Quinone-respiration improves dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervantes, F.J.; Vu-Thi-Thu, L.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of humic acids and the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on the biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by anaerobic granular sludge was studied. Addition of both humic acids and AQDS at sub-stoichiometric levels increased the first-order rate of conversion o

  11. Hepatoprotective effect ofAverrhoea carambolafruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AK Azeem; Molly Mathew; Chandramohan Nair DilipC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity ofAverroha carambola fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury.Methods:Hepatotoxicity was induced on albino mice by intraperitoneal administration ofCCl4, half an hour after the administration of the last dose of the extract ofAverroha carambola fruit. Aqueous extract of the fruit ofAverroha carambola was administered at a dose of 0.9 g/kg body weight once daily for seven days. The hepatic injury and its prevention was assessed by the estimation of serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphates(ALP), glutathione level and histopathological studies of liver.Results: Pre-treatment of mice with the fruit extract ofAverrhoea carambola significantly reduced serum levels ofALT, AST andALP enzyme and significantly increased the liver reduced glutathione levels24 h after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. A marked improvement in the enzyme activities and the liver reduced glutathione level was observed in the pre-treated mice 4 days after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for the biochemical analysis. Conclusions:The aqueous extract of the fruit ofAverrhoea carambola has hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in mice.

  12. Role of the sympathetic nervous system in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is widely used as an animal model of hepatotoxicity and the mechanisms have been arduously studied, however, the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity remains controversial. It is also known that either CCl4 or SNS can affect systemic inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in a mouse model of CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammatory response. Mice exposed to CCl4 or vehicle were pretreated with 6-OHDA or saline. The serum levels of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in the CCl4-poisoning mice with sympathetic denervation were significantly lower than those without sympathetic denervation. With sympathetic denervation, hepatocellular necrosis and fat infiltration induced by CCl4 were greatly decreased. Sympathetic denervation significantly attenuated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and serum. Acute CCl4 intoxication showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [eotaxin-2/CCL24, Fas ligand, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α], as well as decreased expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The overexpressed levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, MCP-1/CCL2, and TNF-α were attenuated by sympathetic denervation. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the SNS plays an important role in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation and the effect may be connected with chemical- or drug-induced hepatotoxicity and circulating immune response.

  13. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  14. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  15. Observation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Trianthema decandra Linn. (Vallai sharunnai roots on carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balamurugan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.

  16. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  17. Attenuation of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Cow Urine Distillate in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M PGURURAJA; A B JOSHI; HIMANSHU JOSHI; D SATHYANARAYANA; E V S SUBRAHMANYAM; K S CHANDRASHEKHAR

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoprotective activity in cow urine. Methods Effect of cow urine distillate on liver function was studied in vivo in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hepatotoxicity was induced by a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 in olive oil (5 mL/kg i.p). Protective effect of cow urine distillate (in three dose levels) and standard drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) on liver function were studied in intoxicated rats. Parameters in the study included liver function tests and histological observations. Results The cow urine distillate decreased the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, and total bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) as sylimarin. Conclusion The observed protective effects of cow urine distillate on liver function might be due to the presence of antioxidants in cow urine.

  18. Pharmacologic application of fourier transform IR spectroscopy: in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Déléris, G

    2000-01-01

    Microsomal fractions from rat liver were examined by means of Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the in vivo toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride administered by intraperitoneal injection. Lipid content was significantly enhanced in the liver of treated rats compared with untreated ones. The level of saturated fatty acids largely increased while that of unsaturated acids slightly decreased as a consequence of lipid peroxidation induced by the xenobiotic compound. The conformational structure of membrane proteins was changed, which was shown by the large decrease in the alpha-helical configuration. In the polysaccharide region we observed an important loss in glucidic structures that could be related to the metabolic changes caused by carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy appears to be a useful tool to rapidly investigate the chemical alterations induced by this drug in liver microsomes and to correlate them with biochemical and physiological data.

  19. Graphene oxide-mediated rapid dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by green rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li-Zhi; Hansen, Hans Christian B.; Daasbjerg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Graphene-based nanomaterials can mediate environmentally relevant abiotic redox reactions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. In this study as low amounts as ∼0.007 % of graphene oxide (GO) was found to catalyze the reduction of carbon tetrachloride by layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide (Green....... This study indicates that traces of graphene oxide can affect reaction pathways as well as kinetics for dechlorination processes in anoxic sediments by facilitating a partial dechlorination....

  20. Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercalated with dodecanoate anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Ginette Anneliese Cooper, Nicola; Bender Koch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Fe-II-Fe-III hydroxide (green rust) intercalated with dodecanoate, (Fe4Fe2III)-Fe-II (OH)(12)(C12H23O2)(2)center dot gamma H2O (designated GR(C12)), at pH similar to 8 and at room temperature was investigated. CT at concentration levels...

  1. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by standardized Feronia limonia. Linn leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Jain, Mahendra; Kapadia, Rakhee; Mishra, S. H.; Menaka C. Thounaojam

    2012-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of standardized Feronia limonia (Family, Rutaceae) methanolic extract (FL-7) and chloroform soluble fraction (FL-9) were assessed against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats treated with CCl4 recorded significant elevation in plasma markers of hepatic injury, alteration in hepatic antioxidant status and histopathological damages. However, rats pretreated with FL-7 (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and FL-9 (100 or 200 mg/...

  2. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  3. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  4. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  5. Carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide exposures in grain fumigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, D.E.; White, K.L.; Deer, H.; Alexander, G.

    1986-03-01

    The use of 80/20 compounds as liquid-fumigant mixtures in the grain-handling industry was considered. Worker exposures to carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide were measured at representative facilities throughout the industry. Work practices that may contribute to high exposure levels were cited. Approximately equal amounts of liquid fumigants and solid formulations of phosphine are used throughout the industry. As spraying is done on a sporadic basis, it does not appear likely to present a major problem such as might be encountered in continuous exposure situations. The authors conclude that grain workers do not appear to be an ideal study group for a neurotoxicity morbidity study due to the fact that the physical distance between study sites and the small number of workers at each site makes it difficult logistically. A concerted effort throughout the grain industry to educate those workers in the grain-handling portions of that industry toward the safe handling of fumigants should go far in alleviating any problems arising from exposure to fumigants.

  6. A Systematic Approach to In Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater Including Decision Trees on In Situ Bioremediation for Nitrates, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    facility also had associated seed treatment operations that may have contributed mercury compounds to the subsurface. The time of the releases will...tetrachloride is a dense nonaqueous-phase liquid ( DNAPL ) that does not occur naturally. The physical properties of carbon tetrachloride and its most...et al., 2001). DOE’s Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee has an historical carbon tetrachloride plume with suspected DNAPL in fractured bedrock (see

  7. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haw-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chin-Shiu [Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Chien-Chun [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Shing [Department of Biomedical Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yao, Hsien-Tsung, E-mail: htyao@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lii, Chong-Kuei, E-mail: cklii@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica Linn leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan G.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective. 

  9. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate ...

  10. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  11. Influence of Phenobarbital and Carbon tetrachloride on the Modulation of Tissue Retention Profile of Hexachlorocyclohexane in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the role of hepatic metabolic activity on body burden of HCH residue. Male albino rats were orally administered 0, 5, and 10 mg/kg HCH for 90 days, followed by either sodium phenobarbital or carbon tetrachloride treatment for 0, 15 and 30 days after withdrawal of their respective HCH administration. The liver weight was significantly increased at 30 days after the administration of phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride in both 5 mg and 10 mg/kg HCH withdrawal groups when compared to control. HCH residue was maximun in fat followed by adrenal>thymus>liver>kidney>spleen>testes>brain>plasma. Carbon tetrachloride caused an accumul-ation of HCH residues in the liver 15 and 30 days after administration of both doses of HCH. Phenobarbital did not show significant variation in HCH residues in hepatic tissue. Phenobarbital treatment caused significant induction of hepatic RED, APD, AHH, GST and QR activities. Significant decreases in activities were observed by carbon tetrachloride when compared to animals treated with HCH alone. The overall results clearly suggest the role of P450 protein on the body burden of HCH residues.

  12. Thermal diffusion factor for carbon tetrachloride-cyclohexane and benzene-n-heptane mixtures from thermogravitational column separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J.L.; Madariaga, J.A.; Santamaria, C.M.; Saviron, J.M.; Carrion, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the separation of liquid mixtures of n-heptane/benzene and carbon tetrachloride/cyclohexane in a thermogravitational column are reported. The results show that thermal diffusion columns of little mechanical precision can furnish suitable thermal diffusion factors when the diffusion coefficient, viscosity, density, and compressibility factor for the mixture are known. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  13. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS FRUITS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAVI SHANKAR, A. LAKSHMANA RAO, L. KALYANI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of fruits of Alstonia scholaris was evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The toxicant CCL4 was used to induce hepatotoxicity at a dose of 2 ml/kg as 1:1 mixture with olive oil. The ethanolic extract of fruits of Alstonia scholaris was administered in the dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, SALKP, total bilirubin and histopathological studies of the liver. Treatment of animals with the ethanolic extract significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver as indicated by lower levels of serum bilirubin as compared with the normal and silymarin treated groups.

  14. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug.

  15. Protective effects of sodium molybdate on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Eidi, Maryam; Al-Ebrahim, Mahsa; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Mortazavi, Pejman

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum is an essential trace micronutrient element that plays an important role in animal and plant physiology. Molybdenum is a constituent of at least three mammalian metalloflavoproteins: xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase and sulphite oxidase. In the present study, the hepatoprotective potential of sodium molybdate was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in rats. Administration of CCl(4) increased the serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in rats and reduced levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver. Treatment with sodium molybdate significantly attenuated these changes to nearly undetectable levels. The histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly attenuated by sodium molybdate treatment. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that sodium molybdate can protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rats, and this hepatoprotective effect might be attributable to its modulation of detoxification enzymes and/or its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects.

  16. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damages in rat: inhibitory effects of cacao polyphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Kamei, Masanori; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the protective effect of cacao polyphenol extract (CPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats. Rats were administered CPE for 7 days and then received intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Two hours after injection, we found that CCl4 treatment significantly increased biochemical injury markers, lipid peroxides (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney rather than liver, suggesting that kidney is more vulnerable to oxidative stress under the present experimental conditions. CPE supplementation significantly reduced these changes, indicating that this compound has antioxidant properties against CCl4-induced oxidative stress. An inhibitory effect of CPE on CCl4-induced CYP2E1 mRNA degradation may provide an explanation for CPE antioxidant property. Together, these results provide quantitative evidence of the in vivo antioxidant properties of CPE, especially in terms of PCOOH and MDA levels in the kidneys of CCl4-treated rats.

  17. Efficiency of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride mixture for fumigation of important animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Khalsa

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that animal feeds like crushed barley, crushed gram and wheat bran can be effectively disinfested by fumigation with 3:1 mixture of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride at a dosage of 2.5 gallons per 1,000 cuft. The lowest average atmospheric temperatures, at which the fumigation for 48 hours and for 72 hours was found effective, were 28.6 and 24.15 degree celcius respectively. It was also found that the order of susceptibility of the three test insects, viz. Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Trogoderma granerium Everts and Latheticus oryzae Watrh and their various stages varied considerably. in all cases, adults and pupae were found to be more susceptible than larvae.

  18. Curcuma longa attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in T-lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rizq, H A; Mansour, Mohamed H; Afzal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of crude curcuminoid extract and purified curcumin was made to evaluate the immunoprotective effect of Curcuma longa (turmeric) Zingiberaceae. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced selective cytolytic effects among immature (PNA(+)) thymocytes and peripheral helper (CD4(+)) T lymphocytes in the spleen were paralleled by a significant reduction in CD25, CD71, and Con A receptor expression. Treatment with curcumanoid crude extract, at two different doses, showed a significant restoration of lymphocyte viability and CD25, CD71, and Con A receptor expression in both immature (PNA+) thymocytes and splenic helper (CD4(+)) T lymphocytes. Turmeric crude extract, at both low and high dose, was found to be more efficient as compared to purified curcumin, suggesting synergistic effect of curcumin with other components of the crude extract.

  19. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity. Sesamin significantly reduced the elevated serum liver marker enzymes (Psesamin treated groups shows the amelioration of oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Histopathological report also supported the hepatoprotection offered by sesamin. Sesamin effects in both the dose were in comparable to reference standard drug silymarin. From these above findings it has been concluded that sesamin ameliorate the oxidative liver injury in terms of reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of liver antioxidant enzymes.

  20. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by Ficus dalhousiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Safiullah Ghori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate hepatoprotective activity of Ficus dalhousiae leaves ethanolic extract based on its traditional claim. Paracetamol- and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats, experimental models was used for the evaluation. Various biochemical parameters like SGPT, SGOT, serum albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total protein were estimated. Oral treatment with the extract 250 and 500 mg/kg, significantly (p<0.01 altered all the serum marker levels to the normal in both the experimental models. The activity of the extract was comparable to that of standard drug, silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological observations also demonstrated protective effect of the test extract on liver anatomy. Overall results suggest that F. dalhousiae possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity.

  1. Hepatoprotective mechanism of lycorine against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in swiss albino mice - A proteomic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Dhanaraj Karthik; Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar; Srisesharam Srigopalram; Selvaraj Arokiyaraj; Sivanesan Ravikumar; Ki Choon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential of protein expression in CCl4 induced mice treated with lycorine. Methods: The present study was carried out to identify the differentially expressed protein in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress mice treated with lycorine (5 mg/kg. bw) using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF. Results: We observed many kinds of differentially expressed protein in experimental liver. Among these, three are much differently expressed protein which is identified as ATP synthase, regucalcin and HSP60; these proteins are involved in the ATP synthesis, calcium regulation and rescue the integrity cellular proteins respectively. Conclusion: This investigation provided a molecular mechanism of the lycorine during CCl4 induced oxidative stress in mice liver.

  2. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  3. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav; Kennedy, Eric; Mackie, John; Holdsworth, Clovia; Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael; Dlugogorski, Bogdan

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  5. Effectiveness of enterosgel usage in the conditions of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. А. Boyko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effectiveness of the enterosgel sorbent in the terms of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride. Experiments were carried out on white rats weighing 175–200 g, which were kept on a standard diet. Karbofos was administered intragastrically on daily basis in the aqueous solution at the rate of 20 mg/kg of the body weight, which is 1/10 of the LD50. Carbon tetrachloride was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day in the form of a 50% oil solution at a dose of 1.0 ml/kg of animal. Animals received enterosgel daily by intragastric way at the rate of 120 mg/kg of body weight. The activity of free radical processes in rats was assessed by thiobarbituric acid content – active products (TBA-AP in serum, liver and heart homogenates. Level of endogenous intoxication was determined by the content of average weight molecules (AWM in serum and liver homogenate. The degree of cytolysis of hepatocytes was assessed by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (AlAT, AsAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP in serum, liver and heart homogenates. The degree of damage of the nervous system was studied by the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in serum and liver homogenate. Content of TBA-AP in serum, liver and myocardium increased throughout the period of study. Reduction of TBA-AP was observed in studied tissues after applying of enterosgel sorbent in the affected body. After the defeat by toxicants we showed significant increase of fraction of AM1 (chain aminoacids dominate and AM2 (aromatic aminoacids dominate in serum and liver of experimental rats throughout the experiment. Enterosgel showed a positive effect on this index, reducing the content of MSM molecules. Due to toxic effects of endogenous and exogenous toxins in cells degradation and changing the permeability of plasma membranes of hepatocytes was observed as evidenced by the increased activity of both AlAT and As

  6. Work Plan for a Limited CCC/USDA Investigation of the Current Carbon Tetrachloride Contamination in Groundwater at Navarre, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    During private well testing in 1990-1991, carbon tetrachloride was identified in the groundwater at several locations in the town of Navarre, Kansas, at levels exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 level and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L. Several subsequent investigations through 2006 evaluated the concentrations and distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. This work included the identification of the contaminant sources (Argonne 2007). The history of activities to address the contamination in soil and groundwater is summarized in Table 1.1. The most recent studies, conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), include a brownfields investigation initiated in 2013 (Phase I) and continuing in early 2014 (Phase II), as well as private well testing.

  7. Effect of Mallotus Philippensis Muell.-Arg leaves against hepatotoxicity of Carbon tetrachloride in rats

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    Ramakrishna.S,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Liver Toxicity is a major health problem of worldwide proportions. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases. In the present study MEMP leaves is used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 (25ml/kg, i.p.. Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o. was used as the standard. Functional parameters like onset of sleep and duration of sleep, Biochemical Parameters like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were measured. Cytotoxicity of CCl4 was estimated by quantitating the release of malondialdehyde (MDA. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and the level of total protein (TP were also measured. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections was also done. CCl4 administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP and bilirubin. Administration of MEMP significantly (P<0.001 prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 group was decreased and these enzyme levels were significantly (p<0.001 increased in Mallotus philippensis leaves groups. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of MEMP with CCl4 exhibited protection of liver tissue, which further evidenced the above results. Thestudy confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MEMP, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  8. Gas Phase Conversion of Carbon Tetrachloride to Alkyl Chlorides Catalyzed by Supported Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Aijun; ZHANG Jinlong; LI Chunxi; MENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    An efficient way of converting carbon tetrachloride(CTC)to alkyl chlorides is reported,which uses the catalysts of ionic liquids supported on granular active carbon.The catalytic performance was evaluated in a temperature range of 120-200℃ and atmospheric pressure for different ionic liquids,namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,hydrochloric salts of N-methylimidazole(MIm),pyridine and triethylamine,as well as bisulfate and dihydric phosphate of N-methylimidazole.On this basis,the reaction mechanism was proposed,and the influences of the reaction temperature and the attributes of ionic liquids were discussed.The overall reaction was assumed to be comprised of two steps,the hydrolysis of CTC and reaction of HCI with alcohols under acidic catalyst.The results indicate that the conversion of CTC increased monotonically with temperature and even approached 100% at 200 ℃,while the maximum selectivity to alkyl chlorides was obtained around 160 ℃.This reaction might be potentially applicable to the resource utilization of superfluous byproduct of CTC in the chloromethane industry.

  9. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar Zoobi; Ali Mohd.

    2011-01-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Althaea officinalis against Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver function were assessed by the determination of SGPT and SGOT studies. The serum biochemical analysis results suggested that the use of ethanolic extract of Althaea officina...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of the Effects of Gomisin A on the Recovery of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Damage in Rat Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young Mi; Choi, In Soo; Lee, Sang Mong; Hwang, Dae Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Park, Young Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Gomisin A possesses a hepatic function-facilitating property in liver-injured rats. Its preventive action on carbon tetrachloride-induced cholestasis is due to maintenance of the function of the bile acids-independent fraction. To investigate alterations in gene expression after gomisin A treatment on injured rat liver, DNA microarray analyses were performed on a Rat 44K 4-Plex Gene Expression platform with duplicated reactions after gomisin A treatment. We identified 255 up-regulated and 230...

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  12. New and improved infra-red absorption cross sections and ACE-FTS retrievals of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Boone, Christopher D.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is one of the species regulated by the Montreal Protocol on account of its ability to deplete stratospheric ozone. As such, the inconsistency between observations of its abundance and estimated sources and sinks is an important problem requiring urgent attention (Carpenter et al., 2014) [5]. Satellite remote-sensing has a role to play, particularly limb sounders which can provide vertical profiles into the stratosphere and therefore validate stratospheric loss rates in atmospheric models. This work is in two parts. The first describes new and improved high-resolution infra-red absorption cross sections of carbon tetrachloride/dry synthetic air over the spectral range 700-860 cm-1 for a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-760 Torr and 208-296 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases. The second describes a new, preliminary ACE-FTS carbon tetrachloride retrieval that improves upon the v3.0/v3.5 data products, which are biased high by up to 20-30% relative to ground measurements. Making use of the new spectroscopic data, this retrieval also improves the microwindow selection, contains additional interfering species, and utilises a new instrumental lineshape; it will form the basis for the upcoming v4.0 CCl4 data product.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  14. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

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    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  16. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  17. In vitro study of lovastatin interactions with amiodarone and with carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZ Krasteva; MK Mitcheva; MS Kondeva-Burdina; VA Descatoire

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions at a metabolic level between lovastatin, amiodarone and carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes.METHODS: For cell isolation two-step collagenase liver perfusion was performed. Lovastatin was administered alone in increasing concentrations (1 μmol/L, 3 μmol/L,5 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L) and in combination with CCl4 (86 μmol/L). The cells were also pretreated with 14 μmol/Lamiodarone and then the other two compounds were added.RESULTS: Lovastatin promoted concentration-dependent significant toxicity estimated by decrease in cell viability and GSH level by 45% and 84%, respectively. LDH-activity increased by 114% and TBARS content by 90%. CCl4 induced the expected severe damage on the examined parameters. CCl4 induced toxicity was attenuated after lovastatin pretreatment, which was expressed in less increased values of LDH activity and TBARS levels, as well as in less decreased cell viability and GSH concentrations. However, the pretreatment of hepatocytes with amiodarone abolished the protective effect of lovastatin.CONCLUSION: We suggest that the observed cytoprotective effect was due to interactions between lovastatin,CCl4 and amiodarone at a metabolic level.

  18. Hepatoprotective potential of threesargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan Hira; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts ofSargassum variegatum (S. variegatum),Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum) andSargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods:Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts ofSargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts ofS. tenerrimum,S. variegatum andSargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results:S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats.S. tenerrimum andS. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role ofS. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction andS. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest thatSargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  20. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Adeneye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p<0.05, p<0.001, dose related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, serum lipids (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c and serum proteins (TP and ALB. Maximum hepatoprotection was offered at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The biochemical results obtained were corroborated by improvements in the CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. In addition, maximum hepatoprotection was offered at the 400 mg/kg of CPE for up to 3 hours post-CCl4 induction. In conclusion, the results obtained in the current study justify the folkloric application of CPE in the treatment of drug-related hepatic injury. Industrial relevance: Results of the current study provide some scientific information to develop safe and effective products such as food supplements, dietary supplements, etc. that could be useful in the clinical management of patients with drug related hepatic disorders.

  1. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat is reversed by treatment with riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2014-08-01

    Liver is a vital organ for the detoxification of toxic substances present in the body and hepatic injury is associated with excessive exposure to toxicants. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effects of riboflavin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injury in rats. Rats were divided into six groups. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl4 in experimental rats. Riboflavin was administered at 30 and 100mg/kg by oral gavage to test its protective effect on hepatic injury biochemically and histopathologically in the blood/liver and liver respectively. The administration of CCl4 resulted in marked alteration in serum hepatic enzymes (like AST, ALT and ALP), oxidant parameters (like GSH and MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α release from blood leukocytes indicative of hepatic injury. Changes in serum hepatic enzymes, oxidant parameters and TNF-α production induced by CCl4 were reversed by riboflavin treatment in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with standard drug, silymarin also reversed CCl4 induced changes in biomarkers of liver function, oxidant parameters and inflammation. The biochemical observations were paralleled by histopathological findings in rat liver both in the case of CCl4 and treatment groups. In conclusion, riboflavin produced a protective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage. Our study suggests that riboflavin may be used as a hepato-protective agent against toxic effects caused by CCl4 and other chemical agents in the liver.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heibatollah Sadeghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4, R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p. were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB, total protein (TP and malondialdehyde (MDA. Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining of liver section.Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p

  3. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  4. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

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    Khan Hira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum, Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts of S. tenerrimum, S. variegatum and Sargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results: S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05 reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats. S. tenerrimum and S. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role of S. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction and S. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest that Sargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  5. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Amalkadi Ghrita against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K

    2004-02-01

    Amalkadi Ghrita (AG), a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of AG was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP). The serum levels of total proteins and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Administration of AG (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ACP, ALP, and bilirubin. The decreased level of total proteins due to hepatic damage induced by CCl4 was found to be increased in AG-treated group. The results are comparable to that of silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4-treated group. Hepatoprotective effect of AG is probably due to combined action of all ingredients.

  6. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  7. Apoptosis initiated by carbon tetrachloride in mitochondria of rat primary cultured hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan CAI; Li-kun GONG; Xin-ming QI; Xiang-hong LI; Jin REN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mitochondria-initiated apoptosis pathway involved in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity in vitro. Methods: Several cytotoxicity endpoints, including WST-8 metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and morphological changes, were examined. The 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)reaction was used to measure reduced glutathione level, and the malondialdehyde level was determined using the thiobarbituric acid assay. The release of cytochrome c and Bcl-XL was detected by Western blot. Caspase-3 activity was measured using the fiuorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC. DNA fragmentation was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Results: A time- and dose-dependent decrease in cellular glutathione content was observed, along with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde levels following the application of CC14. Caspase 3 activity was stimulated at all doses of CCl4, with the most significant activation at 3 mmol/L.Cytochrome c was released obviously after CC14 treatment. A time-dependent decrease in Bcl-XL expression was observed. DNA fragmentation results revealed apoptosis and necrosis following CC14 treatment. Conclusion: Oxidative damage is one of the essential mechanisms of CC14 hepatotoxicity, which triggers apoptosis via the mitochondria-initiated pathway.

  8. Molecular Interaction Studies of Benzyl Alcohols with Methacrylates in Carbon Tetrachloride using Frequency Domain Technique

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    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of pinoresinol on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Yeon; Kim, Joon-Ki; Choi, Jun-Ho; Jung, Joo-Yeon; Oh, Woo-Yong; Kim, Dong Chun; Lee, Hee Sang; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2010-01-01

    Forsythiae Fructus is known to have diuretic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the hepatoprotective effects of pinoresinol, a lignan isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or pinoresinol (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 microl/kg) injection. In the vehicle-treated CCl(4 )group, serum aminotransferase activities were significantly increased 24 h after CCl4 injection, and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol at all doses. Hepatic glutathione contents were significantly decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased after CCl4 treatment. These changes were attenuated by 50 and 100 mg/kg of pinoresinol. The levels of protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, were significantly increased after CCl4 injection; and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and phosphorylation of c-Jun, one of the components of activating protein 1 (AP-1), were inhibited by pinoresinol. Our results suggest that pinoresinol ameliorates CCl4)-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to anti-oxidative activity and down-regulation of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pentagamavunon-0 against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arief Nurrochmad; Supardjan Amir Margono; Sardjiman; Arief Rahman Hakim; Ernawati; Erna Kurniawati; Erva Fatmawati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pentagamavunon-0(PGV-0) against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Methods: The groups of animals were administered with PGV-0 at the doses 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w., p.o. once in a day for 6 days and at day 7 the animals were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (20%, 2 mL/kg b.w. in liquid paraffin (i.p.). The effect of PGV-0 on serum transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphates (ALP) and total bilirubin were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of PGV-0 on glutathione (GSH) content, catalase (CAT) and NO free radical scavenging activity also were investigated. Results: The results demonstrated that PGV-0 significantly reduced the activity of SGPT, serum ALP and total bilirubin in CCl4 induced rat hepatotoxicity. PGV-0 has effect on the antioxidant and free radical defense system. It prevented the depletion level of GSH and decrease activity of CAT in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. PGV-0 also demonstrated the free radical scavenger effects on NO free radical scavenging activity with ES value of 32.32 μM. Conculsion: All of our findings suggests that PGV-0 could protect the liver cells from CCl4-induced liver damages and the mechanism may through the antioxidative effect of PGV-0 to prevent the accumulation of free radicals and protect the liver damage.

  11. Histoprotective effect of vitamin D against carbon tetrachloride nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmubarak, Smeo; Özsoy, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of vitamin D against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups ((A) control; (B) 10-week exposure to CCl4; (C) 10-week exposure to CCl4 + vitamin D treatment; and (D) 10-week exposure to CCl4 + 12 weeks of vitamin D treatment). The CCl4 dose (1.5 ml kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously twice a week, while the 0.5 mg kg(-1) dose of vitamin D was administered intraperitoneally every day, as appropriate for each group. Whole animal and kidney weights as well as serum urea, creatinine, and glucose levels were measured. Kidney tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff. Tubular and glomerular degeneration were detected in the kidney tissues of CCl4-treated rats, together with dilatation and vacuolization within the tubules and hemorrhage in the intertubular region. In the kidney glomeruli; congestion, atrophy, and adhesion to parietal layer were observed. Tissue disorganization and aggregation of Bowman's capsules were noted. Mononuclear cell infiltration was observed between the glomeruli and the tubules. In contrast, the kidney sections and functional parameters of vitamin D-treated rats were similar to the controls, suggesting that vitamin D treatment is able to reduce renal damage.

  12. The protective role of pomegranate juice against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, Aydın

    2014-11-01

    Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study was carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents of Derik pomegranate juice and determine its effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6): group I: control, group II: CCl4 (1 ml/kg), group III: CCl4 + pomegranate juice and group IV: CCl4 + ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Treatment duration was 4 weeks, and the dose of CCl4 was administered once a week to groups II, III and IV during the experimental period. CCl4-treated rats caused a significant increase in serum enzyme levels, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and decrease in albumin, when compared with control. Administration of CCl4 along with pomegranate juice or UDCA significantly reduces these changes. Analysis of lipid peroxide (LPO) levels by thiobarbutiric acid reaction showed a significant increase in liver, kidney and brain tissues of CCl4-treated rats. However, both pomegranate juice and UDCA prevented the increase in LPO level. Histopathological reports also revealed that there is a regenerative activity in the liver and kidney cells. Derik pomegranate juice showed to be hepatoprotective against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In conclusion, present study reveals a biological evidence that supports the use of pomegranate juice in the treatment of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Simulation and reference interaction site model theory of methanol and carbon tetrachloride mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaò, G; Costa, D; Saija, F; Caccamo, C

    2010-02-28

    We report molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model (RISM) theory of methanol and carbon tetrachloride mixtures. Our study encompasses the whole concentration range, by including the pure component limits. We majorly focus on an analysis of partial, total, and concentration-concentration structure factors, and examine in detail the k-->0 limits of these functions. Simulation results confirm the tendency of methanol to self-associate with the formation of ring structures in the high dilution regime of this species, in agreement with experimental studies and with previous simulations by other authors. This behavior emerges as strongly related to the high nonideality of the mixture, a quantitative estimate of which is provided in terms of concentration fluctuation correlations, through the structure factors examined. The interaggregate correlation distance is also thereby estimated. Finally, the compressibility of the mixture is found in good agreement with experimental data. The RISM predictions are throughout assessed against simulation; the theory describes better the apolar solvent than the alcohol properties. Self-association of methanol is qualitatively reproduced, though this trend is much less marked in comparison with simulation results.

  14. Xanthohumol prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carmen; Duque, Antonio L; Rodríguez-Galdón, Beatriz; Cestero, Juan J; Macías, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenyl flavonoid present in beer, prevents the acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Pre-treatment of rats with XN significantly reduced the increased liver weight observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats, normalised the increased values of plasma lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities and reduced the incidence of histopathological alterations produced by CCl4. The oxidative stress induced by CCl4 administration elicited a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione as well as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and H2O2 concentrations. Pre-treatment of rats with XN resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and a reduction in TBARS and H2O2 concentrations to their normal values. XN pre-treatment also prevented the significant reductions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities observed in CCl4-treated rats compared to control animals. Our results suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of XN is based on its antioxidant properties as well as it being an efficient inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and a protector against the degradation of antioxidant enzymes induced by CCl4 intoxication.

  15. Protective effects of polydatin from Polygonum cuspidatum against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice.

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    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Polydatin is one of main compounds in Polygonum cuspidatum, a plant with both medicinal and nutritional value. The possible hepatoprotective effects of polydatin on acute liver injury mice induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4 and the mechanisms involved were investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4 (50 µl/kg resulted in a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, also a marked enhancement in the expression of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nuclearfactor-kappa B (NF-κB. On the other hand, decreased glutathione (GSH content and activities of glutathione transferase (GST, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were observed following CCl(4 exposure. Nevertheless, all of these phenotypes were evidently reversed by preadministration of polydatin for 5 continuous days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β(1 were enhanced further by polydatin. These results suggest that polydatin protects mice against CCl(4-induced liver injury through antioxidant stress and antiinflammatory effects. Polydatin may be an effective hepatoprotective agent and a promising candidate for the treatment of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related diseases.

  16. Radon inhalation protects mice from carbon-tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Toyota, Teruaki; Yoshimoto, Masaaki; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Aoyama, Yutaka; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2011-12-01

    We assessed whether radon inhalation provided protection from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic and renal damage in mice. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 after inhaling approximately 18 kBq/m3 radon for 6 h. Radon inhalation significantly increased total glutathione (t-GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver and kidney. Injection of CCl4 was associated with significantly higher levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and creatinine level in serum, and pretreatment with radon significantly decreased the GOT and ALP activity and creatinine level associated with CCl4 injection, suggesting that radon inhalation alleviates CCl4-induced hepatic and renal damage. The t-GSH contents and GPx activity in the liver and kidney of animals pretreated with radon were significantly higher than those of the CCl(4)-only group. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions and inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic and renal damage in mice.

  17. Total Flavonoids from Mimosa Pudica Protects Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injur y in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhen-qin; CAI Lei; CHEN Da-shuai

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the protective effect of total lfavonoids from Mimosa pudica on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Methods:CCl4-induced acute liver injury model in mice was established. The activity of ALT and AST, the content of serum albumin (Alb) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were determined. The content of malondiadehyde (MDA) was measured and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined. The histopathological changes of liver were observed. Results:Compared with CCl4 model group, each dose group of total lfavonouida from Mimosa pudica could reduced the activity of ALT and AST in mice obviously (P<0.01), indicating they had remarkably protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. High and middle dose groups of total lfavonouida from Mimosa pudica could increase the content of Alb in mice (P<0.01). Each dose group of total lfavonouida from Mimosa pudica could enhance the level of T-AOC (P<0.01), and lower the content of liver homogenate MDA, but enhance the activity of SOD in a dose-depended manner (P<0.01).

  18. Enhanced degradation of carbon tetrachloride by surfactant-modified zero-valent iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Ya-feng; GUAN Bao-hong; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of CT, so the sorption capacity of ZVI is of great importance. This experiment was aimed at enhancing the sorption of CT by ZVI and the degradation rate of CT by modification of surfactants. This study showed that ZVI modified by cationic surfactants has favorable synergistic effect on the degradation of CT. The CT degradation rate of ZVI modified by cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) was higher than that of the unmodified ZVI by 130%, and the CT degradation rate of ZVI modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was higher than that of the unmodified ZVI by 81%. This study also showed that the best degradation effect is obtained at the near critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and that high loaded cationic surfactant does not have good synergistic effect on the degradation due to its hydrophilicity and the block in surface reduction sites. Furthermore degradation of CT by ZVI modified by nonionic surfactant has not positive effect on the degradation as the ionic surfactant and the ZVI modified by anionic surfactant has hardly any obvious effects on the degradation.

  19. Protection effect of kallistatin on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via antioxidative stress.

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    Xiaoping Huang

    Full Text Available Prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress are emerging as key causes of pathological wound healing and the development of liver fibrosis. We have investigated the effects of recombinant human kallistatin, produced in Pichia. pastoris, on preventing carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Daily administration of kallistatin prevented development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, which was evidenced by histological study. In all kallistatin treated rats, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC as assessed by s-smooth muscle actin staining was attenuated, TGF- β1 expression was inhibited, class I serum biomarkers associated with the process of fibrogenesis, such as hyaluronic acid, laminin, and procollagen III, were lowered, compared with that in the model control group. Furthermore, residual hepatic functional reserve was improved by kallistatin treatment. CCl4 induced elevation of malondialdehyde level and reduced superoxide dismutase activity in the liver, while kallistatin reduced these oxidative parameters. We also investigated the effects of kallistatin on rat primary HSC and LX-2, the human HSC cell line. Kallistatin scavenged H2O2-induced ROS in the LX-2 cells, and suppressed the activation of primary HSC. These results suggest recombinant human kallistatin might be a promising drug candidate for therapeutic intervention of liver fibrosis.

  20. D-Pinitol Protects Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Nandakumar, Natarajan; Lokeshkumar, Boobathy; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective activity of D-Pinitol against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into six groups, with each group consisting of six animals. Group I animals served as normal controls and received olive oil vehicle (1.0 ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally). Group II rats served as CCl4 controls, which received 30% CCl4 suspended in olive oil (3.0 ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally) twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III rats were treated with 30% CCl4 suspended in olive oil (3.0 ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally) twice a week for 4 weeks, followed by D-Pinitol (100 mg/kg body weight) given for 28 days intragastrically. Group IV rats received D-Pinitol alone at a concentration of 100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days intragastrically. At the end of the experimental period, serum marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly increased in group II animals. On the other hand, D-Pinitol treatment significantly decreased marker enzymes and LPO levels and increased the antioxidant level. CYP expression was also investigated. Therefore, the present study revealed that D-Pinitol acts as a protective agent by decreasing metabolic activation of xenobiotics through its antioxidant nature.

  1. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  2. Erythropoietin decreases carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-beta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Young Park; Joo Young Lee; Won Young Tak; Young Oh Kweon; Mi Suk Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to hematopoietic effect,the erythropoietin is known as a multifunctional cytokine with anti-fibrosis and organ-protective activities.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on hepatic fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).Methods Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis mice models were used for in vivo study and HSCs line for in vitro study.CCl4 and rhEPO (0,200 or 1000 U/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in BALB/c mice three times a week for 4 weeks.Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate expressions of transforming growth factor-β31 (TGF-β1),α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA),and fibronectin in explanted liver.Immunoblotting of α-SMA,phophorylated Smad-2 and Smad-2/3 was performed in HSCs treated with TGF-β1 and/or rhEPO.Results Expressions of TGF-β1,α-SMA,and fibronectin were increased in CCl4 injected mice livers,but significantly attenuated by co-treatment with CCl4 and rhEPO.Co-treatment of rhEPO markedly suppressed fibrosis in Masson's trichrome compared with treatment of only CCl4.TGF-β1 increased phosphorylated α-SMA,Smad-2 expressions in HSCs,which were decreased by rhEPO co-treatment.Conclusions Treatment of rhEPO effectively suppressed fibrosis in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mice models.Anti-fibrosis effect of rhEPO could be related to inhibition of TGF-β1 induced activation of HSCs.

  3. Contribution of mononuclear bone marrow cells to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Qiang Cao; Ji-Zong Lin; Yue-Si Zhong; Shao-Bin Huang; Nan Lin; Zhao-Feng Tang; Rui Chen; Peng Xiang; Rui-Yun Xu

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the inhibitory effect of mononuclear bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation on carbon tetrachloride (CCIt) -induced liver fibrosis in rats.METHODS:Rat liver fibrosis models were induced by CCN and alcohol administration. After 8 wk,twenty rats were randomly allocated into treatment group (n = 10) and control group (n = 10). BMC were infused into the rats in treatment group via the portal vein,while heparinized saline was infused in control group. CCU was hypodermically injected into the rats twice a week for 4 wk. At the end of wk 12,all rats were humanely sacrificed. Liver samples were taken and stained with HE or Masson trichrome. The general conditions,liver fibrSsis (hydroxyproline and collagen fibre) and liver pathological grades in rats were evaluated.± 128.8μg/g in treatment group,and 596.0 ± 341. 8μg/g in control group.The percentage of collagen fibre was 3.75% ± 0.98% in treatment group and 5.02% ± 0.44% in control group.There was a significant difference berween the two groups (P<0.05).Liver pathological grade decreased from grade Ⅳ to grade Ⅲ partially in treatment group (P<0.05) with no obvious improvement in control group (P<0.05).There was a significant difference between treatment group and control group(P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Transplantation of BMC can improve liver fibrosis due to chronic liver injury in rats.

  4. Effect of Ribavirin Alone or Combined with Silymarin on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M.E. Abdel Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the antiviral agent ribavirin given alone or in combination with silymarin on the development of liver injury induced in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2.8 ml/kg followed by 1.4 ml/kg after one week was studied. Ribavirin at three dose levels (30, 60 or 90 mg/kg, silymarin (25 mg/kg or combination of ribavirin (60 mg/kg and silymarin (25 mg/kg was administered once daily orally for 14 days, starting at time of administration of CCl4. The administration of ribavirin decreased the elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT by 78.5, 82.1, 75.1%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST 47.5, 37.4, 38.8%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP by 23.4, 16, 21.6%, respectively and also prevented the development of hepatic necrosis caused by CCl4. In comparison, the elevated serum ALT, AST and ALP levels decreased to 43.3%, 46%, and 37.5% of controls, respectively by silymarin. When silymarin was combined with ribavirin, the serum activities of AST and ALP were further decreased, indicating a benefi cial additive effect. Morphometric analysis indicated signifi cant reduction in the area of necrosis and fi brosis on ribavirin treatment and this was further reduced after the addition of silymarin. Metabolic pertuberations caused by CCl4 as refl ected in a decrease in intracellular protein content in hepatocytes were improved by ribavirin monotherapy and to higher extent by combined silymarin and ribavirin therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was reduced in nuclei of hepatocytes by ribavirin montherapy or the combination of ribavirin and silymarin compared with CCl4-control group. The study demonstrates that ribavirin treatment in the model of CCl4- induced liver injury results in less liver damage. Results also indicate that the combined application of ribavirin and silymarin is likely to be a useful additive in reducing liver injury.

  5. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity

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    S Babitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl 4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially, groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg and Curcumin (100 mg/kg as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl 4 as a single dose on the 8 th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl 4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05. Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl 4 treated group (P < 0.05. Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver.

  6. Protective Effect of Berberis integerrima Fruit Extract on Carbon-Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

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    fereshteh rafiee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Hepatoprotective effect of antioxidants such as flavnoids has been demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to assess the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of Berberis integerrima fruit (MEBIF on carbon-tetrachloride (CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials & Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1 normal, 2 toxicant control (CCL4 was injected intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg bw, 3&4 toxicant rats treated with MEBIF at dose 250 and 500 mg/kg bw, and 5 toxicant rats treated with silymarin. At the end of the study, all the rats were sacrificed and some biochemical parameters of serum such as Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Alk‌aline Phosphatase (ALP, total proptein, total bilirubin and albumin, and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and FRAP (Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power in liver tissue hemogenate were estimated. The Data was analyzed by one way variance analysis and Tukey’s test using SPSS 21. Results: injection of CCl4 significantly (P≤001/0 increased levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and MDA and decreased levels of total protein, albumin CAT, SOD (P≤ (001/0and FRAP in toxicant rats. In groups toxicant + Berberis (250&500 and toxicant + silymarin restored these changes to normal levels. Histopathological findings are cosistent with biochemical findings. Conclusion: MEBIF have a hepatoprotective effect on CCL4- induced hepatic damage in rats and these effects might be contributed to modulation of detoxification enzymes and antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects.

  7. Pharmacological investigation of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats

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    Hardik Soni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.

  8. Dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-ying; GAO Ting-yao

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry in this study. In addition, the difference in reduction mechanisms of CT between Master Builders' iron and the catalyzed Fe-Cu process was discussed. The results showed that CT was reduced directly on the surface of copper rather than by atomic hydrogen produced at the cathode in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The reduction was realized largely by atomic hydrogen in Master Builders' iron. The entire CT in 350 ml aqueous solution with 320 mg/L was reduced to trichloromethane and dichloromethane in 2.25 h when 100 g of scrap iron with Fe/Cu ratio of 10:1 (w/w) were used. Moreover, the reduction rate slowed with time. CT could be reduced at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from solution by Fe-Cu bimetallic media, but the mechanisms were different. The degradation rate was not significantly influenced by pH in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process; in Master Builders' iron it clearly increased with decreasing pH. The kinetics of the reductions followed pseudo-first order in both cases. Furthermore, the reductions under acidic conditions proceeded faster than that under the neutral and alkaline conditions. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process was superior to Master Builders' iron in treating CT-containing water and this advantage was particularly noticeable under alkaline conditions. The reduction was investigated in the cathode (Cu) and anode (Fe) compartments respectively, the results showed that the direct reduction pathway played an important role in the reduction by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process is of practical value.

  9. The effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Ayhan; Yaman, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage and on some serum biochemical parameters. Sixty male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into six groups (ten rats/group) and included the control group the group were given isotonic sodium chloride (1 mL/kg b.w) intraperitonealy (i.p.), group 2 the group treated i.p. injection of CCl4 (1.0 mL/kg b.w) in corn oil twice in the first week, Groups 3 and 4 injected with CCl4 as described for group 2 and the rats were orally given (100 mg/kg b.w) GSE and i.p. injected (10 μg/rat) with colchicine for four weeks, respectively and groups 5 and 6 were the grape seed and colchicine control groups in which rats were orally given grape seed (100 mg/kg b.w) and i.p. injected with colchicine (10 μg/rat), respectively. Anorexia, weight loss, motionlessness and hepatic colour variation at necropsy were observed in groups 2, 3, and 4. Hyperemia, focal bleeding, fat degeneration, changes ranging from degenerative to necrotic, increase in connective tissue elements, pronounced in portal sites in particular, and infiltration of lymphoid series cell observed in the livers of the rats in group 2, treated with CCl4. Histological hepatic changes in the rats in group 3 and 4 were similar to those in group 2. The levels of serum total protein, albumin and globulin decreased in groups 2, 3, and 4, compared with groups 1, 5 and 6; aspartate transaminase (ALT) activities increased. The lowest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were in groups 4 and 5. We concluded that GSE and colchicine have not sufficient ameliorative effects to CCl4 induced acute hepatic damage.

  10. Metallocoenzyme-mediated reductive transformation of carbon tetrachloride in titanium (III) citrate aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, P.C.; Reinhard, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Transformation pathways for carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) catalyzed by hematin or vitamin B{sub 12} in aqueous titanium(III) citrate solution are proposed. The reaction of CCl{sub 4} with B{sub 12} was zero order in CCl{sub 4} and first order in B{sub 12}, and the rate constant was measured from pH 7.3 to pH 10.3. The proposed rate-limiting step is the reduction of the stable trichloromethylcobalamin (CCl{sub 3}-Cbl) intermediate by titanium(III) citrate at alkaline pH and the sterically induced CCl{sub 3}-Cbl decomposition at neutral pH. The reaction kinetics can be described by a modified Michaelis-Menten model in the saturated regime. With hematin, only the pseudo-first-order rate constant was determined due to the significant deactivation of the coenzyme. The turnover number of hematin (molecules of CCl{sub 4} transformed/molecule of hematin deactivated) was 27 at pH 8.0 and 42 at pH 9.9. Vitamin B{sub 12} was a more stable and more effective catalyst (on a molar basis) than hematin with respect to CCl{sub 4}. Chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) was the primary product in titanium(III) citrate solution, and the yield was a function of pH, Ti(III) concentration, and organic content regardless of whether a coenzyme was present or which coenzyme was used. Although B{sub 12} and hematin can both enhance the CCl{sub 4} transformation rate, they have little effect on the CHCl{sub 3} yield. Titanium(III) citrate, on the other hand, controls not only the transformation rate but also CHCl{sub 3} formation. 77 refs., 10 figs.

  11. A comprehensive estimate for loss of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James H.; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Lobert, Jurgen M.; King, Daniel B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Bullister, John L.; Koropalov, Valentin; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Hu, Lei; Liu, Yina

    2016-09-01

    Extensive undersaturations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in Pacific, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean surface waters indicate that atmospheric CCl4 is consumed in large amounts by the ocean. Observations made on 16 research cruises between 1987 and 2010, ranging in latitude from 60° N to 77° S, show that negative saturations extend over most of the surface ocean. Corrected for physical effects associated with radiative heat flux, mixing, and air injection, these anomalies were commonly on the order of -5 to -10 %, with no clear relationship to temperature, productivity, or other gross surface water characteristics other than being more negative in association with upwelling. The atmospheric flux required to sustain these undersaturations is 12.4 (9.4-15.4) Gg yr-1, a loss rate implying a partial atmospheric lifetime with respect to the oceanic loss of 183 (147-241) yr and that ˜ 18 (14-22) % of atmospheric CCl4 is lost to the ocean. Although CCl4 hydrolyzes in seawater, published hydrolysis rates for this gas are too slow to support such large undersaturations, given our current understanding of air-sea gas exchange rates. The even larger undersaturations in intermediate depth waters associated with reduced oxygen levels, observed in this study and by other investigators, strongly suggest that CCl4 is ubiquitously consumed at mid-depth, presumably by microbiota. Although this subsurface sink creates a gradient that drives a downward flux of CCl4, the gradient alone is not sufficient to explain the observed surface undersaturations. Since known chemical losses are likewise insufficient to sustain the observed undersaturations, this suggests a possible biological sink for CCl4 in surface or near-surface waters of the ocean. The total atmospheric lifetime for CCl4, based on these results and the most recent studies of soil uptake and loss in the stratosphere is now 32 (26-43) yr.

  12. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Hong, Jeong-Min; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-05-01

    Liver fibrosis leads to liver cirrhosis and failure, and no effective treatment is currently available. Growing evidence supports a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and liver fibrogenesis and mitochondrial quality control-based therapy has emerged as a new therapeutic target. We investigated the protective mechanisms of melatonin against mitochondrial dysfunction-involved liver fibrosis, focusing on mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) dissolved in olive oil (0.5 mL/kg, twice a week, i.p.) for 8 wk. Melatonin was administered orally at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg once a day. Chronic CCl4 exposure induced collagen deposition, hepatocellular damage, and oxidative stress, and melatonin attenuated these increases. Increases in mRNA and protein expression levels of transforming growth factor β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in response to CCl4 were attenuated by melatonin. Melatonin attenuated hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as mitochondrial swelling and glutamate dehydrogenase release. Chronic CCl4 exposure impaired mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and melatonin attenuated this impairment, as indicated by increases in mitochondrial DNA and in protein levels of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1); Parkin; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1); and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM). CCl4-mediated decreases in mitochondrial fission- and fusion-related proteins, such as dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitofusin 2, were also attenuated by melatonin. Moreover, melatonin induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. These results suggest that melatonin protects against liver fibrosis via upregulation of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and may be useful as an anti-fibrotic treatment.

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Bupleurum exalatum extracts against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats

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    s Roozbehi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Some of natural and synthetic products have antioxidant properties which protect the liver against the destructive factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bupleurum exelatum (B. exalatum extracts on rat liver. Material and method: This experimental study was conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2013 on 50 healthy adult male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into five equal groups: the normal group (receiving, olive oil, control and experiment groups receiving different dose of carbon tetrachloride and olive oil. The experiment group was given daily doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg per Kg of B. exalatum extract by gavage respectively. After two months, the liver enzymes, total protein, albumin and bilirubin in animal’s sera were measured. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software, using ANOVA and tuky-test. Result: The toxicant significantly (P < 0.05 increased the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TB, DB, and decrease the level of TP and ALB. Oral administration of B. exalatum extracts showed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the elevated serum and significant increase (P < 0.05 in TP and ALB levels at all usage doses. These results indicate the maximum recovery was observed in 300 mg/kg/day. The histopathological changes i.e. fatty changes, necrosis etc were partly or fully prevented in animals treated with the extracts. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the extract of B. exalatum possessed hepatoprotective activity, which could be linked to their phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity this therefore requires further in-depth studies.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

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    Paula Cordero-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective : Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods : The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST and alanine amino transferase (ALT, and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results : The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin. None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4 -treated group as compared with the CCl4 -only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4 - and Legalon+CCL4 -treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4 -treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion : Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect.

  15. A Historical Perspective on Primary and Possible Secondary Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric sources of Carbon Tetrachloride (CTC) have been controversial since its detection in the early 1970. Initial proposals were that it is globally uniformly distributed and its lack of current emissions and inferred lifetime indicated that it was likely of natural origin. Historical analysis of CTC use and emissions showed that atmospheric CTC was long-lived and mainly of man-made origin although small natural sources and sinks (e. g. oceans) could not be ruled out. This deduction was hard because a majority of emissions had occurred in early part of the 20th century when CTC was commonly used as a fumigant, a solvent, and a raw material for the manufacture of many chemicals. In the 1940's adverse health effects of exposure to CTC became evident and its emissions were greatly curtailed and substituted with C2Cl4 which was thought to be much safer. There were smog chamber studies that showed that C2Cl4, a widely used solvent during the late 20th century, could produce CTC with up to a 7% yield. Subsequently it was discovered that this chemistry probably required Cl atoms and since Cl atoms were not abundant in the atmosphere actual yields based on OH oxidation were probably closer to 0.1%. CTC was subsequently banned by the Montreal Protocol to prevent stratospheric ozone depletion and its preferred substitute C2Cl4 was also banned by EPA for reasons of potential carcinogenicity and toxicity. CTC since has been measured in many airborne NASA campaigns in which plumes have been sampled from a variety of regions which may still be emitting CTC. I will briefly discuss this historical perspective of CTC and show some recent data that may shed light on its current sources or lack there off.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hong-Ying

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hexadecenoic acid (HA, laminin (LN, hydroxyproline (Hyp, and glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining and Masson Trichrome (MT examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats.

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    Gang Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H(2S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H(2S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H(2S, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, were applied to the rats to investigate the effects of H(2S on CCl(4-induced acute hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension by measuring serum levels of H(2S, hepatic H(2S producing activity and CSE expression, liver function, activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP 2E1, oxidative and inflammatory parameters, liver fibrosis and portal pressure. CCl(4 significantly reduced serum levels of H(2S, hepatic H(2S production and CSE expression. NaHS attenuated CCl(4-induced acute hepatotoxicity by supplementing exogenous H(2S, which displayed anti-oxidative activities and inhibited the CYP2E1 activity. NaHS protected liver function, attenuated liver fibrosis, inhibited inflammation, and reduced the portal pressure, evidenced by the alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, hyaluronic acid (HA, albumin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, liver histology, hepatic hydroxyproline content and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA expression. PAG showed opposing effects to NaHS on most of the above parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous H(2S attenuates CCl(4-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension by its multiple functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, cytoprotection and anti-fibrosis, indicating that targeting H(2S may present a promising approach, particularly for its prophylactic effects, against liver

  19. Restrictive model of compensated carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marc Regimbeau; David Fuks; Niaz Kohneh-Shahri; Benoit Terris; Olivier Soubrane

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To develop a simplified and quick protocol to induce cirrhosis and standardize models of partial liver resection in rats.METHODS: In Fischer F344 rats two modified protocols of phenobarbital-carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) (dilution 50%) gavage to induce cirrhosis (frequency adjusted according to weight, but each subsequent dose was systematically administered) were tested, i.e. the rapid and slow protocols. Prothrombin time (PT) and total bilirubin (TB) were also evaluated. Animals from the rapid group underwent 15% hepatectomy and animals from the slow group underwent 70% hepatectomy.RESULTS: Rapid protocol: This corresponded to 1 garage/4 d over 6 wk (mortality 30%). Mean PT was 35.2±2.8 s (normal: 14.5 s), and mean TB was 1.8±0.2mg/clL (normal: 0.1 mg/dL). Slow protocol: This corresponded to 1 gavage/6 d over 9 wk (mortality 10%).Mean PT was 11.8±0.2 s (normal: 14.5 s), and mean TB was 0.4 ± 0.04 mg/dL (normal: 0.1 mg/dL). Pathological analyses were performed in both protocols which showed persistent cirrhosis at 3 mo. Rat mortality in the rapid garage group who underwent 15% hepatectomy and in the slow garage group who underwent 70%hepatectomy was 50% and 70%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Our modified model is a simplified method to induce cirrhosis which is rapid (6 to 9 wk),efficient and stable up to 3 mo. Using this method, "Child Pugh A" or "Child Pugh BC" cirrhotic rats were obtained.Our models of cirrhosis and hepatectomy can be used in various situations focusing on postoperative survival.

  20. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium-nonequilibrium hybrid MD simulation algorithm. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal pro?les involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal pro?les and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently.

  1. Simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene and carbon tetrachloride in a continuous flow column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Semprini, Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) were simultaneously transformed in a packed column that was bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV). The data presented here have been obtained over a period of 1930 days. Initially the column was continuously fed synthetic groundwater with PCE (0.1 mM), sulfate (SO42 -) (0.2 mM) and formate (2.1 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), but not CT. In these early stages of the study the effluent H2 concentrations ranged from 7 to 19 nM, and PCE was transformed to ethene (ETH) (81 to 85%) and vinyl chloride (VC) (11 to 17%), and SO42 - was completely reduced when using either lactate or formate as electron donors. SO42 - reduction occurred concurrently with cis-DCE and VC dehalogenation. Formate was a more effective substrate for promoting dehalogenation based on electron donor utilization efficiency. Simultaneous PCE and CT tests found CT (0.015 mM) was completely transformed with 20% observed as chloroform (CF) and trace amounts of chloromethane (CM) and dichloromethane (DCM), but no methane (CH4) or carbon disulfide (CS2). PCE transformation to ETH improved with CT addition in response to increases in H2 concentrations to 160 nM that resulted from acetate formation being inhibited by either CT or CF. Lactate fermentation was negatively impacted after CT transformation tests, with propionate accumulating, and H2 concentrations being reduced to below 1 nM. Under these conditions both SO42 - reduction and dehalogenation were negatively impacted, with sulfate reduction not occurring and PCE being transformed to cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) (52%) and VC (41%). Upon switching to formate, H2 concentrations increased to 40 nM, and complete SO42 - reduction was achieved, while PCE was transformed to ETH (98%) and VC (1%), with no acetate detected. Throughout the study PCE dehalogenation to ethene was positively correlated with the effluent H2 concentrations.

  2. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  3. Ameliorative effect of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Chuan Lin; Wei-Lii Lin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Reishi mushroom,Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE), on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4.Forty Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups:control, CCl4, and two GLE groups. Except for rats in control group, all rats were administered orally with CCl4(20%, 0.2 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week for 8weeks. Rats in GLE groups were treated daily with GLE (1 600 or 600 mg/kg) via gastrogavage throughout the whole experimental period. Liver function parameters,such as ALT, AST, albumin, and albumin/globulin (A/G)ratio, spleen weight and hepatic amounts of protein,malondiladehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) were determined. Histochemical staining of Sirius red was performed. Expression of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1) 1A and MAT2A mRNA were detected by using RT-PCR.RESULTS: CCl4 caused liver fibrosis, featuring increase in plasma transaminases, hepatic MDA and HP contents,and spleen weight; and decrease in plasma albumin,A/G ratio and hepatic protein level. Compared with CCl4group, GLE (600, 1 600 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased plasma albumin level and A/G ratio (P< 0.05)and reduced the hepatic HP content (P<0.01). GLE (1600 mg/kg) treatment markedly decreased the activities of transaminases (P< 0.05), spleen weight (P< 0.05) and hepatic MDA content (P<0.05); but increased hepatic protein level (P<0.05). Liver histology in the GLE (1600 mg/kg)-treated rats was also improved (P<0.01).RT-PCR analysis showed that GLE treatment decreased the expression of TGF-β1 (P< 0.05-0.001) and changed the expression of MAT1A (P<0.05-0.01) and MAT2A (P< 0.05-0.001).CONCLUSION: Oral administration of GLE significantly reduces CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular necrosis by its free-radical scavenging ability.

  4. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian-Qing [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Tao, Li [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, Yuan-Bao [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lijun@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  5. Effect of WeiJia on carbon tetrachloride induced chronic liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pik-Yuen Cheung; Jay Chun; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Meng-su Yang; Qi Zhang; Ya-Ou Zhang; Gan-Rong Bai; Marie Chia-Mi Lin; Bernard Chan; Chi-Chun Fong; Lin Shi; Yue-Feng Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of WeiJia on chronic liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury animal model.METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (Group A), CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B) and CCl4 induction with WeiJia treatment group (Group C). Each group consisted of 14 rats. Liver damage and fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 in olive oil at 3 mL/kg body weight twice a week for eight weeks for Groups B and C rats whereas olive oil was used for Group A rats. Starting from the third week,Group C rats also received daily intraperitoneal injection of WeiJia at a dose of 1.25 μg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed at the fifth week (4 male, 3 female), and eighth week (4 male, 3 female) respectively. Degree of fibrosis were measured and serological markers for liver fibrosis and function including hyaluronic acid (HA), type Ⅳ collagen (CIV), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were also performed.RESULTS: CCl4 induction led to the damage of liver and development of fibrosis in Group B and Group C rats when compared to Group A rats. The treatment of WeiJia in Group C rats could reduce the fibrosis condition significantly compared to Group B rats. The effect could be observed after three weeks of treatment and was more obvious after eight weeks of treatment. Serum HA, CIV,ALT, AST and Y-GT levels after eight weeks of treatment for Group C rats were 58±22 μg/L (P0.05) respectively, similar to normal control group (Group A), but significantly different from CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B). An increase in PCNA and decrease in a-SMA expression level was also observed.CONCLUSION: WeiJia could improve liver function and reduce liver fibrosis

  6. Melatonin ameliorates experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Tao Hong; Jian-Ming Xu; Qiao Mei

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of melatonin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in experimental rats. METHODS:All rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group treated with CCl4 for 12 wk, CCl4 + NAC group treated with CCl4 + NAC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-1 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (2.5 mg/kg) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-2 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (5.0 mg/kg) for 12 wk, and CCl4 + MEL-3 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (10 mg/kg). Rats in the treatment groups were injected subcutaneously with sterile CCl4 (3 mL/kg, body weight) in a ratio of 2:3 with olive oil twice a week. Rats in normal control group received hypodermic injection of olive oil at the same dose and frequency as those in treatment groups. At the end of experiment, rats in each group were anesthetized and sacrificed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Van Gieson staining were used to examine changes in liver pathology. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and protein concentration were measured with routine laboratory methods using an autoanalyzer. Hydroxyproline (HYP) content in liver and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in liver homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometry. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and procollagen Ⅲ N-terminal peptide (PⅢNP) were determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:Pathologic grading showed that the fibrogenesis was much less severe in CCl4 + MEL3 group than in model control group ( u = 2.172, P < 0.05), indicating that melatonin (10 mg/kg) can significantly ameliorate CCl4-induced hepatic fibrotic changes. The serum levels of ALT and AST were markedly lower in CCl4 + MEL treatment groups (5, 10 mg/kg) than in model control group (ALT:286.23 serum laminin (LN) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and hydroxyproline (HYP) contents in liver were significantly lower in CCl4 + MEL-3 group (10

  7. Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

  8. Influence of 50-nm polystyrene particles in inducing cytotoxicity in mice co-injected with carbon tetrachloride, cisplatin, or paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Isoda, K; Tezuka, E; Yufu, T; Nagai, Y; Ishida, I; Tezuka, M

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of nanomaterials has yet to be fully investigated. In particular, the interactions between nanomaterials and therapeutic drugs require further study. We investigated whether nano-sized polystyrene particles affect drug-induced toxicity. The particles, which are widely used industrially, had diameters of 50 (NPP50), 200 (NPP200) or 1000 (NPP1000) nm. The toxic chemicals tested were carbon tetrachloride, cisplatin (a popular anti-tumor agent), and a widely used herbicide, paraquat. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with either carbon tetrachloride (0.01 ml/kg), cisplatin (100 micromol/kg) or paraquat (50 mg/kg), with or without intravenous administration of polystyrene particles. All treatments in the absence of the nanoparticles were non-lethal and did not result in severe toxicity. However, when mice were injected with paraquat or cisplatin together with polystyrene particles, synergistic, enhanced toxicity was observed in mice injected with NPP50. These synergic effects were not observed in mice co-injected with NPP200 or NPP1000. These findings suggest that further evaluation of the interactions between polystyrene nano-particles and drugs is a critical prerequisite to the pharmaceutical application of nanotechnology.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the effects of gomisin a on the recovery of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi; Choi, In Soo; Lee, Sang Mong; Hwang, Dae Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Park, Young Hoon

    2011-06-01

    Gomisin A possesses a hepatic function-facilitating property in liver-injured rats. Its preventive action on carbon tetrachloride-induced cholestasis is due to maintenance of the function of the bile acids-independent fraction. To investigate alterations in gene expression after gomisin A treatment on injured rat liver, DNA microarray analyses were performed on a Rat 44K 4-Plex Gene Expression platform with duplicated reactions after gomisin A treatment. We identified 255 up-regulated and 230 down-regulated genes due to the effects of gomisin A on recovery of carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver damage. For functional characterization of these genes, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes biochemical pathways analyses were performed. Many up-regulated or down-regulated genes were related to cell cycle or focal adhesion and cell death genes, respectively. Our microarray experiment indicated that the liver repair mechanism induced by gomisin A was strongly associated with increased gene expressions related to cell cycle and suppression of the gene expression related in cell death.

  10. The in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride and carrageenan on heart microsomes: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Deleris, G

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of rat heart microsomes to free radical attack using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. This physico-chemical method seemed a valuable technique: quite sensitive to changes in the vibrational spectra. The spectral variations observed between normal and treated rats were in great part due to reactive oxygen species that led to changes in protein conformation involving beta-sheets, aggregation of proteins, and modification of protein synthesis. Carrageenan-induced inflammation slightly enhanced the total lipid content; rearrangement of acyl chains and accumulation of cholesterol esters and phospholipids also occurred in the treated rats. Carbon tetrachloride induced a decrease in both lipid and protein contents. The level of glucidic substrates was diminished with carbon tetrachloride and enhanced with carrageenan; these changes were due to metabolic interactions between cell components and drugs. FT-IR spectroscopy provided an accurate means to monitor, in rat heart, the in vivo effects of inflammatory and peroxidative damages, to discriminate and classify the affected cells, and to correlate the findings with known physiological and biochemical data in close relationship with metabolic disruptions induced by the two xenobiotics.

  11. Effect of Apitherapy Formulations against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats after Three Weeks of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Vasile Andritoiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body is exposed nowadays to increasing attacks by toxic compounds in polluted air, industrially processed foods, alcohol and drug consumption that increase liver toxicity, leading to more and more severe cases of hepatic disorders. The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the apitherapy diet in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, by analyzing the biochemical determinations (enzymatic, lipid and protein profiles, coagulation parameters, minerals, blood count parameters, bilirubin levels and histopathological changes at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas. The experiment was carried out on six groups of male Wistar rats. Hepatic lesions were induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (dissolved in paraffin oil, 10% solution. Two mL per 100 g were administered, every 2 days, for 2 weeks. Hepatoprotection was achieved with two apitherapy diet formulations containing honey, pollen, propolis, Apilarnil, with/without royal jelly. Biochemical results reveal that the two apitherapy diet formulations have a positive effect on improving the enzymatic, lipid, and protein profiles, coagulation, mineral and blood count parameters and bilirubin levels. The histopathological results demonstrate the benefits of the two apitherapy diet formulations on reducing toxicity at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas in laboratory animals.

  12. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  13. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  14. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  15. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  16. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  17. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kennedy, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Kennedy@newcastle.edu.au [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Mackie, John [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holdsworth, Clovia [Centre for Organic Electronics, Chemistry Building, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dlugogorski, Bogdan [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CCl{sub 4} remediation using non-equilibrium plasma and non-oxidative conditions is proposed. • The reaction mechanism relies on experimental data and quantum chemical analysis. • Comprehensive mass balance for the reaction is provided. • CCl{sub 4} is converted to an environmentally benign and potentially useful polymer. • Characterisation of the polymer structure based on NMR and FTIR analyses is presented. - Abstract: In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  18. Hydrodechlorination of Silicon Tetrachloride to Trichlorosilane Over Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Catalysts: Effect of Pretreatment of Oxygen and Hydrochloric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Do-Hwan; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kim, Ji Man; Yang, O Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the catalytic reaction for the conversion of silicon tetrachloride (STC) to trichlorosilane (TCS) over pretreated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) catalysts by oxygen (denoted as OMC-O2) and hydrochloric acid (denoted as OMC-HCl) at 300 degrees C under N2 atmosphere. The OMC-O2 shows significantly improved the surface area (1341.2 m2/g) and pore volume (1.65 cm3/g), which results in the highest conversion rate of 7.3% as compared to bare OMC (4.3%) and OMC-HCI (5.7%). It is found that the conversion rate of STC to TCS is proportional to the number of Si-O bond over OMC catalysts, which suggests that Si-O-C bond formation is crucial to the reaction as active sites. The O2 pretreatment seems to promote the generation of oxygenated species for the formation of Si-O-C.

  19. Curative Effect of Bone Marrow Cells Transplantation and/or Low Dose Gamma Irradiation on Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    * Mohamed E.M. Zowail, ** Hanaa F. M. Waer, ** Noaman A. Eltahawy, * Eman H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver is the most common target for toxic injury. Toxic agents include chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and trichloroethylene. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bone marrow cells (BMC transplantation and/or fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy gamma radiation on established liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. BMCs of male albino rats were transplanted into 4-weeks carbon tetrachloride (CCl4­treated and/or fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy gamma irradiated rats through the tail vein, and the rats were treated for 4 more weeks with CCl4 (total 8 weeks. Histological and ultrastructural investigations revealed that both bone marrow cells transplantation and low dose (0.5 Gy gamma radiation exposure with continuous CCl4 injection had reduced liver fibrosis as compared with rats treated with CCl4 alone.

  20. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  1. Loss of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Promotes Hepatic Fibrosis after Chronic Carbon Tetrachloride through Altered Paracrine Interactions between Hepatic Stellate Cells and Liver-Associated Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Olaso, Elvira; ARTETA, BEATRIZ; BENEDICTO, AITOR; Crende, Olatz; Friedman, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) interact with fibrillar collagen through the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in acute hepatic injury, generating increased fibrosis. However, the contribution of DDR2 signaling to chronic liver fibrosis in vivo is unclear, despite its relevance to chronic human liver disease. We administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to DDR2+/+ and DDR2−/− mice twice weekly, and liver tissues and isolated HSCs were analyzed. In contrast to changes seen in acute injury, after...

  2. Protective Effects of Pleurotus tuber-regium on Carbon- Tetrachloride Induced Testicular Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Kenneth O.; Siminialayi, Iyeopu M.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2016-01-01

    The high rate of male infertility and the meager resources to manage same in sub Saharan Africa have necessitated the search for cost effective and available alternatives. Mushrooms have been used traditionally in folk medicine and as nutraceuticals. This study has investigated the effect of the wild mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) deleterious effects on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty six rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I (negative control) received 10 ml/kg olive oil intraperitoneal weekly in addition to feed and water ad libitum. Group II (positive control) received CCl4 10 ml/kg (30% in Olive oil) weekly. Group III, IV, and V received 100 mg, 20 0mg, and 500 mg P. tuber-regium (33.3% in feed) daily in addition to 10 ml/kg CCl4 weekly. Group VI received 500 mg P. tuber-regium (33.3% in feed) daily. After 4 weeks, sperm motility, epididymal count and vitality were determined. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone, Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and oestradiol were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Histopathologic examinations of the testis were carried out. Carbon tetrachloride significantly reduced the sperm motility (54.33 ± 3.79%), epididymal count (28.73 ± 2.86 × 106/ml, vitality (4.96 ± 0.62), LH (0.88 ± 0.14), FSH (2.04 ± 0.33), and Testosterone (2.02 ± 0.24) when compared with control (89.33 ± 9.01), 91.91 ± 1.92 × 106/ml, 13.12 ± 0.19, 2.74 ± 0.32, 3.64 ± 0.62, and 4.16 ± 0.23, respectively, which were reversed by P. tuber-regium administration. Co-administration of P. tuber-regium plus CCl4 significantly reduced MDA level. P. tuber-regium showed dose dependent ameliorative activity against CCl4 deleterious action on the testis and may be beneficial in the management of male infertility. PMID:28018218

  3. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jun Yang; Jing Liu; Lin-Bai Ye; Fan Yang; Li Ye; Jin-Rong Gao; Zheng-Hui Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.METHODS: A liver injury model was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay.The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined with an automatic multifunction-biochemical analyzer and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TNF-α were determined following the instructions of SOD kit and TNF radioimmunoassay kit. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological evaluation and examined under light microscope.RESULTS: We found that GLPG can alleviate the L-02liver cells injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)through the measurements of ALT and AST activities and the administration of GLPG to L-02 cells did not display any toxicity. Furthermore, histological analysis of mice liver injury induced by CCl4 with or without GLPG pretreatment indicated that GLPG can significantly suppress the toxicity induced by CCl4 in mice liver. We also found that GLPG reduced TNF-α level induced by CCl4 in the plasma of mice, whereas increased SOD activity in the rat serum.CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-α level and the free radical scavenging activity.

  4. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

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    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  5. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

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    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  6. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  7. Protective effect of Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts against oxidative kidney injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Ali; Değer, Yeter; Yıldırım, Serkan

    2017-11-01

    The protective effect of the extracts of the plants Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was researched. Sixty-six female Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, CCl4, Silybum marianum+ CCl4, Taraxacum officinale+CCl4. The Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were administered as 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. The CCl4 was administered as 1.5 mL/kg (i.p.). At the end of the trial period, in the serums obtained from the animals, in the CCl4 group it was found that the MDA level increased in the kidney tissue samples as well as in the ALP and GGT enzyme activities. It was also found that the GSH level and the GST enzyme activities decreased (pTaraxacum officinale extracts were applied together, it was found that the serum ALP and GGT enzyme activities decreased and that the MDA level decreased in the kidney tissue, and that the GSH level and GST enzyme activities increased. It was observed that the histopathological changes caused by the CCl4 toxicity were corrected by applying the extracts. Eventually, it was determined that the Silybum marianum was more effective. Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts which were used against histopathological changes in the kidney caused by toxication showed a corrective effect, which were supported by biochemical parameters.

  8. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

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    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  9. Enhanced dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of naturally occurring quinones and ferrihydrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doong, Ruey-an; Lee, Chun-chi; Lien, Chia-min

    2014-02-01

    The effect of naturally occurring quinones including lawsone (LQ), ubiquinone (UQ), juglone (JQ), and 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) on the biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) in the presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens and ferrihydrite was investigated. AQDS was used as the model compound for comparison. The reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite by G. sulfurreducens was enhanced by AQDS, NQ, and LQ. However, addition of UQ and JQ had little enhancement effect on Fe(II) production. The bioreduction efficiency and rate of ferrihydrite was highly dependent on the natural property and concentration of quinone compounds and the addition of low concentrations of LQ and NQ significantly accelerated the biotransformation rate of CT. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for CT dechlorination (kobsCT) in AQDS-, LQ- and NQ-amended batches were 5.4-5.8, 4.6-7.4 and 2.4-5.8 times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of quinone. A good relationship between kobsCT for CT dechlorination and bioreduction ratio of ferrihydrite was observed, indicating the important role of biogenic Fe(II) in dechlorination of CT under iron-reducing conditions. Spectroscopic analysis showed that AQDS and NQ could be reduced to semiquinones and hydroquinones, while only hydroquinones were generated in LQ-amended batches.

  10. Nigella sativa improves the carbon tetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats through repression of erk/akt pathway

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    Abdullah Aslan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine whether Nigella sativa plays a protective role against the damage in the lung by administering carbon tetra-chloride (CCl4 to rats. Male Wistar albino (n=28, 8 weeks old rats were divided into 4 groups: a negative control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 and N. sativa was administered; b Positive control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 was administered but N. sativa was administered; c CCl4 Group: Normal water consuming and group to which CCl4 was administered (1.5 mL/kg, ip; d N. sativa plus CCl4 group: CCl4 and N. sativa administered group (1.5 mL/kg, ip. Caspase-3, caspase -9, erk, akt protein syntheses were examined via Western blotting. Malondialdehyde determination in lung tissue was made using spectrophotometer. As a results, malondialdehyde amount was decreased in the CCl4 plus N. sativa group in comparison to CCl4 group whereas caspase-3, caspase-9 was increased and erk, akt had decreased. These results show that N. sativa protects the lung against oxidative damage.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether lyophilized aqueous extract of alfalfa, or Medicago sativa L. could exert antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of alfalfa extract was determined by assessing the levels of serum transaminases, ALP, bilirubin and lipid profile. Further, the effect of the test substance on malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation; antioxidant liver enzyme non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH); and total protein (TP) were also studied. Serum transaminase, ALP, bilirubin level, lipid profile and liver MDA were significantly elevated and the antioxidant status in liver NP-SH and TP contents were declined in animals treated with CCl (4) alone. Pretreatment with alfalfa and silymarin for three weeks prior to the administration of CCl (4) significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic marker, LDL, VLDL levels enzymes and reduced oxidative stress indicated by elevated NP-SH and TP concentration. The histopathological examination of the livers also showed that the alfalfa extract reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl (4). The in vitro antioxidant assessment of alfalfa extract on DPPH and carotene-linoleic assays demonstrated a moderate antioxidant potential. Results suggest that the alfalfa extract possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidative stress properties possibly through its antioxidant phytochemical constituents and substantiates its use in various liver disorders as a hepatoprotector.

  12. Comparison of vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin in ameliorating carbon tetrachloride and diabetes induced hepatic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, M E; Houssen, M E; Abo-Hashem, E M; Ibrahim, T M

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether treatments with vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin can protect against CCl(4) and diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic oxidative stress was performed in rats through 50% v/v carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (1 ml/kg/3 days, i.p.), and through diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.). Vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p), L-carnitine (300 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) were injected for a period of 6 weeks. Thereafter, changes in serum glucose level, liver function tests, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level were evaluated. In CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis, the efficacy order was melatonin > L-carnitine > vitamin E, while in STZ-induced diabetes, the efficacy order was vitamin E > or = melatonin > L-carnitine. In conclusion, these data indicate that low dose of melatonin is more effective than high doses of vitamin E and L-carnitine in reducing hepatic oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) and diabetes. Moreover, the potent effect of vitamin E in ameliorating diabetes can be linked not only to the antioxidant actions, but also to the superior effect in reducing diabetes-induced hyperglycaemia. Meanwhile, potency of L-carnitine was nearly the same in CCl(4) and diabetes-induced liver damage.

  13. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

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    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  14. Dielectric properties of liquid systems: study of interactions in the systems carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene, and p-xylene

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    Adrián H. Buep

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes (VEM and excess dielectric properties (εE and n2ED for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 with benzene (C6H6, toluene (C6H5CH3, and p-xylene (p-(CH32C6H4. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density (ρ, static permittivity (ε, and refractive index (nD over the whole range of concentrations at 298.15 K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich–Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products.

  15. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y-1 during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y-1) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  16. High-fat diet plus carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis is alleviated by betaine treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingül, İlknur; Aydın, A Fatih; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Çoban, Jale; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-10-01

    Steatosis, the first lesion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Steatosis predisposes the liver to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokines. Betaine (BET) has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. However, the effects of BET on liver fibrosis development are unknown. Rats were treated with high-fat diet (60% of total calories from fat) for 14weeks. Carbon tetrachloride (0.2mL/kg; two times per week; i.p.) was administered to rats in the last 6weeks with/without commercial food containing BET (2%; w/w). Serum liver function tests and tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin resistance, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels and oxidative stress parameters were determined along with histopathologic observations. Alpha-smooth muscle-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and type I collagen (COL1A1) protein expressions and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were evaluated. BET decreased TG and HYP levels, prooxidant status and fibrotic changes in the liver. α-SMA, COL1A1 and TGF-β1 protein expressions, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions diminished due to BET treatment. BET has an antifibrotic effect and this effect may be related to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions together with suppression on HSC activation.

  17. Effects of carbon tetrachloride and azathioprine on diethylnitrosamine and N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced hyperplastic liver nodule and hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Sakata,Tatsuro

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and azathioprine (AZP on the evolution of hyperplastic liver nodules and foci and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were tested in short- and long-term in vivo experiments. In diethylnitrosamine (DEN-treated rats, which were fed a N-2-fluorenylacetamide (FAA-containing diet and additionally treated with repeated CCl4 injections, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP-positive hyperplastic nodules were markedly developed in the 8th week of the experiment. However, their number and area in liver sections were remarkably small in DEN-treated rats fed a diet containing both FAA and AZP. Increased area of gamma-GTP-positive foci was also observed in the 12th week in DEN-injected rats fed a choline-devoid died alone or treated with repeated doses of CCl4 alone. Hepatocellular carcinoma in DEN-injected rats treated with both FAA and CCl4 was first detected in the 21st week, and the incidence up to the 36th week was very high. However, no hepatocellular carcinoma developed in DEN-injected rats treated with both FAA and AZP. The increased activity of liver aniline hydroxylase observed 12 h after the administration of FAA, AZP or DEN alone was not observed when AZP was administered simultaneously with FAA to DEN-injected rats. The mechanisms of the effects of CCl4 and AZP on hepatocarcinogenesis are discussed with special reference to drug interaction.

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

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    Yi-Chun Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder (CCTEP, 10% aqueous Ocimum gratissimum L. extract to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in vivo was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group A was a normal control group given only vehicle; Group B, the hepatotoxic group, was injected intraperitoneally twice a week with repeated 8% CCl4/olive oil (0.1 mL/100 g of body weight; Groups C–E, extract-treated groups received CCl4 and different doses of CCTEP (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg or silymarin (200 mg/kg of body weight daily by gavage for 8 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the CCl4-induced histopathogical changes may be prevented by CCTEP through reducing the intercellular collogen stack, dropping blood serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and restoring the catalase activity and glutathione content. The hepatoprotective properties were further confirmed by the marked improvement in histopathological examination and by quantitative steatosis-fibrosis scoring. The above results suggest that CCTEP is able to prevent the liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 administration, and the hepatoprotective effects might be correlated partly with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects.

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of sesamol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in carbon tetrachloride induced sub-chronic hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Khullar, Neeraj; Kakkar, Vandita; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2016-05-01

    Sesamol is a phenolic component of sesame seed oil, which has been established as an antioxidant and also possesses potential for hepatoprotection. However, its protective role in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) induced sub-chronic hepatotoxicity has not been studied. Limited oral bioavailability (BA) and rapid elimination (as conjugates) in rats is reported for sesamol. Considering its significant antioxidant potential and compromised BA, we packaged sesamol into solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLNs) to enhance its hepatoprotective bioactivity. S-SLNs prepared by microemulsification method were nearly spherical in shape with an average particle size of 120.30 nm and their oral administration at 8 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed significantly (p induced sub-chronic liver injury in rats. Evaluations were done in terms of histological changes in the liver tissue, liver injury markers (serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, and serum lactate dehydrogenase); oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione) and proinflammatory response marker (tumor necrosis factor-alpha).

  20. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

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    Showkat Ahmad Ganie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, and its reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced liver damage. Pretreated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30, and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg, 1:1 in olive oil. Rats pretreated with P. hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH, and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver-protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities.

  1. Protective effects of Chaenomeles thibetica extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced damage via the MAPK/Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingxin; Wang, Jing; Tong, Jing; Zhou, Gao; Chen, Yuxin; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2016-03-01

    Chaenomeles thibetica, a type of fruit of the genus Chaenomeles, is commonly cultivated and used as Mugua in China and as liquor, candy, and functional food in Tibet. Total phenol, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents were measured in C. thibetica extract (CTE). CTE had a positive effect on free radical scavenging and anti-lipid oxidation in vitro. The protective effects of CTE against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in vivo were also measured. The results of antioxidative enzymes indicated that CTE can increase the activities of the catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione contents and reduce the level of malondialdehyde in rats. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were significantly reversed by CTE compared with the elevated levels in the CCl4 group. Besides, CTE could reverse the cell viability of HepG2 inoculated with CCl4via phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), activating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and increasing the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. These effects may expand the applications of C. thibetica and offer alternative food with antioxidant and hepatoprotective functions in the food industry.

  2. Protective effect of aqueous extracts from Rhizopus oryzae on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takehito; Fukuoka, Hideo; Ushikoshi, Setsuo; Sato, Reiichiro; Morita, Hidetoshi; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Hepatoprotective effects of Rhizopus oryzae/ U-1 aqueous extract (RU) were demonstrated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver-injured rats. In order to investigate the RU effects, the rats were administered RU at a dose of 10 or 100 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days before induction of the liver injury by oral administration of CCl4 (125 mg/kg body weight). (i) Pretreatment with RU caused a significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities that were increased by the administration of CCl4 . (ii) RU pretreatment (100 mg/kg) increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation at 48 h after CCl4 treatment in hepatocytes. (iii) Histological hematoxylin and eosin staining of the liver showed that RU pretreatment reduced the damage induced by CCl4 administration. (iv) Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed RU retreatment caused a transient but significant increase in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and a sustained and significant increase in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in hepatocytes injured by CCl4 treatment. From these results, we conclude that oral pre-administration of RU was effective to suppress liver injury induced by the subsequent oral CCl4 administration, and RU-induced increase in IGF-I and HGF gene expression may be, even in part, involved in biological actions of RU in rats.

  3. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  4. Protective effects of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lihua; Li, Lingrui; Xu, Demei; Xia, Xiaomin; Pi, Ruxian; Xu, Duo; Wang, Wenchao; Du, Hong; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-04-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effects of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute oxidative injury in vivo and in vitro. In a mouse model, intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 resulted in a significant increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities. Histopathological examination revealed severe hepatocyte necrosis and destruction of architecture in liver lesions, and immunohistochemical staining illustrated a remarkable enhancement of COX-2 and iNOS expression. The levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as, catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP-X) and glutathione (GSH) were decreased, compared to the control group. However, pretreatment of NHDC for six consecutive days significantly ameliorated these changes. Moreover, Western blotting assay indicated pretreatment with NHDC also down-regulated CCl4-induced protein expressions of NF-κB, IL-6, caspase 3 and caspase 8. In HepG2 cell model, CCl4-treatment caused significant decrease in cell viability, antioxidant activities and GSH level, increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level. Interestingly, pretreatment of NHDC effectively relieved CCl4-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, NHDC appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities, it is possible to be used as a hepatoprotective agent.

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s).

  6. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl4-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl4-treated group relative to the control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl4-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. PMID:25827057

  7. Effect in the rat of the interaction of dichloromaleic acid and carbon tetrachloride on renal and hepatic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, W.R.; Davis, M.E.; Berndt, W.O. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Water purification generates a variety of chlorinated contaminants, one of which is dichloromaleic acid (DCMA). Exposure to this compound is likely to occur in combination with other drinking water pollutants, some of which are hepatotoxic. This study was designed to examine the interactive effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a known hepatotoxin, with DCMA on liver and kidney function in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Administration of a single dose of DCMA (200-400 mg/kg, ip) caused modest dose-dependent increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and plasma urea nitrogen, as well as a marked depletion of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) in the liver, but not the kidney, by 24 hr. Pretreatment with inducers (phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene) or an inhibitor (SKF 525A) of cytochrome P-450 activity failed to alter the response observed with DCMA alone. Alterations in 24-hr urine volume, osmolality, and water consumption also were observed. DCMA-mediated changes in plasma urea nitrogen and NPSH were reduced in magnitude with coadministration of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, ip), while anticipated CCl4-induced increases in ALT and AST were reduced with coexposure to DCMA. Renal slice experiments indicated that DCMA-treated rats were less able to accumulate the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH), whereas DCMA had no effect on accumulation of the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA). The combination of CCl4 and DCMA produced only additive effects on organic ion accumulation. These results suggest hepatic interaction possibly related to the metabolism of CCl4 and DCMA, resulting in renal and hepatic toxicity diminished from that observed with exposure to either agent alone.

  8. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  9. Protective Effects of Garlic Oil against Liver Damage Induced by Combined Administration of Ethanol and Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim a, Amani E. Khalifaa, Sherif H. Ahmed b

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are known to play a vital role in the management of various liver diseases. Garlic oil (GO contains numerous organosulfur compounds with potential hepatoprotective effects. The present work was planned to evaluate the possible preventive role of GO on biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by combined administration of ethanol (EOH and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat liver. Two dose levels of GO (5 or 10 mg/kg/day were administered orally to rats for 7 consecutive days with EOH + CCl4-induced liver damage. Activity of GO against liver damage was compared with that of silymarin (25 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 7 consecutive days. Biochemical parameters including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (­GT, alkaline phophatase (ALP and bilirubin were estimated to assess the liver function. In addition, the level of total proteins, triglycerides, total cholesterol, glutathione (GSH, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, in liver tissues were estimated. Liver damage was evidenced by an increase in the activity/level of AST, ALT, -GT, ALP and bilirubin in sera of rats after the combined administration of EOH and CCl4 compared to normal animals. Pretreatment of rats with GO reduced the EOH + CCl4-induced elevated levels of the above indices. Similarly, GO significantly prevented the decline in total proteins and the increase in triglycerides and total cholesterol resulted after EOH + CCl4 administration in rat liver homogenates. In addition, GO pretreatment restored liver GSH levels decreased due to EOH + CCl4 administration. The elevation in liver TBARS level due to EOH + CCl4 administration was also prevented by pretreatment with both low and high doses of GO. Histopathological examination indicated that GO exhibited an obvious preventive effect against the centrilobular necrosis and nodule formation induced by EOH + CCl4 administration. In conclusion, GO

  10. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  11. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Nadia [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  12. Electroporative interleukin-10 gene transfer ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced murine liver fibrosis by MMP and TIMP modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-ying CHOU; Cheng-nan LU; Tsung-hsing LEE; Chia-ling WU; Kung-sheng HUNG; Allan M CONCEJERO; Bruno JAWAN; Cheng-haung WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim:Liver fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury.Effective therapies for liver fibrosis are lacking.Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates pro-inflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on hepatic fibrogenesis.The aim of this study was to investigate whether electroporative IL-10 gene therapy has an hepatic fibrolytic effect on mice.Methods:Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 10 weeks in mice.The human IL-10 expression plasmid was delivered via electroporation after hepatic fibrosis was established.Histopathology,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ,immunoblotting,and gelatin zymography were used to investigate the possible mechanisms of action of IL-10.Results:Human IL-10 gene therapy reversed CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice.RT-PCR revealed that IL-10 gene therapy attenuated liver TGF-β1,collagen αl,fibronectin,and cell adhesion molecule mRNA upregulation.Following gene transfer,both the activation of α-smooth muscle actin and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly attenuated.Furthermore.IL-10 significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) activation after CCl4 intoxication.Conclusions:We demonstrated that IL-10 gene therapy attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice.IL-10 prevented upregulated fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory gene responses.Its collagenolytic effect may be attributed to MMP and TIMP modulation.IL-10 gene therapy may be an effective therapeutic modality against liver fibrosis with potential clinical use.

  13. Synthesis of platelet-activating factor and its receptor expression in Kupffer cells in rat carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ying Lu; Chun-Ping Wang; Lin Zhou; Yan Chen; Shu-Hui Su; Yong-Yi Feng; Yong-Ping Yang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the platelet-activating factor (PAF)synthesis and its receptor expression in Kupffer cells in rat carbon tetrachloride-induce dcirrhosis.METHODS:Kupffer cells,isolated from the livers of control and CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats,were placed in serum-free medium overnight.PAF saturation binding,ET-1 saturation and competition binding were assayed.ET-1 induced PAF synthesis,mRNA expression of PAF,preproendothelin-1,endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors were also determined.RESULTS:A two-fold increase of PAF synthesis (1.42±0.14 vs 0.66±0.04 pg/μg DNA) and a 1.48-fold increase of membrane-bound PAF (1.02±0.06 vs 0.69±0.07 Pg/μg DNA) were observed in activated Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rats.The application of ET-1 to Kupffer cells induced PAF synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cirrhotic and normal rats via ETB receptor,but PAF synthesis in the activated Kupffer cells was more effective than that in the normal Kupffer cells.In activated Kupffer cells,PAF receptor expression and PAF binding capacity were markedly enhanced.Activated Kupffer cells raised the [125I]-ET-1 binding capacity,but changed neither the affinity of the receptors,nor the expression of ETA receptor.CONCLUSION:Kupffer cells in the course of CCl4-induced cirrhosis are the main source of increased PAF.ET-1 is involved endogenously in stimulating the PAF synthesis in activated Kupffer cells via ETB receptor by paracrine.ETA receptor did not appear in activated Kupffer cells,which may exacerbate the hepatic and extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis.

  14. Treatment with L-valine ameliorates liver fibrosis and restores thrombopoiesis in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Chikashi; Doi, Hideyuki; Katsura, Kazunori; Satomi, Susumu

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that treatment with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) increases the survival rates in cirrhotic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of L-valine, one of BCAAs, on liver fibrosis in rat. To induce liver fibrosis, male Wistar rats were injected carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intraperitoneally (2.0 mL/kg) twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats (seven to fifteen rats for each group) were then administered 1.688 g/kg/day of L-valine intravenously for 7 days or 10% amino acid preparation that provided the same amount of nitrogen. Seven days after the last administration, blood platelet counts and bone marrow megakaryocyte counts were significantly higher in the valine group than in the control group (131.2 +/- 38.3 vs. 106.3 +/- 14.5 x 10(4)/microL, p = 0.04; 18.0 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.5 +/- 2.2 per field, p valine group than the control group. Furthermore, hepatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in the valine group, and the mRNA levels of factors associated with liver fibrosis such as procollagen alpha1(III), transforming growth factor-beta1 and connective tissue growth factor were significantly lower in the liver of the valine group 10 days after the last administration. These results indicate that L-valine treatment ameliorates liver fibrosis and restores thrombopoiesis in rats exposed to CCl(4). Therefore, L-valine supplementation may be helpful for patients with liver cirrhosis.

  15. Effect of Mallotus Philippensis Muell.-Arg leaves against hepatotoxicity of Carbon tetrachloride in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna S; Geetha K.M,; Bhaskar gopal P.V.V.S,; Ranjit kumar P; Charan Madav. P,; Umachandar. L

    2011-01-01

    Liver Toxicity is a major health problem of worldwide proportions. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases. In the present study MEMP leaves is used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) (25ml/kg, i.p.). Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the standard. Functional parameters like onset of sleep and duration...

  16. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  17. Long-term treatment with shengmai san-derived herbal supplement (Wei Kang Su) enhances antioxidant response in various tissues of rats with protection against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Chen, Na; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ma, Chung Wah; Tang, Qing Tao; Ko, Kam Ming

    2010-04-01

    Wei Kang Su (WKS) is a commercial herbal product based on a Chinese herbal formula, Shengmai San. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term treatment with WKS on mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability, as well as heat shock protein (Hsp) 25/70 production, in various tissues of rats. WKS treatment enhanced mitochondrial antioxidant status and ATP generation capacity, as well as Hsp 25/70 production in various rat tissues. WKS treatment suppressed plasma reactive oxygen metabolite levels and protected against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in rats. Long-term WKS treatment may prevent diseases by enhancing the resistance of mitochondria to oxidative stress.

  18. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  19. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Todd R. [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bettaieb, Ahmed [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan [Department of Internal Medicine: Cardiovascular, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Haj, Fawaz G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  20. Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2008-09-29

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. The RI/FS process and remedial investigations for the 200-PW-1, 200 PW-3, and 200-PW-6 Operable Units are described in the Plutonium/Organic-Rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Groups Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) by incorporating kinetic volatilization of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and multicomponent flow and transport. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Previous numerical simulation results with the STOMP simulator have overestimated the effect of soil vapor extraction (SVE) on subsurface CT, showing rapid removal of considerably more CT than has actually been recovered so far. These previous multiphase simulations modeled CT mass transfer between phases based on equilibrium partitioning. Equilibrium volatilization can overestimate volatilization because mass transfer limitations present in the field are not considered. Previous simulations were also conducted by modeling the NAPL as a single component, CT. In reality, however, the NAPL mixture disposed of at the Hanford site contained several non-volatile and nearly insoluble organic components, resulting in time-variant fluid properties as the CT component volatilized or dissolved over time. Simulation of CT removal from a DNAPL mixture using single-component DNAPL properties typically leads to an overestimation of CT removal. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy

  1. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  2. Management of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats by syngeneic hepatocyte transplantation in spleen and peritoneal cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charalampos Pilichos; Despina Perrea; Maria Demonakou; Athena Preza; Ismini Donta

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Acute hepatitis may seldom have a fulminant course.In the treatment of this medical emergency, potential liver support measure must provide immediate and sufficient assistance to the hepatic function. The goal of our study was to study the adequacy of hepatocyte transplantation (HCTx) in two different anatomical sites, splenic parenchyma and peritoneal cavity, in a rat model of reversible acute hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).METHODS: After CCl4 intoxication, 84 male Wistar rats used as recipients were divided in to four experimental groups accordingly to their treatment: Group A (n=24): intrasplenic transplantation of 10x106 isolated hepatocytes, Group B (n=24):intraperitoneal transplantation of 20xL06 isolated hepatocytes attached on plastic microcarriers, Group C (n= 18): i ntrasplenic injection of 1 mL normal saline (sham-operated controls),Group D (n=18): intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mL normal saline (sham-operated controls). Survival, liver function tests (LFT) and histology were studied in all four groups, on d 2,5 and 10 post-HCTx.RESULTS: The ten-day survival (and mean survival) in the 4 groups was 72.2% (8.1±3.1), 33.3% (5.4±3.4), 0%(3.1±1.3) and 33.3% (5.4±3.6) in groups A, B, C, D,respectively (PAB<0.05, PAC<0.05, PBD=NS). In the final survivors, LFT (except alkaline phosphatase) and hepatic histology returned to normal, independently of their previous therapy. Viable hepatocytes were identified within splenic parenchyma (in group A on d 2) and both in the native liver and the fatty tissue of abdominal wall (in group B on d 5).CONCLUSION: A significantly better survival of the intrasplenically transplanted animals has been demonstrated.Intraperitoneal hepatocytes failed to promptly engraft. A different timing between liver injury and intraperitoneal HCTx may give better results and merits further investigation.

  3. Effect of Paeonia lactiflora formula granule against the damage of LO2 cells induced by carbon tetrachloride

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    Yan-qing REN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of Paeonia lactiflora formula granule (PLFG against the damage of LO2 cells induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and explore its mechanism. Methods  LO2 cells were divided into control group, CCl4 model group, PLFG (1, 5, 10mg/L groups and Vit E (50mmol/L group. LO2 cells of PLFG groups and Vit E group were pretreated by drugs for 24 hours, then except control group, other groups were treated by 10mmol/L CCl4 for 6 hours, which induced hepatic cell damage, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST content of the cell culture supernatant were measured, the survival rates of LO2 cells were analyzed by MTT method. LO2 cells were divided into control group, CCl4 model group, PLFG (10mg/L group and Vit E (50mmol/L group, cell loss, changes in nuclear size and morphology, DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cell permeability changes, and cytochrome C release were measured simultaneously by high content analysis (HCA. Results  Compared with CCl4 model group, PLFG and Vit E pretreatment could obviously decrease the level of ALT and AST (P<0.05 or P<0.01, especially in the 10mg/L PLFG group and Vit E group. PLFG (1, 5, 10mg/L and Vit E could also significantly weaken the decrease of LO2 cell viability, which were induced by CCl4 treatment, the results showed in dose-dependent to some extents (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Meanwhile, treatment with 10mg/L PLFG and Vit E could significantly increase the level of MMP (P<0.01, prevent cytochrome C release (P<0.01, decrease the membrane permeability (P<0.01, increase nuclear size (P<0.01, decrease total nuclear intensity (P<0.01 and increase the cell count (P<0.05. Conclusion  PLFG may act an obvious protective effect against the liver injury induced by CCl 4, and it might be due to protecting the integrity of mitochondria membrane, decreasing cell membrane permeability and inhibiting the apoptosis of LO2 cells. DOI: 10.11855/j

  4. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  5. Application of Needle Trap Device Packed with Polydimethylsiloxane for Determination of Carbon Tetrachloride and Trichloroethylene in Air

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    M. Heidari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The use of modern microextraction techniques for determination and evaluation of pollutants is progressively increasing nowadays. Needle trap microextraction (NTME technique has privileges compared to the other techniques for sampling occupa-tional and environmental pollutants from air. In this study the application of NTD technique packed with polydimethylsiloxane as sorbent for determination of two organohalogen com-pounds (carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene was investigated. Material & Methods: In this experimental study NTDs were prepared with the same length of proposed sorbent and used after calibration of sampling pump. The parameters related to per-formance of NTD and proposed sorbent including temperature and relative humidity, sam-pling storage time and breakthrough volume were investigated. In analytical performances, the capability of NTD on time and temperature of desorption also carryover of analytes were assessed. Finally, the results for NTD microextraction e were compared to the NIOSH 1003 method. Results: Results have shown that, temperature and relative humidity had effects on the per-formance of NTD and it's sorbent, and NTD contained PDMS showed better performance in the lower temperature and relative humidity at the range of assessment. The performance of NTD and it's sorbent for storage of sampled analytes was more than 95% of analytes mass after 4 days of sampling. The proposed technique also showed a good performance for de-sorption parameters and desorption temperature and time was 290?C and 4 minutes, respec-tively. After desorption, the carryover was also investigated and measured as 4 min. Relative standard division (RSD for repeatability of method for NTD from different concentration levels of 1-250 µgL-1were 4.1-7.5%. Conclusions: The NTD technique as an active sampling method with high enrichment factor showed a good performance for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen

  6. Establishment of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury model in mice%四氯化碳致小鼠急性肝损伤动物模型建立方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琼; 刘芳萍; 刘颖姝; 赵玉林; 李昌文; 李睿; 张秀英

    2012-01-01

    通过对染毒途径、剂量和时间的研究,建立四氯化碳(CCl4)致小鼠急性肝损伤模型.采取腹腔注射和灌胃两种途径给予小鼠1% CCl4,染毒后24h检测血清转氨酶含量,并观察肝脏病变.结果显示,灌胃组比腹腔注射组小鼠血清转氨酶变化个体差异小,肝脏病变明显,病灶分布均匀,且与实际中毒途径一致,故采用灌胃方法进行确定染毒剂量及时间试验.分别以0.125%、0.25%、0.35%、0.5%的CCl4给小鼠灌胃,染毒24h后检测血清转氨酶含量,确定最佳染毒剂量.以该浓度给小鼠灌胃,分别于染毒后2、6、12、16、20、24、28、32、48h检测小鼠血清转氨酶含量.结果表明,灌胃0.35% CCl4,小鼠血清转氨酶升高与对照组相比差异极显著(P<0.01),此浓度灌胃后,20h血清转氨酶含量显著升高(P<0.01),24h达到最高值,与对照组相比差异极显著(P<0.01).因此,以0.35%四氯化碳,按0.1mL·10g-1体重灌胃,染毒24h,可建立较理想的小鼠急性肝损伤模型.%Established the model of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice by investigating the optimal exposure pathway, dose and time. Mice were prepared with 1% CCU by intraperitoneal injection and gavage respectively. Serum transaminase levels were detected and liver lesions were examined after 24 h. The results showed that individual difference of serum transaminase level in gavage group was smaller than intraperitoneal injection group, liver lesions were more uniform. Optimal dose and time was investigated by gavage because it has the same poisoning way with reality. Mice were given carbon tetrachloride in oil solution by gavage, with concentration of 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.35% and 0.5%. Detected serum transaminase levels after 24 h to measure optimal exposure dose. Serum transaminase levels was detected at 2,6,12,16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 48 h after mice were expoed to optimal dose of CCU. The results showed that mice received 0.35% CCU

  7. 四氯化碳法兔肝硬化模型的建立%Establishment of Liver Cirrhosis in Rabbit by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽丽; 张铁成; 赵明; 杨雁萍; 张肇慧; 王阿樱; 付旷

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨通过皮下注射四氯化碳(carbon tetrachloride,CCl4)-橄榄油溶液制备兔肝硬化模型的可行性.方法 体重在2.0-2.5 kg的新西兰大白兔42只,其中实验组36只,分成三组(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ),每组12只,前两周均每周两次皮下注射50%的CCl4-橄榄油溶液0.3 ml/kg,第三周起Ⅰ组每周两次皮下注射50%的CCl4-橄榄油溶液1.5 ml/kg; Ⅱ组每周两次皮下注射50%的CCl4-橄榄油溶液0.9 ml/kg;Ⅲ组每周两次皮下注射50%的CCl4-橄榄油溶液0.4 ml/kg,对照组6只,分成三组,每组2只,分别与实验组相对应注射等量的橄榄油,实验组与对照组均于第12周末处死并取肝组织做病理.结果 三个实验组均造成肝硬化模型,实验过程中兔子死亡率分别为67%、50%、8.3%.结论 皮下注射四氯化碳-橄榄油溶液制备兔肝硬化模型可行,且Ⅲ组造模成功率高,适用于临床研究.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility of rabbit model of liver cirrhosis established by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride-olive oil solution .Methods 42 body weight during 2.0-2.5 kg New Zealand white rabbits ,36 in experimental group were divided into three groups ( Ⅰ , Ⅱ ,Ⅲ ), 12 in each group, the first two weeks was injected subcutaneously by 0.3 ml/kg 50% carbon tetrachloride-olive oil solution twice-weekly, from the third week Ⅰ , Ⅱ, Ⅲ was injected subcutaneously by 1.5 ml/kg ,0.9 ml/kg ,0.4 ml/kg respectively 50% carbon tetrachloride-olive oil solution twice-weekly ;6 in control group were divided into three groups, 2 in each group corresponding to the experimental group ,was injected with te same amount of olive oil, all rabbits were sacrificed at 12 weeks and obtained liver tissues for pathology .Results Three experimental groups turned into liver cirrhosis models ,rabbit mortality rate during the experiment was 67% ,50% ,8.3% respectively .Conclusion The establishment of liver cirrhosis in rabbit by subcutaneous injection of

  8. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning from hurricane-associated use of portable generators--Florida, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-22

    The four major hurricanes that struck Florida during August 13-September 25, 2004, produced electric power outages in several million homes. After the hurricanes, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) investigated six deaths in Florida attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (CPSC, unpublished data, 2004). The Florida Department of Health and CDC analyzed demographic and CO exposure data from these fatal poisoning cases and from nonfatal poisoning cases among 167 persons treated at 10 hospitals, including two with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) chambers. This report describes the results of that analysis, which determined that misplacement of portable, gasoline-powered generators (e.g., indoors, in garages, or outdoors near windows) was responsible for nearly all of these CO exposures. Public health practitioners should recognize that post-hurricane environments present challenges to the safe operation of portable generators and should educate the public on the hazards of CO poisoning in these settings.

  10. Synergistic neurotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide (80/20 fumigants) and other pesticides in grain storage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H A; Levine, R L; Matthews, C G; Sauter, S; Chapman, L

    1986-01-01

    Neurophysiologic, neurobehavioral, and neuropsychologic profiles in 17 grain storage workers, 1 grain inspector, and 4 malting laboratory workers are described. The effects of CS2 toxicity as seen in viscose rayon workers as well as in experimental animals is remarkably similar to the clinical profile of our grain storage workers. CS2 use explains the dysfunction of peripheral axons, auditory nerve, the optic nerve, and the extrapyramidal system, as well as altered behavior and cognition changes. The signs and symptoms in these workers seem to be dose-related and we note that workers separated out from the areas where fumigation took place reported improvement not seen by fellow workers who continued the fumigant treatment routine. Likewise, malting laboratory workers exposed only to the grain dust from 3 to 7 years showed only minimal symptoms. Though a number of mechanism have been suggested for the alteration of neuropsychological function, the chelating ability of DDC derived from CS2 and its ability to markedly increase copper and zinc within the central nervous system suggests a mechanism of toxicity analogous to copper intoxication as in Wilson's Disease and may explain the production of extrapyramidal symptoms in these patients. Chelation of copper might prove therapeutic in CS2 poisoning. It is obvious that both basic and clinical research will be necessary to sort out the questions raised. We applaud the EPA's decision to ban the use of 80/20 fumigants and also methyl bromide, and trust that similar toxic substances be carefully studied before their selection for replacing these previous toxic agents. We further decry the technique of re-introducing grain dust into the food chain rather than destroying it, since the dust contains very high residues of fumigant material. We speculate on the possible role of CS2 and other pesticides in the food chain and the incidence of Parkinsonian symptoms in these patients and the general public.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

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    Myriam Delomenie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

  12. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

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    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  13. [Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation.

  14. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

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    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  16. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed.

  17. Use of 13C Labeled Carbon Tetrachloride to Demonstrate the Transformation to Carbon Dioxide under Anaerobic Conditions in a Continuous Flow Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.

    2012-12-01

    The demonstration of transformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CAHs) in the subsurface is a challenge, especially when the products are carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ion. The groundwater contaminant carbon tetrachloride (CT) is of particular interest since a broad range of transformation products can be potentially formed under anaerobic conditions. The ability to demonstrate the transformation of CT to CO2 as a non toxic endproduct, is also of great interest. Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where 13C labeled CT was used to demonstrate its transformation to CO2. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. The column was continously fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE (0.10 mM) and either formate (1.5 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), which ferments to produce hydrogen (H2) as the ultimate electron donor. Earlier CT transformation studies with the column, in the absence of sulfate reduction, and with formate added as a donor found CT (0.015 mM) was over 98% transformed with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) (0.003 mM) and with a transient detection of chloromethane (CM). Methane and carbon disulfide, as potential products, were not detected. Neither CT nor CF inhibited the reductive dehalogenation of PCE to ethene. A series of transient studies conducted after these initial CT transformation tests, but in the absence of CT, showed formate remained an effective substrate for maintaining sulfate reduction and PCE transformation. Lactate, which was effectively fermented prior to CT addition, was not effectively fermented, with propionate accumulating as a fermentation product. When lactate was added, PCE was mainly transformed to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and VC, and sulfate reduction did not occur. In order to restore effective lactate fermentation the column was then bioaugmented with an EV culture that

  18. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

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    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  19. 四氯化碳液相催化加氢反应动力学的研究%KINETIC STUDIES ON THE CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE TO CHLOROFORM IN LIQUID PHASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建新; 蒋晓原; 陆维敏; 郑小明

    2001-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting chemical, while chloroform is not. Therefore it is important for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of CCl4 to CHCl3. In this paper, kinetics on the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform in liquid phase was studied. A reaction mechanism was proposed. Hydrogen molecular was activated on the surface of catalyst, the activated hydrogen atom then reacted with CCl4 in the solution and produced CHCl3. A definite kinetic equation could be deduced from the reaction mechanism. The reaction rate constant is concerned with the intial concentration of CCl4 in the solution, pressure, reaction temperature and the concentration of active center. All these factors were investigated over Pt-Pd/C catalyst and fit in with the kinetic equation. The activation energy of the reaction is 86?KJ/mol according to the experimental results.

  20. Headspace gas chromatography determination trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in water%顶空气相色谱法测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 张雪茹; 孙艳梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determine trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in water by headspace capillary column gas chromatography. Method Determination trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in water by headspace capillary column gas chromatography. Results The linear ranges of trichloromethane in 1. 0 to 8. 0μg/L and carbon tetrachloride in 0. 05 to 0.40μg/L showed good linear relation. The r value were 0. 9 991 and 0. 9 997, respectively, the recovery rates were during 97. 5% to 103. 3%. Conclusions This method was convenient and fast, it could used for determination the trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in water.%目的 建立测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳含量的顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法.方法 采用顶空自动进样技术,用毛细管柱气相色谱法测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳.结果 三氯甲烷在1.0~8.0μg/L、四氯化碳在0.05~0.40μg/L浓度范围内呈良好线性关系,其r值分别为0.9991和0.9997.水样回收率为92.6%-108.7%.结论 该方法简便、快速,可用于水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳的测定.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  2. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  3. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh A Tasduq; Peerzada J Kaiser; Bishan D Gupta; Vijay K Gupta; Rakesh K Johri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of 2'-p-hydroxy benzoylmussaenosidic acid [negundoside (NG), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in HUH-7 cells.METHODS: CCl4 is a well characterized hepatotoxin, and inducer of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular calcium are important steps in the pathway involved in CCl4 toxicity. Liver cells (HUH-7) were treated with CCl4, and the mechanism of the cytoprotective effect of NG was assessed. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug, was used as control.RESULTS: NG protected HUH-7 cells against CCl4 toxicity and loss of viability without modulating CYP2E1 activity. Prevention of CCl4, toxicity was associated with a reduction in oxidative damage as reflected by decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and maintenance of intracellular glutathione homeostasis. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of caspases mediated DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest, as a result of CCl4 treatment, were also blocked by NG. The protection afforded by NG seemed to be mediated by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and inhibition of phospholipases (cPLA2).CONCLUSION: NG exerts a protective effect on CYP2El-dependent CCl4 toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by an improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca2+-dependent proteases.

  4. Umbelliferone and daphnetin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed R; Emam, Manal A; Hassan, Nahla S; Mogadem, Abeer I

    2014-09-01

    Among various phytochemicals, coumarins comprise a very large class of plant phenolic compounds that have good nutritive value, in addition to their antioxidant effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of two coumarin derivatives, umbelliferone and daphnetin, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Treatment of rats with either umbelliferone or daphnetin significantly improved the CCl4-induced biochemical alterations. In addition, both compounds alleviated the induced-lipid peroxidation and boosted the antioxidant defense system. Moreover, the investigated compounds attenuated CCl4-induced histopathological alterations of the liver. Finally, umbelliferone and daphnetin induced the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thereby inducing the expression and activity of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These results suggest that umbelliferone and daphnetin ameliorate oxidative stress-related hepatotoxicity via their ability to augment cellular antioxidant defenses by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.

  5. Wu-Chia-Pi Solution Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury through the Antioxidative Abilities of Its Components Acteoside and Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chiung Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wu-Chia-Pi medicated wine, composed nine Chinese medicines soaked in 35% alcohol, is widely used in Asia for its health-promoting functions. However, long-term consumption of alcohol could result in liver dysfunction. In this study, Wu-Chia-Pi solution (WCPS and extract (WCPE were prepared by modification of the principals given by the Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of WCPS against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver injury and to clarify its active component(s. Antioxidative effects of the test samples were evaluated via MDA inhibition, catalase activity and DPPH-scavenging assays. HPLC was used to analysis the active components. Results showed that WCPS (1 and 5 mL/kg significantly prevented CCl4-induced liver injury without chronic liver toxicity. Referring to the antioxidative activities, WCPE displayed significant MDA inhibitory and DPPH-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 0.91 ± 0.03 and 0.60 ± 0.04 mg/mL, respectively. Catalase activity was also enhanced by treatment of WCPE, acteoside and quercetin. Therefore, we suggest that acteoside and quercetin are the major contributors to the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of WCPS, and a possible mechanism could be mediated through reduction of oxidative stress.

  6. A Crucial Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling in the Wound Healing Response in Acute Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Nao Oumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute liver injury induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has used a model of wound repair in the rat liver. Previously, we reported transient expression of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp 2 or Bmp4 at 6–24 h after CCl4 treatment, suggesting a role of BMP signaling in the wound healing response in the injured liver. In the present study, we investigated the biological meaning of the transient Bmp expression in liver injury. Methods. Using conditional knockout mice carrying a floxed exon in the BMP receptor 1A gene, we determined the hepatic gene expressions and proliferative activity following CCl4-treated liver. Results. We observed retardation of the healing response in the knockout mice treated with CCl4, including aggravated histological feature and reduced expressions of the albumin and Tdo2 genes, and a particular decrease in the proliferative activity shown by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Conclusion. Our findings suggest a crucial role of BMP signaling in the amelioration of acute liver injury.

  7. Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery of Interleukin-22 Protects the Mouse Liver from Concanavalin A-, Carbon Tetrachloride-, and Fas Ligand-Induced Injury via Activation of STAT3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongna Pan; Feng Hong; Svetlana Radaeva; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently identified T cell-derived cytokine whose biological significance remains obscure. Previously, we have shown that IL-22 plays a protective role in T cell-mediated hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (Con A), acting as a survival factor for hepatocytes. In the present paper, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 cDNA driven either by a liver-specific albumin promoter or a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter results in IL-22 protein expression, STAT3 activation, and expression of several anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 in the liver. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that IL-22 protein expression is mainly detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Overexpression of IL-22 by hydrodynamic gene delivery significantly protects against liver injury, necrosis, and apoptosis induced by administration of Con A, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or the Fas agonist Jo-2 mAb. Western blot analyses show that overexpression of IL-22 significantly enhances activation of STAT3 and expression of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2,and Mcl-1 proteins in liver injury induced by Con A. In conclusion, hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 protects against liver injury induced by a variety of toxins, suggesting the therapeutic potential of IL-22 in treating human liver disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):43-49.

  8. MR T1{rho} as an imaging biomarker for monitoring liver injury progression and regression: an experimental study in rats with carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yuan, Jing; Deng, Min; Ahuja, Anil T. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Hing Lok [School of Public Health and Primary Care, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Jockey Club Centre for Osteoporosis Care and Control, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chu, Eagle S.H.; Go, Minnie Y.Y.; Yu, Jun [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Hong Kong SAR (China); Teng, Gao-Jun [Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China)

    2012-08-15

    Recently it was shown that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1{rho} value increased with the severity of liver fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. Using a rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) liver injury model, this study further investigated the merit of T1{rho} relaxation for liver fibrosis evaluation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for up to 6 weeks. Then CCl{sub 4} was withdrawn and the animals were allowed to recover. Liver T1{rho} MRI and conventional T2-weighted images were acquired. Animals underwent MRI at baseline and at 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks post CCl{sub 4} injection, and they were also examined at 1 week and 4 weeks post CCl{sub 4} withdrawal. Liver histology was also sampled at these time points. Liver T1{rho} values increased slightly, though significantly, on day 2, and then increased further and were highest at week 6 post CCl{sub 4} insults. The relative liver signal intensity change on T2-weighted images followed a different time course compared with that of T1{rho}. Liver T1{rho} values decreased upon the withdrawal of the CCl{sub 4} insult. Histology confirmed the animals had typical CCl{sub 4} liver injury and fibrosis progression and regression processes. MR T1{rho} imaging can monitor CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury and fibrosis. (orig.)

  9. Schisandra Lignan Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Regulating the NF-κB and JNK Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingshan; Zhan, Qi; Li, Ying; Sun, Sen; Zhao, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of liver disease, whose main active components are lignans. However, the action mechanisms of the lignans in S. chinensis remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and related molecular mechanism of Schisandra lignan extract (SLE) against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in mice. Different doses of SLE at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered daily by gavage for 5 days before CCl4 treatment. The results showed that SLE significantly decreased the activities of serum ALT/AST and reduced liver pathologic changes induced by CCl4. Pretreatment with SLE not only decreased the content of MDA but increased SOD, GSH, and GSH-Px activities in the liver, suggesting that SLE attenuated CCl4-induced oxidative stress. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were decreased after oral administration of SLE, probably because lignans inhibited the NF-κB activity. Additionally, SLE also inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis by suppressing JNK activation and regulating Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways. In conclusion, these results suggested that SLE prevented CCl4-induced liver injury through a combination of antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and antihepatocyte apoptosis and alleviated inflammation and apoptosis by regulating the NF-κB, JNK, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways.

  10. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa S; Al-Yhya, Nouf A; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Alajmi, Reem A; Hassan, Zeinab K; Hassan, Salwa B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds.

  11. UV absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm at temperatures in the range 210–350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200–235 nm as a function of temperature (225–350 K. The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5–7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  12. UV absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm at temperatures in the range 210–350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200–235 nm as a function of temperature (225–350 K. The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5–7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  13. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic root extract of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ottu OJ; Atawodi SE; Onyike E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the methanolic extract of the root of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Methods: Malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin as indices of liver damage and lipid peroxidation were detected in rats after intraperitoneal administration of extract (5 mg/kg). Results: The liver, kidney and heart showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in the levels of MDA from (0.18±0.04), (0.23±0.07) and (0.26±0.10) nmol/mg respectively in the CCl4 control to (0.15±0.03), (0.17±0.04) and (0.17±0.07) nmol/mg protein in groups pre-treated with the extract for three days at 5 mg/kg). Similarly, compared to the CCl4 control, significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum AST, ALT and bilirubin as well as in level of total cholesterol and MDA with concomitant increase in HDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels when CCl4-intoxicated rats were treated with Cassia singueana root extract for two weeks. Conclusions:These results suggest that methanolic extract of Cassia singueana contain potent antioxidant compounds that can offer significant protection against hepatic and oxidative injuries.

  14. Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7 μL/g. On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in a single dose of 3.0 mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine kinase (CK and pyruvate kinase (PK. No changes in feeding behavior were observed after the treatment with the grapes juices. However, there was an increase in grooming behavior in the open field test provoked by both juices. CCl4 inhibited CK activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rats and CCl4 also reduced PK activity in all brain structures studied. Furthermore, both white grape juices prevented the decrease in the activity of CK and PK. Therefore, we can suggest that organic and conventional white grape juices could restore the activity of enzymes with a central role in brain energy metabolism.

  15. The molecular mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effect of gomisin A against oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Ryutaro; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of liver injury and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which gomisin A conferred a hepatoprotective effect, focusing on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects using rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. Pretreatment with gomisin A prior to the administration of CCl(4) markedly prevented an increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and histological hepatic lesions. Gomisin A was also associated with a decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation, and increased superoxide dismutase activity, suggesting that gomisin A has an antioxidant effect. In addition gomisin A treatment ameliorated mRNA levels of CCl(4)-induced inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and the protein levels of transcriptional upregulator nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and phospho-inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB). Furthermore, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a myofibroblast marker, was also inhibited by gomisin A treatment. These results suggest that gomisin A inhibits the oxidative stress and activation of NF-κB, leading to down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and amelioration of fibrogenesis.

  16. Effectiveness of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced damages on the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşı, S; Güvenç, M; Çiftçi, M; Sönmez, M; Özer Kaya, Ş; Çay, M; Aksakal, M

    2014-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the likelihood of detrimental effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) on male reproductive system through oxidative stress mechanism and also protective effects of cinnamon bark oil (CBO). For this purpose, 28 healthy male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, seven rats in each. Group 1 received only olive oil daily; group 2 was treated with 100 mg kg(-1) CBO daily; group 3 was treated with only 0.25 ml kg(-1) CCl4 weekly; and group 4 received weekly CCl4 + daily CBO. All administrations were made by intragastric catheter and maintained for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular oxidative stress markers and testicular apoptosis were examined. CCl4 administration caused significant decreases in body and reproductive organ weights, testicular catalase (CAT) activity, sperm motility and concentration, and significant increases in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic index along with some histopathological damages compared with the control group. However, significant improvements were observed in absolute weights of testis and epididymis, all sperm quality parameters, LPO level, apoptotic index and testicular histopathological structure following the administration of CCl4 together with CBO when compared to group given CCl4 only. The findings of this study clearly suggest that CBO has protective effect against damages in male reproductive organs and cells induced by CCl4 .

  17. Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchornea cordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience O Osadebe; Festus BC Okoye; Philip F Uzor; Nneka R Nnamani; Ijeoma E Adiele; Nkemakonam C Obiano

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities ofAlchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) leaf extract.Methods: Various solvent fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf of the plantA. cordifolia Mull. Arg (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase(SGOT/AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase(SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and total bilirubin. Thein vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)free radical scavenging assay. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening.Results:The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, at a dose of 300mg/kg, produced significant(P<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. The effects were comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the respective experiments, silymarin and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were detected in the phytochemical screening.Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that the plant ofA. cordifolia possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities and these activities reside mainly in the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of methanol leaf extract.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Grapevine Leaf Extracts against Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Wohlenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become increasingly important to study the beneficial properties of derivatives of grapes and grapevine. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca leaf extracts, comparing conventional and organic grapevines, in different brain areas of rats. We used male Wistar rats treated with grapevine leaf extracts for a period of 14 days, and on the 15th day, we administered in half of the rats, mineral oil and the other half, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were removed to assess oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS were unchanged. However, CCl4 induced oxidative damage to proteins in all tissues studied, and this injury was prevented by both extracts. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased by CCl4 in the cerebral cortex and decreased in other tissues. However, CCl4 increased catalase (CAT activity in the cerebellum and decreased it in the cerebral cortex. The SOD/CAT ratio was restored in the cerebellum by both extracts and only in the cerebral cortex by the organic extract.

  19. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM) Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Leola N.; Schreiner, Petra; Ng, Betina Y. Y.; Lo, Bernard; Hughes, Michael R.; Scott, R. Wilder; Gusti, Vionarica; Lecour, Samantha; Simonson, Eric; Manisali, Irina; Barta, Ingrid; McNagny, Kelly M.; Crawford, Jason; Webb, Murray; Underhill, T. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis. PMID:26998906

  20. Loss of discoidin domain receptor 2 promotes hepatic fibrosis after chronic carbon tetrachloride through altered paracrine interactions between hepatic stellate cells and liver-associated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso, Elvira; Arteta, Beatriz; Benedicto, Aitor; Crende, Olatz; Friedman, Scott L

    2011-12-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) interact with fibrillar collagen through the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in acute hepatic injury, generating increased fibrosis. However, the contribution of DDR2 signaling to chronic liver fibrosis in vivo is unclear, despite its relevance to chronic human liver disease. We administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) to DDR2(+/+) and DDR2(-/-) mice twice weekly, and liver tissues and isolated HSCs were analyzed. In contrast to changes seen in acute injury, after chronic CCl(4) administration, DDR2(-/-) livers had increased collagen deposition, gelatinolytic activity, and HSC density. Increased basal gene expression of osteopontin, transforming growth factor-β1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 and reduced basal gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13, and collagen type I in quiescent DDR2(-/-) HSCs were amplified further after chronic CCl(4). In concordance, DDR2(-/-) HSCs isolated from chronically injured livers had enhanced in vitro migration and proliferation, but less extracellular matrix degradative activity. Macrophages from chronic CCl(4)-treated DDR2(-/-) livers showed stronger chemoattractive activity toward DDR2(-/-) HSCs than DDR2(+/+) macrophages, increased extracellular matrix degradation, and higher cytokine mRNA expression. In conclusion, loss of DDR2 promotes chronic liver fibrosis after CCl(4) injury. The fibrogenic sinusoidal milieu generated in chronic DDR2(-/-) livers recruits more HSCs to injured regions, which enhances fibrosis. Together, these findings suggest that DDR2 normally orchestrates gene programs and paracrine interactions between HSCs and macrophages that together attenuate chronic hepatic fibrosis.

  1. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  2. Electrocardiographic Findings and Serum Troponin I in Carbon Monoxide Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG, troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016. No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026. CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023, but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.

  3. Tratamento homeopático da hepatotoxicose aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono em coelhos Homeopatic treatment of acute carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Ribeiro Moncorvo

    1998-09-01

    animals in group I were treated with carbon tetrachloride 30 CH, once a day. The animals in group II were treated with Phosphorus 30 CH also once a day. The rabbits in group III served as a control receiving the same quantity of placebo with the same protocol of lhe others. The blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture every 4 days. The seric concentrations of ALT, AST, GGT and FA were submited to estatistic avaliation. The variation of all enzimes tested was significant between the days, but not always between the groups. This study demonstrated thaf carbon tetrachloride 30 CH was efficient in acelerating the recuperation of normal levels of ALT, but the terapy with Phosphorus 30 CH was insufficient for reverting the hepatic intoxication.

  4. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  5. Effects of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Alcoholic Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadust MR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. alcoholic extract on liver injury caused by the oxidant carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, an experiment was performed as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 with 4 replications of 10 broilers each. Factors included two levels of peppermint leaf alcoholic extract (0 and 2 mL/Kg body weight and CCl4 (0 and 1 mL/Kg body weight. Results showed significant (P interactions for body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR on d 42 of the experiment. The alcoholic extract of peppermint leaf did not improve growth performance, whereas CCl4 worsened BWG and FCR (P. The interaction between peppermint extract and CCl4 indicated an ameliorative effect of peppermint extract on BWG and FCR (P. The interaction effects between peppermint extract and CCl4 significantly differed for blood serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin ratio, glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDLC, LDLC, LDLC:HDLC ratio, and VLDLC as well as the amount of blood liver enzymes (P. Peppermint extract significantly increased blood serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, triglyceride and HDLC, whilst CCl4 decreased those concentrations (P. Blood serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDLC, LDLC:HDLC ratio, VLDLC and glucose were decreased by peppermint extract, whereas those concentrations were increased by CCl4 (P. A significantly higher level of liver enzymes was found in blood serum of birds treated by CCl4 than those by peppermint extract (P. A moderate effect on blood serum liver enzymes was observed by the interaction between 2 mL of peppermint extract and 1 mL of CCl4 (P. Generally, this study indicated that in vivo administration of peppermint alcoholic extract ameliorated the adverse effects of CCl4 on growth performance and liver function, therefore it might be useful for the prevention of oxidative stress

  6. Urinary metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effects of total alkaloids from Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats using (1)H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Zheng-Teng; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Jin-Xia; Liu, Xu-Wen; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fang-Ming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Liang, Yong-Hong; Song, Hui; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2017-03-19

    Chronic liver injury has been shown to cause liver fibrosis due to the sustained pathophysiological wound healing response of the liver, and eventually progresses to cirrhosis. The total alkaloids of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (TACS), a collection of important bioactive ingredients derived from the traditional Chinese folk medicine Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), have been reported to have protective effects on the liver. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, the urinary metabonomics and the biochemical changes in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury due to treatment TACS or administration of the positive control drug-bifendate were studied via proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analysis. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) suggested that metabolic perturbation caused by CCl4 damage was recovered with TACS and bifendate treatment. A total of seven metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylamine, taurine, phenylacetylglycine, creatinine and hippurate were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. According to pathway analysis using identified metabolites and correlation network construction, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were recognized as the most affected metabolic pathways associated with CCl4 chronic hepatotoxicity. Notably, the changes in 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, taurine and hippurate during the process of CCl4-induced chronic liver injury were significantly restored by TACS treatment, which suggested that TACS synergistically mediated the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including the TCA cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. This study could bring valuable insight to evaluating the efficacy of TACS intervention therapy, help deepen the understanding of the

  7. Protective effects of the apigenin-O/C-diglucoside saponarin from Gypsophila trichotoma on carbone tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro/in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Vitcheva, Vessela; Krasteva, Ilina; Manov, Vassil; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective activity of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., using in vitro/in vivo hepatotoxicity model based on carbone tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. The effect of saponarin was compared with those of silymarin. In vitro experiments were carried out in primary isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell incubation with CCl₄ (86 μmol l⁻¹) led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH and elevation in MDA quantity. Cell pre-incubation with saponarin (60-0.006 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated CCl₄-induced hepatic damage in a concentration-dependent manner. These results were supported by the following in vivo study. Along with decreased MDA quantity and increased level of cell protector GSH, seven day pre-treatment of rats with saponarin (80 mg/kg bw; p.o.) also prevented CCl₄ (10%, p.o.)-caused oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD, GST, GPx, GR). Biotransformation phase I enzymes were also assessed. Administered alone, saponarin decreased EMND and AH activities but not at the same extent as CCl₄ did. However, pre-treatment with saponarin significantly increased enzyme activities in comparison to CCl₄ only group. The observed biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations where the hepatoprotective effect of saponarin was comparative to the effects of the known hepatoprotecor silymarin. Our results suggest that saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., showed in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against CCl₄-induced liver damage.

  8. Puerarin attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver oxidative stress and hyperlipidaemia in mouse by JNK/c-Jun/CYP7A1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie-Qiong; Ding, Jie; Zhao, Hai; Liu, Chan-Min

    2014-11-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of puerarin on hepatic oxidative stress and hyperlipidaemia in mice exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male ICR mice were injected with CCl4 with or without puerarin co-administration (200 and 400 mg/kg intragastrically once-daily) for 8 weeks. Our data showed that puerarin significantly prevented CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of the liver damage (serum aminotransferase levels) and histopathological analysis. Puerarin decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the protein carbonyl content (PCO) in the liver of CCl4-treated mice. Puerarin also restored the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the liver. Furthermore, the increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) induced by CCl4 was effectively suppressed by puerarin. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the CCl4 treatment mice was also increased by puerarin. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin remarkably inhibited hyperlipidaemia by regulating the expression of phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), phosphorylated c-Jun protein and cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver of CCl4-treated mice. Altogether, these results suggest that puerarin could protect the CCl4-induced liver injury and hyperlipidaemia by reducing reactive oxygen species S production, renewing the total antioxidant capacity and influencing expression of hepatic lipid biosynthesis and metabolism genes.

  9. Development of quercetin-phospholipid complex to improve the bioavailability and protection effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Meiyu; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gu, Liqiang; Hu, Gaosheng; Chen, Xiaohui; Jia, Jingming

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin (QT) is a natural flavonoid with various biological activities and pharmacological actions. However, the bioavailability of QT is relatively low due to its low solubility which severely limits its use. In this study, we intended to improve the bioavailability of QT by preparing quercetin-phospholipid complex (QT-PC) and investigate the protective effect of QT-PC against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The physicochemical properties of QT-PC were characterized in terms of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and water/n-octanol solubility. FTIR, DSC and XRPD data confirmed the formation of QT-PC. The water solubility of QT was improved significantly in the prepared complex, indicating its increased hydrophilicity. Oral bioavailability of QT and QT-PC was evaluated in SD rats, and the plasma QT was estimated by HPLC-MS. QT-PC exhibited higher Cmax (1.58±0.11 vs. 0.67±0.08μg/mL), increased AUC0-∞ (8.60±1.25 vs. 2.41±0.51mg/Lh) and t1/2z (7.76±1.09 vs. 4.81±0.87h) when compared to free QT. The greater absorption of QT-PC group suggested the improved bioavailability. Moreover, biochemical changes and histopathological observations revealed that QT-PC provided better protection to rat liver than free QT at the same dose. Thus, phospholipid complexation might be one of the suitable approaches to improve the oral bioavailability of QT and obtain better protective effects against CCl4 induced acute liver damage in SD rats than free QT at the same dose level.

  10. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Marinho, Jéssica Pereira; Abujamra, Ana Lúcia; Dani, Caroline; Quincozes-Santos, André; Funchal, Cláudia

    2015-09-01

    Acai offers health benefits associated with its high antioxidante capacity, phytochemical composition, nutritional and sensory value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage via modulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brain tissue. The rats were treated via oral (gavage) daily with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days at a dose of 7 μL/g. On the 15th day, the animals in each group received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3.0 mL/kg or the same volume of mineral oil. After 4 h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and homogenated to evaluate the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. It was observed that CCl4 increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in all brain tissues, and that acai frozen pulp was able to prevent this increase. IL-6 and IL-10 brain tissue levels remained unchanged during all treatments. CCl4 experimental model was suitable to investigate brain tissue anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acai frozen pulp prevented an increase in IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, while IL-6 and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. The precise pathway by which inflammation contribute to hepatic encephalopathy, as well as to how this pathway can be modulated, is still under investigation.

  11. Dose response and time course studies on superoxide dismutase as a urinary biomarker of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in the Hanover Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J; Clarke, Christopher J; Dare, Theo; Turton, John A

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) is increased in the urine of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity. The present experiments aimed to investigate further the usefulness of urinary SOD-1 as a non-invasive biomarker of liver injury. Two investigations were carried out, a dose response study and a time course study. In the dose response study, rats were given a single dose of CCl(4) at 0 (control), 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.80 ml/kg and urine samples collected from 12 to 36 h postdosing. In the time course study, rats were dosed at 0.80 ml/kg CCl(4) and urine sampled at 4, 12, 24 and 36 h postdosing. In both studies, the presence of SOD-1 in the urine was confirmed by Western blotting with an SOD-1 antibody. In the dose response study, serum SOD activity was elevated in all CCl(4)-treated animals and urinary SOD-1 activity was increased 2.2 times at the lowest dose (0.10 ml/kg) and 60.4 times at the highest CCl(4) dose level (0.80 ml/kg). In the time course study, urinary SOD-1 was first detected in samples collected from 4 to 12 h postdosing. We conclude that urinary SOD-1 has potential as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of CCl(4)-induced hepatocellular injury.

  12. Non-covalent C-Cl…π interaction in acetylene-carbon tetrachloride adducts: Matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Vidya, K.; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D.

    2016-03-01

    Non-covalent halogen-bonding interactions between π cloud of acetylene (C2H2) and chlorine atom of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) have been investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical computations. The structure and the energies of the 1:1 C2H2-CCl4 adducts were computed at the B3LYP, MP2 and M05-2X levels of theory using 6-311 ++G(d,p) basis set. The computations indicated two minima for the 1:1 C2H2-CCl4 adducts; with the C-Cl…π adduct being the global minimum, where π cloud of C2H2 is the electron donor. The second minimum corresponded to a C-H…Cl adduct, in which C2H2 is the proton donor. The interaction energies for the adducts A and B were found to be nearly identical. Experimentally, both C-Cl…π and C-H…Cl adducts were generated in Ar and N2 matrixes and characterized using infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report on halogen bonded adduct, stabilized through C-Cl…π interaction being identified at low temperatures using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses were performed to support the experimental results. The structures of 2:1 ((C2H2)2-CCl4) and 1:2 (C2H2-(CCl4)2) multimers and their identification in the low temperature matrixes were also discussed.

  13. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources.

  14. Evaluating genotoxicity data to identify a mode of action and its application in estimating cancer risk at low doses: A case study involving carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, David A

    2008-03-01

    In the new USEPA cancer risk assessment guidelines, mode of action (MoA) information, combined with a determination of whether or not a chemical is mutagenic, plays an important role in determining whether a linear or nonlinear approach should be used to estimate cancer risks at low doses. In this article, carbon tetrachloride (CT) is used as an example to illustrate how mixed genotoxicity data can be evaluated and used to identify a likely MoA. CT is essentially negative in inducing gene mutations in Salmonella, but is consistently positive in inducing recombination and aneuploidy in fungi. Negative or equivocal results were seen in most in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals, including mutation studies in transgenic mice. However, DNA adducts, primarily those derived from oxidation- and lipid-peroxidation-derived products as well as DNA double-strand breaks and micronucleated cells, have been seen repeatedly in the liver of CT-treated animals. On the basis of the weight of evidence, CT should not be considered a directly mutagenic agent. Mutagenic as well as other genotoxic effects, as they occur, will most likely be generated through indirect mechanisms resulting from oxidative and lipid peroxidative damage and/or damage occurring during necrosis or apoptosis. As key events in this process are expected to occur in a nonlinear fashion, the expected relationship between CT dose and carcinogenic response in the liver is likely to be nonlinear with a steep dose response. This conclusion is consistent with rodent cancer bioassay results in which steep nonlinear dose responses have been seen.

  15. P2X7 receptor-NADPH oxidase axis mediates protein radical formation and Kupffer cell activation in carbon tetrachloride-mediated steatohepatitis in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Saurabh; Rana, Ritu; Corbett, Jean; Kadiiska, Maria B; Goldstein, Joyce; Mason, Ronald P

    2012-05-01

    While some studies show that carbon tetrachloride-mediated metabolic oxidative stress exacerbates steatohepatitic-like lesions in obese mice, the redox mechanisms that trigger the innate immune system and accentuate the inflammatory cascade remain unclear. Here we have explored the role of the purinergic receptor P2X7-NADPH oxidase axis as a primary event in recognizing the heightened release of extracellular ATP from CCl(4)-treated hepatocytes and generating redox-mediated Kupffer cell activation in obese mice. We found that an underlying condition of obesity led to the formation of protein radicals and posttranslational nitration, primarily in Kupffer cells, at 24h post-CCl(4) administration. The free radical-mediated oxidation of cellular macromolecules, which was NADPH oxidase and P2X7 receptor-dependent, correlated well with the release of TNF-α and MCP-2 from Kupffer cells. The Kupffer cells in CCl(4)-treated mice exhibited increased expression of MHC Class II proteins and showed an activated phenotype. Increased expression of MHC Class II was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin , P2X7 receptor antagonist A438709 hydrochloride, and genetic deletions of the NADPH oxidase p47 phox subunit or the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 receptor acted upstream of NADPH oxidase activation by up-regulating the expression of the p47 phox subunit and p47 phox binding to the membrane subunit, gp91 phox. We conclude that the P2X7 receptor is a primary mediator of oxidative stress-induced exacerbation of inflammatory liver injury in obese mice via NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanisms.

  16. Detection of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a serum marker associated with inlfammations by acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Karabacak; Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan; Abuzer Coskun; Orhan Akpinar; Ali Duman; Mcahit Kapci; Sevki Hakan Eren; Pnar Karabacak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is an indicator of systemic inflammation, in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We included 528 patients (275 women) who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2009 and March 2014. Control group was composed of 54 patients (24 women). Platelet count and mean platelet volume level were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Results: White blood cell level (9.8 ± 3.3vs 8.6 ± 2.9× 103/mL, respectively;P= 0.01), neutrophil count (6.00 ± 2.29vs 4.43 ± 2.04×103/mL, respectively;P Conclusions: The increase ofNLR may indicate the progression of fatal complications due to CO poisoning.

  17. The inhibitory effects in vitro of phenothiazines and other drugs on lipid-peroxidation systems in rat liver microsomes, and their relationship to the liver necrosis produced by carbon tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    1968-01-01

    1. The effects of several phenothiazine derivatives on lipid-peroxidation systems in rat liver microsomes were studied and the results are considered in relation to the hepatotoxic action of carbon tetrachloride. 2. The lipid-peroxidation system coupled to NADPH2 oxidation and stimulated by an ADP–Fe2+ mixture is strongly inhibited in vitro by promethazine (50% inhibition at 29μm). Chlorpromazine and Stelazine also inhibit the peroxidation system but are less effective than promethazine. 3. The effects of promethazine on three other systems involving oxygen uptake (sulphite oxidation, orcinol oxidation and mitochondrial succinate oxidation) were also studied. Promethazine does not inhibit these systems to the same extent as it does the NADPH2–ADP–Fe2+ lipid-peroxidation system. 4. Promethazine also produces an inhibition of the NADPH2–ADP–Fe2+ system in liver microsomes after administration in vivo. It is concluded that the inhibition involves the interaction of the drug (or a metabolite of it) with the microsomal electron-transport chain. 5. Several other compounds known to protect the rat against liver necrosis after the administration of carbon tetrachloride were tested for inhibitory action on the NADPH2–ADP–Fe2+ system. No clear correlation was observed between effectiveness in vivo as a protective agent and inhibitory effects on the NADPH2–ADP–Fe2+ system in vitro. 6. Promethazine was found to inhibit the stimulation of lipid peroxidation produced in rat liver microsomes by low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride. This effect occurs at a concentration similar to that observed in vivo after administration of a normal clinical dose. PMID:4388686

  18. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Flooding: Changes in Risk Before, During and After Flooding Require Appropriate Public Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas; Murray, Virginia; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While many of the acute risks posed by flooding and other disasters are well characterised, the burden of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the wide range of ways in which this avoidable poisoning can occur around flooding episodes is poorly understood, particularly in Europe. The risk to health from CO may continue over extended periods of time after flooding and different stages of disaster impact and recovery are associated with different hazards. Methods A review of the literature was undertaken to describe the changing risk of CO poisoning throughout flooding/disaster situations. The key objectives were to identify published reports of flood-related carbon monoxide incidents that have resulted in a public health impact and to categorise these according to Noji’s Framework of Disaster Phases (Noji 1997); to summarise and review carbon monoxide incidents in Europe associated with flooding in order to understand the burden of CO poisoning associated with flooding and power outages; and to summarise those strategies in Europe which aim to prevent CO poisoning that have been published and/or evaluated. The review identified 23 papers which met its criteria. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Results Papers describing poisonings can be considered in terms of the appliance/source of CO or the circumstances leading to poisoning.The specific circumstances identified which lead to CO poisoning during flooding and other disasters vary according to disaster phase. Three key situations were identified in which flooding can lead to CO poisoning; pre-disaster, emergency/recovery phase and post-recovery/delayed phase. These circumstances are described in detail with case studies. This classification of situations is important as different public health messages are more appropriate at different

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning and flooding: changes in risk before, during and after flooding require appropriate public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas; Murray, Virginia; Baker, David

    2014-07-03

    Introduction While many of the acute risks posed by flooding and other disasters are well characterised, the burden of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the wide range of ways in which this avoidable poisoning can occur around flooding episodes is poorly understood, particularly in Europe. The risk to health from CO may continue over extended periods of time after flooding and different stages of disaster impact and recovery are associated with different hazards. Methods A review of the literature was undertaken to describe the changing risk of CO poisoning throughout flooding/disaster situations. The key objectives were to identify published reports of flood-related carbon monoxide incidents that have resulted in a public health impact and to categorise these according to Noji's Framework of Disaster Phases (Noji 1997); to summarise and review carbon monoxide incidents in Europe associated with flooding in order to understand the burden of CO poisoning associated with flooding and power outages; and to summarise those strategies in Europe which aim to prevent CO poisoning that have been published and/or evaluated. The review identified 23 papers which met its criteria. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Results Papers describing poisonings can be considered in terms of the appliance/source of CO or the circumstances leading to poisoning.The specific circumstances identified which lead to CO poisoning during flooding and other disasters vary according to disaster phase. Three key situations were identified in which flooding can lead to CO poisoning; pre-disaster, emergency/recovery phase and post-recovery/delayed phase. These circumstances are described in detail with case studies. This classification of situations is important as different public health messages are more appropriate at different phases

  1. Use of carbon monoxide alarms to prevent poisonings during a power outage--North Carolina, December 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-12

    Each year in the United States, approximately 500 persons die from unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, often during electric power outages caused by severe storms. Use of residential CO alarms has been recommended to reduce the incidence of CO poisoning. In September 2000, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (2002 population: 722,367), adopted a public health ordinance requiring a CO alarm in the majority of residences; all-electric residences without attached garages (35.4% of all homes) were exempt. The ordinance also permitted use of alarms without battery back-up. On December 4, 2002, an ice storm caused 78.9% of county households to lose power. During the next 9 days, 124 cases of symptomatic CO poisoning were reported. To characterize these poisonings and the effectiveness of the CO alarm ordinance, local emergency physicians, fire department authorities, and CDC conducted an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that 96.2% of the severe poisonings occurred in homes with no reported functioning CO alarm. As a result of these findings, on October 8, 2003, Mecklenburg County officials amended the ordinance to require alarms with battery back-ups in all residences. Officials in other communities should consider enacting such alarm ordinances to prevent CO poisonings.

  2. Recovery of cognitive dysfunction in a case of delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning after treatment with donepezil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy following carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious complication. Here, we report a patient with delayed encephalopathy who suffered from cognitive disorders and urinary incontinence after a temporal normal period of 15 days after acute intoxication, and his cognitive function recovered gradually following donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Now, he can undertake slight farming work.

  3. THE USE OF VAPOR EXTRACTION SYSTEM AND ITS SUBSEQUENT REDUCTION OF WORKER EXPOSURE TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE DURING RETRIEVAL OF HANFORDS LEGACY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITTS DA

    2008-03-18

    The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear productions complex located in south eastern Washington and is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), used in mixtures with other organic compounds, was used to recover plutonium from aqueous streams at Z Plant located on the Hanford Site. The aqueous and organic liquid waste that remained at the end of this process was discharged to soil columns in waste cribs located near Z Plant. Included in this waste slurry along with CCl{sub 4} were tributyl phosphate, dibutyl butyl phosphate, and lard oil. (Truex et al., 2001). In the mid 1980's, CCl{sub 4} was found in the unconfined aquifer below the 200 West Area and subsequent ground water monitoring indicated that the plume was widespread and that the concentrations were increasing. It has been estimated that approximately 750,000 kg (826.7 tons) of CCl{sub 4} was discharged to the soil from 1955 to 1973. (Truex et al., 2001). With initial concentration readings of approximately 30,000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in one well field alone, soil vapor extraction began in 1992 in an effort to remove the CCl{sub 4} from the soil. (Rohay, 1999). Since 1992, approximately 78,607.6 kg (86.65 tons) of CCl{sub 4} have been extracted from the soil through the process of soil vapor extraction and 9,409.8 kg (10.37 tons) have been removed from the groundwater. (EPA, 2006). The success of this environmental cleanup process benefited not only the environment but also workers who were later involved in the retrieval of solid waste from trenches that were in or near the CCl{sub 4} plume. Solid waste was buried in trenches near Z Plant from 1967 to 1990. The solid waste, some of which was chemically and/or radioactively contaminated, was buried in trenches in steel or fiber drums, fiberboard boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood boxes, and steel, concrete, or wooden boxes. Much of this waste was buried with the intention of

  4. Study on mechanism of rat renal injury induced by carbon tetrachloride%四氯化碳诱发大鼠肾损伤的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳建莹; 李文良; 李先华; 肖业伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the toxic mechanism of chronic kidney injury induced by carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)in rat. Methods Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group and exposure group. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected in control group. CCl4 soybean oil solution was intraperitoneally injected in exposure group. Blood serum samples of all rats were collected in the 8th week for detecting BUN, CRE, SOD and MDA contents. In addition, kidney tissues were collected in the 8th week for measuring SOD activity, MDA content and observing pathologic findings. Results Levels of BUN and CRE in serum were significantly higher (P< 0. 01), levels of MDA and NO in serum and kidney tissue increased significantly, while SOD activity was significantly lower than the control group(P<0. 01). Severe morphological changes were clearly seen in rat renal of the exposure group. Conclusions CCl4 could induce renal injury. The mechanism might be closely related with increased free radicals and lipid peroxidation.%目的 探讨四氯化碳(CCl4)致大鼠慢性肾损伤的毒性机制.方法 将健康的Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组和染毒组,对照组腹部皮下注射生理盐水;染毒组腹部皮下注射CCl4大豆油溶液.于第8周末分别检测血清中尿素氮(BUN)和肌酐(CRE)含量;血清和肾组织中丙二醛(MDA)、NO含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活力,并作肾组织病理检查.结果 与对照组比较,染毒组血清中BUN、CRE明显增高(P<0.01),血清和肾组织中SOD活力明显降低、MDA和NO含量增加(P<0.01).染毒组肾组织病理学变化明显.结论 CCl4能诱发肾脏损伤,其机制可能与体内自由基增加和细胞脂质过氧化有关.

  5. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  6. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, HUI-NING; CHEN, NI-WEI; SHEN, WEI-LIN; ZHAO, XIANG-YUN; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as compared with

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Øyvind; Brattebø, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

    2004-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent.

  8. 四氯化碳过程助剂及其替代技术的应用与发展现状%Carbon tetrachloride as a process agent,and application and current development situation of its substitute technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春喜; 汪文川; 杨礼荣; 刘援; 王淑燕

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍了破坏臭物质的主要品种、用途和国家淘汰计划,着重介绍了四氯化碳在过程助剂领域中的主要用途、用量以及替代技术的开发现状和趋势,指出了研究四氯化碳转化技术的紧迫性、重要性和选择转化反应需要考虑的因素。%The main species,uses and phaseout programof ozone depleting substances are described briefly.The main uses and consumption of carbon tetrachloride are introduced emphatically as well as the current development situation and trend of its substitute technology.The urgency,importance and factors needing to be considered in the development of carbon tetrachloride substitute technology are pointed out.

  9. Notes from the field: carbon monoxide exposures reported to poison centers and related to hurricane Sandy - Northeastern United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall as a post-tropical cyclone along the coast of southern New Jersey on Monday, October 29, 2012. In the wake of Sandy, state and federal public health agencies have observed an increase in the number of exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) reported to poison centers. CO is imperceptible and can cause adverse health effects ranging from fatigue and headache to cardiorespiratory failure, coma, and death. CO poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in post-disaster situations, when widespread power outages occur and risky behaviors, such as improper placement of generators and indoor use of charcoal grills, increase.

  10. [Family suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning, Paris 1890-1899. Role of popular illustrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    History has nearly forgotten a series of six suicides by family groups composed of parents and children residing in the same household, which received wide attention in the 1890s. This period saw the launch of illustrated supplements to Parisian daily newspapers, several of which produced dramatic depictions of these tragedies. The cause of the suicides was believed to be extreme poverty or the fear thereof. In the latter cases, it is argued that newspaper illustrations facilitated the carrying out of suicidal acts by persons whose circumstances placed them at risk for suicide. The choice of death by carbon monoxide poisoning was due to a wish by parents to die together with their children and to the hope of a peaceful death.

  11. Medical Recapitulate%Role of Nrf-2 Gene in the Pathogenesis of Brain Damage Following Acute Carbon Monoxide Poison-ing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑然(综述); 李琴; 邹勇(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are two main clinical manifestations of brain damage after carbon monoxide(CO) exposure,and seriously affect the life quality and prognosis of patients with CO poisoning.Hyperbaric oxygen is considered as the main therapy for brain damage after acute CO poi-soning.However,there are many controversies on its clinical application .The pathogenesis of brain damage after acute CO poisoning is poorly elucidated.The activation of nuclear factor erythrocyte two related factors-2 ( Nrf-2) may benefit the therapy for inflammatory and apoptosis mechanism triggered by CO poisoning .Thus, research on the role of Nrf-2 gene in the pathogenesis of brain damage following acute CO poisoning can pro-vide new ideas for the targeted therapy for the acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy following CO poisoning.%一氧化碳中毒后的急性脑损伤和迟发型脑病严重影响患者的预后及生存质量。高压氧作为临床治疗一氧化碳中毒性脑损伤的主要方法争议颇多,而一氧化碳中毒性脑损伤的发病机制目前也尚未明确。核因子红细胞2相关因子2(Nrf-2)的激活可能对一氧化碳中毒引发的炎症、凋亡等发挥较好的治疗作用。因此,研究Nrf-2在一氧化碳中毒性脑损伤发病机制中的作用可为一氧化碳中毒后急性脑损伤和迟发型脑病的靶向治疗提供新思路。

  12. A Continuous Flow Column Study of the Anaerobic Transformation of a CAH Mixture of Tetrachloroethene and Carbon Tetrachloride Using Formate as an Electron Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M. F.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Many groundwater sites are contaminated with mixtures of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that represent a challenge when biological remediation processes are being considered. This is especially challenging when high concentrations of CAHs are present.Trichloromethane (CF), for example, has been observed to inhibit and potentially exert toxicity on reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where the simultaneous transformation of PCE and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was achieved. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. The column was fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE to achieve an influent concentration near its solubility limit (0.10 mM) and formate (1.5 mM) that reacts to produce hydrogen as the ultimate electron donor. The column was operated for over 1600 days prior to the addition of CT. During this period PCE was transformed mainly to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) and minor amounts of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and TCE. The transformation extent achieved based on the column effluent concentrations ranged from about 50% ETH, 30% VC, and 20 cis-DCE up to 80% ETH and 20% VC. When the column was fed sulfate, it was completely transformed via sulfate reduction. Ferrous iron production from ferric iron reduction was observed early in the study. Acetate was also formed as a result of homoacetogenesis from hydrogen utilization. CT addition (0.015 mM) was started at 1600 days while PCE addition was continued. During the first 25 days of CT addition, CT concentrations gradually increased to 50% of the injection concentration and chloromethane (CM) and CF were observed as transformation products. CT concentrations then decreased with over 98% transformation achieved.CM was removed to below the detection limit and CF concentration decreases to

  13. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  14. (Z)-5-(4-methoxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione protects rats from carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and fibrogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Zhi Chen; Li-Juan Chen; Yu-Quan Wei; Zheng-Lin Wang; Chong-Yang Deng; Hao Zheng; Xian-Huo Wang; Liang Ma; Xia Ye; Ying-Hua Ma; Cai-Feng Xie

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the hepatoprotective roles of (Z)-5-(4-methoxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (SKLB010) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute and chronic liver injury and its underlying mechanisms of action.METHODS:In the first experiment,rats were weighed and randomly divided into 5 groups (five rats in each group) to assess the protective effect of SKLB010on acute liver injury.For induction of acute injury,rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg of 50% (v/v) CCl4 dissolved in olive oil (1∶1).Group 1 was untreated and served as the control group; group 2 received CCl4 for induction of liver injury and served as the model group.In groups 3,4 and 5,rats receiving CCl4 were also treated with SKLB010 at doses of 25,50 and 100 mg/kg,respectively.Blood samples were collected at 6,12 and 24 h after CCl4 intoxication to determine the serum activity of alanine amino transferase.Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.At 24 h after CCl4 injection,liver fibrogenesis was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical analyses.Cytokine transcript levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver tissues of rats were measured using a reverse transcriptase reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique.In the second experiment,rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (15 rats in each group),and liver injury in the CCl4-administered groups was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg of 50% (v/v) CCl4 dissolved in olive oil (1∶1).The SKLB010-treated groups received oral 100 mg/kg SKLB010 before CCl4 administration.Five rats in each group were sacrificed at 2 h,6 h,12 h after CCl4 intoxication and small fortions of livers were rapidly frozen for extraction of total RNA,hepatic proteins and glutathione (GSH) assays.In the hepatic fibrosis model group,rats were randomly divided into 2

  15. A positive Babinski reflex predicts delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in Chinese patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.

  16. A Positive Babinski Reflex Predicts Delayed Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Chinese Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fang Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1–79.6, specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7–92.1, positive predictive value (PPV = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1–37.5, and negative predictive value (NPV = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0–98.9. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544–0.880. A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.

  17. Adopting Vacuum Blood Collection Tube to Detect Chloroform and Carbon Tetrachloride in Water by Headspace Gas Chromatography%真空采血管顶空气相色谱法检测水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志强

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum blood collection tube was adopted to detect chloroform and carbon tetrachlo-ride in water by headspace gas chromatography. Results showed that the linear range of chloroform was 10.0~50.0μg/L and carbon tetrachloride was 0.5~4.0μg/L, which showed a good linear rela-tion. The r value was 0.999 4 and 0.999 8. RSD of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride was 1.64%~2.27% and 1.45%~2.40% respectively. Recoveries of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were 97.0%~103.5% and 94.0%~103.2% respectively. This method is simple and has good precision and accuracy, and suitable for detecting chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water.%采用真空采血管顶空填充柱气相色谱法测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳,结果表明,三氯甲烷在10.0~50.0μg/L,四氯化碳在0.5~4.0μg/L浓度范围内呈良好线性关系,其r值分别为0.9994和0.9998;三氯甲烷和四氯化碳RSD分别在1.64%~2.27%和1.45%~2.40%之间;加标回收率分别在97.0%~103.5%和94.0%~103.2%之间。该方法操作简单,具有较好的灵敏度和准确度,适用于水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳的检测。

  18. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2006-10-31

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.

  19. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  20. A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Joseph D; Josef, Christopher S; Feldman, Michael J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2015-08-06

    The first descriptions of carbon monoxide (CO) and its toxic nature appeared in the literature over 100 years ago in separate publications by Drs. Douglas and Haldane. Both men ascribed the deleterious effects of this newly discovered gas to its strong interaction with hemoglobin. Since then the adverse sequelae of CO poisoning has been almost universally attributed to hypoxic injury secondary to CO occupation of oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin. Despite a mounting body of literature suggesting other mechanisms of injury, this pathophysiology and its associated oxygen centric therapies persists. This review attempts to elucidate the remarkably complex nature of CO as a gasotransmitter. While CO's affinity for hemoglobin remains undisputed, new research suggests that its role in nitric oxide release, reactive oxygen species formation, and its direct action on ion channels is much more significant. In the course of understanding the multifaceted character of this simple molecule it becomes apparent that current oxygen based therapies meant to displace CO from hemoglobin may be insufficient and possibly harmful. Approaching CO as a complex gasotransmitter will help guide understanding of the complex and poorly understood sequelae and illuminate potentials for new treatment modalities.

  1. Hospital emergency department visits for carbon monoxide poisoning following an October 2006 snowstorm in western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatiello, Neil A; Babcock, Gwen; Jones, Rena; Horn, Edward; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Following an October 2006 snowstorm that caused widespread power outages in western New York State, hospital emergency department (ED) visits for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning increased. Overall, 264 people representing 155 households were diagnosed with CO poisoning during the power outages. Telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of these individuals. Respondents provided information about exposure sources, CO alarms, and awareness of CO warnings. In many households, portable generators were operated in an enclosed area. Awareness of CO warnings may have contributed to knowledge about locating portable generators outside. When operated outside, however, portable generators were generally located too close to the home. Gas kitchen ranges were used for heat by numerous households. In the short term, CO education and improved clarity of CO warning information is important for increasing awareness about power outage-related CO risks. Improvements in the combustion efficiency of portable generators should be a long-term goal.

  2. Research progress on delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛桂荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒迟发性脑病(Delayed encephalopathy after acute canbon monoxide poisoning,DEACMP)系指急性CO中毒(Acute carbon monoxide poisoning,ACOP)患者经抢救,中毒症状缓解或消失2~30 d后,再度出现的神经精神症状.

  3. 四氯化碳诱导兔肝纤维化模型的改良%Modification of liver fibrosis model of rabbit induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯洪伟; 潘峥; 陈敏; 徐佳佳; 李卫民; 嵇振岭

    2015-01-01

    the traditional process of carbon tetrachloride ( CCl4 ) induced liver fibrosis of rabbit.Methods:50 healthy male new Zealand rabbits were included in this research and divided into 2 batches on average.Rabbits in first batch( traditional batch) were separated into 2 groups:modeling group(n=21) and control group(n=4).Rabbits in modeling group were injected with 50%CCl4 olive oil solution subcutaneously twice a week for 12 weeks in succession while control group were treated with the same amount of pure olive oil.Rabbits in modeling group received color Doppler ultrasound, spiral computed tomography and serum biochemical examination every 4 weeks from the beginning to 12 weeks, 7 rabbits ( remanent were divided equally when rabbits died unexpected ) were sacrificed after blood drawing every 4 weeks to measure portal venous pressure(PVP) and obtained liver tissues for biopsy and immunohistochemical(IHC) staining as well as staging according the ISHAK grading system; Control group were treated with the same way with modeling group and sacrificed at 12 weeks.Modify disadvantages exposed during experiment of first batch and apply revised scheme to the second batch( modified batch) .Results:Mortality of traditional patch was 42.9%and significantly higher than modified batch of 9.5%( P<0.05 ) and the success rate of traditional patch ( 57.1%) was obviously lower than that of modified batch ( 85.7%) , too.With progression of modeling process, ALT, AST, ALB, TP of modeling group underwent significant changes compare to control group ( P<0.05 ); color doppler flow imaging showed the speed of portal venous blood flow of modeling group was obviously slower and CT values were significantly reduced comparing to control group;HE, Masson and IHC staining showed explicit liver fibrosis and pseudolobule could be seen, ISHAK score rised over time(1.33 ±0.52,1.83 ±0.75,4.17 ±0.75 of modified modeling group at 4,8,12 week respectively).Conclusion:Continuous injection of CCl4 can induce

  4. Early Biomarkers in 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Striatal Pathological Mechanisms after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Li; LI Zong Yang; ZHANG Yan Lin; CONG Cui Cui; ZHAO Jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to evaluate the levels of specific neurochemical biomarkers of pathological mechanisms in the brain. Methods We conducted T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1H-MRS with a 3.0-Tesla animal MRI system to investigate the early microstructural and metabolic profiles in vivo in the striatum of rats following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Results Compared to baseline, we found significant cortical surface deformation, cerebral edema changes, which were indicated by the unclear gray/white matter border, and lateral ventricular volume changes in the brain. A significant reduction in the metabolite to total creatine (Cr) ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed as early as 1 h after the last CO administration, while the lactate (Lac) levels increased marginally. Both the Lac/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios leveled off at 6 h and showed no subsequent significant changes. In addition, compared to the control, the choline (Cho)/Cr ratio was slightly reduced in the early stages and significantly increased after 6 h. In addition, a pathological examination revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more severe cerebral injury after additional CO poisoning. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 1H-MRS of the brain identified early metabolic changes after CO poisoning. Notably, the relationship between the increased Cho/Cr ratio in the striatum and delayed neuropsychologic sequelae requires further research.

  5. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.;

    2009-01-01

    -acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratios to creatine (Cr), predominantly in the white matter. Lactate peaks were detected in two patients during the early phase of high-dose CO poisoning. Two patients with chronic low-dose CO exposure and without loss of consciousness had normal MRI and MRS scans. On follow-up. five of our...... limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological effects of CO poisoning. To further examine the short-term and long-term effects of CO on the central nervous system, we have studied seven patients with CO poisoning assessed by gray and white matter MRS......, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Five patients suffered from acute high-dose CO intoxication and were in coma for 1-6 days. In these patients, MRI revealed hyperintensities of the white matter and globus pallidus and also showed increased choline (Cho) and decreased N...

  6. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Poison Ivy KidsHealth > For Kids > Poison Ivy Print A ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  16. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Kai; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Feng-Lin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Wei-Chun; Yeh, Chi-Chen; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  17. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Kai Tseng

    Full Text Available In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  18. The potential protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and downregulation of MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtisam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis juice via the drinking water. The animals of Group IV received Physalis juice as Group III and also were intraperitoneally injected weekly with 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by improvement in liver enzymes serum levels, reduction in collagen areas, downregulation in expression of the fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in the peroxidative marker malonaldehyde and the inflammatory marker nitric oxide, and restoration of the activity of antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, namely, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities. The results show that the potential hepatoprotective effects of Physalis peruviana may be due to physalis acts by promotion of processes that restore hepatolobular architecture and through the inhibition of oxidative stress pathway.

  19. 四氯化碳显色目视比色法测定溶解氧方法的研究%Research on Determining Dissolved Oxygen with Visual Colorimetry of Carbon Tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽媛

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the study of determination of dissolved oxygen by visual colorimetry with carbon tetrachloride. This method is proved quick and exact, clear in showing the experimental results and suit- able for emergency measurement by comparison of the choices of standard reagents, extraction solvents, the quantity of potassium iodide (KI) and tset of stability, denoisingt, environmental temperature and accuracy and precision.%本文介绍了四氯化碳显色目视比色法测定溶解氧方法的研究过程,通过时分析方法中,标准试剂的选择,萃取剂的选择,碘化钾(K1)用量的选择,及稳定性实验,消除干扰实验,环境温度实验,方法准确度及精密度实验,表明此方法快速、准确、分析结果直观、适合应急监测。

  20. [Carbon monoxide poisoning: clinical features of the victims of the explosion accident of Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine 50 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning have been described in 24 victims of an intense explosion accident of the Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine in Japan 50 years ago; these victims were admitted to the Kyushu University Hospital as they suffered from severe poisoning. In the early stage of poisoning, all victims showed disturbed state of consciousness, varying in duration from 5.5 hours to 3 months, and the duration of unconsciousness was closely correlated to the clinical severity in the late stage. Some of the severely poisoned patients showed a transient stage of apallic syndrome. After recovery from unconsciousness, all patients presented with severe amnestic syndrome and loss of initiative. Neurologically, the extrapyramidal signs were prominent in the early stage, which gradually improved in the late stage. Variable types of agnosia and apraxia were apparent in some of the severely and moderately poisoned patients in the late stage, with prominent Gerstmann syndrome and visual-visuospatial agnosias. Since these signs showed poor improvement, the agnosia and apraxia, as well as impaired intellectual ability, remained as a sequela of the poisoning, and were one of the major causes of deficits of the patients in their daily life activities in the late stage.

  1. Masimo SET(R)Rad-57碳氧血氧测量仪在急性一氧化碳中毒急救中的应用%Clinical Application of Emergency Treatment in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by Masimo SET (R) Rad-57 Carbonic Oxide Poisoning Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耿茂; 林凯胜; 杨小旭; 刘育春; 黄国梁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨Masimo SET(R)Rad-57碳氧血氧测量仪在急性一氧化碳中毒患者早期诊断中的价值。方法:将2013年11月-2014年4月收治的急性一氧化碳中毒患者35例按照临床症状和体征分为轻、中、重度一氧化碳中毒,并与Masimo SET(R)Rad-57碳氧血氧测量仪测得的碳氧血红蛋白饱和度进行比较。结果:Masimo SET(R) Rad-57碳氧血氧测量仪测得的碳氧血红蛋白饱和度与一氧化碳中毒的病情相符,且轻、中、重度组间均有显著性差异(P均<0.01)。结论:急诊科应用Masimo SET(R)Rad-57碳氧血氧测量仪对一氧化碳中毒患者有早期诊断价值。%Objective:To investigate the early diagnosis value of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning by Masimo:SET (R)Rad-57 carbonic oxide poisoning monitor. Methods:35 patients with carbonic oxide poisoning were divided into light severity , medium severity and heavy according to the clinical symptoms and signs from Nov 2013 to Apr 2014, and the severities were compared with the saturation of carbonic oxide detected by Masimo SET(R)Rad-57 carbonic oxide poisoning monitor. Results:The saturations of carbonic oxide detected by Masimo SET (R) Rad-57 carbonic oxide poisoning monitor corresponded with the severities of the carbon monoxide poisoning. There were significant differences among the light, moderate and severe groups, all P<0.01. Conclusion:There is early diagnostic value for patients with carbon monoxide poisoning using Masimo SET (R)Rad-57 carbonic oxide poisoning monitor in department of emergency.

  2. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  3. Amelioration of SD rats acute liver injury model induced by carbon tetrachloride%CCl4致SD大鼠急性肝损伤模型制作的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 唐晓鹏; 李代强; 童敏; 王文龙

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to optimize carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat with respect to dose and time course. Method: Carbon tetrachloride with different dosage was given to SD rats by abdominal injection. Rat ALT and AST in serum were analyzed 48 h and rats liver were observed with routine pathology technique, to determine mice liyers' functional and morphological changes after administration. Results: The serum level of ALT and AST increased significantly in 3A~7A CCl4 groups compared with the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The pathological changes in can be seen in every ccl4 group, the damnification degree of liver cells were remarkably aggravated with the control group. Deceased rats were seen in 6A and 7A group. Conclusion: Ameliorated acute liver injury model of mice was established, which has definite liver injury with lower mortality rate and less damnification to other organs, can be used for the mechanism and treatment research of acute liver injury.%目的本文筛选CCl4致SD大鼠急性肝损伤模型的最佳给药浓度和剂量,追踪观察模型大鼠肝损伤后修复过程.方法本文采用随机对照分组的研究方法,对不同的SD大鼠模型组给予不同剂量的CCl4一次性腹腔注射.给药后48h检测大鼠血清ALT,AST.各组随机处死一只SD大鼠,取肝组织制成病理切片镜下观察.追踪观察筛选后的CCl4模型大鼠肝组织病理变化恢复情况.结果本实验发现3A-7A组的ALT,AST较对照组明显升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),随着CCl4的剂量的增加,大鼠肝组织的病理损伤加重,6A和7A组可见自然死亡大鼠.结论本试验筛选了CCl4致SD大鼠急性肝损伤模型的较好CCl4的剂量.该模型肝损伤明显,死亡率低,对其他重要脏器影响小,可作为急性肝损伤研究的较好模型.

  4. 四氯化碳皮下注射诱导兔肝硬化模型的建立%Development of Rabbit Liver Cirrhosis by Carbon Tetrachloride Subcutaneous Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓红; 金博; 邱慧彬; 付山峰; 路平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a liver cirrhosis animal model in rabbit through carbon tetrachloride subcutaneous injections. Methods Total 50 male rabbits were divided into 2 groups randomly. The experimental group (n =35 ) were injected 50% CCl4-olive oil subcutaneously with the dosage 0. 23ml/kg in the gluteal region,twice a week. The same dosage of olive oil was injected in the control group by a same way. The liver function test and the histopathology were investigated at the end of 4,8,12weeks. Results The hepatic fibrosis progressed gradually as continuous injection of the toxin. The ALT,AST,GGT increased obviously. At the end of 12 weeks,the albumin/globulin ratio was reversed. A typical pathology of liver cirrhosis was detected. In the control group the liver function and histology were normal. The mortality is 20% at the end of experiment and the achievement ratio of animal model is 83%. Conclusion The rabbit liver cirrhosis model can be established by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride. This animal model can be used in liver cirrhosis experiment.%目的 应用四氯化碳(CCI4)皮下注射方法,建立兔肝硬化动物模型.方法 50只雄性新西兰大白兔随机分为实验组(n=35)和对照组(n=15).实验组臀部皮下注射50%CCI4橄榄油0.23 mL/kg,每周2次,对照组注射等量橄榄油.分别于4 w、8 w和12 w末检测各组兔肝脏功能及组织病理学变化.结果 随时间延长,实验组兔肝脏纤维化程度逐渐加重,血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)和γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(GGT)明显升高,12 w末出现白蛋白/球蛋白比例倒置,可观察到典型肝硬化病理表现,兔肝组织出现典型的假小叶结构,动物死亡率20%,造模成功率83%.对照组肝脏功能正常,肝脏组织学结构正常.结论 此方法可成功地建立兔肝硬化动物模型,该方法成功率高,可用于相关实验研究.

  5. Chlorobenzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride adsorption on undoped and metal-doped sol-gel substrates (SiO{sub 2}, Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.A. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: mighern@siu.buap.mx; Gonzalez, A.I.; Corona, L.; Hernandez, F. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Rojas, F.; Asomoza, M.; Solis, S. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Portillo, R.; Salgado, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Adsorption isotherms of chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride vapors on undoped SiO{sub 2}, and metal-doped Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2} substrates were measured in the temperature range of 398-593 K. These substrates were prepared from a typical sol-gel technique in the presence of metal dopants that rendered an assortment of microporous-mesoporous solids. The relevant characteristic of these materials was the different porosities and micropore to mesopore volume ratios that were displayed; this was due to the effect that the cationic metal valence exerts on the size of the sol-gel globules that compose the porous solid. The texture of these SiO{sub 2} materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and diverse adsorption methods. The pore-size distributions of the adsorbents confirmed the existence of mesopores and supermicropores, while ultramicropores were absent. The Freundlich adsorption model approximately fitted the chlorinated compounds adsorption data on the silica substrates by reason of a heterogeneous energy distribution of adsorption sites. The intensity of the interaction between these organic vapors and the surface of the SiO{sub 2} samples was analyzed through evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption and standard adsorption energy; from these last results it was evident that the presence of metal species within the silica structure greatly affected the values of both the amounts adsorbed as well as of the isosteric heats of adsorption.

  6. Volumetric properties of binary mixture of ethyl acetate and carbon tetrachloride%乙酸乙酯/四氯化碳二元混合体系的体积性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀琴; 黄荣谊

    2011-01-01

    The densities of the binary mixture formed by ethyl acetate with carbon tetrachloride were determined in the entire composition range and at the temperature of 288.15-323. IS K and atmospheric pressure. The calculation equations of densities and composition and temperature for the binary system were established, respectively. The results show that the excess molar volumes are positive in entire composition range and at determining temperature. It increases slightly when temperature increases. The regression coefficients and standard deviations were given by fitting the Redlich-Kister equation. Besides, the relation of apparent molar volumes and the molar volumes to the temperature and composition were investigated from density measurements, both values also increase with temperature rise.%常压下测定了乙酸乙酯与四氯化碳二元体系在288.15-323.15 K内全摩尔分数范围的密度,分别建立了该二元体系密度与组成和温度的计算方程.在此基础上,计算了该二元体系的超额摩尔体积,结果表明:该二元体系的超额摩尔体积在所测定温度和全摩尔分数范围内均呈正偏差,且均随温度的升高而偏差增大,并利用Redlich-Kister方程进行了关联,给出了回归系数和标准偏差.另外还探讨了该二元体系的组分表观摩尔体积和摩尔体积与温度和组成的关系,其值随温度的升高均呈增大的趋势.

  7. Comprehensive characterization of serum clinical chemistry parameters and the identification of urinary superoxide dismutase in a carbon tetrachloride-induced model of hepatic fibrosis in the female Hanover Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J; Clarke, Christopher J; Dare, Theo; Turton, John A

    2007-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was used to induce liver fibrosis in the rat. Using this model, we have identified changes in serum and urinary clinical chemistry parameters, and characterized histopathological lesions in the liver. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, rats were dosed at six levels of CCl(4) (0.06-0.36 ml/kg) twice weekly for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week non-dosing recovery period (week 12). Livers were removed for histology at 6 and 12 weeks and serum parameters analysed. In Experiment 2, rats were given seven dose levels of CCl(4) (0.4-1.0 ml/kg) twice weekly for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week recovery period (week 12); urine samples were analysed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Liver fibrosis was evident at 6 weeks in Experiments 1 and 2, and the activity of serum enzymes (including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) was increased. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis (Experiment 2) revealed a protein band at 18.4 kDa in urine from rats treated with CCl(4), not present in control urine, which was identified as copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD). Western blotting revealed that SOD was increased in urine from rats treated with CCl(4) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 9 and 12 weeks. We conclude that Cu/Zn SOD is a urinary marker of hepatic necrosis, but not hepatic fibrosis.

  8. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin ... tips to avoid it. back to top Recognizing Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Open PDF ...

  9. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  10. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  11. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  12. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  13. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a vein (by IV) Laxatives Medicine called an antidote to reverse the effect of the poison Tube ... chance for recovery. If the person takes an antidote to reverse the poison within 1 week, recovery ...

  14. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  15. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  16. Effects of nimodipine and fructose-1,6-diphosphate on cerebral damage in carbon monoxide poisoning mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊卿; 赵晓辉; 周岐新; 蒋青松

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the dose- and time- dependent protective effects and the synergistic effects of nimodipine (NMDP) and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) against cerebral damage induced by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in mice.Methods Male mice were exposed to CO 170 mL/kg, i.p. After CO intraperitonealy exposure, mortality of mice, change in memory function estimated by passive avoidance test, the pathomorphologic observation of brain tissue slices, as well as changes of activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in cerebral tissue were studied. In dose-dependent protective effect study, NMDP (10.6, 5.3, 2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3, 0.67 g/kg) was injected ip, respectively 15 min after CO exposure. To study the time-effect relationship of drugs, NMDP (5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (1.3 g/kg) were administered ip respectively 15 minutes, 45 minutes and 120 minutes after CO exposure. The combination of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) was administered ip15 minutes, 45 min and 120 minutes after CO exposure to study the synergism of the two drugs.Results Either NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) or FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg) administered ip within 15 minutes after CO exposure significantly decreased the impairment of memory function and mortality rate induced by CO, inhibited the decrease of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity, blunted the rising of MAO-B activity and prevented the delayed hippocampal neuronal death in poisoning mice. To our surprise, the combined use of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) within 15 minutes after CO exposure had similar effects to that in NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg).Conclusions These results suggest that the impairment of CO on brain can be attenuated if NMDP or FDP are administered sufficiently and quickly as soon as possible after CO exposure and there exists a synergism of FDP and NMDP against CO poisoning damage.

  17. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  18. Mice deficient in N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase exhibit enhanced liver fibrosis and delayed recovery from fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Habuchi

    2016-08-01

    Results and conclusion: On 2 days after cessation of CCl4 administration, higher fibrosis was observed in KO mice than in WT mice by Sirius Red staining. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in KO mice than in WT mice. Hydroxyproline contents and Sirius Red staining showed that repair of liver fibrosis in the recovery stages appeared to be delayed in KO mice. Expression of mRNA of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-13 and versican peaked at 2 days after cessation of CCl4 administration and was higher in KO mice than in WT mice. Expression of MMP-9 in the recovery stage was lower in KO mice than in WT mice. Our findings demonstrate that defect in GalNAc4S-6ST, which resulted in disappearance of CS/DS containing GalNAc(4,6SO4, appear to contribute to progression of liver fibrosis, delayed recovery from fibrosis, and various changes in the expression of proteoglycans and MMPs in carbon tetrachloride–treated mice.

  19. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 800 °C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is very likely that the oxygenshielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh through inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic ones at 550 °C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 °C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst. The last part of this work focuses on the influence of sulfur on the carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh catalysts at 800 ºC. Though abundant carbon deposits can accumulate on the pure CeO2-Al2O3 support due to fuel thermal cracking, the metal addition substantially mitigated the carbon deposition in the sulfur-free reaction. The presence of sulfur increased the carbon deposition on both catalysts, which has a much more significant impact for the Ni catalyst. Our results indicate that (I) the presence of sulfur can suppress carbon gasification and promote the formation of graphitic carbon on reforming catalysts, and (II) the Rh catalyst possesses stronger capability to maintain carbon gasification activity than the Ni catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

  20. 番茄红素对CCl4诱导的正常肝细胞株HL-7702损伤的影响%Effect of lycopene on hepatocyte injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯

    2013-01-01

    目的 体外观察番茄红素对人正常肝细胞株HL-7702细胞活力及凋亡的影响,探讨其对肝细胞的保护作用.方法 体外培养人正常肝细胞株HL-7702,建立CCl4肝损伤模型,终浓度为2、5、10 μmol·L-1的番茄红素干预处理,MTT法测定细胞活性、Horchest33342染色及TUNEL检测观察细胞凋亡.结论 番茄红素在2~10 μmol·L-1浓度范围内的对肝细胞无毒性,可抑制CCl4所致肝细胞活性下降,减少CCl4所致的肝细胞凋亡,一定剂量范围内与番茄红素浓度相关.结论番茄红素对正常肝细胞HL-7702具有保护作用.%Objectives To observe the effect of lycopene on the growth and apoptosis of HL -7702 hepatocyte strain and to explore the protection on hepatocyte. Methods The exoteric hepatic injuries model , caused by carbon tetrachloride ( CC14 ) , which was interfered by lycopene(at concentrations of 2,5,10 μmol? L-1),was established with well-cultivated HL-7702 hepatocyte strain.The growth conditions were detected by MTT method and apoptosis was observed with Horchest 33342 and TUNEL staining. Results Toxicity to hepato— cytes of lycopene ,at concentrations from 2 μmol?L-1 to 10 μmol?L-1,was not observed. Hepatocytes had some protective effects on the vigor impact induced , and could reduce the hepatic apoptosis provoked by CC14, and correlation with the concentrations of lycopene . Conclusions Lycopene had certain protective effects on hepatocyte .

  1. 静态顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳%Determination on Trichloromethane and Carbon tetrachloride in Drinking Water by Static Headspace Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪增香

    2012-01-01

    建立了静态顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳的方法。实验结果显示:三氯甲烷和四氯化碳在其测定范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.998~0.997,回收率为89.0%~107.0%。该方法简便、快速、可行。%To establish a static headspace capillary gas chromatography method for the determination of trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water.The results showed that the trichloromehane and carbon tetrachloride in the scope had a good linear relationship,the correlation coefficient were all 0.998~0.997,the recovery rate were 89%~107%.The method is simple,rapid and feasible.

  2. DNA pooling base genome-wide association study identifies variants at NRXN3 associated with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Li

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is more characteristic of anoxic encephalopathy than of other types of anoxia. Those who have the same poisoning degree and are of similar age and gender have a greater risk of getting DEACMP. This has made it clear that there are obvious personal differences. Genetic factors may play a very important role. The authors performed a genome-wide association study involving pooling of DNA obtained from 175 patients and 244 matched acute carbon monoxide poisoning without delayed encephalopathy controls. The Illumina HumanHap 660 Chip array was used for DNA pools. Allele frequencies of all SNPs were compared between delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning and control groups and ranked. A total of 123 SNPs gave an OR >1.4. Of these, 46 mapped in or close to known genes. Forty-eight SNPs located in 19 genes were associated with DEACMP after correction for 5% FDR in the genome-wide association of pooled DNA. Two SNPs (rs11845632 and rs2196447 locate in the Neurexin 3 gene were selected for individual genotyping in all samples and another cohort consisted of 234 and 271 controls. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of rs11845632 and rs2196447 between the DEACMP group and controls group (all P-values <0.05. This study describes a positive association between Neurexin 3 and controls in the Han Chinese population, and provides genetic evidence to support the susceptibility of DEACMP, which may be the resulting interaction of environmental and genetic factors.

  3. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  4. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  5. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  6. Apoptotic and necrotic brain lesions in a fatal case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, K; Harada, K; Sadamitsu, D; Tsuruta, R; Takahashi, M; Aki, T; Yasuhara, M; Maekawa, T; Yoshida, K

    2001-02-15

    A 41-year-old man was accidentally exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) gas and found in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest while he took bath. After admission, he was resuscitated and underwent artificial ventilation in a comatose state and died about 19h later. Computed tomography (CT) examination disclosed bilateral low density area in the basal ganglia and the thalamus, a well-known finding in the CO intoxication. Necropsy, histological examination, DNA ladder assay gave the first line of evidence for the presence of apoptosis as well as necrosis in the human case of CO intoxication. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive apoptotic cells were more predominant in the CA2 area than in CA1 area. There is general co-relation between the ratio of TUNEL-positive cells and the DNA laddering on the agarose gel. Basal ganglia and thalamus, which showed bilateral low density area in CT, were revealed to be severe edema. The two types of cell death occurred in the cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. Hypoxia caused by CO-hemoglobin formation alone cannot explain the phenomena.

  7. [Clinical examination of 3 patients with delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy induced by carbon monoxide poisoning, who recovered from severe neurocognitive impairment by repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Toshio; Matsubara, Toshio; Higuchi, Naoko; Higuchi, Fumihiro; Inoue, Koji; Otsuchi, Hironobu; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We performed hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for 3 patients with delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy induced by carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. All patients were male and around 50 years old, and they had not received HBO therapy within 24 h after CO poisoning, even though they showed severe consciousness disturbance. In these patients, delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy appeared about 25 days after acute CO poisoning, and HBO therapy was initiated within 8 days after disease onset. Although the condition of 2 of the patients worsened initially, they showed significant improvement of neurocognitive impairment after 30 sessions of HBO therapy. The clinical courses of these patients suggest that the effect of HBO therapy can be evaluated after 30 sessions. To evaluate the validity of the indices of the clinical effect of HBO therapy, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, electroencephalography (EEG), and neurocognitive tests (HDS-R, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised or III). Our results showed that changes in EEG signals and neurocognitive tests were closely correlated with the patients' clinical courses.

  8. "Smart poisoning" of Co/SiO2 catalysts by sulfidation for chirality-selective synthesis of (9,8) single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Karahan, H Enis; Yıldırım, Cansu; Wei, Li; Birer, Özgür; Zhai, Shengli; Lau, Raymond; Chen, Yuan

    2016-10-14

    The chirality-selective synthesis of relatively large (diameter > 1 nm) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is of great interest for a variety of practical applications, but only a few catalysts are available so far. Previous studies suggested that S (compounds) can enhance the chirality-selectivity of Co catalysts in SWCNT synthesis, however, the mechanism behind is not fully understood, and no tailorable methodology has yet been developed. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to achieve the chirality-selective synthesis of SWCNTs by the sulfidation-based poisoning of silica-supported Co catalysts using a mixture of H2S and H2. The UV-vis-NIR, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy results together show that the resulting SWCNTs have a narrow diameter distribution of around 1.2 nm, and (9,8) nanotubes have an abundance of ∼38% among the semiconducting species. More importantly, the carbon yield achieved by the sulfided catalyst (2.5 wt%) is similar to that of the nonsulfided one (2.7 wt%). The characterization of the catalysts by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction shows that the sulfidation leads to the formation of Co9S8 nanoparticles. However, Co9S8 nanoparticles are reduced back to regenerate metallic Co nanoparticles during the synthesis of SWCNTs, which maintain a high carbon yield. In this process, Co9S8 nanoparticles seemingly intermediate the production of Co nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. Due to the fact that the poisoning step improves the quality of the end-product rather than hampering the growth process, we have coined the process developed as "smart poisoning". This study not only reveals the mechanism behind the beneficial role of S in the selective synthesis of relatively large SWCNTs but also presents a promising method to create chirality-selective catalysts with high activity for scalable synthesis.

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning from use of gasoline-fueled power washers in an underground parking garage--District of Columbia, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-12

    On June 17, 1994, five workers in the District of Columbia were treated in an emergency department for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning following exposure to the exhaust from two gasoline-fueled power washers (i.e., pressure washers), which they had used in an empty underground parking garage. These cases were identified by The George Washington University (GWU) Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DOEM) through ongoing surveillance for work-related injuries among construction workers treated in the GWU emergency department (1). This report summarizes the results of an investigation by DOEM of this incident.

  10. Zatrucie tlenkiem węgla – drogi narażenia, obraz kliniczny, metody leczenia = Carbon monoxide poisoning, routes of exposure, clinical manifestation, treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sowa, Magdalena; Winnicki, Andrzej; Wójcik, Kamil; Tarkowski, Michał; Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Sowa Magdalena, Winnicki Andrzej, Wójcik Kamil, Tarkowski Michał, Gnatowski Tomasz. Zatrucie tlenkiem węgla – drogi narażenia, obraz kliniczny, metody leczenia = Carbon monoxide poisoning, routes of exposure, clinical manifestation, treatment. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(4):345-354. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.17251 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%284%29%3A345-354 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/556252 http://dx.doi...

  11. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  12. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  13. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  14. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  15. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  16. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and toxins may cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish ... Read More Botulism Campylobacter infection Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish tapeworm infection Pericarditis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Patient ...

  17. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  18. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  19. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  1. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  2. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Daiya [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Fujiwara, Shunrou; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Tomoyuki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Oikawa, Hirotaka [Iwate Prefectural Advanced Critical Care and Emergency, Morioka (Japan); Kamada, Katsura [Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  3. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  4. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. ... Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: ...

  5. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  6. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  10. Pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒的院前急救及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎秀英

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods:57 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were given pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures,treatment and nursing measures at the poisoning scene,treatment and nursing measures in the transport process,treatment after admission. Results:In addition to 4 patients were died before the medical personnel arrived at the poisoning scene,other patients were significantly improved and discharged after the treatment,did not appear serious sequelae.Conclusion:Timely taking effective pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures can significantly reduce the disability and mortality of patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的:探讨急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒的院前急救及护理对策。方法:对57例急性CO中毒患者采取院外急救及护理措施,中毒现场救治及护理措施,转运过程中救治及护理措施,入院后的治疗。结果:除4例患者在医务人员到达中毒现场前已死亡外,其余患者经治疗,均明显好转出院,未出现严重后遗症。结论:及时采取有效的院前急救及护理对策可明显降低急性CO中毒患者的伤残及死亡率。

  11. Combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy yields better efficacy for patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenping; Xue, Hui; Wang, Baojun; Li, Yuechun; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Changchun; Liang, Furu; Pang, Jiangxia; Yu, Lehua

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) commonly occurs after recovering from acute CO poisoning. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of the combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in patients with DEACMP. Patients and methods A total of 120 patients with DEACMP were recruited and randomly assigned into the experimental group (receiving dexamethasone 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day plus HBO therapy) and control group (HBO therapy as monotherapy). Meanwhile, the conventional treatments were provided for all the patients. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale to assess the cognitive function, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to assess the neurological function and the remission rate (RR) to assess the clinical efficacy. Myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. Results After 4 weeks of treatment, compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly higher remission rate (P=0.032), a significantly higher average MMSE score (P=0.037) and a significantly lower average NIHSS score (P=0.002). Meanwhile, there was a trend toward better improvement with dexamethasone 10 mg/day, and the level of MBP in the CSF of patients was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.0001). The addition of dexamethasone did not significantly increase the incidence of adverse events. Conclusion These results indicate that the combined application of dexamethasone and HBO therapy could yield better efficacy for patients with DEACMP and should be viewed as a potential new therapy. PMID:28260864

  12. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  13. Therapeutic detoxification of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice and its mechanism%槲皮素对四氯化碳引起的小鼠急性肝损伤治疗作用及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-qi ZHANG; Liang SHI; Xi-ning XU; Si-chong HUANG; Bin LU; Li-li JI; Zheng-tao WANG

    2014-01-01

    This study observes the therapeutic detoxification of quercetin, a wel-known flavonoid, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver injuryin vivo and explores its mechanism. Quercetin decreased CCl4-increased serum activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) when orally taken 30 min after CCl4 intoxica-tion. The results of a histological evaluation further evidenced the ability of quercetin to protect against CCl4-induced liver injury. Quercetin decreased the CCl4-increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced the glutathione (GSH) amounts in the liver. It also reduced the enhanced immunohistochemical staining of the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the liver induced by CCl4. Peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, thioredoxin reductase 1 and 2 (TrxR1/2), thioredoxin 1 and 2 (Trx1/2), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) al play critical roles in maintaining celular redox homeostasis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results demonstrated that quercetin reversed the decreased mRNA expression of al those genes induced by CCl4. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that quercetin ameliorates CCl4-induced acute liver injuryin vivo via aleviating oxidative stress injuries when oraly taken after CCl4 intoxication. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the antioxidant capacity induced by quercetin.

  14. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  15. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  16. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  17. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  18. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  19. Carbon monoxide is not always a poison gas for human organism: Physiological and pharmacological features of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2014-10-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and non-irritating gas. Even a small amount of CO exposure is possibly associated with specific toxic effects. CO is also produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter in various biological systems. However, the biological role and the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide is not clear. This review summarizes the negative and the positive functions of carbon monoxide in various biological systems, including cardiovascular system.

  20. Method to remove poisonous chlorine compounds using supercritical carbon dioxide. Chorinkai tansan gas wo mochiita yudoku enso kagobutsu no jokyoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Y. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Tohoku, Sendai (Japan))

    1989-12-15

    This paper describes a method to extract and remove selectively poisonous chlorine compounds from aqueous solution using supercritical CO2. This method is characterized in that it extracts and separates only chlorine compounds in short time under a moderate condition, and removes it without a need of whatever post-treatment. The supercritical CO2 pressure was 80 kg/cm[sup 2], and the extraction temperature was 40[degree]C. The supercritical CO2 extracted 70% to 80% by weight of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in 15 to 30 minutes, almost all of 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in one hour, and about 70% by weight of benzil chloride after 90 minutes. When the supercritical CO2 extraction was carried out for a dilute chlorine compound at 1000 ppm for three hours, the concentrations of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in the aqueous solution decreased down to several ppm, with no other substances than chlorine compounds detected in the extracts. This proves that no water has been extracted at all. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  2. Isomerization of -carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Rajendran; B H Chen

    2007-05-01

    Isomerization of all-trans--carotene occurs during shaking with 0.5% of titanium tetrachloride catalyst in methylene chloride at room temperature. In the present study we compared two types of columns C18 and C30 and various solvent systems for the separation of -carotene and its cis isomers by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that -carotene isomers were resolved by employing a C30 column with a mobile phase of methanol (100%) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) under a gradient elution condition. A total of eleven cis isomers and one all-trans--carotene isomer were resolved within 50 min at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection wave-length of 470 nm.

  3. [A case of carbon monoxide poisoning by explosion of coal mine presenting as visual agnosia: re-evaluation after 40 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, Akiko; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Nomura, Takuo; Shida, Kenshiro; Taniwaki, Takayuki

    2005-11-01

    We re-evaluated a case of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as visual agnosia who had been injured by explosion of Miike-Mikawa coal mine 40 years ago. In an early stage, his main neuropsychological symptoms were visual agnosia, severe anterograde amnesia, alexia, agraphia, constructional apraxia, left hemispatial neglect and psychic paralysis of gaze, in addition to pyramidal and extra pyramidal signs. At the time of re-evaluation after 40 years, he still showed visual agnosia associated with agraphia and constructional apraxia. Concerning visual agnosia, recognition of the real object was preserved, while recognition of object photographs and picture was impaired. Thus, this case was considered to have picture agnosia as he could not recognize the object by pictorial cues on the second dimensional space. MRI examination revealed low signal intensity lesions and cortical atrophy in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes on T1-weighted images. Therefore, the bilateral parieto-occipital lesions are likely to be responsible for his picture agnosia.

  4. A case of carbon monoxide poisoning by explosion of coal mine presenting as visual agnosia: re-evaluation after 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaiwa, A.; Yamashita, K.; Nomura, T.; Shida, K.; Taniwaki, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science

    2005-11-15

    We re-evaluated a case of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as visual agnosia who had been injured by explosion of Miike-Mikawa coal mine 40 years ago. In an early stage, his main neuropsychological symptoms were visual agnosia, severe anterograde amnesia, alexia, agraphia, constructional apraxia, left hemispatial neglect and psychic paralysis of gaze, in addition to pyramidal and extra pyramidal signs. At the time of re-evaluation after 40 years, he still showed visual agnosia associated with agraphia and constructional apraxia. Concerning visual agnosia, recognition of the real object was preserved, while recognition of object photographs and picture was impaired. Thus, this case was considered to have picture agnosia as he could not recognize the object by pictorial cues on the second dimensional space. MRI examination revealed low signal intensity lesions and cortical atrophy in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes on T1-weighted images. Therefore, the bilateral parieto-occipital lesions are likely to be responsible for his picture agnosia.

  5. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  6. Non-occupational Carbon Monoxide Poisoning:Analysis of 201 Incidents%非职业性一氧化碳中毒201起事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱旭东; 高金鑫

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To analyze the basic features of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning, and explore the effective prevention and control measures. [ Methods] Descriptive analysis was performed on 201 incidents of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning reported from November 1st, 2009 - October 31st, 2010 in a district of Beijing City. [ Results] Non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning occurred frequently in winter heating period( 81.6% )and the rurban areas( 55.2% ), with the peak in January 2010(38.3% ). 98.5% occurred in family, 94.0% due to improper use of coal-fired heating with 260 poisoned cases, the young and middle-aged (41.2%), women (54.2%) were the major, 52.7% were sent to emergency centre with hyperbaric oxygen therapy condition. [ Conclusion ] Only strengthening health education about carbon monoxide poisoning knowledge, improving safety awareness, emphasizing the importance of indoor ventilation, correct use of stove, gas water heaters and other heating facilities, can effectively prevent non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning. Once discovering carbon monoxide poisoning patients, they should be sent to medical institutions with hyperbaric oxygen therapy condition as soon as possible.%目的:分析非职业性一氧化碳中毒事件的基本特征,探讨有效预防和控制措施.方法:对北京市某区2009年11月1日-2010年10月31日报告的201起非职业性一氧化碳中毒事件进行描述性分析.结果:非职业性一氧化碳中毒事件在冬季采暖期(81.6%)和城乡接合部(55.2%)高发,2010年1月为高峰期(38.3%),98.5%发生在家庭,94.0%由于燃煤取暖使用不当引起;中毒患者260人,以20-39岁的青壮年(41.2%)、女性(54.2%)居多,52.7%送往有高压氧治疗条件的急救中心救治.结论:只有加强预防一氧化碳中毒知识的健康宣教工作,提高安全防范意识,强调室内通风的重要性,正确使用煤炉、燃气热水器等采暖

  7. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  8. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  9. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  10. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  11. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  12. Determination of Trichloromethane and Carbon tetrachloride in water by Headspace Gas Chromatography%顶空气相色谱法测定饮用水中的三氯甲烷及四氯化碳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫花; 李颖; 赵浩军; 王坤

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of trichloromethane and carbon tetraehloride in water by headspaee gas chromatography was studied. The results showed that the recovery was ranged between 92%- 99% and the relative standard deviations were ranged between 2.1% - 6.3 %. This method is accurate and the pre-proeessing of this method is simple.%利用国产顶空进样设备及GC-ECD(气相色谱-电子捕获检测器)建立了水中挥发性组份三氯甲烷、四氯化碳的测定方法。该方法的相对标准偏差为2.1—6.3%,样品的回收率为92%~99%。方法简化了样品处理过程,检出限与重复性均达到相关国家标准要求。

  13. Study on Determination of Off in Water by Extraction Using Tetrachloroethylene Instead of Carbon Tetrachloride%四氯乙烯代替四氯化碳测定水中油类物质初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 孙方中; 罗晓慧; 王丽萍

    2011-01-01

    通过使用四氯乙烯代替四氯化碳测定水中油类物质的对比实验,得到如下结论:四氯乙烯作萃取剂时,标准曲线线性相关系数为0.9999,检出限为0.336mg/L,精密度和准确度符合质控要求。但标准曲线方程的斜率较差,在分析浓度较低的样品时,准确度相对误差较大,萃取回收率不高。由此可以看出,使用四氯乙烯分析油类物质的局限性较大,分析方法还需进一步研究。%By conducting contrast experiments for determination of oil in water using tetrachloroethylene instead of carbon tetrackloride, it concluded that when tetraehloroethylene was used as extractant, the liner correlation coefficient was 0. 9999, detection limit was 0. 336mg/L and the precision and accuracy met the requirements of the quality control. However the slope of the standard curve equation was low. When samples with low concentration were analyzed, the relative errors of accuracy were low and the extraction recovery was poor. It concluded that there were still limitations to use tetrachloreethylene for determination of oil in water, so the method needs further studies.

  14. Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Refined Titanium Tetrachloride by Infrared Spectroscopy%红外光谱法测定精四氯化钛中二氧化碳的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋光林; 罗运军; 李晋庆; 谭红

    2015-01-01

    精 TiCl4是海绵钛生产的关键环节,且海绵钛中杂质碳和氧(C,O)与精 TiCl4中杂质 C 和 O 含量成4倍富集关系,因此,钛材质量控制的关键是控制精 TiCl4中杂质 C 和 O 的含量。为了控制精 TiCl4中的C 和 O,需要分析 C 和 O 杂质的来源,对精 TiCl4中杂质进行严格控制。测定精 TiCl4中 CO2的含量,对精TiCl4中杂质 C 和 O 的分析具有重要意义。CO2具有红外吸收谱线,因而能够利用红外光谱实现测定,然而精 TiCl4与空气中水气接触极易发生水解反应,生成强腐蚀性的盐酸烟雾,不能使用常规的红外吸收池进行测定。根据 Lambert-Beer 定律,被测组分浓度(cx )与吸光度(A)~样品光程(L)曲线的斜率成正比,本研究利用波数范围7800~440 cm-1的硒化锌窗片(10 mm×1 mm)和玻璃池体(42,22,12,7和4 mm 光程)组装成一套红外吸收池,采用加标法测定精 TiCl4中 CO2杂质含量。实验得出 CO2的 检 出 限 为0.92 mg· kg-1,样品回归方程Y =0.0311X ,相关系数 r 为0.9972,加标 CO2样品的回归方程Y =0.1317X ,相关系数 r 为0.9986,线性关系较好,测定精 TiCl4中 CO2含量为1.53 mg·kg-1,标准偏差(SD)为0.04 mg· kg-1,方法相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.53%~1.27%之间,加标回收率在89.2%~96.8%。此红外吸收池安全简便、容易拆洗、可重复使用,通过一次加标样品定量分析精 TiCl4中 CO2含量,可满足精 TiCl4中 CO2分析的要求。%Refined TiCl4 is the key procedure in producing titanium sponge.Besides,the content of carbon and oxygen (C and O)impurities in titanium sponge and that of C and O impurities in refined TiCl4 presents the 4-times enrichment relationship.Therefore,the content control of the C and O impurities in refined TiCl4 be-comes the key part for the quality control of titanium material.In order to control

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  16. Effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on the long-term cognitive function in elderly patients%一氧化碳中毒对老年人远期认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 路小光

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on the long-term cognition in elderly patients.Methods Totally 53 patients with carbon monoxide poisoning and 51 healthy persons at our Hospital from June 2005 to June 2008 were enrolled.Mini-mental state examination(MMSE) and activities of daily living(ADL) scale were utilized to evaluale the life quality of the elderly patients through a cross-sectional study on July 2011.Results MMSE score showed that the attention calculation score,delayed recall score,and total score were higher in control group (4.9±0.4,2.9±1.0,28.3±2.3,respectively) than in carbon monoxide poisoning group (4.5±0.8,2.6±0.6,25.5±3.5,respectively) (t=3.138,3.607,4.802,all P<0.05).ADL score of carbon monoxide poisoning group was 26.7±7.3,and that of the control group was 2.04±7.6 (t=1.827,P>0.05).Conclusions Elderly patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning may cause long-term cognitive impairment with decreasing attention calculation and delayed recall.%目的 探讨一氧化碳中毒对老年人远期认知功能的影响.方法 选取2005年6月至2008年6月因一氧化碳中毒于大连大学附属中山医院住院治疗的老年患者53例为一氧化碳中毒组,以及同期该院体检中心收集的健康老年人51例为对照组.应用简易精神状态检查量表(MMSE)和日常生活能力量表(ADL)量表于2011年7月对一氧化碳中毒组和对照组老年人进行评价.结果 MMSE评分显示对照组老年人的注意计算力、延迟回忆力以及总分分别为(4.9±0.4)分、(2.9±1.0)分、(28.3±2.3)分,而一氧化碳中毒组分别为(4.5±0.8)分、(2.6±0.6)分、(25.5±3.5)分,与对照组相比均显著降低(t= 3.138、3.607、4.802,均P<0.05).ADL量表显示一氧化碳中毒组老年人生活自理能力评分为(26.7±7.3)分,对照组为(24.0±7.6)分,一氧化碳中毒组评分有增高趋势,但差异无统计学意义(t=1.827,P>0.05).结论 老年人一氧化

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  18. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  19. Destructive adsorption of carbon tetrachloride on lanthanum and cerium oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Rosynek, M.P.; Lunsford, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on La2O3 and CeO2 in the absence of any oxidant, such as oxygen, has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and insitu Raman spectroscopy as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. La2O3 was much more reactive than CeO2, an

  20. Destructive Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride on Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Mestl, Gerhard; Rosynek, Michael P.; Krawietz, Thomas R.; Haw, James F.; Lunsford, Jack H.

    2001-01-01

    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO has been studied as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. The reaction was followed using in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 13 C mag

  1. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  2. Prophylactic effect of four prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine on α-naphthylisothiocyanate and carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats%中医四方剂对异硫氰酸α-萘酯及四氯化碳诱发的大鼠肝损伤的预防作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国瑞; 陈荣洲; 曹伟; 林俊清; 林昭庚; 蔡金川

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨四种中医方剂对实验性肝损伤的作用.方法:事先给予四磨饮(SMY)、桂枝茯苓丸(GFW)、泻青丸(XQW)及四逆散(SNS)的水提取物,对异硫氰酸α-萘酯(ANIT)、四氯化碳(CCl4)诱发的肝损伤,进行预防保肝评估,包括生化指标、肝组织脂质过氧化及组织病理.结果:大鼠给予ANIT后,总胆红素(TBI)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、谷草转氨酶(GOT)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)皆有明显升高,组织病理显示胆道郁阻及局部坏死.四磨饮、泻青丸及四逆散在生化指标及病理观察上皆有显著的预防效果.在四氯化碳诱发的肝损伤实验中,四方剂对肝功能生化指标与肝组织脂质过氧化及病理变化等,皆显示出预防效果.结论:虽然异硫氰酸α-萘酯、四氯化碳的肝损伤机制不同,但此四方都有不同程度的保肝作用,且其作用是由多重机制来完成的.方剂处方均由君臣佐使的配合来设计,显示对不同毒物的多重保护作用.%AIM: To study the prophylactic effects of four Chinese traditional prescriptions against experimental liver injury. METHODS: Liver toxins, a-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used to induce acute liver injury. Simo Yin (SMY), Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW), Xieqing Wan (XQW), and Sini San (SNS) were fed (500 mg/kg, in saline, po ) to the rats before toxin administration. All the animals were killed 48 h after toxin insulted. Serum index of liver function and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Histopathological observation was conducted simultaneously. RESULTS: The rars treated with ANIT exhibited elevations of serum total bilirubin (TBI),alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ), glutamate-oxalatetransaminase ( GOT ), glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT), as well as cholestasis and parenchyma necrosis. In rats, challenged with ANIT, receiving the pretreatment of prescriptions of SMY, XQW, and SNS, the biochemical and morphological parameters of liver injury

  3. CCl4诱导大鼠纤维化肝组织 microRNA 差异表达及其初步分析%Differentially expressed and preliminary analysis of microRNA profiles in liver tissue of rat induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业方; 张传涛; 李白雪; 郭尹玲; 王宝家; 唐洪屈; 王政; 张凤; 杨宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of expression profiles and significance of the microRNA in liver tissue of rat induced by carbon tetrachloride(CCl4 ).Methods The microRNA differential expression analysis between normal group(n = 10) and model group(n=10)was conducted on high-throughput methods.Gene ontology enrichment analysis and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis of the targets of miRNA were carried out in this study.Results Some differentally expressed microRNA with 29 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated were identified in our study.Through evaluaing the value of microRNA in the network,we find that the key microRNA of rising are miR-184,miR-10b-5p,miR-1 99a-3p,and the key microRNA of cutting are miR-200b-3p,miR-1 99a-5p,miR-125b-5p and so on.Conclusion The microRNA expression level in the model group has a signifi-cant change.Therefore,the courses of liver fibrosis is related to some process which microRNA control the regulation of cell prolif-eration,cell apoptosis,cell cycle,and so on.%目的:探索 microRNA 在四氯化碳(CCl4)诱导的大鼠纤维化肝组织中的差异表达及其意义。方法采用 microR-NA 高通量测序分析技术检测对照组(n=10)与模型组(n=10)肝脏组织 microRNA 表达,对差异 microRNA 进行靶基因预测,对靶基因进行基因本(GO)分析、pathway 分析。结果对照组与模型组间筛选出37个差异 microRNA,上调29个,下调8个;从microRNA-基因网络图中发现关键上调为 miR-184、miR-10b-5p、miR-199a-3p 等;关键下调为 miR-200b-3p、miR-199a-5p、miR-125b-5p 等。结论模型组 microRNA 表达谱变化明显,肝纤维化的形成与 microRNA 调控细胞增殖、凋亡、细胞周期等有关。

  4. Does organophosphate poisoning cause cardiac injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Morteza, Afsaneh

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphates are insecticides which are widely used as a suicidal agent in Iran. They are associated with different types of cardiac complications including cardiac arrest and arrhythmia, however their role in cardiac injury is not known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of myocardial damage in patients with cholinesterase poisoning.It was a prospective study conducted from January 2008 to March 2010. Cohorts of patients with cholinesterase poisoning due to suicidal attempt who have been referred to Loghman hospital were selected. Patients who have taken more than one poison or were used concomitant drugs were excluded. Physical examination was performed on admission to discover warning sign. Peripheral arterial blood gases, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin-T measurements were performed in all cases. There were 24 patients, 7 of them women, with the mean age of 41.2±15.05 who were included in this study. Non-survivors had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate Glasgow Coma Scale scoring and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Our findings showed that cardiac injury is an important cause of death in organophosphate poisoning. It could be hypothesized that cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in patients with organophosphate poisoning.

  5. Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P. N., Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H2S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a raphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700 C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e., higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the electrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss.

  6. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Sanjo, Katsumi; Koeda, Atsuhiko [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Iwate Prefectural Critical Care and Emergency Center, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  7. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  9. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  10. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  11. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  12. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock , organ failure, and death. As little as 120 milliliters (approximately 4 fluid ...

  13. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  14. Poison plants (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  15. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  16. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  17. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  18. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  19. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  1. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  2. The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde%甲醛致扩张性简单串联重复序列突变小鼠子代对四氯化碳和苯暴露易感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘云儒; 周印; 李爱萍; 周建伟

    2011-01-01

    为5.88‰±4.55‰,F10代为8.25‰±2.06‰;C组1000 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为7.50‰±6.99‰,F10代为10.67‰±1.16‰;H组500 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为7.88‰±3.09‰,F10代为9.20‰±1.30‰;H组1000 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为9.63‰±4.34‰,F10代为13.33‰±2.08‰)随苯剂量的增加而增加,与溶剂对照组(C组F5代为1.13‰±0.35‰,F10代为1.20‰±0.82‰;H组F5代为1.25‰±0.46‰,F10代为1.33‰±1.03‰)的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 甲醛暴露引起的基因组ESTR突变可改变子代小鼠对CCl4和苯的易感性.ESTR突变可能是影响机体对化学物易感性的生物学标志,其分子机制有待进一步阐明.%Objective To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). Methods F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 ×2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group(group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light microscope; the micronucleus in sternum bone marrow cells as the biomarker of benzene blood toxicity were measured. Results ALT and AST activities in group C of F5 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, ALT in groups C and H of F10 mice exposed to 0.05%, 0.50%, 5.00% CCl4, AST in groups C and H of F10 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4 were significantly higher than those in controls, respectively (P<0.05); as compared to the control, hepatic SOD activities in group C of F5 and F10 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, in group H of F5 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, and

  3. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  4. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  5. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  6. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  7. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  8. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  9. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  11. Kinetics and Mechanism of Carbon Tetrachloride Rapid Reduction by Nanoscale Ni-Fe Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope%利用扫描电镜技术研究纳米Ni-Fe 颗粒对四氯化碳快速脱氯的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄园英; 王倩; 韩子金; 刘菲

    2015-01-01

    纳米铁具有高的比表面积和高反应活性,能快速将氯代烯烃还原成无毒氯离子、乙烯和乙烷,但对于氯代烷烃的脱氯仍能产生大量的氯代中间或最终产物,可以通过合成制得纳米双金属提高脱氯速率和减少氯代中间产物。本文利用扫描电镜测得实验室制备的纳米 Ni -Fe(2%,质量分数)颗粒直径为20~60 nm,通过批实验方式对纳米 Ni -Fe 降解四氯化碳的反应动力学性质、产物、持久性能和反应机理进行了探讨。结果表明,纳米 Ni -Fe 体系主要最终产物为42% CH4和17% CH2 Cl2。与铸铁屑和纳米铁相比,纳米Ni -Fe由于催化脱氯加氢,显著提高了氯代烃脱氯速率,同时降低了有毒氯代产物的产量,且 Ni 作为催化剂不会进入水体引起二次污染。纳米 Ni -Fe 颗粒在空气中具有很好的稳定性,虽然降解四氯化碳的最终产物CH4与纳米 Pd -Fe 相比少13%,但由于价格便宜,有望在工程上应用于氯代有机化合物水土污染治理。%The nanoscale iron particles have high specific surface area and high reactivity,can be used to rapidly reduce chlorinated alkene to the non-toxic chloride ions,chlorine-free end products ethene and ethane.But nanoscale iron particle degrades chlorinated alkanes with much toxic intermediate or end products.A small amount of a second metal deposited on the iron surface has proved to enhance the reactivity of metal particles.In this paper,laboratory-synthesized nanoscale Ni-Fe (2% by weight)particles have diameters on the order of 20 -60 nm using Scanning Electron Microscope.In batch experiments,the kinetics,products,stability of performance,and mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CT)by Ni-Fe nanoparticles were investigated.CH4 (~42%)and CH2 Cl2 (~17%)in nanoscale Ni-Fe system were the major end products.Compared to nanoscale iron and the cast iron scarp,a major benefit of the nanoscale Ni-Fe particles

  12. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of sily-marin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in crucian carp Carassius auratus%水飞蓟素对四氯化碳致鲫肝(细胞)损伤的保护和抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾睿; 曹丽萍; 杜金梁; 徐跑; 殷国俊

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of silymarin (SM) against carbon tetrachlo-ride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in crucian carp (carassius auratus) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 100, 300, and 600 μg/mL silymarin were added to carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), or both before and after(pre- and post-treatment) incubation of the hepatocytes with 8 mmol/L CCl4 in culture medium. We then measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In vivo, crucian carp were fed a diet containing one of three concentrations of silymarin [0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg (diet)] for 60 d. Each fish was then given a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30%in arachis oil), and 72 h after the injection, we collected blood and liver samples from each fish. We measured the serum biochemical indices and liver tissue indices described above. Silymarin improved cell viability and decreased GPT, GOT, LDH, MDA, and SOD activ-ity. Administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly decreased GPT, GOT, and LDH activity, increased levels of total protein and albumin in the serum, and increased SOD, glu-tathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and MDA formation in liver tissue. However, these parameters, except for LDH, were not significantly altered in fish fed 0.1 g silymarin per kg diet. Our data suggest that silymarin exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish, which is likely re-lated to its antioxidant activity. We suggest that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent against fish liver diseases.%  为了评价水飞蓟素(Silymarin, SM)对鲫(Cyprinus carpio)肝(细胞)的保护和抗氧化作用,分别从体外和体内两个方面探讨其作用效果。在体外,利用8

  13. The formation of sinusoidal capillarization in the process of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats%四氯化碳诱导的肝纤维化大鼠肝窦毛细血管化的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭杞兰; 黄月红; 陈治新; 王小众

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the formation of sinusoidal capillarization in the process of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )in rats,and to explore the relevance between sinusoidal capillarization and hepatic fibrosis. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were divided randomly into control group (group N)and fibrosis model group (group M). Rats in group N were treated with 2 ml/kg normal sodium twice a week for eight weeks via intraperitoneal injection,while rats in group M were treated with 2 ml/kg a mixture of 50% CCl4 and castor oil twice a week for eight weeks. Rats were executed at the end of 2th wk,4th wk,6th wk,8th wk to collect samples of liver tissue and serum. Grading and staging of hepatic fibrosis were measured by HE staining and masson staining. Changes of HA from serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. Structure of sinus wall in liver sinusoids was observed by TEM. Expressions of CD3 1 ,LN and Col-IV in liver tissue were measured by S-P immunohistochemistry. Results Liver pathohistology analysis confirmed that hepatic fibrosis rat model induced by CCl4 was established successfully. Fibrous septum could be observed at the end of 6th wk. TEM showed that fenestrae of some liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)diminished after treated with CCl4 for two weeks with observing no basement membrane (BM). Fenestrae of LSECs diminished along with the development of hepatic fibrosis,even disappeared. Consecutive BM formed at the end of 6th wk~8th wk in local sinusoidal endothelium. Concentration of HA from serum,and expressions of CD31 ,Col-IV and LN in hepatic sinusoids increased gradually along with development of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion Formation of sinusoidal capillarization was occurred gradually along with development of hepatic fibrosis. Fibrous septa formed later than fenestrae losing in LSECs,but earlier than formation of sinusoidal endothelial basement membrane.%目的:观察四氯化碳(CCl4)诱导的大鼠肝纤维化过程中肝窦

  14. Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 on sinusoidal capillarization in cirrhotic rats induced by carbon tetrachloride%环氧合酶-2在四氯化碳诱导肝硬化大鼠肝窦毛细血管化形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂传涛; 王吉耀; 郭津生

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察环氧合酶-2(COX-2)在实验性肝硬化大鼠肝窦毛细血管化形成中的作用.方法 腹腔注射CCl4每周2次共8周诱导雄性SD大鼠肝硬化模型.将SD大鼠分成3组:正常对照组(n=10)、模型对照组(n=15)和罗非昔布治疗组(10 mg·kg-1·d-1,n=15).光镜下观察肝组织标本,电镜观察肝窦超微结构改变.用Western印迹和免疫组化法检测基底膜蛋白主要成分层粘连蛋白(LN)和Ⅳ型胶原,同时通过Ⅷ因子相关抗原(vWF)免疫组化标记微血管牛成密度.结果 与模型对照组相比,罗非昔布干预治疗能减少肝纤维化面积(分别为30.7±8.9和23.5±6.5,P<0.05).光镜及电镜提示,在模型对照组可见肝窦内皮细胞窗孔减少、缩小,有完整的基底膜形成,Disse腔隙内有大量的胶原纤维沉积,罗非昔布组上述病变有所减轻.随着肝硬化的形成,肝组织微血管密度明显升高,罗非昔布组肝组织微血管密度(6.4±0.7)较模型对照组(11.3±1.6)明显降低(P<0.01).肝硬化时肝组织表达Ⅳ型胶原和LN蛋白明显增加(分别为3.8±0.4和3.7±0.5),罗非昔布能降低Ⅳ犁胶原和LN的表达(分别为3.0±0.5和3.0±0.5;与模型对照组相比两者均为Pcarbon tetrachloride (CCl4) twice a week for 8 weeks to induce liver cirrhosis. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (n= 10), model control group (n= 15) and rofecoxib treated group (received 10 mg/kg of rofecoxib daily, n = 15). Liver histopathology was examined by light microscopy, and sinusoidal ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the level of basement membrane proteins (collagen type

  15. 30 CFR 50.20-6 - Criteria-MSHA Form 7000-1, Section C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., hydrogen sulfide or other gases; poisoning by benzol, carbon tetrachloride, or other organic solvents... example: the machine or thing struck against or which struck the miner; the vapor or poison inhaled...

  16. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  17. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Ceder, Gunnel

    2001-01-01

    . For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/ morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In Sweden...... and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not seen...... in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by carbon...

  18. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  19. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  20. Intoxicación por gases Gas poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por gases en nuestro medio es un problema importante debido a su alta incidencia. En el caso concreto de la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono, es la principal causa de muerte por intoxicación involuntaria en nuestro medio, muchas veces coexistiendo con una intoxicación por cianuro. Ambas intoxicaciones pueden ser de carácter grave, basándose su diagnóstico en la mera sospecha del médico. Además, su importancia radica en que ambas intoxicaciones tienen un tratamiento concreto. La oxigenoterapia normo o hiperbárica es el tratamiento de elección de la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono. En el caso de la intoxicación por cianuro, la hidroxocobalamina es hoy día el tratamiento de elección, ya que ha demostrado ser un eficaz antídoto.Poisoning by gases in our area is an important problem due to its high incidence. In the specific case of carbon monoxide poisoning, this is the main cause of death by poisoning in our environment, on many occasions coexisting with cyanide poisoning. Both poisonings can be severe, their diagnosis being based on the mere suspicions of the doctor. Besides, their importance lies in the fact that both poisonings have a very specific treatment. Normo or hyperbaric oxygenotherapy is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning. In the case of cyanide poisoning, hydroxocobalamin is nowadays the treatment of choice, since it has proved itself to be an efficient antidote.

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Gene Deficiency Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice%Toll样受体3基因缺陷促进四氯化碳诱导的小鼠肝纤维化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛如意; 张丹瑛; 吴昊; 刘韬韬; 董玲; 沈锡中

    2016-01-01

    使肝组织中炎性因子 TNF‐α、IL‐6和 MCP‐1以及促纤维化分子TGF‐β、TIMP1和PDGFR表达升高。结论:TLR3基因缺陷可促进四氯化碳诱导的肝纤维化小鼠肝组织中的胶原沉积和肝星状细胞激活,促进肝组织炎性因子释放,使肝促纤维化分子上调。以上提示,T L R3是肝纤维化病理过程中的一个保护性基因。%Objective:To investigate the effect of Toll‐like receptor 3(TLR3) gene deficiency on the degree of liver fibrosis in mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4 )‐induced liver fibrosis .Methods :A total of 20 wild‐type male mice and 20 male mice with TLR3 gene deficiency (TLR3‐/‐) were divided into wild‐type control group and wild‐type model group ,TLR3‐/‐ control group and TLR3‐/‐ model group ,respectively ,with 10 mice in each group .The control group was injected with corn‐oil by intraperitoneal injection while the model group was injected with CCl4 by intraperitoneal injection .After 8 weeks ,blood sample wascollectedandserumlevelofalanineaminotransferase(ALT),aspartatetransaminase(AST),totalbilirubin(TBIL),and albumin(Alb) was analyzed by automatic biochemical analyzer .And the degree of collagen deposition in liver tissue was evaluated by Masson trichrome staining .And the activation of hepatic stellate cells was detected by immunohistochemistry staining of α‐smooth muscle actin(α‐SMA).And hydroxyproline content of liver tissue was detected with detection kit . Furthermore ,real‐time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of liver fibrotic marker type I collagen ,and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α) , interleukin‐6 (IL‐6 ) and monocyte chemotactic protein‐1(MCP‐1) ,as well as pro‐fibrotic molecule including transforming growth factor‐beta (TGF‐β) ,tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1(TIMP1) and platelet‐derived growth factor receptor(PDGFR) .Results:TLR3 gene deficiency had no

  2. Plasma quench production of titanium from titanium tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    This project, Plasma Quench Production of Titanium from Titanium Tetrachloride, centers on developing a technique for rapidly quenching the high temperature metal species and preventing back reactions with the halide. The quenching technique chosen uses the temperature drop produced in a converging/diverging supersonic nozzle. The rapid quench provided by this nozzle prevents the back reaction of the halide and metal. The nature of the process produces nanosized particles (10 to 100 nm). The powders are collected by cyclone separators, the hydrogen flared, and the acid scrubbed. Aluminum and titanium powders have been produced in the laboratory-scale device at 1 gram per hour. Efforts to date to scale up this process have not been successful.

  3. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  4. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  5. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  8. Methaemoglobinemia in nitrobenzene poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongtham D

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia was saved by the timely use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Though parenteral methylene blue is the antidote of choice, due to its non-availability, the laboratory preparation of methylene blue have been utilized orally. The rare occurrence of such cases, and the efficacy of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to Nitrobenzene poisoning have been highlighted.

  9. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  10. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  11. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  12. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  13. Application value of MR diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)in the diagnosis of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning%DWI诊断CO中毒迟发性脑病的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力; 白旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究弥散加权成像(DWI)诊断CO中毒迟发性脑病的应用价值.方法 对31例CO中毒迟发性脑病患者均行MR DWI检查,MRI检查在CO中毒后15 ~90d内完成,DWI使用单次激发平面回波序列,TR =2 900 ms,TE =84 ms,b值为0和1 000 s/mn2.通过常规MRI、DWI及ADC图评价脑室周围脑白质区信号改变,测量病变区ADC值并与正常信号区进行对比.结果 所有患者DWI序列均显示在双侧脑室周围脑白质区及半卵圆中心弥漫高信号影,显示范围与T2WI及Flair序列所显示范围相似,ADC图显示为轻度低信号或等信号,其平均ADC值均较T2WI及Flair序列显示正常的区域明显减低(P<0.05).结论 脑白质区ADC值减低的程度和持续时间与患者临床进展过程有关,通过对ADC值的观察能对CO中毒迟发性脑病患者的临床进展过程及预后进行推测.%Objective To investigate the application value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods 31 patients with delayed encephalopathy after CO poisoning were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent MR imaging 15-90 days after exposure to CO. DW images were acquired using a single-shot echoplanar imaging sequence in the transverse plane (TR/TE, 2900 ms/84 ms) with b values of 0 and 1 000 s/mm2. Conventional MR images, DWIs, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps of lesions in the white matter were evaluated. ADC values in the white matter lesions were calculated and compared with normal white matter. Results In all patients, DWIs showed bilateral areas of diffuse high signal intensity in the periventricular white matter and centrum semiovale, similar to areas shown on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. White matter lesions showed hypo-intensity or iso-intensity on ADC maps. Mean ADC values of the white matter lesions were significantly lower than those of the normal-looking white matter( P < 0.05). Conclusion The degree and

  14. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  15. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  16. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  17. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  18. Effect of the chemical termination of conductive diamond substrate on the resistance to carbon monoxide-poisoning during methanol oxidation of platinum particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Osiceanu, Petre; Anastasescu, Mihai; Pătrinoiu, Greta; Munteanu, Cornel; Spătaru, Nicolae; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films were annealed in hydrogen or oxygen streams and were further used as substrates for Pt electrochemical deposition. SEM and AFM measurements have shown that, from the point of view of the efficiency of noble metal utilization, a hydrogen-terminated diamond (HT-BDD) support is more convenient because it enables better dispersion and smaller size of the deposited particles. An enhancement of ca. 23% of the electrocatalyst specific surface area was observed for Pt/HT-BDD, compared to the case of Pt deposited at oxygen-terminated diamond (OT-BDD). Nevertheless, it was found that when deposited on oxidized BDD, Pt particles are more resistant to fouling during methanol oxidation. Electrochemical oxidation of adsorbed carbon monoxide was investigated by anodic stripping voltammetry and it was demonstrated that the use of OT-BDD substrate facilitates oxidative desorption of CO from the platinum active sites. This behavior was tentatively ascribed to the high surface concentration of oxygenated carbon species, evidenced by XPS, which may act as oxygen donors and/or could partially weaken Pt-CO bonds, thus enabling easier CO eviction from the electrocatalyst surface.

  19. 急性一氧化碳中毒对大鼠少突胶质前体细胞的影响%Effect of acute carbon monoxide poisoning on oligodendrocyte precursor cells in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞佼; 郭大志; 李航; 李铭鑫; 胡慧军; 潘晓雯

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过制备急性一氧化碳中毒(acute carbon monoxide poisoning ,ACOP)大鼠模型,观察大鼠中毒后中枢神经系统髓鞘改变,以及髓鞘标志物髓鞘碱性蛋白(myelin basic protein ,MBP)和少突胶质前体细胞(oligoden‐drocyte precursor cells ,OPCs)特异性细胞标志物硫酸软骨素蛋白多糖 NG2在中毒后表达的变化,为研究 ACOP后中枢神经系统髓鞘脱失的机制提供实验依据。方法:24只雄性健康SD大鼠,随机分为对照组和染毒组各12只。染毒组利用分次腹腔注射CO制作急性中毒模型,对照组注射空气。于造模后1d、3d取材,采用免疫组织化学染色和Western Blot方法检测中毒后中枢神经系统髓鞘的损伤和MBP、NG2表达的变化。结果:免疫组织化学染色结果显示,与对照组比较,染毒组染毒1d后MBP、NG2表达即减少,3d时进一步降低(P<0.05);Western Blot结果显示,染毒组染毒1d后MBP、NG2表达即减少,3d时进一步降低(P<0.05)。结论:ACOP后大鼠发生中枢神经系统脱髓鞘以及OPCs损伤。%Objective:To observe the changes in myelin and expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and NG2 in the brain tissue of rats through the establishment of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) model ,and to provide experimental evidence for the mechanism of demyelination of the central nervous system after ACOP .Meth‐ods:Twenty‐four male rats were divided into the control group (n=12) and the intoxication group (n=12) random‐ly .Animals in the intoxication group were intraperitoneally injected with pure CO repeatedly ,and those in the con‐trol group with air by the same protocol .The brain tissues were taken from the animals of the two groups at 1st and 3rd day after the establishment of the model .Changes in myelin were observed by immunohistochemical staining , and the expression of MBP and NG2 was detected using immunohistochemistry and

  20. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  1. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  2. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  3. [Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

    2000-11-01

    Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population.

  4. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  5. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  6. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  7. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  8. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  9. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

  10. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  11. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  12. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  13. Sulphur poisoning of the active materials used in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, R.H.; Fowles, M. [Synetix Ltd. (United Kingdom); Ormerod, R.M.; Staniforth, J. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work done and main results of a project examining the Rolls-Royce Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in order to determine the impact of sulphur poisoning of the anode, and sulphur and carbon poisoning of the reforming catalyst. The reversibility/irreversibility of the damage caused by sulphur was examined along with the development of a strategy involving changing operating conditions, catalysts, and processing of the natural gas feed to protect the fuel cell, and methods to minimise the deposition of carbon. The deactivation of the reforming catalyst brought about by hydrogen sulphide addition to the methane/steam mixtures, the rate of the deactivation of anodes resulting from the addition of hydrogen sulphide, problems due to cell leakage, and the module porous support are discussed. Recommendation presented cover safe concentrations of sulphur, the desulphurisation of the fuel, and the prevention of carbon deposition on the support material.

  14. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  15. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  17. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  18. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  19. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  20. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  1. 不同氧疗方式对急性一氧化碳中毒大鼠血气的影响%Effect of different oxygen therapy on blood gas in rats following acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳琳; 葛环; 高春锦; 宋鸿雁; 刘福佳; 侯晓敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察不同氧疗方式对急性一氧化碳中毒(acute carbon monoxide poisoning,ACOP)大鼠血气的影响.方法 将70只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分成健康对照组10只;染毒即刻组12只;余48只CO染毒后再分为4组,分别为空气组、鼻导管组、面罩组、HBO组各12只.制备ACOP动物模型,给予3种不同方式的氧疗,自腹主动脉取血行血气分析.结果 pH值:染毒即刻即出现明显下降(P0.05).PaO2及PaCO2:染毒后各组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).乳酸及COHb%:染毒即刻即出现明显升高(P0.05).HCO3-:染毒后各组均明显低于正常(P0.05); PaO2 and PaCO2: no statistical significance in PaO2 or PaCO2 could be seen between the groups after ACOP(P >0.05); Lactic acid and COHb%: levels of lactic acid and COHb% in the COST group increased significantly, when compared with those of the control group (P 0.05); Bicarbonate (HCO3 -):statistical differences in HCO3 - between the groups could be noted after ACOP (P < 0. 05). Conclusions Various types of oxygen therapy could rectify hypoxia and metabolic acidosis in rats following ACOP. Compared with other two types of therapy, HBO could remove carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) from the body most significantly.

  2. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  3. Oxidation of carbon tetrachloride, bromotrichloromethane, and carbon tetrabromide by rat liver microsomes to electrophilic halogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mico, B.A. (National Inst. of General Medical Sciences, Bethesda, MD); Branchflower, R.V.; Pohl, L.R.; Pudzianowski, A.T.; Loew, G.H.

    1982-01-11

    In order to determine whether CCl/sub 4/, CBrCl/sub 3/, CBr/sub 4/ or CHCl/sub 3/ undergo oxidative metabolism to electrophilic halogens by liver microsomes, they were incubated with liver microsomes from phenobarbital pretreated rats in the presence of NADPH and 2,6-dimethylphenol. The analysis of the reaction mixtures by capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed that 4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenol was a metabolite of CCl/sub 4/ and CBrCl/sub 3/ whereas 4-bromo-2,6-dimethylphenol was a metabolite of CBr/sub 4/. The formation of the metabolites was significantly decreased when the reactions were conducted with heat denatured microsomes, in the absence of NADPH or under an atmosphere of N/sub 2/. These results indicate that the chlorines of CBrCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ and the bromines of CBr/sub 4/ are oxidatively metabolized by rat liver microsomes to electrophilic and potentially toxic metabolites.

  4. Kinetic equation for the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with hydride functional groups of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, A.B.; Smirnov, E.P.

    1989-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the kinetics of the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with the hydride functional groups of diamond. The research was performed on submicron powders of ASM 0.7/0.3 grade synthetic diamond with a specific surface area of 8.0 m/sup 2//g as measured from the adsorption of nitrogen. The reaction was carried out in a flow-through quartz reactor in a flow of dry He. The content of the titanium in the samples was determined by a photocolorimetric method. A kinetic equation for the reaction of diamond with titanium tetrachloride was found on the basis of a statistical approach.

  5. The analysis of evoked potentials about the patients who suffered from delayed encephalopathy by acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病患者诱发电位的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任何茂; 王芳; 王丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)患者脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)、视觉诱发电位(VEP)的变化。方法对38例DEACMP患者进行BAEP、VEP检查。结果本组BAEP、VEP的异常率分别为71.1%,63.2%。结论 BAEP、VEP检查对DEACMP患者听神经、视神经功能的评估有一定意义。%Objective Analyze the change of brainstem auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential of the patients who Suffered from delayed encephalopathy by acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods Inspect 38 patients who Suffered from delayed encephalopathy by acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Results The abnormal rates of BAEP, VEP of this group were 71.1% and 63.2%.Conclusion The check of BAEP,VEP have some significance for the evaluation the patients' functions of auditory nerve and optic nerve.

  6. 急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病发病的危险因素分析%Risk factor analysis of the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓莉; 潘登; 韩亚州; 赵国有; 顾仁骏; 曾皎; 顾家鹏; 李瑞杰; 张萍; 吴强; 田松朝; 赵建华; 靳玫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associated risk factors of the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon mon-oxide poisoning (DEACMP) .Methods Seven hundred and fifty-two cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) in-patients admitted to 10 hospitals in northern Henan during 2001 -2014 who met the inclusive and exclusive criteria were re-cruited .The clinical information of each ACMP patient was collected ,and following-up for each patient was more than 90 days .Based on the occurrence of DEACMP ,the patients were divided into ACMP group and DEACMP group .The statistical induction of 26 indicators in each patient ,such as age ,coma duration ,severity of coma ,smoking & drinking ,etc .was con-ducted to analyze the possible risk factors of DEACMP in ACMP patients .Results One hundred and twenty-seven out of 752 patients demonstrated DEACMP ,the univariate analysis showed that male ACMP patients were more susceptible to DEACMP than female patients ,and the difference was statistically significant (P12 h ,the inci-dence of DEACMP significantly increased ,and up to 58 .3% once the coma last for >48 h .The patients who had moderate-a-bove coma ,positive pathology ,being widowed ,history of smoking and drinking ,major mental stimulation was more suscepti-ble to DEACMP than those without above issues ,and the differences were all statistically significant (All P12 h .Additional care has to be taken for their clinical monitoring to take premorbid preventive treatment as early in-tervention to the disease .%目的:探讨急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病(DEACM P)发病的相关危险因素。方法以2001—2014年在豫北地区10家医院符合入组标准和排除标准的急性一氧化碳中毒(ACM P)752例住院患者为研究对象,收集临床资料,并随访90 d以上,根据以后是否发生DEACM P分为ACM P组和DEACM P组,对所有患者的年龄、昏迷时间、昏迷程度、吸烟饮酒史等26个指标

  7. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  8. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  9. 急性一氧化碳中毒危险分层与常压氧或高压氧综合治疗预后研究%Hazard stratification of acute carbon monoxide poisoning and study on the prognosis of related patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓敏; 葛环; 李茁; 高宇; 马琳琳; 梁芳; 张奕; 杨琳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze treatment methods for patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning and features of delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods A retrospective analysis was made by using 201 cases of patients, who were admitted for emergency treatment upon first clinical visit from January 2007 to February 2009 due to coma induced by acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP). The patients were stratified into 2 groups according to coma time. Group A consisted of patients with a coma time less than 2 h and Group B consisted of patients with a coma time over 2 h. The latter group was subdivided according to coma time and age. Patients of Group A were given hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, and/ or normobarie oxygen (NBO)and patients of Group B given integrated hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Incidence rate of delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analyzed statistically. Results Total incidence rate of DEACMP in ACOP patients with conscious disorder was 3.5%. In Group A, there were no patients with DEACMP; and rate of DEACMP for patients in Group B was 10.3%. And in Group B, incidence rate of DEACMP for patients with a coma time over 2 h was 27.3%, indicating a significant statistical difference, when compared with that of those patients with a coma time for 2~6 h (P 0.05). Conclusions The degree of unconsciousness and coma time were high risk factors of DEACMP for patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Integrated HBO treatment based on risk stratification of DEACMP might result in a relatively low incidence rate of DEACMP.%目的 分析急性一氧化碳中毒(ACOP)患者的治疗方法与一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病(DEACMP)发病特点.方法 对我院高压氧科2007年1月至2009年2月经急诊首诊的201例有昏迷史的ACOP患者进行回顾性分析,根据ACOP中毒时间分组,A组患者昏迷时间2 h,B组根据昏迷时间及年龄再次分组.A组予高压氧(HBO)或常压

  10. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  11. [Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2015-08-16

    Introduccion. La intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono es la mas frecuente en nuestro medio a consecuencia de la exposicion a gases toxicos. Los efectos de la intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono no se limitan a la exposicion aguda porque, tras la aparente recuperacion de la intoxicacion, pueden aparecer alteraciones neurologicas o del comportamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio de las intoxicaciones por monoxido de carbono en un area sanitaria de 80.000 habitantes durante un periodo de 10 años. Posteriormente se hizo un seguimiento de estos pacientes y se valoro la aparicion de sindrome neurologico tardio (SNT) y su relacion con diferentes variables en la exposicion inicial al monoxido de carbono, en el tratamiento administrado o en la gravedad de la intoxicacion. Resultados y conclusiones. Se observo que el 9,1% de los intoxicados por monoxido de carbono detectados en el area sanitaria de Salnes desarrollan el SNT, que es mas frecuente en los pacientes con criterios analiticos de gravedad y muy poco probable en los que no los tienen. Los pacientes con SNT no expresaron manifestaciones clinicas ni analiticas diferentes a los que no presentaron el sindrome; tampoco se observaron diferencias en relacion con la terapia con oxigeno administrada. La tasa de SNT en el area sanitaria de Salnes entre 2002 y 2012 es de 0,84 casos por 100.000 habitantes y año.

  12. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAP Advertise with AAP Advertising on AAP.org Advertising on AAP Journals & Publications AAP Mailing and eMail List Corporate Relationships Conflict of Interest and Industry Relations Sponsorships Corporate Friends of Children Fund Corporate Relationship Guidelines Help/Feedback It looks ...

  13. 依达拉奉对一氧化碳中毒后脑损伤的神经保护作用及机制研究%Neuroprotective effect and mechanism of edaravone on brain injury following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 程永梅; 毕明俊; 康海; 邹勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of edaravone on brain tissues after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and explore its mechanism.Methods Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected as normal control group,poisoning group and treatment group (n=30).Rats in the poisoning group and treatment group were established animal models of acute CO poisoning with hyperbaric chamber method and received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.The rats in the treatment group were given intraperitoneal injection ofedaravone (10 mg/kg) additionally.TUNEL and real time-PCR were used to detect the cell apoptosis and their apoptosis-related gene expressions (Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA) in brain tissues 1,2 and 7 d after CO poisoning in each group.Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to observe the positive cells and protein changes of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythrocyte two related factors-2 (NRF-2).Results The apoptosis cell number in the poisoning group and the treatment group was significantly increased as compared with that in the normal control group (P<0.05);that in the treatment group was relatively fewer than that in the poisoning group with significant differences (P<0.05).As compared with those in the normal control group,the Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expressions in the poisoning group were obviously up-regulated with significant difference (P<0.05);the Bcl-2 mRNA level was significantly increased,the Bax mRNA level was signficantly down-regulated,and the ratio ofBcl-2 mRNA/Bax mRNA was notablyly increased in the treatment group as compared with those in the poisoning group (P<0.05).The positive cells and HO-1 and NRF-2 proteins in the brain tissues of the poisoning group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05);those in the treatment group were obviously increased as compared with those in the poisoning group (P<0.05).Conclusion Edaravone might be partly associated with activation of NRF-2/HO-1 pathway to

  14. The Pittsburgh Poison Center profile of an American poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P

    2005-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Poison Center (PPC), a department of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, was established in 1971 to provide emergency poison information to the residents of western Pennsylvania, especially the children. The PPC provides comprehensive poison information center services to the lay public and to medical professionals, poison prevention education, professional education and specialized services to the business and industry sector and governmental agencies.

  15. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  16. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  17. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  18. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met...... depression necessitating mechanical ventilation, shock, persistent toxicity, or increasing or persistently elevated serum barbiturate concentrations despite treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal. (3) Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred mode of ECTR, and multiple-dose activated charcoal...

  20. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  3. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  4. [Implication of lead poisoning in psychopathology of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Luque, F J; Montejo González, A L

    1997-01-01

    The authors, by means of documental research, study the possibility that the physical and psychic symptoms of Vincent van Gogh may have been due to chronic lead poisoning. The technique and materials used by Van Gogh are analysed as the cause of repeated exposure to lead as well as the possible means of penetration of the metal. Through historical-biographical analysis, the progressive symptoms of the illness are compared with those of lead poisoning. The authors conclude that the excessive and continuous use by Van Gogh of pigments which were highly toxic due to their high lead content, such as white lead (lead carbonate) and yellow chrome (lead chromium), could have penetrated his organism by digestive system (primarily) in minimal daily amounts, giving rise to a clinical condition of chronic lead poisoning. This type of poisoning coincides with the clinical symptoms Van Gogh describes in his autographed letters: initial debilitation, stomatitis with loss of teeth, recurring abdominal pains, anaemia (with a "plumbic" skin tone), neuropathy of the radial and saturnine encephalopathy including epileptic crises, progressive character changes and periods of delirium. The clinical symptoms shown by Van Gogh meet present criteria for diagnosis of Organic Mental Disorder due to cerebral lesion or somatic illness (F.06; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R), and Organic Character Disorder (F.07; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R).

  5. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  6. Correlation analysis between fever and prognosis in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒患者发热情况与预后的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月战

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察急性一氧化碳中毒(ACOP)患者发热症状的比例,鉴别发热的原因,探讨ACOP发热与其预后的相关性。方法选取我院202例ACOP住院患者,对其发热情况、预后、抗生素的使用及血常规检查等资料表格化登记,随后进行统一数据整理和统计学分析,比较发热组及无发热组的白细胞计数水平,同时比较不同发热组及无发热组间的2周病死率。结果202例ACOP患者中无发热者114例(56.4%),入院后48 h内发热者88例(43.6%);发热组白细胞升高比率明显高于无发热组(P0.05)。结论发热是ACOP常见的伴随症状,引起ACOP患者发热的原因多样,需仔细鉴别,以减少抗生素的不必要使用。中度以上发热是ACOP死亡的危险因素之一,与其预后具有一定的相关性。%Objective To observe the proportion of of fever symptoms in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning ( ACOP ), identify the causes of fever and explore the correlation between fever and prognosis in patients with ACOP. Methods 202 cases of hospitalized patients with ACOP in our hospital were selected, whose information on fever, prognosis, use of antibiotics, blood routine examination and so on were registered in form, then followed by a unified data collection and statistical analysis. The count levels of white blood cell were compared between fever group and no fever group , meanwhile the two-weeks mortality was compared among different fever groups and no fever group. Results There were 114 patients without fever (56.5%)and 88 cases with fever (43.5%) in 48h after admission in 202 patients with ACOP. The white blood cell increase ratio of fever group was significantly higher than no fever group (P0.05). Conclusion Fever is a common accompanying symptoms in ACOP. There are a variety of causes leading to fever in ACOP, which needs to identify carefully in order to reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics

  7. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  8. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion...

  9. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...

  11. Oral hyposensitization to poison ivy and poison oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G; Trautlein, J J; Epstein, W L; Laws, D M; Sicard, G R

    1987-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a 1:1 mixture of pentadecylcatechol (PDC) and heptadecylcatechol (HDC) diacetate in reducing hypersensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak. The study was double-blind, parallel, randomized, and placebo controlled. The 44 subjects receiving the active drug ingested a cumulative dose of 306.5 mg over a five-week period. Subsequently, 14 patients were continued on a maintenance phase, ingesting an additional 960 mg of drug. The PDC-HDC diacetate was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Evaluation of efficacy compared poststudy and prestudy reactions to patch tests using urushiol in doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 micrograms applied to the forearm. The results indicated that the induction phase as well as the maintenance phase did not induce a statistically significant hyposensitivity to urushiol, and we were thus unable to decrease sensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak in humans using orally ingested PDC-HDC diacetate.

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    and an APAP concentration over 900 mg/L (5960 mmol/L) if NAC is administered (1D). Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is the preferred ECTR modality in APAP poisoning (1D). CONCLUSION: APAP is amenable to extracorporeal removal. Due to the efficacy of NAC, ECTR is reserved for rare situations when the efficacy...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  13. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    that salicylates are dialyzable by hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (level of evidence=B) and recommended extracorporeal treatment in patients with severe salicylate poisoning (1D), including any patient with altered mental status (1D), with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring supplemental oxygen (1D...

  14. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  15. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  16. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  17. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  19. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  20. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  1. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  2. Solvolysis of titanium tetrachloride in non-aqueous media as a method for producing titanium dioxide particles of different morphology

    OpenAIRE

    A. M Nemeryuk; M. M Lylina

    2015-01-01

    The processes of solvolysis of titanium tetrachloride in nonaqueous media were studied. The influence of the conditions of solvolysis on the size and morphology of the particles of titanium dioxide produced have been described.

  3. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  4. Numerical investigation on three-dimensional dispersion and conversion behaviors of silicon tetrachloride release in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwen, Zhang; Xinxin, Yin; Yanan, Xin; Jian, Zhang; Xiaoping, Zheng; Chunming, Jiang

    2015-05-15

    The world has experienced heavy thirst of energy as it has to face a dwindling supply of fossil fuel and polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic solar energy technology has been assigned great importance. Silicon tetrachloride is the main byproducts of polysilicon industry, and it's volatile and highly toxic. Once silicon tetrachloride releases, it rapidly forms a dense gas cloud and reacts violently with water vapor in the atmosphere to form a gas cloud consisting of the mixture of silicon tetrachloride, hydrochloric acid and silicic acid, which endangers environment and people. In this article, numerical investigation is endeavored to explore the three dimensional dispersion and conversion behaviors of silicon tetrachloride release in the atmosphere. The k-ϵ model with buoyancy correction on k is applied for turbulence closure and modified EBU model is applied to describe the hydrolysis reaction of silicon tetrachloride. It is illustrated that the release of silicon tetrachloride forms a dense cloud, which sinks onto the ground driven by the gravity and wind and spreads both upwind and downwind. Complicated interaction occurs between the silicon tetrachloride cloud and the air mass. The main body of the dense cloud moves downwind and reacts with the water vapor on the interface between the dense cloud and the air mass to generate a toxic mixture of silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride and silicic acid. A large coverage in space is formed by the toxic mixture and imposes chemical hazards to the environment. The exothermic hydrolysis reaction consumes water and releases reaction heat resulting in dehydration and temperature rise, which imposes further hazards to the ecosystem over the affected space.

  5. The extraction of vanadium pentoxide from waste of titanium tetrachloride by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инна Михайловна Гунько

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the recovery possibility of vanadium pentoxide from wastes, formed as a result of purification from impurities of technical titanium tetrachloride is researched. The purification from impurities is realized by different methods – pulp of lower titanium chlorides, hydrocarbonic reducer and cascade-rectifying purification. Usage of these purification methods leads to formation of anthropogenic wastes. The researches is shown that processing of these wastes is reasonable for the purpose of vanadium pentoxide extraction

  6. Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.

    2016-11-11

    Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles met inclusion criteria. Articles included case reports, case series, descriptive cohorts, pharmacokinetic studies, and in......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...

  8. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the b...

  9. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  10. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...

  12. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  13. Unilateral Antidotes to DNS Cache Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Amir; Shulman, Haya

    2012-01-01

    We investigate defenses against DNS cache poisoning focusing on mechanisms that can be readily deployed unilaterally by the resolving organisation, preferably in a single gateway or a proxy. DNS poisoning is (still) a major threat to Internet security; determined spoofing attackers are often able to circumvent currently deployed antidotes such as port randomisation. The adoption of DNSSEC, which would foil DNS poisoning, remains a long-term challenge. We discuss limitations of the prominent r...

  14. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  15. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.

  16. The effects of hyperoxygen solution injected in vein on biochemical indexes of rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning%静脉输注高氧液对急性一氧化碳中毒大鼠生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浩; 孟祥忠; 高巍; 宋博; 徐礼鲜; 张惠

    2011-01-01

    目的 本研究旨在探讨静脉输注高氧液(hyperoxygen solution,HOS)对急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒大鼠生化指标的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将18只SD大鼠随机分为3组(每组6只):正常组(N组)、中毒组(C组)和中毒治疗组(H15组).在中毒后1h,C组输注平衡盐溶液15 ml/kg,H15组输注HOS 15 ml/kg.大鼠经腹腔注入CO 120 ml/kg建立中毒模型,N组给予同等剂量的空气.各组大鼠分别在输注不同剂量的液体后即刻抽取动脉血0.5 ml进行血气指标检测,染毒后1d抽取静脉血3ml进行脑、心、肝、肾敏感生化指标的测定.结果 CO 120 ml/kg腹腔注射1.5 h能引起严重的低氧血症动脉血氧分压(PaO2)由(96.6±2.4)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)降低到(43.0±4.1)mm Hg.中毒后1d能够引起神经元特异性烯纯化酶(neuron-specific enolase,NSE)、S-100β蛋白、肌酸激酶(creatine kinase,CK)、肌酸激酶同工酶(creatine kinase MB,CK-MB)、乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)、α-羟丁酸脱氢酶(α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase,α-HBDH)、总胆红素(total bilirubin,TBIL)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate aminotransferase,AST)、谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷氨酰转移酶(glutamyl transferase,GGT)、尿素氮(blood urea nitrogen,BUN)和肌酐(creatinine,Cr)的明显升高,CO中毒组与正常对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).静脉输注HOS后,血浆溶解氧的含量显著升高,PaO2由(43.0±4.1)mm Hg上升到(77.1±2.5)mm Hg.各种生化指标也均有不同程度的降低,虽然明显高于正常对照组,但与CO中毒组相比各种指标的升高均有所降低(P<0.0l).结论 经静脉输注HOS 15 ml/kg能明显降低急性CO中毒大鼠血浆各种生化指标的含量,对急性CO中毒引起的重要脏器损害具有很好的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of hyperoxygen solution(HOS)injected in vein on biochemical indexes of rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods Eighteen SD

  17. Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric C02: Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an invited comment that was requested by the Editors of the journal Ecology. The authors of this comment previously published an article showing that poison ivy growth was enhanced in a controlled experiment in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this study the growth of po...

  18. Treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, B; Barriot, P; Rimailho, A; Baud, F J

    1988-01-07

    No therapy has been proved to be effective for patients with severe chloroquine poisoning, which is usually fatal. In a retrospective study of 51 cases, we found that ingestion of more than 5 g of chloroquine was an accurate predictor of a fatal outcome, and therefore chose this dose as the criterion for severe chloroquine poisoning. We selected as a control group 11 consecutive patients who had ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine between July 1983 and December 1985. We then undertook a prospective study to determine whether a better outcome could be obtained with immediate mechanical ventilation and the administration of diazepam and epinephrine. Eleven consecutive patients who ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine in 1986 received this combination therapy. Ten of these patients survived, whereas only one control had survived (P = 0.0003). There was no significant difference between the combination-therapy and control groups in age (29 +/- 3 vs. 27 +/- 2 years), amount of chloroquine ingested (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.5 +/- 0.8 g), systolic arterial pressure (74 +/- 2 vs. 74 +/- 3 mm Hg), or QRS duration (0.14 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.01 second). In our combination-therapy group, blood chloroquine levels ranged from 40 to 80 mumol per liter, whereas a literature search showed that no patient in whom blood levels were more than 25 mumol per liter had survived. These preliminary data suggest that combining early mechanical ventilation with the administration of diazepam and epinephrine may be effective in the treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

  19. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  20. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…