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Sample records for carbon tetrachloride extracts

  1. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. PMID:17450508

  2. Hepatoprotective Efficacy of Cichorium intybus L. Extract Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgengaihi, Souad; Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H; Refaie, Amel A; Aboubaker, Doha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the phytochemical and hepatoprotective activity of different extracts of dried herb of Cichorium intybus L. against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated male albino rats. The hepatoprotective activity of different extracts at 500 mg/kg body weight was compared with carbon tetrachloride-treated animals. The animals were divided into five groups with six animals in each group. The first group represents control, the second group received carbon tetrachloride, the third received C. intybus, and the fourth group received C. intybus plus carbon tetrachloride. The fifth group received silymarin as hepato-slandered drug. There were significant changes in serum biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, total protein, and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats, which were restored towards normal values in C. intybus-treated animals. Histopathological examination of liver tissues further substantiated these findings. In conclusion, of this investigation, the results ascertain that the herb extracts of C. intybus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:26913368

  3. Hepatoprotective effect ofAverrhoea carambolafruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AK Azeem; Molly Mathew; Chandramohan Nair DilipC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity ofAverroha carambola fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury.Methods:Hepatotoxicity was induced on albino mice by intraperitoneal administration ofCCl4, half an hour after the administration of the last dose of the extract ofAverroha carambola fruit. Aqueous extract of the fruit ofAverroha carambola was administered at a dose of 0.9 g/kg body weight once daily for seven days. The hepatic injury and its prevention was assessed by the estimation of serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphates(ALP), glutathione level and histopathological studies of liver.Results: Pre-treatment of mice with the fruit extract ofAverrhoea carambola significantly reduced serum levels ofALT, AST andALP enzyme and significantly increased the liver reduced glutathione levels24 h after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. A marked improvement in the enzyme activities and the liver reduced glutathione level was observed in the pre-treated mice 4 days after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for the biochemical analysis. Conclusions:The aqueous extract of the fruit ofAverrhoea carambola has hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in mice.

  4. Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veigas, Jyothi M; Shrivasthava, Richa; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2008-09-01

    Syzygium cumini, Indian black plum or Java plum, is a rich source for anthocyanins (230 mg/100g DW) showing high antioxidant activity in vitro. In the following study it is further demonstrated that S. cumini peel extract rich in anthocyanins (SCA) offers considerable protection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced damage in rat hepatocytes. SCA itself being non-toxic to primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ppm, was found to suppress CCl(4)-induced LDH leakage by 54% at 50ppm, thereby improving the cell viability by 39%. The SCA significantly reversed the CCl(4) induced changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) level, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Exposure of hepatocytes to SCA after CCl(4) treatment was found to elevate GSH and GPx activities by 2-folds, whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were not significantly affected. The fruit pulp extract (SPE) was less effective in offering protection to rat hepatocytes, particularly in terms of total GSH content and a consequent increase in lipid peroxidation although the higher GPx activity suggests the probable involvement of GSH as a substrate for GPx. These observations suggest that the fruit peel extract of S. cumini, is largely responsible for the reversal of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes. Both peel and pulp extract appear to offer protection to rat hepatocytes through GPx along with other biological pathways independent of catalase and superoxide dismutase. PMID:18538978

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

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    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  6. Chemopreventive Effect of Cinnamon Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Physiological Changes in the Frog, Rana ridibunda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    The present study examined the preventive influences of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological alterations in the frog, Rana ridibunda. The experimental animals were divided into five batches. The first batch was untreated and served as control. The other batches were treated for 6 weeks with carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon extract plus carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon and corn oil, respectively. Haematological, biochemical and hepatosomatic index indices were chosen as physiological indicators. These parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. In comparison with control and cinnamon plus CCl4 batches, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and increases of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase values were noted in CCl4-exposed batch at all experimental periods. Also, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index levels were significantly elevated, while mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were decreased at second and last periods. Mean cell volume values were only increased at the first period. In comparison with control batch, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and increases of glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index values were observed in frogs treated with cinnamon plus CCl4 at 2 and 6 weeks. Mean cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were statistically elevated at second period. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration values were declined at last period. Moreover, the percentage changes of these parameters in cinnamon plus CCl4 batch tended to be lower than CCl4 treated the experimental animals. In addition, it is conceivable therefore, that the cinnamon aqueous extract exhibits a protective influence against carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological changes, probably mediated

  7. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Lodhi; Singh, Hemant K.; PANT, KAMLESH K.; Rao, Ch V; Zeashan Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats re...

  8. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Fathalla M. Harraz; Salah A. Ghareib; Nagy, Ayman A.; Salah A. Gabr; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th wee...

  9. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity by aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, A B; Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore possible protective effect ofCnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity in experimental animal models. Thirty six rats of six per group were used in this study. Group I received 10ml/kg normal saline as control. Group II-VI rats were administered with 1.25ml/kg body weight (bwt) of carbon tetrachloride intraperitonealy. Animals in groups III, IV, V and VI were however pre-treated with aqueous extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 250, 500 and 750mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Administration of CCL4 in untreated rats led to microcytic hypochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, increased erythrocyte fragility and stress induced leucocytosis accompanied with significant increase in neutrophils and decrease in lymphocyte counts. CCl4 also led to significant increase in serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and phosphatase (ALP) respectively compared with control animals. Also, CCL4 produced significant increase in serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine compared with normal rats. Pre-treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract brought about significant restoration of the haematological parameters to values that were comparable to those of the control with concomitant decrease in the activities of the marker of hepatic damage enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were also brought to near normal by the CA in a dose-dependent manner. From this study, we conclude that pre-exposure to Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract considerably reduced the effect of CCl4 on the blood parameters and ameliorated hepatic damage by the haloalkane. PMID:22314953

  10. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  11. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  12. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM STEM OF MUSSAENDA ERYTHROPHYLLA LAM. AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE – INDUECD TOXICITY IN RATS

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    CHINNA ESWARAIAH, SATYANARAYANA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussaenda erythrophylla (Rubiaceae is native to western tropical Africa, occasionally seen in gardens and parks as ornamental plant in India. The Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of M.erythrophylla (ME Stem against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of ME (100,200mg/kg.p.o., were administerd respectively, Silymarin (25 mg/kg.p.o. was given as reference standard. The stem extracts were effective in protectingthe liver against the injury induced by CCl4 in animals. This was evident from significant reduction in serum enzyme, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Total bilirubin (TB.Various pathological changes like centribular necrosis and vacuolization were observed in CCL4 treated rats, which were significant protective activity in groups treated with ME and silymarin. It was concluded from the study that ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of ME possess hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

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    Yi-Chun Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder (CCTEP, 10% aqueous Ocimum gratissimum L. extract to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in vivo was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group A was a normal control group given only vehicle; Group B, the hepatotoxic group, was injected intraperitoneally twice a week with repeated 8% CCl4/olive oil (0.1 mL/100 g of body weight; Groups C–E, extract-treated groups received CCl4 and different doses of CCTEP (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg or silymarin (200 mg/kg of body weight daily by gavage for 8 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the CCl4-induced histopathogical changes may be prevented by CCTEP through reducing the intercellular collogen stack, dropping blood serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and restoring the catalase activity and glutathione content. The hepatoprotective properties were further confirmed by the marked improvement in histopathological examination and by quantitative steatosis-fibrosis scoring. The above results suggest that CCTEP is able to prevent the liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 administration, and the hepatoprotective effects might be correlated partly with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects.

  14. Duration-dependent hepatoprotective effects of propolis extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product produced by bees that was discovered through the study of traditional cures and knowledge of indigenous people throughout the world. It is rich in vitamins A, B, C, and E, and in amino acids, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The investigators studied the duration-dependent hepatoprotective effects of propolis extract (200 mg/kg, orally) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4; 1.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally)-induced liver damage in rats. Administration of CCl 4 caused a sharp elevation in the activity of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. A significant depletion in hepatically reduced glutathione was observed with significantly enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. After CCl 4 administration, glycogen contents and activities of alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, and succinic dehydrogenase were significantly decreased, whereas total protein contents and activity of acid phosphatase were increased in the liver and kidney. Propolis extract reversed alterations in all parameters when administered within 6, 12, and 24 h of toxicant exposure. Propolis therapy produced duration-dependent protection, with maximal protection achieved at 24 h after CCl 4 exposure. It is believed that propolis in its natural form has general pharmacologic value and marked hepatoprotective potential because of its composition of minerals, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. PMID:18029340

  15. Evaluating the effects of different fractions obtained from Gundelia tournefortii extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

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    Hossein Niknahad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotics-induced liver injury is a major challenge for clinicians and pharmaceutical industry. Hence, finding new therapeutic molecules against this complication has clinical value. The current investigation aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of different fractions obtained from Gundelia tournefortii (GT hydroalcoholic extract in a rat model of acute hepatic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 250 g were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p. Then ethanol, water, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-Butanol fractions of GT extract were administered. Biochemical and histopathological markers of hepatic injury were assessed, and glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation were monitored in liver samples. CCl4 administration caused hepatotoxicity as revealed by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, as well as pathological changes of the liver. Furthermore, a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione content and an elevation in lipid peroxidation were observed in CCl4 treated rats. It was found that the n butanol (200 mg/kg and the ethyl acetate (300 mg/kg fractions of GT extract protected liver against CCL4 induced damage as judged by lower AST, ALT, LDH and lipid peroxidation, prevention of tissue glutathione depletion, and alleviation of histopathological damages of liver in the extract treated animals. As n butanol and the ethyl acetate fractions of GT effectively alleviated the liver injury induced by CCl4 and provided antioxidant properties, we might be able to propose that the hepatoprotective chemicals of GT extract are present in these fractions.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Extract and Its Major Constituents from Okra Seed on Rat Hepatocytes Injured by Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Lianmei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→6 glucoside (QDG and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG. TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.

  17. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

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    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  18. Carbon tetrachloride induced kidney and lung tissue damages and antioxidant activities of the aqueous rhizome extract of Podophyllum hexandrum

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    Zargar Bilal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum. The antioxidant potential of the plant extract under in vitro situations was evaluated by using two separate methods, inhibition of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide radical. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a well known toxicant and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes tissue damage by the formation of free radicals. Methods 36 albino rats were divided into six groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed food and water ad libitum. Group I (control was given olive oil, while the rest groups were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg as a 50% (v/v solution in olive oil. Group II received CCl4 only. Group III animals received vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/kg body weight and animals of groups IV, V and VI were given extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at concentration dose of 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activities of antioxidative enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD; as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In addition, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity of the extract was also determined. Results Results showed that the extract possessed strong superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity comparable to that of known antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT. Our results also showed that CCl4 caused a marked increase in TBARS levels whereas GSH, SOD, GR, GPX and GST levels were decreased in kidney and lung tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. Aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum successfully prevented the alterations

  19. The n-Octyldodecylsulfoxide(ODSO)-carbon tetrachloride extracting uranium(VI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The liquid-liquid extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from nitric acid aqueous solution with n-octyldodecylsulfoxide(ODSO) has been studied over a wide range of conditions. The extracted species appear to be UO2(NO3)2.2ODSO. It was found that the extraction was increased with increasing sodium nitrate concentration. Extracting also increases with increasing extractant concentration. The influence of temperature and nitric acid concentration on extraction equilibrium was also investi gated and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction was obtained.

  20. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

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    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  1. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani, Z.; N Mirazi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE) on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7): control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,...

  2. Compound list: carbon tetrachloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available carbon tetrachloride CCL4 00003 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/car...ates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open...-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.S...ingle.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/carbon_tetrachloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  3. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the

  4. Effects of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Alcoholic Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadust MR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. alcoholic extract on liver injury caused by the oxidant carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, an experiment was performed as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 with 4 replications of 10 broilers each. Factors included two levels of peppermint leaf alcoholic extract (0 and 2 mL/Kg body weight and CCl4 (0 and 1 mL/Kg body weight. Results showed significant (P interactions for body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR on d 42 of the experiment. The alcoholic extract of peppermint leaf did not improve growth performance, whereas CCl4 worsened BWG and FCR (P. The interaction between peppermint extract and CCl4 indicated an ameliorative effect of peppermint extract on BWG and FCR (P. The interaction effects between peppermint extract and CCl4 significantly differed for blood serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin ratio, glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDLC, LDLC, LDLC:HDLC ratio, and VLDLC as well as the amount of blood liver enzymes (P. Peppermint extract significantly increased blood serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, triglyceride and HDLC, whilst CCl4 decreased those concentrations (P. Blood serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDLC, LDLC:HDLC ratio, VLDLC and glucose were decreased by peppermint extract, whereas those concentrations were increased by CCl4 (P. A significantly higher level of liver enzymes was found in blood serum of birds treated by CCl4 than those by peppermint extract (P. A moderate effect on blood serum liver enzymes was observed by the interaction between 2 mL of peppermint extract and 1 mL of CCl4 (P. Generally, this study indicated that in vivo administration of peppermint alcoholic extract ameliorated the adverse effects of CCl4 on growth performance and liver function, therefore it might be useful for the prevention of oxidative stress

  5. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic root extract of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ottu OJ; Atawodi SE; Onyike E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the methanolic extract of the root of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Methods: Malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin as indices of liver damage and lipid peroxidation were detected in rats after intraperitoneal administration of extract (5 mg/kg). Results: The liver, kidney and heart showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in the levels of MDA from (0.18±0.04), (0.23±0.07) and (0.26±0.10) nmol/mg respectively in the CCl4 control to (0.15±0.03), (0.17±0.04) and (0.17±0.07) nmol/mg protein in groups pre-treated with the extract for three days at 5 mg/kg). Similarly, compared to the CCl4 control, significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum AST, ALT and bilirubin as well as in level of total cholesterol and MDA with concomitant increase in HDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels when CCl4-intoxicated rats were treated with Cassia singueana root extract for two weeks. Conclusions:These results suggest that methanolic extract of Cassia singueana contain potent antioxidant compounds that can offer significant protection against hepatic and oxidative injuries.

  6. Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchornea cordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience O Osadebe; Festus BC Okoye; Philip F Uzor; Nneka R Nnamani; Ijeoma E Adiele; Nkemakonam C Obiano

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities ofAlchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) leaf extract.Methods: Various solvent fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf of the plantA. cordifolia Mull. Arg (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase(SGOT/AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase(SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and total bilirubin. Thein vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)free radical scavenging assay. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening.Results:The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, at a dose of 300mg/kg, produced significant(P<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. The effects were comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the respective experiments, silymarin and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were detected in the phytochemical screening.Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that the plant ofA. cordifolia possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities and these activities reside mainly in the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of methanol leaf extract.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of Centella asiatica (L in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the Centella asiatica extract in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were treated with alcohol extract of Centella asiatica orally in two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg/day for 3 mo along with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein, albumin and marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were estimated both before and after the experiment. Histopathological studies of liver were also carried out to confirm the biochemical changes. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic effects were evident by a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the serum marker enzymes and a decrease in the total serum protein and albumin. Administration of extract of Centella asiatica effectively inhibited these changes in a dose-dependent manner; maximum effect was with 40 mg/kg. Histopathological examination of liver tissue corroborated well with the biochemical changes. Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in carbon tetrachloride-treated group, while these were completely absent in the treatment group. Centella asiatica extract exhibited hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. This effect is attributed to the presence of asiaticoside (14.5% in the extract.

  8. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Extracts Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Veronica ciliata Fisch. has been traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions due to its curative effects for hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. The present study was focused on investigating the role of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, and nitrite radicals; reducing power; β-carotene bleaching and the hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract by means of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in mice were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract of Veronica ciliata Fisch. displayed more noteworthy in vitro antioxidant activities than the aqueous extract. Moreover, it significantly prevented the increase in serum T-AOC, ALT, AST and ALP level in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the extent of MDA formation in liver and elevated the activities of SOD and GSH in liver. This activity was found to be comparable to that of bifendate. Histopathological observation of the liver was also performed to further support the evidence from the biochemical analysis. The results indicated that strong antioxidant activities and a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 of Veronica ciliata Fisch. were concentrated in the ethyl acetate extract. The results suggested that this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties.

  9. THE USE OF VAPOR EXTRACTION SYSTEM AND ITS SUBSEQUENT REDUCTION OF WORKER EXPOSURE TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE DURING RETRIEVAL OF HANFORDS LEGACY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITTS DA

    2008-03-18

    The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear productions complex located in south eastern Washington and is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), used in mixtures with other organic compounds, was used to recover plutonium from aqueous streams at Z Plant located on the Hanford Site. The aqueous and organic liquid waste that remained at the end of this process was discharged to soil columns in waste cribs located near Z Plant. Included in this waste slurry along with CCl{sub 4} were tributyl phosphate, dibutyl butyl phosphate, and lard oil. (Truex et al., 2001). In the mid 1980's, CCl{sub 4} was found in the unconfined aquifer below the 200 West Area and subsequent ground water monitoring indicated that the plume was widespread and that the concentrations were increasing. It has been estimated that approximately 750,000 kg (826.7 tons) of CCl{sub 4} was discharged to the soil from 1955 to 1973. (Truex et al., 2001). With initial concentration readings of approximately 30,000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in one well field alone, soil vapor extraction began in 1992 in an effort to remove the CCl{sub 4} from the soil. (Rohay, 1999). Since 1992, approximately 78,607.6 kg (86.65 tons) of CCl{sub 4} have been extracted from the soil through the process of soil vapor extraction and 9,409.8 kg (10.37 tons) have been removed from the groundwater. (EPA, 2006). The success of this environmental cleanup process benefited not only the environment but also workers who were later involved in the retrieval of solid waste from trenches that were in or near the CCl{sub 4} plume. Solid waste was buried in trenches near Z Plant from 1967 to 1990. The solid waste, some of which was chemically and/or radioactively contaminated, was buried in trenches in steel or fiber drums, fiberboard boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood boxes, and steel, concrete, or wooden boxes. Much of this waste was buried with the intention of

  10. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Hibiscus Polyphenol Rich Extract (HPE) Against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4) - Induced Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adetutu, Adewale; Owoade, Abiodun O.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant that is consumed for its health benefits in Africa. The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective potentials of Hibiscus polyphenolic rich extract (HPE), (a group of phenolic compounds occurring in the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa) against CCl4-induced damaged in rats. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria, between January 2011 and June 2012. Method...

  11. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Jardine, A. B.; Martin, S. T.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    As a chemically inert greenhouse gas in the troposphere with lifetimes up to 50 years but active in ozone destruction in the stratosphere, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) plays a major role in the atmospheric chlorine budget and is widely considered strictly of anthropogenic origin deriving from numerous industrial processes and products. However, satellite remote sensing studies have shown higher concentrations at the Equator, and earlier work has suggested possible biogenic sources. Here we present highly vertically-resolved atmospheric gradients of CCl4 within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem from three towers in the Central Amazon. The observed buildup of CCl4 mixing ratios near the top of the main canopies provides new evidence for a potentially large biogenic source from the Basin. By demonstrating the need to represent tropical forests as biogenic sources of CCl4, our study may help narrow the gap between remote sensing observations of CCl4 and emission, chemistry, and transport models and therefore lead to improved predictions of its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  12. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated

  13. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-04-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. ( Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125-500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125-500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated group

  14. IMPROVED RISK ESTIMATES FOR CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Janet M.; Springer, David L.

    1999-12-31

    Carbon tetrachloride has been used extensively within the DOE nuclear weapons facilities. Rocky Flats was formerly the largest volume consumer of CCl4 in the United States using 5000 gallons in 1977 alone (Ripple, 1992). At the Hanford site, several hundred thousand gallons of CCl4 were discharged between 1955 and 1973 into underground cribs for storage. Levels of CCl4 in groundwater at highly contaminated sites at the Hanford facility have exceeded 8 the drinking water standard of 5 ppb by several orders of magnitude (Illman, 1993). High levels of CCl4 at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The level of CCl4 cleanup required at these sites and associated costs are driven by current human health risk estimates, which assume that CCl4 is a genotoxic carcinogen. The overall purpose of these studies was to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl4. Specific research objectives of this project were to: (1) compare the rates of CCl4 metabolism by rats, mice and hamsters in vivo and extrapolate those rates to man based on parallel studies on the metabolism of CCl4 by rat, mouse, hamster and human hepatic microsomes in vitro; (2) using hepatic microsome preparations, determine the role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in CCl4-mediated toxicity and the effects of repeated inhalation and ingestion of CCl4 on these isoforms; and (3) evaluate the toxicokinetics of inhaled CCl4 in rats, mice and hamsters. This information has been used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl4 originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). Another major objective of the project was to provide scientific evidence that CCl4, like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing and regenerative proliferation. In

  15. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cole, Charles R.; Cameron, Richard J.; Johnson, Michael D.; Skeen, Rodney S.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2001-07-13

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters.

  16. Separation of ruthenium from nitric acid solutions using carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The noble metal, ruthenium is one of the major fission product elements produced with high fission yield, mainly in for breeder reactors using 239Pu fuels. In the aqueous reprocessing of spent fuels for the recovery of U and Pu by PUREX process ruthenium interferes in the solvent extraction stage. In the treatment of high level liquid waste for its disposal, oxides of Ru are formed, which contaminate the surrounding environment owing to their high vapour pressure. Hence, it is desirable to separate from the waste solution prior to its processing for disposal. A simple and feasible method has been employed in the present work for the separation and recovery of ruthenium from aqueous nitric acid medium using ammonium ceric nitrate (ACN) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The efficiency in the separation of Ru was investigated under various experimental conditions such as acidity and ageing effect. Separation efficiency was observed to decrease with increasing nitric acid concentration. Maximum separation was achieved at 1 M nitric acid. Further studies were carried out to investigate the effect of ageing on the separation efficiency ruthenium. With increase in time, separation percentage of ruthenium was decreasing in all concentrations of nitric acid studied. (author)

  17. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride via sulfur and oxygen substitution by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC transforms carbon tetrachloride into carbon dioxide and nonvolatile products, without chloroform as an intermediate. To define the pathway for hydrolysis, nonvolatile products were analyzed. Condensation products containing the carbon atom of carbon tetrachloride as carbonyl and thioxo moieties were identified, indicating the intermediacy of phosgene and thiophosgene in the pathway.

  18. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  19. In situ bioremediation for the Hanford carbon tetrachloride plume. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area at Hanford (also called the Central Plateau) contains approximately 817 waste sites, 44 facilities to be demolished, and billions of gallons of contaminated groundwater resulting from chemical processing plants and associated waste facilities (e.g., waste tanks). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride, nitrate, and other materials were discharged to subsurface liquid waste disposal facilities in the 200 Area. As much as 600,000 kilograms of carbon tetrachloride may have entered the soil column and a portion of this has contaminated the underlying aquifer. In Situ Bioremediation for the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Plume (ISB), which is the term used in this report for an in situ treatment process using indigenous micro-organisms with a computer based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT), remediates groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrates under anaerobic conditions. ISB involves the injection of nutrients into the groundwater and subsequent extraction and re-injection of the groundwater to provide nutrient distribution in the aquifer

  20. Response Pattern of Antioxidants to Lipid Peroxide Concentration in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepato-Toxicity Is Tightly Logistic in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Alisi C. S.; Ojiako O. A.; Osuagwu C. G.; Onyeze G. O. C.

    2011-01-01

    Logistic response of antioxidants to lipid peroxide concentration in carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rabbit liver was evaluated. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol extracts of Chromolaena odorata (ETECO), sylimarin (a known hepatoprotective agent) and water, were used to induce variations in the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the test and control animals. This was used as a model to study the delicate balance between the activities and/or the intracellular concentrations of ...

  1. Fusion curves and thermodynamic properties of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, bromoform and silicon tetrachloride at pressure up to 3500 Mpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong-Jiao; Xu Wei; Tian Yi-Ling; Hao Ji-Shuang

    2008-01-01

    The fusion temperature as a function of pressure for carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, bromoform and silicon tetrachloride at pressures up to 3500MPa has been determined. The experimental data were fitted by the equation Tfus = T0(1 + Ap/a1)a2 exp(-a3△p) and the changes of the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy on fusion were calculated using the parameters of the fitted equation. Comparisons with the data from the literature show that the experimental data, parameters of fitted equations, changes of the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy are reliable.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and hepatoprotective properties of Tinospora cordifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha, B. T.; Shruthi, S. D.; Rai, S. Padmalatha; Ramachandra, Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts of Tinospora cordifolia against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats. The pet ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of various parts of the plant such as leaf, stem and root were tested at the dose of 200mg/kg body weight orally using Wistar albino rats and Silymarin was given as reference standard. Ethanolic extract of all the parts showed significant hepatoprotective effect by r...

  3. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Kai; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Feng-Lin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Wei-Chun; Yeh, Chi-Chen; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Kai Tseng

    Full Text Available In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex trifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf of Vitex trifolia was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. To assess the hepatoprotective activity of the extracts, various biochemical parameters viz., total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined. Results of the serum biochemical estimations revealed significant reduction in total bilirubin and serum marker enzymes and increase in total protein in the animals treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts. However significant rise in these serum enzymes and decrease in total protein level was noticed in CCl4 treated group indicating the hepatic damage. The hepatoprotective activity is also supported by histological studies of liver tissue. Histology of the liver tissue treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts showed normal hepatic architecture with few fatty lobules. Hence the present study revealed that Vitex trifolia could afford significant protection against CCl 4 induced hepatocellular injury.

  6. Activation of phospholipase A2 by carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with 3H-arachidonic acid or 14C-ethanolamine for 1 hour in order to label cellular lipids. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis indicated that of the 3H-arachidonate incorporated into lipid nearly 50% was found in phosphatidylcholine and 15% in phosphatidylethanolamine. 14C-Ethanolamine was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylethanolamine. Hepatocytes labeled as such were exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for periods up to 4 hours. Phospholipase A2 of these preparations was determined by measuring either the release of 4H-arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids prelabeled with 3H-arachidonic acid or measuring the formation of 14C-lysophosphatidylethanolamine from cellular lipids prelabeled with 14C-ethanolamine. Through the use of hexane-partition extraction and thin-layer chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte lipid extracts it was found that CCl, stimulated phospholipase A2 activity in a dose- an time-dependent manner. Carbon tetrachloride at concentrations of 0.23 to 1.3 mM produced a 1.4- to 5.3-fold increase in phospholipase activity which was initiated within 30 to 60 minutes of incubation at 370. A role for phospholipase activation as a secondary mechanism of CCl4-induced hepatocyte injury is proposed

  7. The influence of methanol and ethanol on the efficiency of extraction of lanthanides(III) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) in carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of extraction of microquantities of Eu(III),Sm(III) and Gd(III) from water - 50% (ν/ν) methanol phase or water - 50% (ν/ν) ethanol phase with PAN solutions in CCl4 was examined. Separation factors for the following pairs of lathanides(III) were determined: Eu - Sm, Eu - Gd, Sm - Gd, as well as Eu - Ln, Sm - Ln and Gd - Ln, where: Ln = Tb,Ho, or Lu; their changes with respect to the composition of the polar phase were also estimated. (Author)

  8. Enrichment and purification of total flavonoids from Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae extracts and their suppressive effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Qi, Chao; Wang, Gang; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-12-15

    In the present work, a simple and efficient chromatographic separation method was developed for preparative separation and enrichment of total flavonoids (TFs) from Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae (CJM) extracts and then the protective effect of TFs against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice was investigated. Enrichment and purification of TFs from CJM extracts were studied using six macroporous resins and HPD-750 resin was selected as the best resin according to its adsorption and desorption properties. The operating parameters of resin column chromatography were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, TFs from CJM with purity larger than 50% were produced and their antioxidant activity was further evaluated in vitro. The mice were orally administrated with the purified TFs for seven days and then given CCl4 (0.3%, 10mL/kg i.p.). The results showed that TFs of CJM significantly attenuated the activities of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) compared with model group, as well as the relative liver weight. Histopathological observation also revealed that TFs reduced the incidence of liver lesions and improved hepatocyte abnormality. Moreover, oral administration of TFs significantly enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathological and biochemical results elicited that TFs of CJM had significant hepatoprotective activity comparable to the standard silymarin. This is the first time to reveal the protective actions of the TFs from CJM against CCl4-induced liver damage in mice and this natural product should be developed as a new drug for treatment of live injury in future. PMID:26562802

  9. Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

  10. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

  11. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug. PMID:24811807

  12. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  13. Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride on the liver of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was assessment of gross and microscopic pathological changes resulting from sub acute and sub chronic toxicity of carbon tetrachloride CCl4 (99.5% in the liver of chicken and its relation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels. The approximate lethal dose in three weeks old chickens was equal to (994 mg/kg i.p.. In the sub acute toxicity experiment the given dose was (497 mg/kg i.p. twice a week for one week, the liver of treated animals with CCl4 grossly appeared pale and mottled with white yellowish color patches represent the necrotic tissue, the histopathological changes was severe hepatitis with infiltration of inflammatory cells specially heterophiles and diffused coagulative necrosis. In sub chronic toxicity experiment the dose was given (248.5 mg/kg i.p. twice a week for eight weeks, in gross appearance the liver was severely congested, the histopathological changes was hypertrophy of hepatocytes, hyperplasia of lining epithelium of bile ducts and chronic venous congestion, growth depression and significant decreased in the body weight of the treated animals also noticed at this experiment in compared with control group, a significant increased in (ALT and (AST activities also recorded. The results suggests that pathological changes and response of the chicken’s liver to the CCl4 toxicity relatively differs from other laboratory animal models like rats and mice when used approximate dose in the same duration of exposure, so it didn’t appear fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver of chickens, therefore it can't use chickens as a model to induce experimental fibrosis or liver cirrhosis when treated with CCl4 according to the dose and duration of exposure of this study.

  14. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Standardisation of Polyherbal Tablets For Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas A. Arsul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature survey revealed that phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin from Phyllanthus niruri, wedenolactone from Eclipta alba, and kutkin from Picrorhiza kurroa are responsible for hepatoprotective activity, and phenolic and flavonoids are responsible for antioxidant activity. A selected polyherbal formulation composed of 7 herbal extract mixtures such as Phyllanthus niruri, Eclipta alba, Cichorium intybus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Embelia ribes, Berberis aristata and Picrorhiza kurroa. The phytochemical evaluation was carried out by estimation of total phenolic content and total flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was compared with ascorbic acid (ASC and Rutin as standard. The hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity were studied. Assessment of liver function was made by estimating the activities of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Cholesterol, Bilirubin and Total protein. From the study it is seen that formulation exhibit significant activity.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  16. Excess enthalpies from displacement calorimetry excess enthalpies for 1,1,1- trichloroethane+carbon tetrachloride and 2-chloro-2-methylpropane+carbon tetrachloride at 298.15 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, J.C. van der; Obbink, J.H.; Meijer, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    Excess enthalpies HE are reported for the 1,1,1-trichloroethane+carbon tetrachloride and 2-chloro-2-methylpropane+carbon tetrachloride systems. The results are fitted to the formula HE = x(1−x)Σiai(1−2x)i.

  17. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: Protective effect of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasoumi, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of an ethanolic extract of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. (EER), on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was investigated. Wistar albino rats were administered 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight extract orally for 10 consecutive days. Marker enzymes GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin were estimated in serum. Whereas, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in liver tissue as markers for oxidative stress. Histopathological assessment was also done on liver tissue. CCl(4) induced liver poisoning in all treated animals was evident by elevated serum GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin levels. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver tissue by CCl(4) was evidenced by a fall in the levels of NP-SH and TP; and an increased level of MDA concentration. EER administration for 10 days prevented the CCl(4) induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the extract also reduced the pentobarbital-induced prolongation of sleeping time in mice. The ability of rocket extract to protect the liver toxicity in rats was further confirmed by histological findings in the liver tissue. In conclusion, it was observed that Eruca sativa L. extract protects the liver against CCl(4) induced hepatic injury through its potent antioxidant activity in rats.

  18. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Best, JH; Hunneman, P; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W; Doddema, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 mu M) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were somet

  19. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, J.H. de; Hunneman, P.; Doddema, H.J.; Janssen, D.B.; Harder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 μM) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were sometim

  20. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by pentosan polysulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zim, M C A; Silveira, T R; Schwartsmann, G; Cerski, T; Motta, A

    2002-11-01

    Few data are available in the literature regarding the effect of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) on normal and fibrotic rat livers. In addition, the combination of PPS and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has not been studied so far. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PPS on rat livers treated or not with CCl4 for the induction of liver fibrosis. The study consisted of four stages: 1) hepatic fibrosis induction with CCl4 (N = 36 rats); 2) evaluation of the effect of PPS on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis (N = 36 rats); 3) evaluation of the effect of higher doses of PPS in combination with CCl4 (N = 50 rats); 4) evaluation of the presence of an enzymatic inductor effect by PPS (N = 18 rats) using the sodium pentobarbital test which indirectly evaluates hepatic microsomal enzyme activity in vivo. Adult (60 to 70 days) male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 220 g were used. All animals receiving 0.5 ml 8% CCl4 (N = 36) developed hepatic fibrosis, and after 8 weeks they also developed cirrhosis. No delay or prevention of hepatic fibrosis was observed with the administration of 5 mg/kg PPS (N = 8) and 1 mg/kg PPS (N = 8) 1 h after the administration of CCl4, but the increased hepatotoxicity resulting from the combination of the two substances caused massive hepatic necrosis in most rats (N = 45). PPS (40 mg/kg) alone caused hepatic congestion only after 8 weeks, but massive hepatic necrosis was again observed in association with 0.5 ml CCl4 after 1 to 4 weeks of treatment. Unexpectedly, sleeping time increased with time of PPS administration (1, 2, or 3 weeks). This suggests that PPS does not function as an activator of the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Further studies are necessary in order to clarify the unexpected increase in hepatotoxicity caused by the combination of CCl4 and high doses of PPS, which results in massive hepatic necrosis.

  1. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by pentosan polysulfate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zim M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available in the literature regarding the effect of pentosan polysulfate (PPS on normal and fibrotic rat livers. In addition, the combination of PPS and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has not been studied so far. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PPS on rat livers treated or not with CCl4 for the induction of liver fibrosis. The study consisted of four stages: 1 hepatic fibrosis induction with CCl4 (N = 36 rats; 2 evaluation of the effect of PPS on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis (N = 36 rats; 3 evaluation of the effect of higher doses of PPS in combination with CCl4 (N = 50 rats; 4 evaluation of the presence of an enzymatic inductor effect by PPS (N = 18 rats using the sodium pentobarbital test which indirectly evaluates hepatic microsomal enzyme activity in vivo. Adult (60 to 70 days male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 220 g were used. All animals receiving 0.5 ml 8% CCl4 (N = 36 developed hepatic fibrosis, and after 8 weeks they also developed cirrhosis. No delay or prevention of hepatic fibrosis was observed with the administration of 5 mg/kg PPS (N = 8 and 1 mg/kg PPS (N = 8 1 h after the administration of CCl4, but the increased hepatotoxicity resulting from the combination of the two substances caused massive hepatic necrosis in most rats (N = 45. PPS (40 mg/kg alone caused hepatic congestion only after 8 weeks, but massive hepatic necrosis was again observed in association with 0.5 ml CCl4 after 1 to 4 weeks of treatment. Unexpectedly, sleeping time increased with time of PPS administration (1, 2, or 3 weeks. This suggests that PPS does not function as an activator of the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Further studies are necessary in order to clarify the unexpected increase in hepatotoxicity caused by the combination of CCl4 and high doses of PPS, which results in massive hepatic necrosis.

  2. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  3. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum, Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts of S. tenerrimum, S. variegatum and Sargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results: S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05 reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats. S. tenerrimum and S. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role of S. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction and S. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest that Sargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  4. Hepatoprotective potential of threesargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan Hira; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts ofSargassum variegatum (S. variegatum),Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum) andSargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods:Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts ofSargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts ofS. tenerrimum,S. variegatum andSargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results:S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats.S. tenerrimum andS. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role ofS. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction andS. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest thatSargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  5. Quinone-respiration improves dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervantes, F.J.; Vu-Thi-Thu, L.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of humic acids and the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on the biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by anaerobic granular sludge was studied. Addition of both humic acids and AQDS at sub-stoichiometric levels increased the first-order rate of conversion o

  6. Effect of Mallotus Philippensis Muell.-Arg leaves against hepatotoxicity of Carbon tetrachloride in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna.S,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Liver Toxicity is a major health problem of worldwide proportions. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases. In the present study MEMP leaves is used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 (25ml/kg, i.p.. Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o. was used as the standard. Functional parameters like onset of sleep and duration of sleep, Biochemical Parameters like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were measured. Cytotoxicity of CCl4 was estimated by quantitating the release of malondialdehyde (MDA. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and the level of total protein (TP were also measured. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections was also done. CCl4 administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP and bilirubin. Administration of MEMP significantly (P<0.001 prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 group was decreased and these enzyme levels were significantly (p<0.001 increased in Mallotus philippensis leaves groups. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of MEMP with CCl4 exhibited protection of liver tissue, which further evidenced the above results. Thestudy confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MEMP, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  7. Carbon tetrachloride-induced kidney damage and protective effect of Amaranthus lividus L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Can, Ayse; Karatug, Ayse; Pala-Kara, Zeliha; Okyar, Alper; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of water extract of Amaranthus lividus L. (A. lividus) (Amaranthaceae) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in kidneys of rats. For this purpose, male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with A. lividus (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) daily for 9 days and a single dose of CCl4 was applied intraperitoneally (50% in olive oil; 1.5 mL/kg b.w.) on the 10th day. All rats were killed 24 h after CCl4 administration, and kidneys were excised and used for determination of histopathological and biochemical parameters. CCl4 administration caused a remarkable increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione levels and glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity when compared to the control group. Pretreatment with A. lividus (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) significantly prevented the elevation in LPO level and MPO activity as well as protected the decrease in CAT activity but did not alter other biochemical parameters. The protective effect of A. lividus was further evident through the decreased histological alterations in kidneys. In conclusion, this study has indicated that A. lividus possesses protective and antioxidant effects against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney damage. PMID:25415872

  8. Protective effects of luteolin-7-glucoside against liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiusheng, Zheng; Xiling, Sun; Xubo; Meng, Song; Changhai, Wang

    2004-04-01

    Ixeris chinensis (Thunb.) Nakai has been used as a Chinese folk medicine; the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of the compounds extracted from I. chinensis is still scanty. We investigated the effects of luteolin -7-glucoside (LUTG) isolated from I. chinensis against liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). CCl4 significantly increased the enzyme activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) in blood serum, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in liver tissue, and decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Pretreatment with LUTG was not only able to suppress the elevation of GPT, GOT, MDA and 8-OHdG, and inhibit the reduction of GSH in a dose-dependent manner in vivo, but also reduce the damage of hepatocytes in vitro. On the other hand, we also found LUTG has strong antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The hepatoprotective activity of LUTG was possibly due to its antioxidant properties, acting as scavengers of ROS. These results obtained in vivo and in vitro suggest that LUTG had protective effects against hepatic oxidative injury induced by chemicals. Further studies on the pharmaceutical functions and immunological responses of LUTG may help in the development of a clinical application. PMID:15125574

  9. Pharmacologic application of fourier transform IR spectroscopy: in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Déléris, G

    2000-01-01

    Microsomal fractions from rat liver were examined by means of Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the in vivo toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride administered by intraperitoneal injection. Lipid content was significantly enhanced in the liver of treated rats compared with untreated ones. The level of saturated fatty acids largely increased while that of unsaturated acids slightly decreased as a consequence of lipid peroxidation induced by the xenobiotic compound. The conformational structure of membrane proteins was changed, which was shown by the large decrease in the alpha-helical configuration. In the polysaccharide region we observed an important loss in glucidic structures that could be related to the metabolic changes caused by carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy appears to be a useful tool to rapidly investigate the chemical alterations induced by this drug in liver microsomes and to correlate them with biochemical and physiological data.

  10. Attenuation of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Cow Urine Distillate in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M PGURURAJA; A B JOSHI; HIMANSHU JOSHI; D SATHYANARAYANA; E V S SUBRAHMANYAM; K S CHANDRASHEKHAR

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoprotective activity in cow urine. Methods Effect of cow urine distillate on liver function was studied in vivo in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hepatotoxicity was induced by a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 in olive oil (5 mL/kg i.p). Protective effect of cow urine distillate (in three dose levels) and standard drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) on liver function were studied in intoxicated rats. Parameters in the study included liver function tests and histological observations. Results The cow urine distillate decreased the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, and total bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) as sylimarin. Conclusion The observed protective effects of cow urine distillate on liver function might be due to the presence of antioxidants in cow urine.

  11. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtesam M Al-Olayan; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Metwally, Dina M; Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and...

  12. Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercalated with dodecanoate anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Ginette Anneliese Cooper, Nicola; Bender Koch, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Fe-II-Fe-III hydroxide (green rust) intercalated with dodecanoate, (Fe4Fe2III)-Fe-II (OH)(12)(C12H23O2)(2)center dot gamma H2O (designated GR(C12)), at pH similar to 8 and at room temperature was investigated. CT at concentration levels...

  13. Yiguanjian decoction and its ingredients inhibit angiogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ya-Ning; Mu, Yong-Ping; Fu, Wen-Wei; Ning, Bing-Bing; Du, Guang-Li; Chen, Jia-Mei; Sun, Ming-yu; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Yi-yang; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Xu, Lie-Ming; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Cirrhosis is associated with angiogenesis and disruption of hepatic vascular architecture. Yiguanjian (YGJ) decoction, a prescription from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for treating liver diseases. We studied whether YGJ or its ingredients (iYGJ) had an anti-angiogenic effect and explored possible mechanisms underlying this process. Methods Cirrhosis was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (ip) in C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. From week 4 to week 6, cirrhotic mice w...

  14. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Cheng; Liming Wu; Jianbin Zheng; Wei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antiox...

  15. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gergely, J.; Sipka, S; Csípo, J.; Udvardy, M.; Gy. Szegedi; Kulcsár, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have observed the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in male rats intoxicated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Severe hypothermia, tachypnoea and increase in the heart beat min were diagnosed. These symptoms developed in the first hour of intoxication. The hepatic dysfunction was characterized by elevated bilirubin levels. In the sera we have measured increases in the activity of secretable (group II) phospholipase A2 sPLA2 (2,8x) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α (KPGF) (...

  16. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  17. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  18. Carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide exposures in grain fumigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, D.E.; White, K.L.; Deer, H.; Alexander, G.

    1986-03-01

    The use of 80/20 compounds as liquid-fumigant mixtures in the grain-handling industry was considered. Worker exposures to carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide were measured at representative facilities throughout the industry. Work practices that may contribute to high exposure levels were cited. Approximately equal amounts of liquid fumigants and solid formulations of phosphine are used throughout the industry. As spraying is done on a sporadic basis, it does not appear likely to present a major problem such as might be encountered in continuous exposure situations. The authors conclude that grain workers do not appear to be an ideal study group for a neurotoxicity morbidity study due to the fact that the physical distance between study sites and the small number of workers at each site makes it difficult logistically. A concerted effort throughout the grain industry to educate those workers in the grain-handling portions of that industry toward the safe handling of fumigants should go far in alleviating any problems arising from exposure to fumigants.

  19. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced pulmonary toxicity with Oxalis corniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bushra; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Shah, Naseer Ali

    2015-12-01

    This research work was planned to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract of Oxalis corniculata (OCME) against lung injuries initiated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats at histological and biochemical level. A total of 42 female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed in to seven groups and each group comprised of six rats. Experiment was completed in 22 days (10 doses at alternate days). Group I was not treated (control rats), while group II was administered with vehicles (olive oil and dimethyl sulfoxide), groups III, IV, and V were treated with 1 ml kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) of CCl4 (20% in olive oil). Group III received only CCl4, whereas groups IV and V were administered with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.w. of OCME, respectively. Group VI was administered with OCME (200 mg kg(-1) b.w.) alone. Group VII was treated with sylimarin (50 mg kg(-1) b.w.). CCl4 enhanced the lipid peroxidation while reduced the glutathione in lung samples. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase decreased in lung homogenates with CCl4. Treatment of CCl4 induced deleterious changes in the microanatomy of lungs by rupturing the alveolar septa, thickening of alveolar walls, and damaging the cells with subsequent collapse of blood vessels due to the accumulation of degenerated blood cells. OCME, dose dependently, prevented the alterations in these parameters. These results suggest that OCME protected the lungs due to its intrinsic properties by scavenging of free radicals generated by CCl4. PMID:23796759

  20. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haw-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chin-Shiu [Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Chien-Chun [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Shing [Department of Biomedical Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yao, Hsien-Tsung, E-mail: htyao@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lii, Chong-Kuei, E-mail: cklii@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  1. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl4-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense in various

  2. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC under denitrification conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. (strain KC) capable of transforming carbon tetrachloride (CT) was isolated from groundwater aquifer solids. Major products of the transformation of 14C-labeled CT by Pseudomonas strain KC under denitrification conditions were 14CO2 and an unidentified water-soluble fraction. Little or no chloroform was produced. Addition of dissolved trace metals, notably, ferrous iron and cobalt, to the growth medium appeared to enhance growth of Pseudomonas strain KC while inhibiting transformation of CT. It is hypothesized that transformation of CT by this organism is associated with the mechanism of trace-metal scavenging

  3. Adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from a solution in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface at a temperature of 298.15 K is studied using fine magnetite, which forms the basis of magnetic fluids, as the adsorbent. An adsorption isotherm is recorded and interpreted in terms of the theory of the volume filling of micropores (TVFM). Adsorption process parameters are calculated on the basis of the isotherm. It is shown that at low equilibrium concentrations, the experimental adsorption isotherm is linear in the TVFM equation coordinates.

  4. Spectral luminescence and photochemical properties of chlorophyll a in solution containing carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on photophysical and photochemical processes in chlorophyll a in carbon tetrachloride and ether by means of flash photolysis, electron spin resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Lifetimes and quenching of triplet states were analyzed and absorption spectra and fluorescence decay times are given. The kinetics of triplet-triplet absorption and hyperfine structure were determined. An absolute quantum yield of the photochemical reaction was measured within the range of linear dependence of the optical density on the time of chlorophyll a irradiation by a krypton laser and the excitation wavelength of 647.1 nm

  5. Study on Determination of Off in Water by Extraction Using Tetrachloroethylene Instead of Carbon Tetrachloride%四氯乙烯代替四氯化碳测定水中油类物质初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 孙方中; 罗晓慧; 王丽萍

    2011-01-01

    通过使用四氯乙烯代替四氯化碳测定水中油类物质的对比实验,得到如下结论:四氯乙烯作萃取剂时,标准曲线线性相关系数为0.9999,检出限为0.336mg/L,精密度和准确度符合质控要求。但标准曲线方程的斜率较差,在分析浓度较低的样品时,准确度相对误差较大,萃取回收率不高。由此可以看出,使用四氯乙烯分析油类物质的局限性较大,分析方法还需进一步研究。%By conducting contrast experiments for determination of oil in water using tetrachloroethylene instead of carbon tetrackloride, it concluded that when tetraehloroethylene was used as extractant, the liner correlation coefficient was 0. 9999, detection limit was 0. 336mg/L and the precision and accuracy met the requirements of the quality control. However the slope of the standard curve equation was low. When samples with low concentration were analyzed, the relative errors of accuracy were low and the extraction recovery was poor. It concluded that there were still limitations to use tetrachloreethylene for determination of oil in water, so the method needs further studies.

  6. Effectiveness of enterosgel usage in the conditions of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride

    OpenAIRE

    L. А. Boyko; L. S. Fira; P. G. Lychatskiy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the effectiveness of the enterosgel sorbent in the terms of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride. Experiments were carried out on white rats weighing 175–200 g, which were kept on a standard diet. Karbofos was administered intragastrically on daily basis in the aqueous solution at the rate of 20 mg/kg of the body weight, which is 1/10 of the LD50. Carbon tetrachloride was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day in the fo...

  7. Hepato protective effect of Spirulina Against Gamma Radiation and Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Injury in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast biodiversity of nature provides bioactive compounds that may be useful in the fight against chronic diseases. Although there are a number of drugs available in the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. In the present study, Spirulina platensis has been investigated as a possible modifier of radiation and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and divided into six groups of ten rats each: group 1, normal untreated rats; group 2, animals received only Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group 3, animals were exposed to 4 Gy whole body gamma radiation as a single shot dose; group 4, animals were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks ; group 5, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days then exposed to 4 Gy gamma radiation as a single shot dose; and group 6, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days and injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks. The results revealed that animals treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation showed significant increase in the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was observed. On the other hand, decrease in glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was observed in liver tissues of animal treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina counteracted the radiation or CCl4 -induced lipid

  8. Ameliorative effect of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Chuan Lin; Wei-Lii Lin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Reishi mushroom,Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE), on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4.Forty Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups:control, CCl4, and two GLE groups. Except for rats in control group, all rats were administered orally with CCl4(20%, 0.2 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week for 8weeks. Rats in GLE groups were treated daily with GLE (1 600 or 600 mg/kg) via gastrogavage throughout the whole experimental period. Liver function parameters,such as ALT, AST, albumin, and albumin/globulin (A/G)ratio, spleen weight and hepatic amounts of protein,malondiladehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) were determined. Histochemical staining of Sirius red was performed. Expression of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1) 1A and MAT2A mRNA were detected by using RT-PCR.RESULTS: CCl4 caused liver fibrosis, featuring increase in plasma transaminases, hepatic MDA and HP contents,and spleen weight; and decrease in plasma albumin,A/G ratio and hepatic protein level. Compared with CCl4group, GLE (600, 1 600 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased plasma albumin level and A/G ratio (P< 0.05)and reduced the hepatic HP content (P<0.01). GLE (1600 mg/kg) treatment markedly decreased the activities of transaminases (P< 0.05), spleen weight (P< 0.05) and hepatic MDA content (P<0.05); but increased hepatic protein level (P<0.05). Liver histology in the GLE (1600 mg/kg)-treated rats was also improved (P<0.01).RT-PCR analysis showed that GLE treatment decreased the expression of TGF-β1 (P< 0.05-0.001) and changed the expression of MAT1A (P<0.05-0.01) and MAT2A (P< 0.05-0.001).CONCLUSION: Oral administration of GLE significantly reduces CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular necrosis by its free-radical scavenging ability.

  9. Influence of Phenobarbital and Carbon tetrachloride on the Modulation of Tissue Retention Profile of Hexachlorocyclohexane in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the role of hepatic metabolic activity on body burden of HCH residue. Male albino rats were orally administered 0, 5, and 10 mg/kg HCH for 90 days, followed by either sodium phenobarbital or carbon tetrachloride treatment for 0, 15 and 30 days after withdrawal of their respective HCH administration. The liver weight was significantly increased at 30 days after the administration of phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride in both 5 mg and 10 mg/kg HCH withdrawal groups when compared to control. HCH residue was maximun in fat followed by adrenal>thymus>liver>kidney>spleen>testes>brain>plasma. Carbon tetrachloride caused an accumul-ation of HCH residues in the liver 15 and 30 days after administration of both doses of HCH. Phenobarbital did not show significant variation in HCH residues in hepatic tissue. Phenobarbital treatment caused significant induction of hepatic RED, APD, AHH, GST and QR activities. Significant decreases in activities were observed by carbon tetrachloride when compared to animals treated with HCH alone. The overall results clearly suggest the role of P450 protein on the body burden of HCH residues.

  10. Efficiency of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride mixture for fumigation of important animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Khalsa

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that animal feeds like crushed barley, crushed gram and wheat bran can be effectively disinfested by fumigation with 3:1 mixture of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride at a dosage of 2.5 gallons per 1,000 cuft. The lowest average atmospheric temperatures, at which the fumigation for 48 hours and for 72 hours was found effective, were 28.6 and 24.15 degree celcius respectively. It was also found that the order of susceptibility of the three test insects, viz. Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Trogoderma granerium Everts and Latheticus oryzae Watrh and their various stages varied considerably. in all cases, adults and pupae were found to be more susceptible than larvae.

  11. A combination of Ang Ⅱ and carbon tetrachloride accelerates process of hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周馨; 李定国; 李宣海; 陆汉明; 张文竹

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) used in combination could accelerate the process of fibrosis and whether Ang Ⅱ play a role in exaggerating hepatic fibrosis in rats.Methods Ang Ⅱ was injected into the abdominal cavity of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats together with subcutaneous injection of CCl4. Rats were killed after 14 and 28 d. Blood serum and liver specimen were collected. The extent of fibrosis in the stained liver tissue sections was determined with the KS 400 Image Analysis System. Results Rats receiving Ang Ⅱ and CCl4 for 28 d showed extensive liver fibrosis. Along with the increase of hepatic fibrosis, the serum concentration of Ang Ⅱ went up gradually. Conclusions A combination of Ang Ⅱ and CCl4 would accelerate the process of hepatic fibrosis. Ang Ⅱ probably took part in the occurrence of heparic fibrosis.

  12. Hepatoprotective mechanism of lycorine against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in swiss albino mice - A proteomic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Dhanaraj Karthik; Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar; Srisesharam Srigopalram; Selvaraj Arokiyaraj; Sivanesan Ravikumar; Ki Choon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential of protein expression in CCl4 induced mice treated with lycorine. Methods: The present study was carried out to identify the differentially expressed protein in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress mice treated with lycorine (5 mg/kg. bw) using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF. Results: We observed many kinds of differentially expressed protein in experimental liver. Among these, three are much differently expressed protein which is identified as ATP synthase, regucalcin and HSP60; these proteins are involved in the ATP synthesis, calcium regulation and rescue the integrity cellular proteins respectively. Conclusion: This investigation provided a molecular mechanism of the lycorine during CCl4 induced oxidative stress in mice liver.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Vernonia cinerea and Cumin seeds on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishadh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the protective effect of Vernonia cinerea against carbon tetrachloride (1.0ml / kg b.wt / day administered intraperitoneally for 2 days in male albino Wistar rats. The levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, and urea were determined. The activities of glutathione, Vitamin C and the levels of lipid peroxides in 10% w/v liver homogenate were also determined. The CCl4 induction resulted a significant elevation in the levels of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and creatinine with decreased urea. The activities of hepatic glutathione and vitamin C were also significantly depleted with increased lipid peroxides in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The oral administration of herbal drug alone did not show any toxicity in the liver tissue. These results suggest that the herbal drug may probably act as a natural antioxidant against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative stress.

  14. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1μM which peaked at 30min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p<0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl4-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p<0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. PMID:25110055

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity ofBombax ceiba lfowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish M Wanjari; Rachna Gangoria; Yadu Nandan Dey; Sudesh N Gaidhani; Narendra K Pandey; Ankush D Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The lfowers ofBombax ceibaare traditionaly used as home remedy in the treatment of jaundice and spleen enlargement. The present work investigated the effect of aqueous extract of lfowers ofBombax ceiba (BCAE) on experimentaly induced hepatotoxicity in rats to substantiate its traditional use as hepatoprotective agent.Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment; at the same time vehicle or BCAE (250 or 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (25 mg/kg) were administered daily oraly for seven days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by estimating the activities of marker enzymes and by histological studies. The antioxidant effect of BCAE was assessed by measuring amount of antioxidant phytochemicals (total phenolics and lfavonoids), and DPPH free radical scavenging assay of the extract.Results: BCAE treatment signiifcantly prevented the CCl4-induced elevations in levels of glutamate oxaloacatate transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and triglycerides, and decreased the total protein levels. Treatment with BCAE attenuated the CCl4-induced cytotoxic damage to liver. BCAE exhibited presence of antioxidant phytochemicals and showed scavanging action on DPPH radicals. The hepatoprotective effect of BCAE was comparable to that of the standard antioxidant hepatoprotective agent, silymarin. These ifndings indicated that BCAE showed hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and exhibitedin vitro antioxidant effects.Conclusion:Bombax ceiba lfowers exhibited hepatoprotective effect which may be attributed to antioxidant potential. This study also validated their traditional medicinal use in liver disorders.

  16. Design of an Extractive Distillation Column for the Environmentally Benign Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium Tetrachloride for Nuclear Power Reactor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Pham

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power with strengthened safety regulations continues to be used as an important resource in the world for managing atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated climate change. This study examined the environmentally benign separation of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and hafnium tetrachloride (HfCl4) for nuclear power reactor applications through extractive distillation using a NaCl-KCl molten salt mixture. The vapor–liquid equilibrium behavior of ZrCl4 and HfCl4 over t...

  17. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav; Kennedy, Eric; Mackie, John; Holdsworth, Clovia; Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael; Dlugogorski, Bogdan

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  18. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Jing; Ye, Lin-Bai; Yang, Fan; Ye, Li; Gao, Jin-Rong; Wu, Zheng-Hui

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

  19. D-Dopachrome tautomerase is a candidate for key proteins to protect the rat liver damaged by carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is known to induce liver damage. Animal experiments with CCl4 injections have revealed many findings, especially mechanisms of liver damage and liver regeneration. Recently, proteomic approaches have been introduced in various studies to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in the comprehensive proteome level. The aim of this research is to elucidate the key protein for liver damage, liver protection and liver regeneration by using proteomic techniques. 50 % (v/v) CCl4 in corn oil was administered intraperitoneally to adult male rats at a dose of 4 ml/kg body weight. Approximately 24 h after the injection, the liver was removed and extracted proteins were analyzed with cleavable isotope coded affinity tag (cICAT) reagents, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). A twelvefold increase in D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) was indicated. This enzyme has been reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of melanin, an antioxidant. According to the histological analysis, melanin levels were increased in un-damaged hepatocytes of CCl4-treated rats. These results suggest that the increase in DDT is a response to liver damage, accelerates melanin biosynthesis and protects the liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl4

  20. Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride by Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene Respiring Anaerobic Mixed Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickstrom, K. E.; Azizian, M.; Semprini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) is a toxic and recalcitrant groundwater contaminant with the potential to form a broad range of transformation products. Of the possible biochemical pathways through which CT can be degraded, reductive dehalogenation to less chlorinated compounds and mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) appear to be the most frequently utilized pathways by anaerobic organisms. Results will be presented from batch experiments of CT degradation by the Evanite (EV), Victoria Strain (VS) and Point Mugu (PM) anaerobic dechlorinating cultures. The cultures are grown in chemostats and are capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene by halorespiration via reductive dehalogenase enzymes. For the batch CT transformation tests, the cells along with supernatant were harvested from chemostats fed PCE or TCE, but never CT. The batch reactors were initially fed 0.0085 mM CT and an excess of formate (EV and VS) or lactate (PM) as electron donor. Transformation of CT was 100% with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) and undetected products. Multiple additions of CT showed a slowing of pseudo first-order CT transformation rates across all cultures. Batch reactors were then established and fed 0.085 mM CT with an excess of electron donor in order to better quantify the reductive pathway. CT was transformed to CF and dichloromethane (DCM), with trace amounts of chloromethane (CM) detected. Between 60-90% of the mass added to the system was accounted for, showing that the majority of the carbon tetrachloride present is being reductively dehalogenated. Results from batch reactors that were poisoned using sodium azide, and from reactors not provided electron donor will be presented to distinguish between biotic and abiotic reactions. Furthermore, results from reactors prepared with acetylene (a potent, reversible inhibitor of reductive dehalogenases (1)) will be presented as a means of identifying the enzymes involved in the

  1. Gas Phase Conversion of Carbon Tetrachloride to Alkyl Chlorides Catalyzed by Supported Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Aijun; ZHANG Jinlong; LI Chunxi; MENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    An efficient way of converting carbon tetrachloride(CTC)to alkyl chlorides is reported,which uses the catalysts of ionic liquids supported on granular active carbon.The catalytic performance was evaluated in a temperature range of 120-200℃ and atmospheric pressure for different ionic liquids,namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,hydrochloric salts of N-methylimidazole(MIm),pyridine and triethylamine,as well as bisulfate and dihydric phosphate of N-methylimidazole.On this basis,the reaction mechanism was proposed,and the influences of the reaction temperature and the attributes of ionic liquids were discussed.The overall reaction was assumed to be comprised of two steps,the hydrolysis of CTC and reaction of HCI with alcohols under acidic catalyst.The results indicate that the conversion of CTC increased monotonically with temperature and even approached 100% at 200 ℃,while the maximum selectivity to alkyl chlorides was obtained around 160 ℃.This reaction might be potentially applicable to the resource utilization of superfluous byproduct of CTC in the chloromethane industry.

  2. Cost/benefit analysis comparing ex situ treatment technologies for removing carbon tetrachloride from Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a cost/benefit and performance analysis to compare ex situ technologies that can be used to destroy the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the ground water of Hanford's 200 West Area. The objective of this work was to provide a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison of competing technologies. The technologies examined included a biological system, the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System II (TEES II), and a UV/oxidation system. The factors examined included key system operation parameters, impact on inorganic contaminants in the ground water, and secondary waste production. The cost effectiveness of these destruction technologies was also compared to the cost for an air stripping/granular activated carbon (AS/GAC) system. While the AS/GAC system appeared to be more cost effective at many levels than the CCl4 destruction technologies, the secondary waste produced by this system may lead to significant cost and/or regulatory problems. The factors with the greatest influence on cost for each destruction technology are as follows: nutrient requirements for both of the biological systems, electricity requirements and the type of unit operations for the TEES II process, and electricity requirements for UV/oxidation

  3. Protective Effect of Ssanghwa-Tang Fermented by Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eum, Hyun-Ae; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yang, Min-Cheol; Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2011-01-01

    Ssanghwa-tang (SHT) is a traditional herbal medicine formula that has been used for the development of physical strength, relief of pain, and the reduction of fatigue. In this study, we fermented SHT with Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum), Lactobacillus gasseri (L.gasseri), or Lactobacillus casei (L.casei) to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of SHT and fermented SHT with Lactobacillus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Rats were given CCl4 (1 ml/kg, 50% ...

  4. Colchicine antimitosis abolishes resiliency of postnatally developing rats to chlordecone-amplified carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity and lethality.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalu, A; Rao, P S; Mehendale, H M

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported that rats are resilient to the hepatotoxic and lethal combination of chlordecone (CD) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) during early postnatal development. The overall findings pointed to stimulated cell division and tissue repair mechanisms as the underlying cause of resistance. The objective of the current study was to investigate if the antimitotic effect of colchicine (CLC) abolishes this resiliency to CD + CCl4 by inhibiting ongoing and stimulated cell division....

  5. Protective Effect of the Total Saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deshi Dong; Lianhong Yin; Yan Qi; Lina Xu; Jinyong Peng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the protective effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx (RLTS) against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was evaluated. The results showed that RLTS significantly rehabilitated the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hydroxyproline, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin, which were confirmed using ...

  6. Investigation on preparation of uranium tetrachloride from chlorinating uranium dioxide by carbon tetrachloride and its mixing reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By studying the change of the temperature for gaseous space and solid layer within the reactor and improving structure of reactor and types of feed material stocked in the boat pan, it is possible to reduce the volatilization loss of uranium, allowing the uranium yield to rise above 97%. A further study found that chlorination of UO2 by using a mixture of CHCl3 + CCl4 can markedly reduce the volatilization loss of uranium chlorides, and the uranium yield is above 99%. The content of free carbon is less than 100 ppm in the product. A new chlorination process has been developed

  7. Apoptosis initiated by carbon tetrachloride in mitochondria of rat primary cultured hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan CAI; Li-kun GONG; Xin-ming QI; Xiang-hong LI; Jin REN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mitochondria-initiated apoptosis pathway involved in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity in vitro. Methods: Several cytotoxicity endpoints, including WST-8 metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and morphological changes, were examined. The 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)reaction was used to measure reduced glutathione level, and the malondialdehyde level was determined using the thiobarbituric acid assay. The release of cytochrome c and Bcl-XL was detected by Western blot. Caspase-3 activity was measured using the fiuorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC. DNA fragmentation was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Results: A time- and dose-dependent decrease in cellular glutathione content was observed, along with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde levels following the application of CC14. Caspase 3 activity was stimulated at all doses of CCl4, with the most significant activation at 3 mmol/L.Cytochrome c was released obviously after CC14 treatment. A time-dependent decrease in Bcl-XL expression was observed. DNA fragmentation results revealed apoptosis and necrosis following CC14 treatment. Conclusion: Oxidative damage is one of the essential mechanisms of CC14 hepatotoxicity, which triggers apoptosis via the mitochondria-initiated pathway.

  8. Molecular Interaction Studies of Benzyl Alcohols with Methacrylates in Carbon Tetrachloride using Frequency Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.

  9. Ameliorative effects of pomegranate on carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in rats: A molecular and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Nassan, Mohamed Abdo; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective effects of pomegranate (POM) against oxidative stress in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Injection of rats with CCl4 resulted in hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation via the upregulation of interleukin (IL)‑6 and sterol regulatory element‑binding protein 1c (SREBP‑1c) mRNA expression. CCl4 induced downregulation of the anti‑inflammatory factors alpha 2‑macroglobulin (α‑2M) and IL‑10 in comparison with the POM treated group. In addition, CCl4 induced downregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S‑transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) expression. Conversely, prior administration of POM counteracted the deleterious alterations induced by CCl4. POM downregulated CCl4-induced IL‑6 upregulation, normalized the increase in SREBP‑1c expression, and prevented CCl4‑induced α‑2M downregulation. POM counteracted CCL4‑induced alterations via immunosuppressive, anti‑inflammatory and regenerative effects by upregulating transforming growth factor‑β1, HSP70 and IL-10 mRNA expression. In addition, POM increased reactive oxygen species scavenging activity by augmenting the antioxidant defense mechanism against CCl4 hepatotoxicity, as demonstrated by detecting SOD, CAT and GST expression. These results confirm that, at the molecular level, POM exerts hepatoprotective effects against CCl4‑induced oxidative stress and liver tissue damage. PMID:26936425

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of pinoresinol on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Yeon; Kim, Joon-Ki; Choi, Jun-Ho; Jung, Joo-Yeon; Oh, Woo-Yong; Kim, Dong Chun; Lee, Hee Sang; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2010-01-01

    Forsythiae Fructus is known to have diuretic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the hepatoprotective effects of pinoresinol, a lignan isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or pinoresinol (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 microl/kg) injection. In the vehicle-treated CCl(4 )group, serum aminotransferase activities were significantly increased 24 h after CCl4 injection, and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol at all doses. Hepatic glutathione contents were significantly decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased after CCl4 treatment. These changes were attenuated by 50 and 100 mg/kg of pinoresinol. The levels of protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, were significantly increased after CCl4 injection; and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and phosphorylation of c-Jun, one of the components of activating protein 1 (AP-1), were inhibited by pinoresinol. Our results suggest that pinoresinol ameliorates CCl4)-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to anti-oxidative activity and down-regulation of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  11. Total Flavonoids from Mimosa Pudica Protects Carbon Tetrachloride -Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-qin QIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of total flavonoids from Mimosa pudica on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Methods: CCl4-induced acute liver injury model in mice was established. The activity of ALT and AST, the content of serum albumin (Alb and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC were determined. The content of malondiadehyde (MDA was measured and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was determined. The histopathological changes of liver were observed.Results: Compared with CCl4 modle group, each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldreduced the activity of ALT and AST in mice obviously (P<0.01, indicating they had remarkably protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. high and middle dose groups of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldincrease the content of Alb in mice (P<0.01. Each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could enhance the level of T-AOC (P<0.01. each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could lower the content of liver homogenate MDA but enhance the activity of SOD in a dose-depended manner (P<0.01. Conclusion: Total flavones from Mimosa Pudica have obvious protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  12. Liquiritigenin Protects Rats from Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Injury through PGC-1α Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of effective treatment for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas imposes serious challenges to the healthcare system. Here, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of liquiritigenin involved in preventing or retarding the progression of liver diseases in a rat model with chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 exposure. Sprague Dawley rats were given CCl4 and lliquiritigenin alone or simultaneously for 8 weeks before liver was harvested to check histological changes by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining, apoptosis by TUNEL assay, ROS by dihydroethidium staining, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde using specific kits, and gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Chronic CCl4 exposure caused profound changes in liver histology with extensive hepatocyte death (necrosis and apoptosis, fat accumulation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, accompanied by depressed activities of antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative stress, elevated expression of inflammation and fibrotic genes, and downregulation of PGC-1α, ND1, and Bcl-x in rat liver. All these changes were abolished or alleviated by lliquiritigenin. The results demonstrated that liquiritigenin is effective in protecting liver from injury or treating chronic liver diseases. The modulation of PGC-1α and its downstream genes might play a critical role in relieving CCl4-induced hepatic pathogenesis by liquiritigenin.

  13. Enhanced degradation of carbon tetrachloride by surfactant-modified zero-valent iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Ya-feng; GUAN Bao-hong; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of CT, so the sorption capacity of ZVI is of great importance. This experiment was aimed at enhancing the sorption of CT by ZVI and the degradation rate of CT by modification of surfactants. This study showed that ZVI modified by cationic surfactants has favorable synergistic effect on the degradation of CT. The CT degradation rate of ZVI modified by cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) was higher than that of the unmodified ZVI by 130%, and the CT degradation rate of ZVI modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was higher than that of the unmodified ZVI by 81%. This study also showed that the best degradation effect is obtained at the near critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and that high loaded cationic surfactant does not have good synergistic effect on the degradation due to its hydrophilicity and the block in surface reduction sites. Furthermore degradation of CT by ZVI modified by nonionic surfactant has not positive effect on the degradation as the ionic surfactant and the ZVI modified by anionic surfactant has hardly any obvious effects on the degradation.

  14. Improved risk estimates for carbon tetrachloride. Project status report and technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Lovelace Respiratory Research Inst.; Springer, D.L.; Thrall, K.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively within the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities. High levels of CCl{sub 4} at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The overall purpose of these studies is to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl{sub 4}. Specifically, the authors will determine the toxicokinetics of inhaled and ingested CCl{sub 4} in F344/Crl rats. B6C3F{sub 1} mice, and Syrian hamsters. They will also evaluate species differences in the metabolism of CCl{sub 4} by rats, mice, hamsters, and man. Dose-response relationships will be determined in all these studies. This information will be used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl{sub 4} originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). The authors will also provide scientific evidence that CCl{sub 4}, like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing, and regenerative cell proliferation.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pentagamavunon-0 against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arief Nurrochmad; Supardjan Amir Margono; Sardjiman; Arief Rahman Hakim; Ernawati; Erna Kurniawati; Erva Fatmawati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pentagamavunon-0(PGV-0) against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Methods: The groups of animals were administered with PGV-0 at the doses 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w., p.o. once in a day for 6 days and at day 7 the animals were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (20%, 2 mL/kg b.w. in liquid paraffin (i.p.). The effect of PGV-0 on serum transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphates (ALP) and total bilirubin were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of PGV-0 on glutathione (GSH) content, catalase (CAT) and NO free radical scavenging activity also were investigated. Results: The results demonstrated that PGV-0 significantly reduced the activity of SGPT, serum ALP and total bilirubin in CCl4 induced rat hepatotoxicity. PGV-0 has effect on the antioxidant and free radical defense system. It prevented the depletion level of GSH and decrease activity of CAT in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. PGV-0 also demonstrated the free radical scavenger effects on NO free radical scavenging activity with ES value of 32.32 μM. Conculsion: All of our findings suggests that PGV-0 could protect the liver cells from CCl4-induced liver damages and the mechanism may through the antioxidative effect of PGV-0 to prevent the accumulation of free radicals and protect the liver damage.

  16. Removal of Technetium, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Metals from DOE Properties - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is a three year project involving close collaboration between chemists at Pennsylvania State University and materials scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the project is the development and characterization of supported reducing agents, and solid waste forms derived from them, which will be effective in remediation of aqueous wastes. The work follows the recent discovery that zero-valent metals, such as iron, are effective decontaminants for waste streams containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Preliminary data, obtained at Penn State and elsewhere, have shown that the same strategy will be effective in reducing soluble compounds containing toxic metals (technetium, lead, mercury, and chromium) to insoluble forms. The Penn State group has prepared a new class of powerful reducing agents, called Ferragels, which consist of finely divided zero-valent metals on high surface area supports. Because the rate of the surface oxidation-reduction reaction depends on available surface area, Ferragels are more effective in every case tested to date than unsupported metals. The project will further develop and investigate the application of these composite materials to problems relevant to the DOE-EM mission, namely the detoxification of waste streams containing technetium, carbon tetrachloride, and toxic metal ions. The Penn State group will work closely with the PNNL group to prepare materials that are compatible with the highly corrosive liquid fraction of Hanford site tank waste, to conduct tests with waste simulants containing technetium, and to formulate and characterize vitrified waste forms derived from these materials

  17. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y. Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-03-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  18. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-03-28

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values. PMID:27036455

  19. Comparative efficiency of microbial systems for destroying carbon tetrachloride contamination in Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past waste disposal practices at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site have resulted in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and nitrate contamination in the groundwater. In situ bioremediation is currently being investigated as a cost effective means to destroy these groundwater contaminants. The cost effectiveness of bioremediation is significantly influenced by the nutrient amendments required to sustain the contaminant destruction reactions. This is particularly important for bioremediation of CCl4 because its biodestruction is the result of a cometabolic process. Nutrient amendments are also important in controlling the growth characteristics of the bacteria to prevent biofouling. Current and previous research has focused on determining the reaction kinetics and microbial processes for CCl4 destruction using acetate as the electron donor for indigenous microbes. This study was conducted to determine if electron donors other than acetate may be more cost effective, or may provide a better means of process control, for in situ bioremediation of CCl4 contamination. Three alternative electron donors, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol, were screened for their ability to stimulate CCl4 destruction. Detailed reaction kinetic experiments using an indigenous microbial consortium with these substrates and with acetate were conducted to determine the efficiency of each in destroying CCl4

  20. Protective effects of polydatin from Polygonum cuspidatum against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Polydatin is one of main compounds in Polygonum cuspidatum, a plant with both medicinal and nutritional value. The possible hepatoprotective effects of polydatin on acute liver injury mice induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4 and the mechanisms involved were investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4 (50 µl/kg resulted in a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, also a marked enhancement in the expression of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nuclearfactor-kappa B (NF-κB. On the other hand, decreased glutathione (GSH content and activities of glutathione transferase (GST, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were observed following CCl(4 exposure. Nevertheless, all of these phenotypes were evidently reversed by preadministration of polydatin for 5 continuous days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β(1 were enhanced further by polydatin. These results suggest that polydatin protects mice against CCl(4-induced liver injury through antioxidant stress and antiinflammatory effects. Polydatin may be an effective hepatoprotective agent and a promising candidate for the treatment of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related diseases.

  1. Protection effect of kallistatin on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via antioxidative stress.

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    Xiaoping Huang

    Full Text Available Prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress are emerging as key causes of pathological wound healing and the development of liver fibrosis. We have investigated the effects of recombinant human kallistatin, produced in Pichia. pastoris, on preventing carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Daily administration of kallistatin prevented development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, which was evidenced by histological study. In all kallistatin treated rats, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC as assessed by s-smooth muscle actin staining was attenuated, TGF- β1 expression was inhibited, class I serum biomarkers associated with the process of fibrogenesis, such as hyaluronic acid, laminin, and procollagen III, were lowered, compared with that in the model control group. Furthermore, residual hepatic functional reserve was improved by kallistatin treatment. CCl4 induced elevation of malondialdehyde level and reduced superoxide dismutase activity in the liver, while kallistatin reduced these oxidative parameters. We also investigated the effects of kallistatin on rat primary HSC and LX-2, the human HSC cell line. Kallistatin scavenged H2O2-induced ROS in the LX-2 cells, and suppressed the activation of primary HSC. These results suggest recombinant human kallistatin might be a promising drug candidate for therapeutic intervention of liver fibrosis.

  2. Protection Effect of Kallistatin on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats via Antioxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiao; Lv, Yinghui; Xu, Luli; Lin, Junsheng; Diao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress are emerging as key causes of pathological wound healing and the development of liver fibrosis. We have investigated the effects of recombinant human kallistatin, produced in Pichia. pastoris, on preventing carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Daily administration of kallistatin prevented development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, which was evidenced by histological study. In all kallistatin treated rats, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) as assessed by s-smooth muscle actin staining was attenuated, TGF- β1 expression was inhibited, class I serum biomarkers associated with the process of fibrogenesis, such as hyaluronic acid, laminin, and procollagen III, were lowered, compared with that in the model control group. Furthermore, residual hepatic functional reserve was improved by kallistatin treatment. CCl4 induced elevation of malondialdehyde level and reduced superoxide dismutase activity in the liver, while kallistatin reduced these oxidative parameters. We also investigated the effects of kallistatin on rat primary HSC and LX-2, the human HSC cell line. Kallistatin scavenged H2O2-induced ROS in the LX-2 cells, and suppressed the activation of primary HSC. These results suggest recombinant human kallistatin might be a promising drug candidate for therapeutic intervention of liver fibrosis. PMID:24558397

  3. Calretinin immunoreactivity in normal and carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Young; Kim, Jin Nam; Chang, In Youb; Park, Sung Ho; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2011-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is a potent hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic chemical. Little, however, is known about the association of CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity and calretinin. We hypothesized that calretinin might be localized in the proximal tubule cells and play a role against CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity, since the target of CCl(4) is the brush border-bearing tubule cells. CCl(4) (1 ml/kg) was administrated by oral gavage to 8-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats once a week for 4 weeks. A significant increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine was confirmed by serum analysis. Calretinin immunolocalization was compared with the calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in normal and CCl(4)-treated kidneys. Calretinin was clearly immunolocalized in the apical surface of proximal convoluted tubule in the deeper cortex of normal kidney and blurred after CCl(4) administration, with only minor changes of calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, irrelevant to the CCl(4) treatment. These findings might have significance since decreased immunolocalization of calretinin with CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity may contribute to the toxicity-related decrease in calcium transport or calcium buffering activity in the kidney. PMID:20947139

  4. Iron-Sulfide-Associated Products Formed during Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ying; Butler, Elizabeth C

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the mackinawite (FeS)-associated products formed during reaction between FeS and carbon tetrachloride (CT) at pH 7 and 8. At pH 8, reaction of FeS with CT led to formation of abundant spherical particles with diameters between 50 and 400 nm on the FeS surface and in solution; far fewer such particles were observed at pH 7. Analysis of the FeS surface by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy after reaction with CT at pH 8 showed decreased sulfur and elevated oxygen compared to unreacted FeS. The spherical particles that formed upon FeS reaction with CT were mostly amorphous with localized areas of poorly crystalline two-line ferrihydrite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the predominant Fe surface species after reaction with CT at pH 8 was Fe(III)-O, consistent with ferrihydrite and other amorphous iron (hydr)oxides as major products. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis suggested formation of greigite upon reaction of FeS with CT at pH 7. Both ferrihydrite and Fe(2+), which is a product of greigite dissolution, can react with dissolved HS(-) to form FeS, suggesting that, after oxidation by chlorinated aliphatics, FeS can be regenerated by addition or microbial generation of sulfide. PMID:27138348

  5. Simultaneous biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene in a coupled anaerobic/aerobic biobarrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kiwook; Shim, Hojae; Bae, Wookeun; Oh, Juhyun; Bae, Jisu

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneous biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in a biobarrier with polyethylene glycol (PEG) carriers was studied. Toluene/methanol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were used as electron donors and an electron acceptor source, respectively, in order to develop a biologically active zone. The average removal efficiencies for TCE and toluene were over 99.3%, leaving the respective residual concentrations of ∼12 and ∼57μg/L, which are below or close to the groundwater quality standards. The removal efficiency for CT was ∼98.1%, with its residual concentration (65.8μg/L) slightly over the standards. TCE was aerobically cometabolized with toluene as substrate while CT was anaerobically dechlorinated in the presence of electron donors, with the respective stoichiometric amount of chloride released. The oxygen supply at equivalent to 50% chemical oxygen demand of the injected electron donors supported successful toluene oxidation and also allowed local anaerobic environments for CT reduction. The originally augmented (immobilized in PEG carriers) aerobic microbes were gradually outcompeted in obtaining substrate and oxygen. Instead, newly developed biofilms originated from indigenous microbes in soil adapted to the coupled anaerobic/aerobic environment in the carrier for the simultaneous and almost complete removal of CT, TCE, and toluene. The declined removal rates when temperature fell from 28 to 18°C were recovered by doubling the retention time (7.2 days). PMID:27054665

  6. Simulation and reference interaction site model theory of methanol and carbon tetrachloride mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaò, G; Costa, D; Saija, F; Caccamo, C

    2010-02-28

    We report molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model (RISM) theory of methanol and carbon tetrachloride mixtures. Our study encompasses the whole concentration range, by including the pure component limits. We majorly focus on an analysis of partial, total, and concentration-concentration structure factors, and examine in detail the k-->0 limits of these functions. Simulation results confirm the tendency of methanol to self-associate with the formation of ring structures in the high dilution regime of this species, in agreement with experimental studies and with previous simulations by other authors. This behavior emerges as strongly related to the high nonideality of the mixture, a quantitative estimate of which is provided in terms of concentration fluctuation correlations, through the structure factors examined. The interaggregate correlation distance is also thereby estimated. Finally, the compressibility of the mixture is found in good agreement with experimental data. The RISM predictions are throughout assessed against simulation; the theory describes better the apolar solvent than the alcohol properties. Self-association of methanol is qualitatively reproduced, though this trend is much less marked in comparison with simulation results.

  7. In vitro study of lovastatin interactions with amiodarone and with carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZ Krasteva; MK Mitcheva; MS Kondeva-Burdina; VA Descatoire

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions at a metabolic level between lovastatin, amiodarone and carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes.METHODS: For cell isolation two-step collagenase liver perfusion was performed. Lovastatin was administered alone in increasing concentrations (1 μmol/L, 3 μmol/L,5 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L) and in combination with CCl4 (86 μmol/L). The cells were also pretreated with 14 μmol/Lamiodarone and then the other two compounds were added.RESULTS: Lovastatin promoted concentration-dependent significant toxicity estimated by decrease in cell viability and GSH level by 45% and 84%, respectively. LDH-activity increased by 114% and TBARS content by 90%. CCl4 induced the expected severe damage on the examined parameters. CCl4 induced toxicity was attenuated after lovastatin pretreatment, which was expressed in less increased values of LDH activity and TBARS levels, as well as in less decreased cell viability and GSH concentrations. However, the pretreatment of hepatocytes with amiodarone abolished the protective effect of lovastatin.CONCLUSION: We suggest that the observed cytoprotective effect was due to interactions between lovastatin,CCl4 and amiodarone at a metabolic level.

  8. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  9. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H(2S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H(2S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H(2S, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, were applied to the rats to investigate the effects of H(2S on CCl(4-induced acute hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension by measuring serum levels of H(2S, hepatic H(2S producing activity and CSE expression, liver function, activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP 2E1, oxidative and inflammatory parameters, liver fibrosis and portal pressure. CCl(4 significantly reduced serum levels of H(2S, hepatic H(2S production and CSE expression. NaHS attenuated CCl(4-induced acute hepatotoxicity by supplementing exogenous H(2S, which displayed anti-oxidative activities and inhibited the CYP2E1 activity. NaHS protected liver function, attenuated liver fibrosis, inhibited inflammation, and reduced the portal pressure, evidenced by the alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, hyaluronic acid (HA, albumin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, liver histology, hepatic hydroxyproline content and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA expression. PAG showed opposing effects to NaHS on most of the above parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous H(2S attenuates CCl(4-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension by its multiple functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, cytoprotection and anti-fibrosis, indicating that targeting H(2S may present a promising approach, particularly for its prophylactic effects, against liver

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hong-Ying

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hexadecenoic acid (HA, laminin (LN, hydroxyproline (Hyp, and glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining and Masson Trichrome (MT examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis.

  11. Role of the sympathetic nervous system in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is widely used as an animal model of hepatotoxicity and the mechanisms have been arduously studied, however, the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity remains controversial. It is also known that either CCl4 or SNS can affect systemic inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in a mouse model of CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammatory response. Mice exposed to CCl4 or vehicle were pretreated with 6-OHDA or saline. The serum levels of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in the CCl4-poisoning mice with sympathetic denervation were significantly lower than those without sympathetic denervation. With sympathetic denervation, hepatocellular necrosis and fat infiltration induced by CCl4 were greatly decreased. Sympathetic denervation significantly attenuated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and serum. Acute CCl4 intoxication showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [eotaxin-2/CCL24, Fas ligand, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α], as well as decreased expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The overexpressed levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, MCP-1/CCL2, and TNF-α were attenuated by sympathetic denervation. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the SNS plays an important role in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation and the effect may be connected with chemical- or drug-induced hepatotoxicity and circulating immune response.

  12. A comprehensive estimate for loss of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James H.; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Lobert, Jurgen M.; King, Daniel B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Bullister, John L.; Koropalov, Valentin; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Hu, Lei; Liu, Yina

    2016-09-01

    Extensive undersaturations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in Pacific, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean surface waters indicate that atmospheric CCl4 is consumed in large amounts by the ocean. Observations made on 16 research cruises between 1987 and 2010, ranging in latitude from 60° N to 77° S, show that negative saturations extend over most of the surface ocean. Corrected for physical effects associated with radiative heat flux, mixing, and air injection, these anomalies were commonly on the order of -5 to -10 %, with no clear relationship to temperature, productivity, or other gross surface water characteristics other than being more negative in association with upwelling. The atmospheric flux required to sustain these undersaturations is 12.4 (9.4-15.4) Gg yr-1, a loss rate implying a partial atmospheric lifetime with respect to the oceanic loss of 183 (147-241) yr and that ˜ 18 (14-22) % of atmospheric CCl4 is lost to the ocean. Although CCl4 hydrolyzes in seawater, published hydrolysis rates for this gas are too slow to support such large undersaturations, given our current understanding of air-sea gas exchange rates. The even larger undersaturations in intermediate depth waters associated with reduced oxygen levels, observed in this study and by other investigators, strongly suggest that CCl4 is ubiquitously consumed at mid-depth, presumably by microbiota. Although this subsurface sink creates a gradient that drives a downward flux of CCl4, the gradient alone is not sufficient to explain the observed surface undersaturations. Since known chemical losses are likewise insufficient to sustain the observed undersaturations, this suggests a possible biological sink for CCl4 in surface or near-surface waters of the ocean. The total atmospheric lifetime for CCl4, based on these results and the most recent studies of soil uptake and loss in the stratosphere is now 32 (26-43) yr.

  13. Restrictive model of compensated carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marc Regimbeau; David Fuks; Niaz Kohneh-Shahri; Benoit Terris; Olivier Soubrane

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To develop a simplified and quick protocol to induce cirrhosis and standardize models of partial liver resection in rats.METHODS: In Fischer F344 rats two modified protocols of phenobarbital-carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) (dilution 50%) gavage to induce cirrhosis (frequency adjusted according to weight, but each subsequent dose was systematically administered) were tested, i.e. the rapid and slow protocols. Prothrombin time (PT) and total bilirubin (TB) were also evaluated. Animals from the rapid group underwent 15% hepatectomy and animals from the slow group underwent 70% hepatectomy.RESULTS: Rapid protocol: This corresponded to 1 garage/4 d over 6 wk (mortality 30%). Mean PT was 35.2±2.8 s (normal: 14.5 s), and mean TB was 1.8±0.2mg/clL (normal: 0.1 mg/dL). Slow protocol: This corresponded to 1 gavage/6 d over 9 wk (mortality 10%).Mean PT was 11.8±0.2 s (normal: 14.5 s), and mean TB was 0.4 ± 0.04 mg/dL (normal: 0.1 mg/dL). Pathological analyses were performed in both protocols which showed persistent cirrhosis at 3 mo. Rat mortality in the rapid garage group who underwent 15% hepatectomy and in the slow garage group who underwent 70%hepatectomy was 50% and 70%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Our modified model is a simplified method to induce cirrhosis which is rapid (6 to 9 wk),efficient and stable up to 3 mo. Using this method, "Child Pugh A" or "Child Pugh BC" cirrhotic rats were obtained.Our models of cirrhosis and hepatectomy can be used in various situations focusing on postoperative survival.

  14. Erythropoietin decreases carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-beta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Young Park; Joo Young Lee; Won Young Tak; Young Oh Kweon; Mi Suk Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to hematopoietic effect,the erythropoietin is known as a multifunctional cytokine with anti-fibrosis and organ-protective activities.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on hepatic fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).Methods Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis mice models were used for in vivo study and HSCs line for in vitro study.CCl4 and rhEPO (0,200 or 1000 U/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in BALB/c mice three times a week for 4 weeks.Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate expressions of transforming growth factor-β31 (TGF-β1),α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA),and fibronectin in explanted liver.Immunoblotting of α-SMA,phophorylated Smad-2 and Smad-2/3 was performed in HSCs treated with TGF-β1 and/or rhEPO.Results Expressions of TGF-β1,α-SMA,and fibronectin were increased in CCl4 injected mice livers,but significantly attenuated by co-treatment with CCl4 and rhEPO.Co-treatment of rhEPO markedly suppressed fibrosis in Masson's trichrome compared with treatment of only CCl4.TGF-β1 increased phosphorylated α-SMA,Smad-2 expressions in HSCs,which were decreased by rhEPO co-treatment.Conclusions Treatment of rhEPO effectively suppressed fibrosis in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mice models.Anti-fibrosis effect of rhEPO could be related to inhibition of TGF-β1 induced activation of HSCs.

  15. The effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Ayhan; Yaman, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage and on some serum biochemical parameters. Sixty male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into six groups (ten rats/group) and included the control group the group were given isotonic sodium chloride (1 mL/kg b.w) intraperitonealy (i.p.), group 2 the group treated i.p. injection of CCl4 (1.0 mL/kg b.w) in corn oil twice in the first week, Groups 3 and 4 injected with CCl4 as described for group 2 and the rats were orally given (100 mg/kg b.w) GSE and i.p. injected (10 μg/rat) with colchicine for four weeks, respectively and groups 5 and 6 were the grape seed and colchicine control groups in which rats were orally given grape seed (100 mg/kg b.w) and i.p. injected with colchicine (10 μg/rat), respectively. Anorexia, weight loss, motionlessness and hepatic colour variation at necropsy were observed in groups 2, 3, and 4. Hyperemia, focal bleeding, fat degeneration, changes ranging from degenerative to necrotic, increase in connective tissue elements, pronounced in portal sites in particular, and infiltration of lymphoid series cell observed in the livers of the rats in group 2, treated with CCl4. Histological hepatic changes in the rats in group 3 and 4 were similar to those in group 2. The levels of serum total protein, albumin and globulin decreased in groups 2, 3, and 4, compared with groups 1, 5 and 6; aspartate transaminase (ALT) activities increased. The lowest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were in groups 4 and 5. We concluded that GSE and colchicine have not sufficient ameliorative effects to CCl4 induced acute hepatic damage.

  16. Pharmacological investigation of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Soni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.

  17. Dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-ying; GAO Ting-yao

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry in this study. In addition, the difference in reduction mechanisms of CT between Master Builders' iron and the catalyzed Fe-Cu process was discussed. The results showed that CT was reduced directly on the surface of copper rather than by atomic hydrogen produced at the cathode in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The reduction was realized largely by atomic hydrogen in Master Builders' iron. The entire CT in 350 ml aqueous solution with 320 mg/L was reduced to trichloromethane and dichloromethane in 2.25 h when 100 g of scrap iron with Fe/Cu ratio of 10:1 (w/w) were used. Moreover, the reduction rate slowed with time. CT could be reduced at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from solution by Fe-Cu bimetallic media, but the mechanisms were different. The degradation rate was not significantly influenced by pH in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process; in Master Builders' iron it clearly increased with decreasing pH. The kinetics of the reductions followed pseudo-first order in both cases. Furthermore, the reductions under acidic conditions proceeded faster than that under the neutral and alkaline conditions. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process was superior to Master Builders' iron in treating CT-containing water and this advantage was particularly noticeable under alkaline conditions. The reduction was investigated in the cathode (Cu) and anode (Fe) compartments respectively, the results showed that the direct reduction pathway played an important role in the reduction by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process is of practical value.

  18. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System and applying it to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To manage waste and perform environmental monitoring and restoration at the 1450-square kilometer (560-square mile) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling. This paper provides an overview of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), a computerized system designed and implemented to manage the Site's environmental sampling data, lessons learned from putting HEIS into operation, and how HEIS is being applied to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action being performed at the Site

  19. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium-nonequilibrium hybrid MD simulation algorithm. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal pro?les involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal pro?les and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently.

  20. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

    OpenAIRE

    Hadavi A; Kermanshahi H; Nassiri Moghaddam H; Golian A

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1) no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4) control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group...

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Pre and Post Radon Inhalation on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Oxidative Damage in Mouse Organs

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Teraoka, Junichi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    Radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in some organs of mice. We examined the prevention effects of pre radon inhalation and the alleviation effects of post radon inhalation on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in the brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney of mice. In addition, we compared the effect of pre and post radon inhalation on oxidative damage. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 18000Bq/m3 for 6hrs before or after CCl4 administration. As a result,...

  2. Design of an Extractive Distillation Column for the Environmentally Benign Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium Tetrachloride for Nuclear Power Reactor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Le Quang Minh; Nguyen Van Duc Long; Pham Luu Trung Duong; Youngmi Jung; Alireza Bahadori; Moonyong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power with strengthened safety regulations continues to be used as an important resource in the world for managing atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated climate change. This study examined the environmentally benign separation of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and hafnium tetrachloride (HfCl4) for nuclear power reactor applications through extractive distillation using a NaCl-KCl molten salt mixture. The vapor–liquid equilibrium behavior of ZrCl4 and HfCl4 over the molten s...

  3. Effect of WeiJia on carbon tetrachloride induced chronic liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pik-Yuen Cheung; Jay Chun; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Meng-su Yang; Qi Zhang; Ya-Ou Zhang; Gan-Rong Bai; Marie Chia-Mi Lin; Bernard Chan; Chi-Chun Fong; Lin Shi; Yue-Feng Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of WeiJia on chronic liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury animal model.METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (Group A), CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B) and CCl4 induction with WeiJia treatment group (Group C). Each group consisted of 14 rats. Liver damage and fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 in olive oil at 3 mL/kg body weight twice a week for eight weeks for Groups B and C rats whereas olive oil was used for Group A rats. Starting from the third week,Group C rats also received daily intraperitoneal injection of WeiJia at a dose of 1.25 μg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed at the fifth week (4 male, 3 female), and eighth week (4 male, 3 female) respectively. Degree of fibrosis were measured and serological markers for liver fibrosis and function including hyaluronic acid (HA), type Ⅳ collagen (CIV), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were also performed.RESULTS: CCl4 induction led to the damage of liver and development of fibrosis in Group B and Group C rats when compared to Group A rats. The treatment of WeiJia in Group C rats could reduce the fibrosis condition significantly compared to Group B rats. The effect could be observed after three weeks of treatment and was more obvious after eight weeks of treatment. Serum HA, CIV,ALT, AST and Y-GT levels after eight weeks of treatment for Group C rats were 58±22 μg/L (P0.05) respectively, similar to normal control group (Group A), but significantly different from CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B). An increase in PCNA and decrease in a-SMA expression level was also observed.CONCLUSION: WeiJia could improve liver function and reduce liver fibrosis

  4. Improved risk estimated from carbon tetrachloride. Annual progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.

    1997-10-27

    'Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively within the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities. Rocky Flats was formerly the largest volume user of CCl{sub 4} in the US, with 5,000 gallons used there in 1977 alone. At the Hanford site, several hundred thousand gallons of CCl{sub 4} were discharged between 1955 and 1973 into underground cribs for storage. Levels of CCl{sub 4} in groundwater at highly contaminated sites at the Hanford. facility have exceeded the drinking water standard of 5 ppb by several orders of magnitude. High levels of CCl{sub 4} at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The level of CCl{sub 4} cleanup required at these sites and associated costs are driven by current human health risk estimates which assume that CCl{sub 4} is a genotoxic carcinogen. The overall purpose of these studies is to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl{sub 4}. Specifically, the authors will determine the toxicokinetics of inhaled and ingested CCl{sub 4} in F344/Crl rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters. They will also evaluate species differences in the metabolism of CCl{sub 4} by rats, mice, hamsters, and man. Dose-response relationships will be determined in all these studies. This information will be used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl4 originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). They will also provide scientific evidence that CCl{sub 4} , like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing, and regenerative cell proliferation. In combination, the studies outlined in this proposal will provide the exact types of information needed to enable refined cancer risk estimates for CCl{sub 4} under the new guidelines for risk assessment proposed by

  5. Melatonin ameliorates experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Tao Hong; Jian-Ming Xu; Qiao Mei

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of melatonin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in experimental rats. METHODS:All rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group treated with CCl4 for 12 wk, CCl4 + NAC group treated with CCl4 + NAC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-1 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (2.5 mg/kg) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-2 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (5.0 mg/kg) for 12 wk, and CCl4 + MEL-3 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (10 mg/kg). Rats in the treatment groups were injected subcutaneously with sterile CCl4 (3 mL/kg, body weight) in a ratio of 2:3 with olive oil twice a week. Rats in normal control group received hypodermic injection of olive oil at the same dose and frequency as those in treatment groups. At the end of experiment, rats in each group were anesthetized and sacrificed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Van Gieson staining were used to examine changes in liver pathology. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and protein concentration were measured with routine laboratory methods using an autoanalyzer. Hydroxyproline (HYP) content in liver and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in liver homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometry. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and procollagen Ⅲ N-terminal peptide (PⅢNP) were determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:Pathologic grading showed that the fibrogenesis was much less severe in CCl4 + MEL3 group than in model control group ( u = 2.172, P < 0.05), indicating that melatonin (10 mg/kg) can significantly ameliorate CCl4-induced hepatic fibrotic changes. The serum levels of ALT and AST were markedly lower in CCl4 + MEL treatment groups (5, 10 mg/kg) than in model control group (ALT:286.23 serum laminin (LN) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and hydroxyproline (HYP) contents in liver were significantly lower in CCl4 + MEL-3 group (10

  6. Cystamine ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride via inhibition of tissue transglutaminase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of the tissue transglutaminase (tTG) specific inhibitor cystamine on liver fibrosis.METHODS: Sixty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: normal control, liver fibrosis control and cystamine-treated group. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and Cystamine was administrated by intraperitoneal injection starting 2 d before the first administration of CCl4. Animals in each group were further divided into 2 subgroups according to two time points of 4 wk and 8 wk after treatment. Hepatic function, pathological evaluation (semi-quantitative scoring system, SSS) and liver hydroxyproline (Hyp)content were examined. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of tTG, smooth muscle alpha actin (α-SMA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1)and collagen-1 mRNA. The expressions of tTG and α-SMA protein were detected by Western Blotting.RESULTS: Eight weeks after treatment, the SSS score of liver was significantly less in the cystamine group than that in the fibrosis control group (P < 0.01). The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bile acid (TBA)at the 4 wk and 8 wk time points were decreased in the cystamine group compared with those in fibrosis controls (P < 0.01). Liver hydroxyproline content at the 4 wk and 8 wk time points showed a substantial reduction in the cystamine group compared to fibrosis controls (P < 0.01).The expression of tTG, α-SMA, collagen-1, TIMP-1 mRNA and tTG, as well as α-SMA protein was downregulated in the cystamine group compared to fibrosis controls.CONCLUSION: Cystamine can ameliorate CCl4 induced liver fibrosis and protect hepatic function. The possible mechanism is related to the reduced synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) caused by the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation and decreased expression of TIMP-1.

  7. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl4 (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl4 + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl4 injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl4-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl4-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl4-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl4 induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl4-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl4-induced hepatic NF-κB activation and ERK and JNK phosphorylation. ► PBA effectively protects

  8. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian-Qing [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Tao, Li [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, Yuan-Bao [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lijun@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  9. Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

  10. The in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride and carrageenan on heart microsomes: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Deleris, G

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of rat heart microsomes to free radical attack using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. This physico-chemical method seemed a valuable technique: quite sensitive to changes in the vibrational spectra. The spectral variations observed between normal and treated rats were in great part due to reactive oxygen species that led to changes in protein conformation involving beta-sheets, aggregation of proteins, and modification of protein synthesis. Carrageenan-induced inflammation slightly enhanced the total lipid content; rearrangement of acyl chains and accumulation of cholesterol esters and phospholipids also occurred in the treated rats. Carbon tetrachloride induced a decrease in both lipid and protein contents. The level of glucidic substrates was diminished with carbon tetrachloride and enhanced with carrageenan; these changes were due to metabolic interactions between cell components and drugs. FT-IR spectroscopy provided an accurate means to monitor, in rat heart, the in vivo effects of inflammatory and peroxidative damages, to discriminate and classify the affected cells, and to correlate the findings with known physiological and biochemical data in close relationship with metabolic disruptions induced by the two xenobiotics.

  11. Effect of Apitherapy Formulations against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats after Three Weeks of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Vasile Andritoiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body is exposed nowadays to increasing attacks by toxic compounds in polluted air, industrially processed foods, alcohol and drug consumption that increase liver toxicity, leading to more and more severe cases of hepatic disorders. The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the apitherapy diet in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, by analyzing the biochemical determinations (enzymatic, lipid and protein profiles, coagulation parameters, minerals, blood count parameters, bilirubin levels and histopathological changes at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas. The experiment was carried out on six groups of male Wistar rats. Hepatic lesions were induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (dissolved in paraffin oil, 10% solution. Two mL per 100 g were administered, every 2 days, for 2 weeks. Hepatoprotection was achieved with two apitherapy diet formulations containing honey, pollen, propolis, Apilarnil, with/without royal jelly. Biochemical results reveal that the two apitherapy diet formulations have a positive effect on improving the enzymatic, lipid, and protein profiles, coagulation, mineral and blood count parameters and bilirubin levels. The histopathological results demonstrate the benefits of the two apitherapy diet formulations on reducing toxicity at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas in laboratory animals.

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of berberine on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yibin; Siu Ka-Yu; Ye Xingshen; Wang Ning; Yuen Man-Fung; Leung Chung-Hang; Tong Yao; Kobayashi Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Berberine is an active compound in Coptidis Rhizoma (Huanglian) with multiple pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering and anticancer effects. The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effects of berberine on serum and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, the histology in tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were injected intraperitoneally wi...

  13. Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2008-09-29

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. The RI/FS process and remedial investigations for the 200-PW-1, 200 PW-3, and 200-PW-6 Operable Units are described in the Plutonium/Organic-Rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Groups Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) by incorporating kinetic volatilization of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and multicomponent flow and transport. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Previous numerical simulation results with the STOMP simulator have overestimated the effect of soil vapor extraction (SVE) on subsurface CT, showing rapid removal of considerably more CT than has actually been recovered so far. These previous multiphase simulations modeled CT mass transfer between phases based on equilibrium partitioning. Equilibrium volatilization can overestimate volatilization because mass transfer limitations present in the field are not considered. Previous simulations were also conducted by modeling the NAPL as a single component, CT. In reality, however, the NAPL mixture disposed of at the Hanford site contained several non-volatile and nearly insoluble organic components, resulting in time-variant fluid properties as the CT component volatilized or dissolved over time. Simulation of CT removal from a DNAPL mixture using single-component DNAPL properties typically leads to an overestimation of CT removal. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy

  14. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kennedy, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Kennedy@newcastle.edu.au [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Mackie, John [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holdsworth, Clovia [Centre for Organic Electronics, Chemistry Building, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dlugogorski, Bogdan [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CCl{sub 4} remediation using non-equilibrium plasma and non-oxidative conditions is proposed. • The reaction mechanism relies on experimental data and quantum chemical analysis. • Comprehensive mass balance for the reaction is provided. • CCl{sub 4} is converted to an environmentally benign and potentially useful polymer. • Characterisation of the polymer structure based on NMR and FTIR analyses is presented. - Abstract: In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  15. Interferon-alpha gene therapy prevents aflatoxin and carbon tetrachloride promoted hepatic carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Talaat Abdel; Aziz, Mohammed Abdel; Fouad, Hanan Hassan; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Salama, Hosny; Abd-Alla, Samira; Wehab, Mosaad Attia Abdel; Ahmed, Tauseef

    2005-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) gene transfer was evaluated with regard to its possible protective effects against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-initiated and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-promoted hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time an experimental in vivo gene therapy trial was conducted in Egypt. Two genes were examined in liver tissue by RT-PCR: the first was glutathione-S-transferase placental (GST-P) isoenzyme, as an early marker to detect hepatic malignancy; the second was IFN-alpha gene expression to detect the efficiency of gene uptake and its persistence after transduction. Forty male rats, divided equally into 4 groups, were included in the study: the first group was the control; the second group received CCl4 0.2 ml subcutaneously twice weekly for 12 weeks and AFB1 0.25 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally twice weekly for 6 weeks; the third group received IFN-alpha (10(8) pfu) intravenously in the tail vein prior to the start of CCl4 and AFB1 injections; and the fourth group received IFN-alpha (10(8) pfu) by intrahepatic injection under ultrasonography guide after termination of the CCl4 and AFB1 injection schedule. The results showed that IFN-alpha has a marked and significant protective effect against hepatic fibrogenesis as well as hepatic carcinogenesis. Pathological examination of liver tissue proved that IFN-alpha minimized both fibrotic and cirrhotic processes. The amount of fibrosis was less in both groups receiving IFN-alpha, with more protection in the group that received IFN-alpha intravenously prior to CCl4 and AFB1. The results of RT-PCR showed that the IFN-alpha gene was significantly expressed in both groups receiving IFN-alpha, with a more intense expression in the group that received IFN-alpha by intrahepatic injection after termination of CCl4 and AFB1 injections. The IFN-alpha gene was detected after three months of gene transduction in rats receiving IFN-alpha intravenously prior to CCl4 and AFB1

  16. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-10-31

    This is a letter report summarizing work performed in FY2008 to determine the rates of carbon tetrachloride hydrolysis at temperatures close to actual groundwater temperatures. The report describes the project, the methodology, and the results obtained since the project's inception in FY2006. Measurements of hydrolysis rates in homogeneous solution have been completed for temperaturs of 70 C through 40 C, with additional data available at 30 C and 20 C. These results show no difference between the rates in deionized H2O and in filter-sterilized Hanford-Site groundwater. Moreover, the rates measured are 2-3 times slower than predicted from the open literature. Measurements of rates involving sterile suspensions of Hanford-Site sediment in Hanford-Site groundwater, however, show faster hydrolysis at temperatures below 40 C. Extrapolation of the current data available suggests a six-fold increase in rate would be expected at groundwater temperature of 16 C due to the presence of the sediment. This result translates into a 78-year half-life, rather than the 470-680 year half-life that would be predicted from rate determinations in homogeneous solution. The hydrolysis rate data at 20 C, in contrast to those at higher temperatures, are preliminary and have low statistical power. While significant (p < 0.05) differences between the heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are seen at 30 C, the results at 20 C are not statistically significant at this level due to limited data and the very slow nature of the reaction. More time is needed to collect data at these low temperatures to improve the statistical power of our observation. Given the critical need for hydrolysis rate data at temperatures relevant to groundwater systems, we have three recommendations for future work. First, we recommend a continuation of the sampling and analysis of the remaining long-term sealed-ampule experiments described in this report. These are primarily 20 C and 30 C experiments. The data at

  17. Suppressive Effect of Kampo Formula "Juzen-taiho-to" on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fukaya, Shiori; Miura, Nobuhiko; Onosaka, Satomi; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Nagatsu, Akito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pretreatment with the Japanese herbal medicine, "Juzen-taiho-to" (JTX), had an ameliorative effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity through anorexia prevention. Mice injected with CCl4 exhibited severe anorexia. Moreover, CCl4 increased the plasma levels of hepatic injury markers (i.e., alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), lipid peroxidation, and hepatic Ca(2+) levels. Pretreatment with JTX recovered the CCl4-induced anorexia. In addition, JTX pretreatment decreased CCl4-induced plasma levels of hepatic injury markers. Increased Ca(2+) is a known indicator of the final progression to hepatocyte death, and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity is mainly caused by oxidative stress. The present study indicated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic Ca(2+) content decreased with JTX pretreatment. Our results suggest that JTX has potential to protect of CCl4-induced anorexia, and the modulation of oxidative stress. PMID:27582337

  18. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl4 by CDFregister(F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239Pu nitrate 239Pu(NO3)4

  19. 有机质对土壤气相抽提去除四氯化碳效率的影响%Tetrachloride from Soils by Soil Vapor Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢中华; 裴宗平; 鹿守敢; 王岩; 胡佳佳; 闫姗

    2011-01-01

    A main Karst groundwater supply source was polluted by carbon tetrachloride. Column-venting experiment was done to simulate soil vapor extraction in order to inquiry the removal of carbon tetrachloride from soil. Experiment was done at 20 ℃ with venting velocity of 40 mL/min, the two kinds of experimental soils moisture content were both 10%, but organic matter content were 3.02% and 0.13% respectively. Results showed that carbon tetrachloride can be effectively removed by ventilation. Removal of carbon tetrachloride in soil follows the first order reaction kinetics. There is a good linear relationship between lnC and temperature, with correlation coefficients above 0.95. When soil organic matter content is 3.02%, reaction rate constants of the removal of carbon tetrachloride are 0.013 2 h-1~0.015 5 h-1 in Column Ⅰ. When soil organic matter content is 0.13%, the reaction rate constants are 0.017 1 h-1~0.020 6 h-1 in Colum Ⅱ, which showed that the removal efficiency of soil vapor extraction is related to soil organic matter content, soil with lower organic matter content has higher removal efficiency.%某重要岩溶地下水源地因附近农药厂排放含四氯化碳污水而受到严重污染,实验采用土柱通风试验模拟土壤气相抽提(SVE),研究环境温度为20℃,通风速率为40mL/min,土壤含水率10%,而土壤有机质含量分别为3.02%和0.13%条件下的两种供试土壤中四氯化碳污染物的去除过程.结果表明,土柱通风能有效去除土壤中的四氯化碳污染物;通风条件下四氯化碳的去除过程符合一级反应动力学,土壤中四氯化碳浓度C(μg/L)的对数值lnC与时间t呈良好的线性关系,相关系数均在0.95以上;土壤有机质含量为3.02%的土柱Ⅰ各取样口四氯化碳去除反应速率常数k值在0.0132~0.0155h-1之间,有机质含量为0.13%的土柱Ⅱ各取样口k值在0.0171~0.0206h-1之间,说明土壤气相抽提去除四氯化碳的效率与土

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nema

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract.

  1. 通风速率对土壤中四氯化碳污染物去除效率的影响研究%Effects of Airflow Velocity on the Removal Efficiency of Carbon Tetrachloride from Polluted Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢中华; 裴宗平; 鹿守敢; 王岩; 胡佳佳

    2011-01-01

    某重要岩溶地下水源地受到四氯化碳的严重污染,为此采用上柱通风试验模拟土壤气相抽提(SVE)净化四氯化碳污染物的过程,对通风速率为40 mL·min-1和70 mL·min-1两种条件下土壤四氯化碳的去除过程进行了主试验模拟研究,,结果表明,土柱通风能有效太除土壤中的四氯化碳污染物,通风条件下土壤中四氯化碳的去除过程符合一级反应动力学,土壤中四氯化碳浓度C的对数值In[C/(μg·L-1)]与时间t呈良好的线性关系,相关系数均在0.95以上.通风速率为40 mL·min-1的土柱A各取样口四氯化碳去除反应速率常数k值在0.013 2~0.015 5 h-1之间,通风速率为70 mL· min-1的土柱B各取样口k值在0.017 8~0.022 2 h-1之间,说明增大通风速率能提高土壤中四氯化碳污染物的去除效率.%A main Karst groundwater supply source in North China was polluted by carbon tetrachloride. Researches at home and abroad proved that soil vapor extraction( SVE ) was an effective in-situ remediation technology for groundwater pollution. In this paper, two soil columns of pilot scale were designed to Simulate the SVE process and study the removal of carbon tetrachloride from soil. The airflow velocities of two soil columns were 70 mL per minute and 40 mL per minute respectively. The experimental results showed that the carbon tetrachloride could be effectively removed by ventilation. The removal of carbon tetrachloride in soil followed the first order reaction kinetics.There was a good linear relationship between the logarithm of the concentration of carbon tetrachloride and time, and the correlation coefficients were all above 0.95. The reaction rate constant k of column A with venting velocity of 40 mL per minute was between 0.013 2 h-1 to 0.015 5 h-1, and the reaction rate constant k of column B with venting velocity of 70 mL per minute was between 0.017 8 h-1 to 0.022 2 h-1.The reaction rate constant of column B was greater than

  2. Curative Effect of Bone Marrow Cells Transplantation and/or Low Dose Gamma Irradiation on Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

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    * Mohamed E.M. Zowail, ** Hanaa F. M. Waer, ** Noaman A. Eltahawy, * Eman H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver is the most common target for toxic injury. Toxic agents include chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and trichloroethylene. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bone marrow cells (BMC transplantation and/or fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy gamma radiation on established liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. BMCs of male albino rats were transplanted into 4-weeks carbon tetrachloride (CCl4­treated and/or fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy gamma irradiated rats through the tail vein, and the rats were treated for 4 more weeks with CCl4 (total 8 weeks. Histological and ultrastructural investigations revealed that both bone marrow cells transplantation and low dose (0.5 Gy gamma radiation exposure with continuous CCl4 injection had reduced liver fibrosis as compared with rats treated with CCl4 alone.

  3. Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria data for the binary system (glycidyl butyrate + acetone, glycidyl butyrate + carbon tetrachloride, glycidyl butyrate + chloroform) at atmospheric pressure 101 kPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu

    2016-09-01

    Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria (VLE) for the binary mixtures of glycidyl butyrate(1) + acetone(2), glycidyl butyrate(1) + carbon tetrachloride(2) and glycidyl butyrate(1) + chloroform(2) at 101 kPa were studied. The experimental data were satisfactorily correlated with the models of Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficients. The activity coefficients for the equilibrium data were obtained by the nonlinear least square method. The average relative deviations between experimental temperatures and calculated temperatures by the Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models were 0.16, 0.16, 0.23% for glycidyl butyrate(1) + chloroform( 2), 0.38, 0.12, 0.27% for glycidylbutyrate(1) + carbon tetrachloride(2), and 0.67, 0.13, 0.54% for glycidyl butyrate(1) + acetone(2). Azeotrope behavior was not found for these systems. The thermodynamic consistency of the correlations was checked by the Herrington's area test.

  4. H2O/D2O solubility isotope effects. An estimate of the extent of nonclassical rotational behavior of water, when dissolved in benzene or carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of D2O in each of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and cyclohexane was determined over a range of temperatures. The solubilities were converted to Henry's law constants, which were compared with previously obtained Henry's law constants for H2O in these solvents. This comparison, when made in the context of a recently derived first-order quantum correction to the free energy for a rigid rotor in the presence of other molecules, and approximately corrected for intramolecular frequency shifts, indicates that water, when dissolved in carbon tetrachloride at ordinary temperatures, is rotationally classical or very nearly so. Water in benzene appears to manifest small but noticeable nonclassical rotational behavior, which we estimate to be of the order of 5% in the free energy. Because of the very low solubility of H2O and D2O in cyclohexane, our data were not accurate enough to permit a meaningful discussion in terms of a rotational quantum effect in this solvent

  5. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239Pu to the skeleton

  6. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jun Yang; Jing Liu; Lin-Bai Ye; Fan Yang; Li Ye; Jin-Rong Gao; Zheng-Hui Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.METHODS: A liver injury model was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay.The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined with an automatic multifunction-biochemical analyzer and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TNF-α were determined following the instructions of SOD kit and TNF radioimmunoassay kit. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological evaluation and examined under light microscope.RESULTS: We found that GLPG can alleviate the L-02liver cells injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)through the measurements of ALT and AST activities and the administration of GLPG to L-02 cells did not display any toxicity. Furthermore, histological analysis of mice liver injury induced by CCl4 with or without GLPG pretreatment indicated that GLPG can significantly suppress the toxicity induced by CCl4 in mice liver. We also found that GLPG reduced TNF-α level induced by CCl4 in the plasma of mice, whereas increased SOD activity in the rat serum.CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-α level and the free radical scavenging activity.

  7. High-fat diet plus carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis is alleviated by betaine treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingül, İlknur; Aydın, A Fatih; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Çoban, Jale; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-10-01

    Steatosis, the first lesion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Steatosis predisposes the liver to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokines. Betaine (BET) has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. However, the effects of BET on liver fibrosis development are unknown. Rats were treated with high-fat diet (60% of total calories from fat) for 14weeks. Carbon tetrachloride (0.2mL/kg; two times per week; i.p.) was administered to rats in the last 6weeks with/without commercial food containing BET (2%; w/w). Serum liver function tests and tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin resistance, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels and oxidative stress parameters were determined along with histopathologic observations. Alpha-smooth muscle-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and type I collagen (COL1A1) protein expressions and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were evaluated. BET decreased TG and HYP levels, prooxidant status and fibrotic changes in the liver. α-SMA, COL1A1 and TGF-β1 protein expressions, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions diminished due to BET treatment. BET has an antifibrotic effect and this effect may be related to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions together with suppression on HSC activation.

  8. Dielectric properties of liquid systems: study of interactions in the systems carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene, and p-xylene

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    Adrián H. Buep

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes (VEM and excess dielectric properties (εE and n2ED for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 with benzene (C6H6, toluene (C6H5CH3, and p-xylene (p-(CH32C6H4. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density (ρ, static permittivity (ε, and refractive index (nD over the whole range of concentrations at 298.15 K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich–Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products.

  9. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. PMID:25147302

  10. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y-1 during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y-1) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  11. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

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    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  12. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

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    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  13. Effects of carbon tetrachloride and azathioprine on diethylnitrosamine and N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced hyperplastic liver nodule and hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Sakata,Tatsuro

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and azathioprine (AZP on the evolution of hyperplastic liver nodules and foci and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were tested in short- and long-term in vivo experiments. In diethylnitrosamine (DEN-treated rats, which were fed a N-2-fluorenylacetamide (FAA-containing diet and additionally treated with repeated CCl4 injections, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP-positive hyperplastic nodules were markedly developed in the 8th week of the experiment. However, their number and area in liver sections were remarkably small in DEN-treated rats fed a diet containing both FAA and AZP. Increased area of gamma-GTP-positive foci was also observed in the 12th week in DEN-injected rats fed a choline-devoid died alone or treated with repeated doses of CCl4 alone. Hepatocellular carcinoma in DEN-injected rats treated with both FAA and CCl4 was first detected in the 21st week, and the incidence up to the 36th week was very high. However, no hepatocellular carcinoma developed in DEN-injected rats treated with both FAA and AZP. The increased activity of liver aniline hydroxylase observed 12 h after the administration of FAA, AZP or DEN alone was not observed when AZP was administered simultaneously with FAA to DEN-injected rats. The mechanisms of the effects of CCl4 and AZP on hepatocarcinogenesis are discussed with special reference to drug interaction.

  14. A proteomic method for analysis of CYP450s protein expression changes in carbon tetrachloride induced male rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known model compound for producing chemical hepatic injury. Cytochrome P450 is an important monooxygenase in biology. We investigated the CYP450 protein expression in the in vivo hepatotoxicity of rats induced by CCl4. In this experiment, CCl4 were administered to male rats, and their livers at 24 h post-dosing were applied to the proteomic analysis. Blood biochemistry and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes. At the same time, a novel acetylation stable isotopic labeling method coupled with LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometry was applied to disclose the changes of cytochrome P450 expression amounts. The quantitative proteomics method demonstrated its correlation coefficient was 0.9998 in a 100-fold dynamic range and the average ratio of the labeled peptides was 1.04, which was very close to the theoretical ratio of 1.00 and the standard deviation (S.D.) of 0.21. With this approach, 17 cytochrome P450 proteins were identified and quantified with high confidence. Among them, the expression amount of 2C11, 3A2, and 2 E1 were down-regulated, while that of 2C6, 2B2, and 2B1 were up-regulated

  15. Investigation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Rhizome in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damaged Rats

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    Sutha Devaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma xanthorrhiza (CX has been used for centuries in traditional system of medicine to treat several diseases such as hepatitis, liver complaints, and diabetes. It has been consumed as food supplement and “jamu” as a remedy for hepatitis. Hence, CX was further explored for its potential as a functional food for liver related diseases. As such, initiative was taken to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of CX rhizome. Antioxidant activity of the standardized CX fractions was determined using in vitro assays. Hepatoprotective assay was conducted against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced hepatic damage in rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of hexane fraction. Highest antioxidant activity was found in hexane fraction. In the case of hepatoprotective activity, CX hexane fraction showed significant improvement in terms of a biochemical liver function, antioxidative liver enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activity. Good recovery was observed in the treated hepatic tissues histologically. Hence, the results concluded that CX hexane fraction possessed prominent hepatoprotective activities which might be due to its in vitro antioxidant activity. These findings also support the use of CX as a functional food for hepatitis remedy in traditional medicinal system.

  16. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Butler, J. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  17. 3-Alkynyl selenophene protects against carbon-tetrachloride-induced and 2-nitropropane-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ethel Antunes; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Prigol, Marina; Alves, Diego; Schumacher, Ricardo Frederico; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 3-alkynyl selenophene (3-ASP) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in rats. On the first day of treatment, the animals received 3-ASP (25 mg/kg, p.o.). On the second day, the rats received CCl(4) (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or 2-NP (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Twenty-four hours after CCl(4) or 2-NP administration, the animals were euthanized, and their plasma and liver were removed for biochemical and histological analyses. The histological analysis revealed extensive injury in the liver of CCl(4)-exposed and 2-NP-exposed rats, which was attenuated by 3-ASP. 3-ASP significantly attenuated (1) the increase in plasmatic aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels induced by CCl(4) and 2-NP; (2) the inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity caused by 2-NP; and (3) the decrease in ascorbic acid (AA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity caused by CCl(4). AA levels and CAT activity remained unaltered in the liver of rats exposed to 2-NP. The protective effect of 3-ASP on acute liver injury induced by CCl(4) and 2-NP in rats was demonstrated. PMID:20397041

  18. Protective Effect of the Total Saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshi Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the protective effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx (RLTS against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats was evaluated. The results showed that RLTS significantly rehabilitated the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hydroxyproline, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin, which were confirmed using H&E, Sirius Red and Masson histopathological assays. Further research indicated that RLTS markedly reduced cytochrome P450 2E1 activity, attenuated oxidative stress, and suppressed inflammation. In addition, RLTS facilitated matrix degradation through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and metalloproteinases1, and exerted the anti-fibrotic effects through affecting transforming growth factor β/Smad, focal adhesion kinase/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/amino kinase terminal/70-kDa ribosomal S6 Kinase (FAK-PI3K-Akt-p70S6K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways. Taken together, our data indicate that RLTS can be applied as one effective candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis in the future.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor prevents oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-treated rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Tabassum, Nabila; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Rahman, Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a common feature of chronic liver injury, and the involvement of angiotensin II in such process has been studied earlier. We hypothesized that anti-angiotensin II agents may be effective in preventing hepatic fibrosis. In this study, Long Evans female rats were used and divided into four groups such as Group-I, Control; Group-II, Control + ramipril; Group-III, CCl4; and Group-IV, CCl4 + ramipril. Group II and IV are treated with ramipril for 14 d. At the end of treatment, the livers were removed, and the level of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation product , catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation were determined. The degree of fibrosis was evaluated through histopathological staining with Sirius red and trichrome milligan staining. Carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in rats developed hepatic dysfunction and raised the hepatic marker enzymes activities significantly. CCl4 administration in rats also produced oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in liver. Furthermore, angiotensinogen-inhibitor ramipril normalized the hepatic enzymes activities and improved the antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. Moreover, ramipril treatment ameliorated lipid peroxidation and hepatic inflammation in CCl4-treated rats. Ramipril treatment also significantly reduced hepatic fibrosis in CCl4-administered rats. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that the antifibrotic effect of ramipril may be attributed to inhibition of angiotensin-II mediated oxidative stress and inflammation in liver CCl4-administered rats. PMID:26862777

  20. COMPARATIVE EFFECT BETWEEN CHITOSAN AND CHITOSAN-Cu COMPLEX ON CARBON-TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4 INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS

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    El-Habibi, E.M.; Sirag, H.M. and Edrees, G.M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a toxic material known to induce lipid peroxidation and liver damage. The possible protective roles that involved by chitosan or chitosan-Cu complex against CCl4 induced liver intoxication were investigated in male rats. RESULTS: CCl4 administred at dose 20 mg/kg body weight i.p., exceed malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyle (PC, depleted superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH, in concomitant with marked increase in investigated liver function parameters , alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, AST, impaired serum and liver total protein , albumin and globulin. An elevation in serum and hepatic total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and serum LDL and VLDL levels as well as a low level of HDL were recorded. In the same time, there was a significant increase in sodium and iron contents in the serum while a significant decrease in potassium and zinc contents were recorded. Animals pretreated with chitosan (200 mg /kg body weight orally by stomach tube for 21 consecutive days prior to CCl4 challenge significantly attenuated most of the tested parameters, strengthen antioxidant defense system, ameliorated liver function effectively. Chitosan-Cu complex has a protective effect by a higher degree than that of chitosan only. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that pretreatment with chitosan-Cu complex has higher hepato-protective effects than that of only chitosan against CCl4 induced toxicity in rat.

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar

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    SAGAR DAWADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Effectiveness of enterosgel usage in the conditions of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride

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    L. А. Boyko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effectiveness of the enterosgel sorbent in the terms of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride. Experiments were carried out on white rats weighing 175–200 g, which were kept on a standard diet. Karbofos was administered intragastrically on daily basis in the aqueous solution at the rate of 20 mg/kg of the body weight, which is 1/10 of the LD50. Carbon tetrachloride was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day in the form of a 50% oil solution at a dose of 1.0 ml/kg of animal. Animals received enterosgel daily by intragastric way at the rate of 120 mg/kg of body weight. The activity of free radical processes in rats was assessed by thiobarbituric acid content – active products (TBA-AP in serum, liver and heart homogenates. Level of endogenous intoxication was determined by the content of average weight molecules (AWM in serum and liver homogenate. The degree of cytolysis of hepatocytes was assessed by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (AlAT, AsAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP in serum, liver and heart homogenates. The degree of damage of the nervous system was studied by the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in serum and liver homogenate. Content of TBA-AP in serum, liver and myocardium increased throughout the period of study. Reduction of TBA-AP was observed in studied tissues after applying of enterosgel sorbent in the affected body. After the defeat by toxicants we showed significant increase of fraction of AM1 (chain aminoacids dominate and AM2 (aromatic aminoacids dominate in serum and liver of experimental rats throughout the experiment. Enterosgel showed a positive effect on this index, reducing the content of MSM molecules. Due to toxic effects of endogenous and exogenous toxins in cells degradation and changing the permeability of plasma membranes of hepatocytes was observed as evidenced by the increased activity of both AlAT and As

  3. Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe barbadensis Mill. against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity.

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    Chandan, B K; Saxena, A K; Shukla, Sangeeta; Sharma, Neelam; Gupta, D K; Suri, K A; Suri, Jyotsna; Bhadauria, M; Singh, B

    2007-05-22

    Aloe barbadensis Mill. Syn. Aloe vera Tourn. ex Linn.(Liliaceae) has been used in variety of diseases in traditional Indian system of medicine in India and its use for hepatic ailments is also documented. In the present study an attempt has been made to validate its hepatoprotective activity. The shade dried aerial parts of Aloe barbadensis were extracted with petroleum ether (AB-1), chloroform (AB-2) and methanol (AB-3). The plant marc was extracted with distilled water (AB-4). All the extracts were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity on limited test models as hexobarbitone sleep time, zoxazolamine paralysis time and marker biochemical parameters. AB-1 and AB-2 were observed to be devoid of any hepatoprotective activity. Out of two active extracts (AB-3 and AB-4), the most active AB-4 was studied in detail. AB-4 showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity as evident by restoration of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and triglycerides. Hepatoprotective potential was confirmed by the restoration of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glucose-6-phosphatase and microsomal aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine N-demethylase towards near normal. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supports the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of AB-4. The present study shows that the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis is significantly capable of restoring integrity of hepatocytes indicated by improvement in physiological parameters, excretory capacity (BSP retention) of hepatocytes and also by stimulation of bile flow secretion. AB-4 did not show any sign of toxicity up to oral dose of 2 g/kg in mice.

  4. Synthesis of platelet-activating factor and its receptor expression in Kupffer cells in rat carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ying Lu; Chun-Ping Wang; Lin Zhou; Yan Chen; Shu-Hui Su; Yong-Yi Feng; Yong-Ping Yang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the platelet-activating factor (PAF)synthesis and its receptor expression in Kupffer cells in rat carbon tetrachloride-induce dcirrhosis.METHODS:Kupffer cells,isolated from the livers of control and CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats,were placed in serum-free medium overnight.PAF saturation binding,ET-1 saturation and competition binding were assayed.ET-1 induced PAF synthesis,mRNA expression of PAF,preproendothelin-1,endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors were also determined.RESULTS:A two-fold increase of PAF synthesis (1.42±0.14 vs 0.66±0.04 pg/μg DNA) and a 1.48-fold increase of membrane-bound PAF (1.02±0.06 vs 0.69±0.07 Pg/μg DNA) were observed in activated Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rats.The application of ET-1 to Kupffer cells induced PAF synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cirrhotic and normal rats via ETB receptor,but PAF synthesis in the activated Kupffer cells was more effective than that in the normal Kupffer cells.In activated Kupffer cells,PAF receptor expression and PAF binding capacity were markedly enhanced.Activated Kupffer cells raised the [125I]-ET-1 binding capacity,but changed neither the affinity of the receptors,nor the expression of ETA receptor.CONCLUSION:Kupffer cells in the course of CCl4-induced cirrhosis are the main source of increased PAF.ET-1 is involved endogenously in stimulating the PAF synthesis in activated Kupffer cells via ETB receptor by paracrine.ETA receptor did not appear in activated Kupffer cells,which may exacerbate the hepatic and extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis.

  5. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Nadia [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of the neem-based constituent azadirachtin-A in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligar, N S; Aladakatti, R H; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Hiremath, M B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of azadirachtin-A in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The group allotment for the animals used in the hepatoprotective study included a vehicle treatment group, CCl4 (1 mL · (kg body mass)(-1)) treatment group, silymarin (100 μg · (kg body mass)(-1) · day(-1)) + CCl4 treatment group, and groups treated with different doses of azadirachtin-A (100 or 200 μg · (kg body mass)(-1) · day(-1)) + CCl4. On the 9th day, blood was obtained for measuring the biochemical parameters, and liver tissue was obtained for pathological examination. The acute toxicity test with azadirachtin-A (500, 1000, or 2000 μg · (kg body mass)(-1)) indicated no mortality after 14 days of treatment; further, there was no change in behavior, food consumption, or organ mass. However with the higher dose, some hematological parameters showed changes. Hepatoprotective studies revealed that the CCl4 treatment group exhibited a decrease in total protein and albumin levels, whereas a significant increase in BUN, AST, ALT, and ALP levels were noticed compared with the vehicle-treated control, indicating that there was liver damage caused by CCl4. Histology and ultrastructure study confirmed that pretreatment with azadirachtin-A dose-dependently reduced hepatocellular necrosis and, therefore, protected the liver against toxicity caused by CCl4. The results from this study indicate that pretreatment with azadirachtin-A at the higher dose levels, moderately restores the rat liver to normal. This study confirms that azadirachtin-A possesses greater hepatoprotective action; however, the effective concentration needs to be determined. PMID:24708208

  7. Neutralization of ADAM8 ameliorates liver injury and accelerates liver repair in carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, San-Qiang; Zhu, Sha; Wan, Xue-Dong; Xu, Zheng-Shun; Ma, Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Although some studies have described the function of ADAM8 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8) related with rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and asthma, etc., the concrete role of ADAM8 in acute liver injury is still unknown. So mice respectively received anti-ADAM8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) of 100 μg/100 μl, 200 μg/100 μl or 300 μg/100 μl in PBS or PBS pre-injection. Then acute liver injury was induced in the mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄). Serum AST and ALT level, Haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected in the mice after CCl4 administration. Our results showed that anti-ADAM8 mAb pre-injection could effectively lower AST and ALT levels (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and reduce liver injury (P < 0.05 or P <0.01), induce the expression of VEGF, CYP1A2 and PCNA (P <0.05 or P < 0.01) in dose-dependent manner compared with the control mice which received PBS pre-injection. In summary, our study suggested that ADAM8 might promote liver injury by inhibiting the proliferation of hepatocytes, angiogenesis and affecting the metabolism function of liver during acute liver injury induced by CCl₄. Anti-ADAM8 mAb injection might be suitable as a potential method for acute liver injury therapy. PMID:24646716

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s).

  9. Phospholipid hydroperoxide accumulation in liver of rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride and its inhibition by dietary alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, T; Suzuki, T; Fujimoto, K; Kaneda, T

    1990-05-01

    The formation and accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, especially of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH), a primary peroxidation product of phosphatidylcholine (PC), in livers of carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats was investigated. PCOOH in liver and blood plasma was measured by a chemiluminescence-high-performance liquid chromatography procedure originally developed by Miyazawa et al. (Anal. Lett. 20, 915, 1987; Free Radical Biol. Med. 7, 209, 1989). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 g body wt., 5 weeks of age) were used in the experiments. The amount of PCOOH in the liver of control rats (CCl4-untreated) was 160 +/- 20 pmol/100 mg protein (mean +/- SD) and the PCOOH/PC molar ratio was 1.1 +/- 0.1 X 10(-5). In CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g body wt.)-dosed rats, the liver PCOOH was 289 +/- 65 pmol/100 mg protein (PCOOH/PC = 2.4 +/- 0.4 X 10(-5], 764 +/- 271 pmol/100 mg protein (PCOOH/PC = 5.2 +/- 1.7 X 10(-5], and 856 +/- 165 pmol/100 mg protien (PCOOH/PC = 6.0 +/- 0.8 X 10(-5] at 6 h, 24 h, and 1 week after the dose, respectively. Under such conditions, the liver phosphatidylethanolamine hydroperoxide (PEOOH) level was not altered and the concentration was less than 100 pmol/100 mg protein even after the dose. The increments of liver PCOOH were suppressed 56% by the oral supplementation of DL-alpha-tocopherol (5 mg/100 g body wt./day) for a week before CCl4 administration. A relatively larger amount of PEOOH was found after stimulation of PC hydroperoxidation in the liver of rats with a large amount of CCl4 (0.25 ml/100 g body wt.) rather than with the small amount of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g body wt.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Treatment with L-valine ameliorates liver fibrosis and restores thrombopoiesis in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Chikashi; Doi, Hideyuki; Katsura, Kazunori; Satomi, Susumu

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that treatment with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) increases the survival rates in cirrhotic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of L-valine, one of BCAAs, on liver fibrosis in rat. To induce liver fibrosis, male Wistar rats were injected carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intraperitoneally (2.0 mL/kg) twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats (seven to fifteen rats for each group) were then administered 1.688 g/kg/day of L-valine intravenously for 7 days or 10% amino acid preparation that provided the same amount of nitrogen. Seven days after the last administration, blood platelet counts and bone marrow megakaryocyte counts were significantly higher in the valine group than in the control group (131.2 +/- 38.3 vs. 106.3 +/- 14.5 x 10(4)/microL, p = 0.04; 18.0 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.5 +/- 2.2 per field, p valine group than the control group. Furthermore, hepatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in the valine group, and the mRNA levels of factors associated with liver fibrosis such as procollagen alpha1(III), transforming growth factor-beta1 and connective tissue growth factor were significantly lower in the liver of the valine group 10 days after the last administration. These results indicate that L-valine treatment ameliorates liver fibrosis and restores thrombopoiesis in rats exposed to CCl(4). Therefore, L-valine supplementation may be helpful for patients with liver cirrhosis.

  11. In vivo gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase decreases portal pressure in anaesthetised carbon tetrachloride cirrhotic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, M; Omasta, A; Janssens, S; Roskams, T; Desmet, V; Nevens, F; Fevery, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Portal hypertension in cirrhosis results from enhanced intrahepatic resistance to an augmented inflow. The former is partly due to an imbalance between intrahepatic vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. Enhanced endothelin-1 and decreased activity of hepatic constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS 3) was reported in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) cirrhotic rat liver. Aims: To study whether an increase in hepatic NOS 3 could be obtained in the CCl4 cirrhotic rat liver by in vivo cDNA transfer and to investigate a possible effect on portal pressure. Methods: Hepatic NOS 3 immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to measure the amount of NOS 3 protein. Recombinant adenovirus, carrying cDNA encoding human NOS 3, was injected into the portal vein of CCl4 cirrhotic rats. Cirrhotic controls received carrier buffer, naked adenovirus, or adenovirus carrying the lac Z gene. Results: NOS 3 immunoreactivity and amount of protein (western blotting) were significantly decreased in CCl4 cirrhotic livers. Following cDNA transfer, NOS 3 expression and the amount of protein were partially restored. Portal pressure was 11.4 (1.6) mm Hg in untreated cirrhotic (n=9) and 11.8 (0.6) in lac Z transfected (n=4) cirrhotic rats but was reduced to 7.8 (1.0) mm Hg (n=9) five days after NOS 3 cDNA transfer. No changes were observed in systemic haemodynamics, in liver tests or urinary nitrates, or in NOS 3 expression in lung or kidney, indicating a highly selective transfer. Conclusions: NOS 3 cDNA transfer to cirrhotic rat liver is feasible and the increase in hepatic NOS 3 leads to a marked decrease in portal hypertension without systemic effects. These data indicate a major haemodynamic role of intrahepatic NOS 3 in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension in CCl4 cirrhosis. PMID:12171971

  12. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  13. Protective Effects of Garlic Oil against Liver Damage Induced by Combined Administration of Ethanol and Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

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    Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim a, Amani E. Khalifaa, Sherif H. Ahmed b

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are known to play a vital role in the management of various liver diseases. Garlic oil (GO contains numerous organosulfur compounds with potential hepatoprotective effects. The present work was planned to evaluate the possible preventive role of GO on biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by combined administration of ethanol (EOH and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat liver. Two dose levels of GO (5 or 10 mg/kg/day were administered orally to rats for 7 consecutive days with EOH + CCl4-induced liver damage. Activity of GO against liver damage was compared with that of silymarin (25 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 7 consecutive days. Biochemical parameters including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (­GT, alkaline phophatase (ALP and bilirubin were estimated to assess the liver function. In addition, the level of total proteins, triglycerides, total cholesterol, glutathione (GSH, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, in liver tissues were estimated. Liver damage was evidenced by an increase in the activity/level of AST, ALT, -GT, ALP and bilirubin in sera of rats after the combined administration of EOH and CCl4 compared to normal animals. Pretreatment of rats with GO reduced the EOH + CCl4-induced elevated levels of the above indices. Similarly, GO significantly prevented the decline in total proteins and the increase in triglycerides and total cholesterol resulted after EOH + CCl4 administration in rat liver homogenates. In addition, GO pretreatment restored liver GSH levels decreased due to EOH + CCl4 administration. The elevation in liver TBARS level due to EOH + CCl4 administration was also prevented by pretreatment with both low and high doses of GO. Histopathological examination indicated that GO exhibited an obvious preventive effect against the centrilobular necrosis and nodule formation induced by EOH + CCl4 administration. In conclusion, GO

  14. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  15. Restorative effect of (5E, 13E)-5,13-Docosadienoic acid on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand Thiru; Gokulakrishnan Kannan; Kalaiselvan Ashokan; Velavan Sivanandam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the restorative effect of (5E, 13E)-5,13-Docosadienoic acid on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Wistar strain male albino rats, weighing 180-200 g/bw were selected for the study. Rats were divided into four groups. Group I animals were served as normal control. Group II was administered with corn oil (3 ml/kg, i.p.) as vehicle control. Group III was given single dose (29th day) of CCl4 in corn oil (1:1 v/v, 3 ml/kg, i.p.). Groups IV was treated with (5E, 13E)-5,13-Docosadienoic acid (DA) (6 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days and given single dose of (29th day) CCl4 in corn oil (1:1 v/v, 3 ml/kg, i.p.). Six hours after CCl4 intoxication, the experimental animals were sacrificed. The blood samples were collected. Liver was excised immediately and immersed in physiological saline. Results: The lipid peroxidation was initiated in CCl4 intoxicated rats which is evidenced by thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and diminution of GSH content in liver. Super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin C and E in CCl4 intoxicated rats retrieved towards near normalcy. After treating with DA which significantly altered (P<0.001) serum marker enzyme level and antioxidant level near normal against CCl4 treated rats. Conclusions: It was observed that the entire variable tested i.e., SOD, CAT, GPx, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and E recorded a significant decline on CCl4 treatment. However, treatment with DA restored the levels to near normal value, suggesting the therapeutic effect of DA to counter the oxidative stress.

  16. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  17. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  18. Protective effects of alisol B 23-acetate from edible botanical Rhizoma alismatis against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Chen, Xinli; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Kexin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity is a common syndrome with simultaneous severe hepatocyte death and acute cholestasis. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a natural triterpenoid from edible botanical Rhizoma alismatis, on acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice, and further to elucidate the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the hepatoprotective effect. H&E staining, BrdU immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay were used to identify the amelioration of histopathological changes, hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying AB23A hepatoprotection. The results indicated that AB23A treatment in a dose-dependent manner resulted in protection against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4via FXR activation. Through FXR activation, AB23A promoted hepatocyte proliferation via an induction in hepatic levels of FoxM1b, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1. AB23A also reduced hepatic bile acids through a decrease in hepatic uptake transporter Ntcp, bile acid synthetic enzymes Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and an increase in efflux transporter Bsep, Mrp2 expression. In addition, AB23A induced the expression of STAT3 phosphorylation, and STAT3 target genes Bcl-xl and SOCS3, resulting in decreased hepatocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, AB23A produces a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, due to FXR and STAT3-mediated gene regulation. PMID:25747392

  19. Electroporative interleukin-10 gene transfer ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced murine liver fibrosis by MMP and TIMP modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-ying CHOU; Cheng-nan LU; Tsung-hsing LEE; Chia-ling WU; Kung-sheng HUNG; Allan M CONCEJERO; Bruno JAWAN; Cheng-haung WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim:Liver fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury.Effective therapies for liver fibrosis are lacking.Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates pro-inflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on hepatic fibrogenesis.The aim of this study was to investigate whether electroporative IL-10 gene therapy has an hepatic fibrolytic effect on mice.Methods:Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 10 weeks in mice.The human IL-10 expression plasmid was delivered via electroporation after hepatic fibrosis was established.Histopathology,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ,immunoblotting,and gelatin zymography were used to investigate the possible mechanisms of action of IL-10.Results:Human IL-10 gene therapy reversed CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice.RT-PCR revealed that IL-10 gene therapy attenuated liver TGF-β1,collagen αl,fibronectin,and cell adhesion molecule mRNA upregulation.Following gene transfer,both the activation of α-smooth muscle actin and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly attenuated.Furthermore.IL-10 significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) activation after CCl4 intoxication.Conclusions:We demonstrated that IL-10 gene therapy attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice.IL-10 prevented upregulated fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory gene responses.Its collagenolytic effect may be attributed to MMP and TIMP modulation.IL-10 gene therapy may be an effective therapeutic modality against liver fibrosis with potential clinical use.

  20. Modulation of gamma-irradiation and carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in the brain of female rats by flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; Salem, Asmaa A M; Eassawy, Mamdouh M T

    2016-08-01

    The activity of flaxseed oil (FSO) on gamma-irradiation (7Gy) and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute neurotoxicity in rats' brain was investigated. The results revealed a significant decrease (poxide (NO), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) levels were observed. Furthermore, the relative ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression levels were elevated in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated and CCl4 intoxicated animals. Those effects were augmented due to the effect of CCl4-induced toxicity in γ-irradiated rats. The treatment of FSO displayed significant amendment of the studied parameters in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated and CCl4 intoxicated animals. FSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in gamma-irradiated rats. This effect is interrelated to the ability of FSO to scavenges the free radicals, enhances the antioxidant enzymes activity, increases GSH contents, down-regulates the inflammatory responses, ameliorates the iron, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese levels and inhibiting the gene expression level of XO and iNOS in the brain tissues of intoxicated animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of FSO have the ability to improve the antioxidant status, suppress the inflammatory responses, and regulate the trace elements in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect in intoxicated animals. Consequently, FSO exhibited neuroprotective activity on γ-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect induced brain injury in rats. PMID:27232147

  1. Histopathological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Taurine In Preventing Carbon Tetrachloride ­Induced Hepatic InjuryIn The Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf

    2003-01-01

    Taurine is an amino acid­ like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) on liver Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-ethanosulfonic acid ) was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg), CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was inje...

  2. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  3. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodele Olufunsho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.. Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−, urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, superoxide (SOD activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (p<0.05 increases in serum Na+, K+, Cl−, urea and creatinine. CCl4 also caused significant (p<0.05 decreases in renal tissue SOD, CAT and GSH and significant (p<0.05 increases in MDA. The oral MIASE treatment (125–500 mg/kg was found to significantly (p<0.05 attenuate the increase in serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine. Similarly, MIASE significantly (p<0.05 attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and correspondingly attenuated increases in MAD. Mangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  4. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  5. Management of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats by syngeneic hepatocyte transplantation in spleen and peritoneal cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charalampos Pilichos; Despina Perrea; Maria Demonakou; Athena Preza; Ismini Donta

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Acute hepatitis may seldom have a fulminant course.In the treatment of this medical emergency, potential liver support measure must provide immediate and sufficient assistance to the hepatic function. The goal of our study was to study the adequacy of hepatocyte transplantation (HCTx) in two different anatomical sites, splenic parenchyma and peritoneal cavity, in a rat model of reversible acute hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).METHODS: After CCl4 intoxication, 84 male Wistar rats used as recipients were divided in to four experimental groups accordingly to their treatment: Group A (n=24): intrasplenic transplantation of 10x106 isolated hepatocytes, Group B (n=24):intraperitoneal transplantation of 20xL06 isolated hepatocytes attached on plastic microcarriers, Group C (n= 18): i ntrasplenic injection of 1 mL normal saline (sham-operated controls),Group D (n=18): intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mL normal saline (sham-operated controls). Survival, liver function tests (LFT) and histology were studied in all four groups, on d 2,5 and 10 post-HCTx.RESULTS: The ten-day survival (and mean survival) in the 4 groups was 72.2% (8.1±3.1), 33.3% (5.4±3.4), 0%(3.1±1.3) and 33.3% (5.4±3.6) in groups A, B, C, D,respectively (PAB<0.05, PAC<0.05, PBD=NS). In the final survivors, LFT (except alkaline phosphatase) and hepatic histology returned to normal, independently of their previous therapy. Viable hepatocytes were identified within splenic parenchyma (in group A on d 2) and both in the native liver and the fatty tissue of abdominal wall (in group B on d 5).CONCLUSION: A significantly better survival of the intrasplenically transplanted animals has been demonstrated.Intraperitoneal hepatocytes failed to promptly engraft. A different timing between liver injury and intraperitoneal HCTx may give better results and merits further investigation.

  6. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Todd R. [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bettaieb, Ahmed [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan [Department of Internal Medicine: Cardiovascular, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Haj, Fawaz G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  7. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  8. The Vitamine D3 Analogue (1α Hydroxyvitamin D3) Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1α position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 compound

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  10. Use of 13C Labeled Carbon Tetrachloride to Demonstrate the Transformation to Carbon Dioxide under Anaerobic Conditions in a Continuous Flow Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.

    2012-12-01

    The demonstration of transformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CAHs) in the subsurface is a challenge, especially when the products are carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ion. The groundwater contaminant carbon tetrachloride (CT) is of particular interest since a broad range of transformation products can be potentially formed under anaerobic conditions. The ability to demonstrate the transformation of CT to CO2 as a non toxic endproduct, is also of great interest. Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where 13C labeled CT was used to demonstrate its transformation to CO2. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. The column was continously fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE (0.10 mM) and either formate (1.5 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), which ferments to produce hydrogen (H2) as the ultimate electron donor. Earlier CT transformation studies with the column, in the absence of sulfate reduction, and with formate added as a donor found CT (0.015 mM) was over 98% transformed with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) (0.003 mM) and with a transient detection of chloromethane (CM). Methane and carbon disulfide, as potential products, were not detected. Neither CT nor CF inhibited the reductive dehalogenation of PCE to ethene. A series of transient studies conducted after these initial CT transformation tests, but in the absence of CT, showed formate remained an effective substrate for maintaining sulfate reduction and PCE transformation. Lactate, which was effectively fermented prior to CT addition, was not effectively fermented, with propionate accumulating as a fermentation product. When lactate was added, PCE was mainly transformed to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and VC, and sulfate reduction did not occur. In order to restore effective lactate fermentation the column was then bioaugmented with an EV culture that

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic leaves extract of Rostellularia procumbens by using carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mamatha

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The results confirm that R. procumbens have hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity and significant hepatoprotection seen at 500 mg/kg dose. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 964-969

  12. 典型场地四氯化碳污染的健康风险评价%A typical carbon tetrachloride contaminated site and health risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新钰; 王晓红; 辛宝东; 叶超; 郭高轩

    2011-01-01

    以华北某污染场地为研究区域,采集了场地内大气、土壤、地表水和地下水4个类别共196个样品.分析了25项挥发性有机物在不同区域的分布特征,探讨了超标污染物的污染来源,最后,应用美国环保局的健康风险评价方法,对场地超标污染物进行了健康风险评价.结果表明,场地超标污染物仅为四氯化碳;主要赋存于地下水中,其污染晕的平面分布与地下水流向显著相关,垂向分布与深度相关;四氯化碳致癌危害程度总体表现为饮水途径〉洗浴呼吸吸入途径〉洗浴皮肤接触途径,其中饮水暴露途径致癌危害指数最大达到了3.03×10-5,超出了可接受的风险水平,由此将导致每百万人30.3个癌症患者的可能,村民长期以目前水井作为主要的水源,身体健康将受到严重影响;洗浴呼吸吸入途径和皮肤接触途径的致癌危害指数在(10-10~10-7)范围,在可接受风险水平之内.四氯化碳非致癌危害指数均小于1,风险较低.%This study was focused on characterization of organic pollutants in a typical site of north China.A total of 196 samples,including soil,air,surface water and groundwater,were collected from the site.Based on the analysis results,the distribution characteristics and possible sources of 25 volatile organics at various regions were analyzed.The health risk assessment standard of the US Environmental Protection Agency was applied to assess the health risk of the pollutants in the site.The results showed that carbon tetrachloride was the only non-attainment pollutant and mainly distributed in the groundwater.The horizontal distribution of the pollution plume was highly related with the direction of the groundwater flow and the vertical distribution was affected fairly by the samples' depth.The largest carcinogenic potentials of the carbon tetrachloride were known to be from drinking water,with the carcinogenic index value of 3.03×10-5.It exceeded the

  13. 四氯化碳液相催化加氢反应动力学的研究%KINETIC STUDIES ON THE CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE TO CHLOROFORM IN LIQUID PHASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建新; 蒋晓原; 陆维敏; 郑小明

    2001-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting chemical, while chloroform is not. Therefore it is important for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of CCl4 to CHCl3. In this paper, kinetics on the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform in liquid phase was studied. A reaction mechanism was proposed. Hydrogen molecular was activated on the surface of catalyst, the activated hydrogen atom then reacted with CCl4 in the solution and produced CHCl3. A definite kinetic equation could be deduced from the reaction mechanism. The reaction rate constant is concerned with the intial concentration of CCl4 in the solution, pressure, reaction temperature and the concentration of active center. All these factors were investigated over Pt-Pd/C catalyst and fit in with the kinetic equation. The activation energy of the reaction is 86?KJ/mol according to the experimental results.

  14. COMPORTAMENTO DA GLICOSE E DAS MUCOPROTEÍNAS EM BOVINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE PELO TETRACLORETO DE CARBONO GLUCOSE AND MUCOPROTEIN BEHAVIOR IN BOVINES EXPERIMENTALLY INTOXICATED BY CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cavalheiro Jardim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para o presente experimento foram utilizados cinco bovinos, azebuados, machos, de 16 a 18 meses de idade, com o peso corporal variando de 95 a 150 quilos e clinicamente sadios, que foram alojados em baias individuais, recebendo cada um deles diariamente gramíneas trituradas “ad libtum” e um quilo de ração de mantença. Os animais foram dosificados com tetracloreto de carbono diluído a 50% em óleo de milho, recebendo em cada dose (ml/k.p.v.: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5; 0,7 e 0,9, respectivamente para os animais de I a V, administrado por punção intraruminal na fossa paralombar esquerda, com o animal mantido em decúbito lateral direito. A pesquisa foi realizada durante 61 dias, sendo colhidas cinqüenta amostras de sangue por punção da jugular. Foram analisados, através da colorimetria, os níveis séricos de glicose e das mucoproteínas. Foram colhidas e analisadas amostras hepáticas.

    For the present experiment it was used five crossbred zebu steer from 16 to 18 months old with weight varying from 95 to 150 kilograms and all clinically healthy. They were stabled in individual stalls, receiving daily chopped forage “ad libtum” and one Kilogram of balanced maintenance ration. The animals were dosed with carbon tetrachloride diluted at 50 % in corn oil, each animal from I to V respectively receiving a dose (ml/p/lw: 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9. The carbon tetrachloride was administered by intraruminal puncture in the left flank. The duration of the trial was 61 days. Fifty blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The serum levels of glucose and mucoproteins were analyzed by photocolorimeter. Hepatic samples were also collected and analysed.

  15. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane. Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  16. Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M; Asha, V V

    2007-04-20

    Physalis peruviana is a medicinal herb used by Muthuvan tribes and Tamilian native who reside in the shola forest regions of Kerala, India against jaundice. It was evaluated for its antihepatotoxic, phytochemical analysis and the acute toxicity of the most promising extract in rats. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of Physalis peruviana (500mg/kg body weight) showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The ethanol and hexane extracts showed moderate activity compared to water extract, which showed activity at a low dose of 125mg/kg. The results were judged from the serum marker enzymes. Histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly reduced by the extract. Further, the extract administration to rats resulted in an increase in hepatic GSH and decrease in MDA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various components in the crude aqueous extract. The extract was found to be devoid of any conspicuous acute toxicity in rats. PMID:17161567

  17. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh A Tasduq; Peerzada J Kaiser; Bishan D Gupta; Vijay K Gupta; Rakesh K Johri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of 2'-p-hydroxy benzoylmussaenosidic acid [negundoside (NG), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in HUH-7 cells.METHODS: CCl4 is a well characterized hepatotoxin, and inducer of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular calcium are important steps in the pathway involved in CCl4 toxicity. Liver cells (HUH-7) were treated with CCl4, and the mechanism of the cytoprotective effect of NG was assessed. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug, was used as control.RESULTS: NG protected HUH-7 cells against CCl4 toxicity and loss of viability without modulating CYP2E1 activity. Prevention of CCl4, toxicity was associated with a reduction in oxidative damage as reflected by decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and maintenance of intracellular glutathione homeostasis. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of caspases mediated DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest, as a result of CCl4 treatment, were also blocked by NG. The protection afforded by NG seemed to be mediated by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and inhibition of phospholipases (cPLA2).CONCLUSION: NG exerts a protective effect on CYP2El-dependent CCl4 toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by an improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca2+-dependent proteases.

  18. UV absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm at temperatures in the range 210–350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200–235 nm as a function of temperature (225–350 K. The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5–7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  19. UV absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm at temperatures in the range 210–350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200–235 nm as a function of temperature (225–350 K. The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5–7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  20. Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery of Interleukin-22 Protects the Mouse Liver from Concanavalin A-, Carbon Tetrachloride-, and Fas Ligand-Induced Injury via Activation of STAT3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongnaPan; FengHong; SvetlanaRadaeva; BinGao

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently identified T cell-derived cytokine whose biological significance remains obscure. Previously, we have shown that IL-22 plays a protective role in T cell-mediated hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (Con A), acting as a survival factor for hepatocytes. In the present paper, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 cDNA driven either by a liver-specific albumin promoter or a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter results in IL-22 protein expression, STAT3 activation, and expression of several anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 in the liver. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that IL-22 protein expression is mainly detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Overexpression of IL-22 by hydrodynamic gene delivery significantly protects against liver injury, necrosis, and apoptosis induced by administration of Con A, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or the Fas agonist Jo-2 mAb. Western blot analyses show that overexpression of IL-22 significantly enhances activation of STAT3 and expression of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins in liver injury induced by Con A. In conclusion, hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 protects against liver injury induced by a variety of toxins, suggesting the therapeutic potential of IL-22 in treating human liver disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):43-49.

  1. A virus-like particle-based connective tissue growth factor vaccine suppresses carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Lv, Yi-Fei; Su, Hou-Qiang; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Wang, Li-Rong; Hao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been recognized as a central mediator and promising therapeutic target in hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we generated a novel virus-like particle (VLP) CTGF vaccine by inserting the 138-159 amino acid (aa) fragment of CTGF into the central c/e1 epitope of C-terminus truncated hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc, aa 1-149) using a prokaryotic expression system. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the VLP vaccine efficiently elicited the production of anti-CTGF neutralizing antibodies. Vaccination with this CTGF vaccine significantly protected BALB/c mice from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, as indicated by decreased hepatic hydroxyproline content and lower fibrotic score. CCl4 intoxication-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was inhibited by the vaccination, as indicated by decreased α-smooth muscle actin expression and Smad2 phosphorylation. Vaccination against CTGF also attenuated the over-expression of some profibrogenic factors, such as CTGF, transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth factor-B and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the fibrotic mouse livers, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in the fibrotic mouse livers. Our results clearly indicate that vaccination against CTGF inhibits fibrogenesis, alleviates hepatocyte apoptosis and facilitate hepatic regeneration. We suggest that the vaccine should be developed into an effective therapeutic measure for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27562139

  2. Potential Probiotic Escherichia coli 16 Harboring the Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene Improves Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization and Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the beneficial effects of potential probiotic E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb gene, associated with bacterial respiration under microaerobic condition, on gastrointestinal (GI colonization and its antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats. In vitro, catalase activity in E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp was 1.8 times higher compared to E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp control. In vivo, E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp not only was recovered in the fecal matter after 70 days of oral administration but also retained antibacterial activities, whereas E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp was not detected. Oral administration of 200 and 500 μL/kg body weight of CCl4 to rats at weekly interval resulted in elevated serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT and serum glutamyl oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT levels compared to controls. Rats prefed with E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp demonstrated near to normal levels for SGPT and SGOT, whereas the liver homogenate catalase activity was significantly increased compared to CCl4 treated rats. Thus, pUC8:16gfp plasmid encoding vgb improved the growth and GI tract colonization of E. coli 16. In addition, it also enhanced catalase activity in rats harboring E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp, thereby preventing the absorption of CCl4 to GI tract.

  3. Chloroquine improved carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis through its inhibition of the activation of hepatic stellate cells: role of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Zhuang, Yun; Wang, Liangzhi; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which is the key process of liver fibrosis. We reasoned that chloroquine, based on its ability to inhibit autophagy, might exert beneficial effects in liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Rats were divided into three groups, a normal control group (N group), model group (M group), and chloroquine group (CQ group). Liver fibrosis in the rats was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (H&E) and Masson staining. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB) were determined using an automated biochemistry analyzer. Total hepatic hydroxyproline levels were determined with a kit. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were detected by immunofluorescence staining, and the expressions of LC3-II and p62 were determined by Western blotting. Compared with N group, M group showed impaired liver function, liver fibrosis, increased hydroxyproline content, up-regulated expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1, which have been reported to be pro-fibrogenic genes in vivo, and increased autophagy flux as indicated by the accumulation of LC3-II and degradation of p62. These changes were attenuated by chloroquine treatment. Chloroquine exerts beneficial effects in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. The mechanism of action includes inhibition of autophagy pathways and inhibition of activation of HSCs. PMID:25177034

  4. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa S.; AL-Yhya, Nouf A.; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M.; Alajmi, Reem A.; Hassan, Zeinab K.; Hassan, Salwa B.; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds. PMID:27547187

  5. Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery of Interleukin-22 Protects the Mouse Liver from Concanavalin A-, Carbon Tetrachloride-, and Fas Ligand-Induced Injury via Activation of STAT3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongna Pan; Feng Hong; Svetlana Radaeva; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently identified T cell-derived cytokine whose biological significance remains obscure. Previously, we have shown that IL-22 plays a protective role in T cell-mediated hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (Con A), acting as a survival factor for hepatocytes. In the present paper, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 cDNA driven either by a liver-specific albumin promoter or a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter results in IL-22 protein expression, STAT3 activation, and expression of several anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 in the liver. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that IL-22 protein expression is mainly detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Overexpression of IL-22 by hydrodynamic gene delivery significantly protects against liver injury, necrosis, and apoptosis induced by administration of Con A, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or the Fas agonist Jo-2 mAb. Western blot analyses show that overexpression of IL-22 significantly enhances activation of STAT3 and expression of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2,and Mcl-1 proteins in liver injury induced by Con A. In conclusion, hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 protects against liver injury induced by a variety of toxins, suggesting the therapeutic potential of IL-22 in treating human liver disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):43-49.

  6. MR T1{rho} as an imaging biomarker for monitoring liver injury progression and regression: an experimental study in rats with carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yuan, Jing; Deng, Min; Ahuja, Anil T. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Hing Lok [School of Public Health and Primary Care, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Jockey Club Centre for Osteoporosis Care and Control, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chu, Eagle S.H.; Go, Minnie Y.Y.; Yu, Jun [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Hong Kong SAR (China); Teng, Gao-Jun [Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China)

    2012-08-15

    Recently it was shown that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1{rho} value increased with the severity of liver fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. Using a rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) liver injury model, this study further investigated the merit of T1{rho} relaxation for liver fibrosis evaluation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for up to 6 weeks. Then CCl{sub 4} was withdrawn and the animals were allowed to recover. Liver T1{rho} MRI and conventional T2-weighted images were acquired. Animals underwent MRI at baseline and at 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks post CCl{sub 4} injection, and they were also examined at 1 week and 4 weeks post CCl{sub 4} withdrawal. Liver histology was also sampled at these time points. Liver T1{rho} values increased slightly, though significantly, on day 2, and then increased further and were highest at week 6 post CCl{sub 4} insults. The relative liver signal intensity change on T2-weighted images followed a different time course compared with that of T1{rho}. Liver T1{rho} values decreased upon the withdrawal of the CCl{sub 4} insult. Histology confirmed the animals had typical CCl{sub 4} liver injury and fibrosis progression and regression processes. MR T1{rho} imaging can monitor CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury and fibrosis. (orig.)

  7. MR T1ρ as an imaging biomarker for monitoring liver injury progression and regression: an experimental study in rats with carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it was shown that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1ρ value increased with the severity of liver fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. Using a rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) liver injury model, this study further investigated the merit of T1ρ relaxation for liver fibrosis evaluation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg CCl4 twice weekly for up to 6 weeks. Then CCl4 was withdrawn and the animals were allowed to recover. Liver T1ρ MRI and conventional T2-weighted images were acquired. Animals underwent MRI at baseline and at 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks post CCl4 injection, and they were also examined at 1 week and 4 weeks post CCl4 withdrawal. Liver histology was also sampled at these time points. Liver T1ρ values increased slightly, though significantly, on day 2, and then increased further and were highest at week 6 post CCl4 insults. The relative liver signal intensity change on T2-weighted images followed a different time course compared with that of T1ρ. Liver T1ρ values decreased upon the withdrawal of the CCl4 insult. Histology confirmed the animals had typical CCl4 liver injury and fibrosis progression and regression processes. MR T1ρ imaging can monitor CCl4-induced liver injury and fibrosis. (orig.)

  8. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra Singh; Priya Vrat Arya; Ved Prakash Aggarwal; Radhey Shyam Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum ...

  10. Tratamento homeopático da hepatotoxicose aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono em coelhos Homeopatic treatment of acute carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Ribeiro Moncorvo

    1998-09-01

    animals in group I were treated with carbon tetrachloride 30 CH, once a day. The animals in group II were treated with Phosphorus 30 CH also once a day. The rabbits in group III served as a control receiving the same quantity of placebo with the same protocol of lhe others. The blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture every 4 days. The seric concentrations of ALT, AST, GGT and FA were submited to estatistic avaliation. The variation of all enzimes tested was significant between the days, but not always between the groups. This study demonstrated thaf carbon tetrachloride 30 CH was efficient in acelerating the recuperation of normal levels of ALT, but the terapy with Phosphorus 30 CH was insufficient for reverting the hepatic intoxication.

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl₄ treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001 alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  14. Hepatic Progenitor Cells Contribute to the Progression of 2-Acetylaminofluorene/Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Cirrhosis via the Non-Canonical Wnt Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamei Chen

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs appear to play an important role in chronic liver injury. In this study, cirrhosis was induced in F-344 rats (n = 32 via subcutaneous injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 twice a week for 8 weeks. Then, 30% CCl4 was administered in conjunction with intragastric 2-acetylaminofluorine (2-AAF for 4 weeks to induce activation of HPCs. WB-F344 cells were used to provide direct evidence for differentiation of HPCs to myofibroblasts. The results showed that after administration of 2-AAF, the hydroxyproline content and the expressions of α-SMA, Col I, Col IV, TGF-β1, CD68, TNF-α, CK19 and OV6 were significantly increased. OV6 and α-SMA were largely co-expressed in fibrous septum and the expressions of Wnt5b, frizzled2, frizzled3 and frizzled6 were markedly increased, while β-catenin expression was not statistically different among the different groups. Consistent with the above results, WB-F344 cells, treated with TGF-β1 in vitro, differentiated into myofibroblasts and α-SMA, Col I, Col IV, Wnt5b and frizzled2 expressions were significantly increased, while β-catenin expression was decreased. After blocking the non-canonical Wnt pathway via WIF-1, the Wnt5b level was down regulated, and α-SMA and F-actin expressions were significantly decreased in the WIF-1-treated cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that HPCs appear to differentiate into myofibroblasts and exhibit a profibrotic effect in progressive cirrhosis via activation of the non-canonical Wnt pathway. Blocking the non-canonical Wnt pathway can inhibit the differentiation of HPCs into myofibroblasts, suggesting that blocking this pathway and changing the fate of differentiated HPCs may be a potential treatment for cirrhosis.

  15. Hepatic Progenitor Cells Contribute to the Progression of 2-Acetylaminofluorene/Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Cirrhosis via the Non-Canonical Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamei; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Ying; Li, Xuewei; Ren, Shuang; Zhou, Yaning; Duan, Yuyou; Zern, Mark; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Gaofeng; Liu, Chenghai; Mu, Yongping; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) appear to play an important role in chronic liver injury. In this study, cirrhosis was induced in F-344 rats (n = 32) via subcutaneous injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) twice a week for 8 weeks. Then, 30% CCl4 was administered in conjunction with intragastric 2-acetylaminofluorine (2-AAF) for 4 weeks to induce activation of HPCs. WB-F344 cells were used to provide direct evidence for differentiation of HPCs to myofibroblasts. The results showed that after administration of 2-AAF, the hydroxyproline content and the expressions of α-SMA, Col I, Col IV, TGF-β1, CD68, TNF-α, CK19 and OV6 were significantly increased. OV6 and α-SMA were largely co-expressed in fibrous septum and the expressions of Wnt5b, frizzled2, frizzled3 and frizzled6 were markedly increased, while β-catenin expression was not statistically different among the different groups. Consistent with the above results, WB-F344 cells, treated with TGF-β1 in vitro, differentiated into myofibroblasts and α-SMA, Col I, Col IV, Wnt5b and frizzled2 expressions were significantly increased, while β-catenin expression was decreased. After blocking the non-canonical Wnt pathway via WIF-1, the Wnt5b level was down regulated, and α-SMA and F-actin expressions were significantly decreased in the WIF-1-treated cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that HPCs appear to differentiate into myofibroblasts and exhibit a profibrotic effect in progressive cirrhosis via activation of the non-canonical Wnt pathway. Blocking the non-canonical Wnt pathway can inhibit the differentiation of HPCs into myofibroblasts, suggesting that blocking this pathway and changing the fate of differentiated HPCs may be a potential treatment for cirrhosis. PMID:26087010

  16. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. PMID:27092418

  17. The effect of down-regulation of Smad3 by RNAi on hepatic stellate cells and a carbon tetrachloride-induced rat model of hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.R. Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Searching for effective Smad3 gene-based gene therapies for hepatic fibrosis, we constructed siRNA expression plasmids targeting the rat Smad3 gene and then delivered these plasmids into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. The effect of siRNAs on the mRNA levels of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and collagens I-α1, III-α1 and IV-α1 (Colα1, Col3α1, Col4α1, respectively was determined by RT-PCR. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Twice a week for 8 weeks, the untreated hepatic fibrosis model (N = 30 and the treated group (N = 20 were injected subcutaneously with 40% (v/v carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-olive oil (3 mL/kg, and the normal control group (N = 30 was injected with olive oil (3 mL/kg. In the 4th week, the treated rats were injected subcutaneously with liposome-encapsulated plasmids (150 µg/kg into the right liver lobe under general anesthesia once every 2 weeks, and the untreated rats were injected with the same volume of buffer. At the end of the 6th and 8th weeks, liver tissue and sera were collected. Pathological changes were assessed by a semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS, and a radioimmunoassay was used to establish a serum liver fibrosis index (type III procollagen, type IV collagen, laminin, and hyaluronic acid. The mRNA expression levels of the above cited genes were reduced in the HSCs transfected with the siRNA expression plasmids. Moreover, in the treated group, fibrosis evaluated by the SSS was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 and the serum indices were greatly improved (P < 0.01. These results suggest that Smad3 siRNA expression plasmids have an anti-fibrotic effect.

  18. Dose response and time course studies on superoxide dismutase as a urinary biomarker of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in the Hanover Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J; Clarke, Christopher J; Dare, Theo; Turton, John A

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) is increased in the urine of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity. The present experiments aimed to investigate further the usefulness of urinary SOD-1 as a non-invasive biomarker of liver injury. Two investigations were carried out, a dose response study and a time course study. In the dose response study, rats were given a single dose of CCl(4) at 0 (control), 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.80 ml/kg and urine samples collected from 12 to 36 h postdosing. In the time course study, rats were dosed at 0.80 ml/kg CCl(4) and urine sampled at 4, 12, 24 and 36 h postdosing. In both studies, the presence of SOD-1 in the urine was confirmed by Western blotting with an SOD-1 antibody. In the dose response study, serum SOD activity was elevated in all CCl(4)-treated animals and urinary SOD-1 activity was increased 2.2 times at the lowest dose (0.10 ml/kg) and 60.4 times at the highest CCl(4) dose level (0.80 ml/kg). In the time course study, urinary SOD-1 was first detected in samples collected from 4 to 12 h postdosing. We conclude that urinary SOD-1 has potential as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of CCl(4)-induced hepatocellular injury.

  19. Development of quercetin-phospholipid complex to improve the bioavailability and protection effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Meiyu; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gu, Liqiang; Hu, Gaosheng; Chen, Xiaohui; Jia, Jingming

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin (QT) is a natural flavonoid with various biological activities and pharmacological actions. However, the bioavailability of QT is relatively low due to its low solubility which severely limits its use. In this study, we intended to improve the bioavailability of QT by preparing quercetin-phospholipid complex (QT-PC) and investigate the protective effect of QT-PC against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The physicochemical properties of QT-PC were characterized in terms of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and water/n-octanol solubility. FTIR, DSC and XRPD data confirmed the formation of QT-PC. The water solubility of QT was improved significantly in the prepared complex, indicating its increased hydrophilicity. Oral bioavailability of QT and QT-PC was evaluated in SD rats, and the plasma QT was estimated by HPLC-MS. QT-PC exhibited higher Cmax (1.58±0.11 vs. 0.67±0.08μg/mL), increased AUC0-∞ (8.60±1.25 vs. 2.41±0.51mg/Lh) and t1/2z (7.76±1.09 vs. 4.81±0.87h) when compared to free QT. The greater absorption of QT-PC group suggested the improved bioavailability. Moreover, biochemical changes and histopathological observations revealed that QT-PC provided better protection to rat liver than free QT at the same dose. Thus, phospholipid complexation might be one of the suitable approaches to improve the oral bioavailability of QT and obtain better protective effects against CCl4 induced acute liver damage in SD rats than free QT at the same dose level. PMID:27431774

  20. Non-covalent C-Cl…π interaction in acetylene-carbon tetrachloride adducts: Matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Vidya, K.; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D.

    2016-03-01

    Non-covalent halogen-bonding interactions between π cloud of acetylene (C2H2) and chlorine atom of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) have been investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical computations. The structure and the energies of the 1:1 C2H2-CCl4 adducts were computed at the B3LYP, MP2 and M05-2X levels of theory using 6-311 ++G(d,p) basis set. The computations indicated two minima for the 1:1 C2H2-CCl4 adducts; with the C-Cl…π adduct being the global minimum, where π cloud of C2H2 is the electron donor. The second minimum corresponded to a C-H…Cl adduct, in which C2H2 is the proton donor. The interaction energies for the adducts A and B were found to be nearly identical. Experimentally, both C-Cl…π and C-H…Cl adducts were generated in Ar and N2 matrixes and characterized using infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report on halogen bonded adduct, stabilized through C-Cl…π interaction being identified at low temperatures using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses were performed to support the experimental results. The structures of 2:1 ((C2H2)2-CCl4) and 1:2 (C2H2-(CCl4)2) multimers and their identification in the low temperature matrixes were also discussed.

  1. The Potential Protective Effect of Physalis peruviana L. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Is Mediated by Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Downregulation of MMP-9 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Olayan, Ebtisam M.; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Aref, Ahmed M.; Othman, Mohamed S.; Kassab, Rami B.; Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis j...

  2. 柿叶提取物对CCl4致小鼠急性肝损伤保护作用的研究%Protective effects of extract from persimmon leaves on tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 杨建雄; 马蕊; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    探讨了柿叶醇提物的乙酸乙酯萃取制剂(EAF)对小鼠急性肝损伤的保护作用.腹腔注射四氯化碳(CCl4)致小鼠急性肝损伤模型,测定不同剂量的EAF对血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活性,肝超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响,同时对肝组织进行病理学检查.结果表明,EAF具有剂量依赖性地降低血清中ALT、AST、AKP值,增强肝中SOD、GPx、CAT的活性,降低肝组织匀浆中MDA的含量,减轻CCl4对肝脏细胞的病理损伤.100mg/kg是EAF对肝损伤的合适保护剂量.适量的EAF对CCl4所致小鼠急性肝损伤有较好的保护作用.%The effects of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) containing substances ethanol extracted from persimmon leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice were inrestigated. The acute hepatic injury model was carried out by CC14 injected intraperitoneally. Then, the therapeutic effects of EAF were evaluated based on the activities of alanine aminotransferas (ALT), aspartate aminotransf erase ( AST) , alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver, and the changes of hepatic pathohistology. The results indicated that different doses of EAF significantly lowered ALT, AST, AKP levels in serum and MDA level in liver along with the restoring of hepatic enzymes like SOD, GPx, and CAT against CC14 treated mice. The pathological changes were also significantly improved in the mice of treating group. Furthermore, it was found that 100 mg/kg was the optimal dose for exhibiting the greatest hepatoprotective effects on CCL,-induced liver injury, indicating that EAF of adequate dose exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CC14-induced acute liver damages in mice.

  3. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft3/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft3/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  4. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide%稀释剂对三烷基氧膦萃取草酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane.Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  5. 水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳的QHSS -40自动进样顶空气相色谱测定法%Determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water by automatic headspace gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗黎明

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳含量的全自动顶空气相色谱法.方法 利用全自动顶空进样技术,采用ECD检测器测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳.结果 在测定条件下,方法的检出限三氯甲烷为0.06 μg/L,四氯化碳为0.03μg/L;三氯甲烷的RSD为1.7% ~2.5%,四氯化碳的RSD为1.5~2.8%;回收率三氯甲烷为101%~103%,四氯化碳为99.6% ~ 102%.结论 该方法简便、快速、具有较好的精密度与准确度,适用于水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳测定.%[ Objective] To establish the method for determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water by automatic head-space gas chromatography. [ Methods ] Automated headspace sampling technology was adopted to detect chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water with ECD detector. [Results] Under the determination conditions, the detection limit was 0.03μg / L of chloroform and 0.06 μg/ L of carbon tetrachloride; RSD of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride was 1.7-2.5% andl.5-2. 8% , respectively; recoveries of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were 101%-103% and 99. 6% ~ 102% , respectively. [ Conclusion] This method is simple, rapid, with good precision and accuracy, and suitable for determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water.

  6. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, M.; Rockhold, M.; Truex, M.; Thorne, P.; Last, G.; Rohay, V.

    2006-12-01

    Three-dimensional modeling was conducted with layered and heterogeneous models to enhance the conceptual model of CT distribution in the vertical and lateral direction beneath the 216-Z-9 trench and to investigate the effects of soil vapor extraction (SVE). This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Simulations targeted migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co-disposed organics in the subsurface beneath the 216-Z-9 trench as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Simulation results support a conceptual model for CT distribution where CT in the DNAPL phase is expected to have migrated primarily in a vertical direction below the disposal trench. Presence of small-scale heterogeneities tends to limit the extent of vertical migration of CT DNAPL due to enhanced retention of DNAPL compared to more homogeneous conditions, but migration is still predominantly in the vertical direction. Results also show that the Cold Creek units retain more CT DNAPL within the vadose zone than other hydrologic unit during SVE. A considerable amount of the disposed CT DNAPL may have partitioned to the vapor and subsequently water and sorbed phases. Presence of small-scale heterogeneities tends to increase the amount of volatilization. Any continued migration of CT from the vadose zone to the groundwater is likely through interaction of vapor phase CT with the groundwater and not through continued DNAPL migration. The results indicated that SVE appears to be an effective technology for vadose zone remediation, but additional effort is needed to improve simulation of the SVE process.

  7. Icaritin ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury mainly because of the antioxidative function through estrogen-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Jin, Xiang; Lv, Hao; Li, Jing; Xu, Wen; Qian, Hai-hua; Yin, Zhengfeng

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of icaritin, an active ingredient extracted from Epimedium Sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.), on CCl4-induced liver injury and its possible mechanisms. Hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley male rats were treated with 3 mmol/L CCl4 for 24 h to induce acute liver cell injury, then icaritin (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μmol/L, respectively) was administrated to the cells, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182,780 (1 μmol/L) was co-treated with 10 μmol/L icaritin. Biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and cell apoptosis were detected to evaluate the injury degree. Protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by western blot. Icaritin alleviated CCl4-induced liver cell injury in a concentration-dependent manner and 10 μmol/L was the optimal concentration. Icaritin (10 μmol/L) significantly reduced activities of ALT, AST in cell culture medium and MDA level of the impaired liver cells, but increased the intercellular SOD activity. The apoptotic rate of the impaired liver cells was also decreased by icaritin (10 μmol/L) treatment. Icaritin might exert antioxidative and anti-apoptotic functions via estrogen-like effect, as the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was significantly increased, while protein expressions of L-FABP and PPAR-α were markedly increased, and this function was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182,780 efficiently. Icaritin may be a promising drug candidate for acute liver injury benefiting from the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic functions via estrogen-like effect. PMID:25148823

  8. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, HUI-NING; CHEN, NI-WEI; SHEN, WEI-LIN; ZHAO, XIANG-YUN; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as compared with

  9. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride (14CCl4) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14CCl4 in the breath and 14C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl4. Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14CCl4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14CO2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14C activity in the expired air was 14CCl4. The quantities of 14C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14CCl4 and 14CO2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14CCl4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14CO2 in the breath

  10. 四氯化碳过程助剂及其替代技术的应用与发展现状%Carbon tetrachloride as a process agent,and application and current development situation of its substitute technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春喜; 汪文川; 杨礼荣; 刘援; 王淑燕

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍了破坏臭物质的主要品种、用途和国家淘汰计划,着重介绍了四氯化碳在过程助剂领域中的主要用途、用量以及替代技术的开发现状和趋势,指出了研究四氯化碳转化技术的紧迫性、重要性和选择转化反应需要考虑的因素。%The main species,uses and phaseout programof ozone depleting substances are described briefly.The main uses and consumption of carbon tetrachloride are introduced emphatically as well as the current development situation and trend of its substitute technology.The urgency,importance and factors needing to be considered in the development of carbon tetrachloride substitute technology are pointed out.

  11. A Continuous Flow Column Study of the Anaerobic Transformation of a CAH Mixture of Tetrachloroethene and Carbon Tetrachloride Using Formate as an Electron Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M. F.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Many groundwater sites are contaminated with mixtures of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that represent a challenge when biological remediation processes are being considered. This is especially challenging when high concentrations of CAHs are present.Trichloromethane (CF), for example, has been observed to inhibit and potentially exert toxicity on reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where the simultaneous transformation of PCE and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was achieved. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. The column was fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE to achieve an influent concentration near its solubility limit (0.10 mM) and formate (1.5 mM) that reacts to produce hydrogen as the ultimate electron donor. The column was operated for over 1600 days prior to the addition of CT. During this period PCE was transformed mainly to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) and minor amounts of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and TCE. The transformation extent achieved based on the column effluent concentrations ranged from about 50% ETH, 30% VC, and 20 cis-DCE up to 80% ETH and 20% VC. When the column was fed sulfate, it was completely transformed via sulfate reduction. Ferrous iron production from ferric iron reduction was observed early in the study. Acetate was also formed as a result of homoacetogenesis from hydrogen utilization. CT addition (0.015 mM) was started at 1600 days while PCE addition was continued. During the first 25 days of CT addition, CT concentrations gradually increased to 50% of the injection concentration and chloromethane (CM) and CF were observed as transformation products. CT concentrations then decreased with over 98% transformation achieved.CM was removed to below the detection limit and CF concentration decreases to

  12. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A.H. Khattab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w. for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH. Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential

  13. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2006-10-31

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.

  15. Review of experimental models for inducing hepatic cirrhosis by bile duct ligation and carbon tetrachloride injection Revisão de modelos experimentais de cirrose hepática induzida por ligadura do ducto biliar e por injeção de tetracloreto de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Thamirys Guimarães Marques; Eleazar Chaib; Juliana Hamati da Fonseca; Ana Cecília Rodrigues Lourenço; Felipe Duarte Silva; Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Jr; Flavio Henrique Ferreira Galvão; Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present a review about a comparative study of bile duct ligation versus carbon tetrachloride Injection for inducing experimental liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This research was made through Medline/PubMed and SciELO web sites looking for papers on the content "induction of liver cirrhosis in rats". We have found 107 articles but only 30 were selected from 2004 to 2011. RESULTS: The most common methods used for inducing liver cirrhosis in the rat were administration of carbon tetrachlo...

  16. Influence of solvents on extraction of U(Ⅵ) by N,N'-didecanoylpiperazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of N, N'-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ) for U(Ⅵ)in a series of solvents from aqueous nitric acid media was investigated for the first time.The dependence of distribution ratios on the concentration of aqueous nitric acid.extractant and temperature has been discussed. The increasing sequence of extractiveability of DDPEZ is given: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dimethylbenzene, toluene,benzene.``

  17. 四氯化碳诱导兔肝纤维化模型的改良%Modification of liver fibrosis model of rabbit induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯洪伟; 潘峥; 陈敏; 徐佳佳; 李卫民; 嵇振岭

    2015-01-01

    the traditional process of carbon tetrachloride ( CCl4 ) induced liver fibrosis of rabbit.Methods:50 healthy male new Zealand rabbits were included in this research and divided into 2 batches on average.Rabbits in first batch( traditional batch) were separated into 2 groups:modeling group(n=21) and control group(n=4).Rabbits in modeling group were injected with 50%CCl4 olive oil solution subcutaneously twice a week for 12 weeks in succession while control group were treated with the same amount of pure olive oil.Rabbits in modeling group received color Doppler ultrasound, spiral computed tomography and serum biochemical examination every 4 weeks from the beginning to 12 weeks, 7 rabbits ( remanent were divided equally when rabbits died unexpected ) were sacrificed after blood drawing every 4 weeks to measure portal venous pressure(PVP) and obtained liver tissues for biopsy and immunohistochemical(IHC) staining as well as staging according the ISHAK grading system; Control group were treated with the same way with modeling group and sacrificed at 12 weeks.Modify disadvantages exposed during experiment of first batch and apply revised scheme to the second batch( modified batch) .Results:Mortality of traditional patch was 42.9%and significantly higher than modified batch of 9.5%( P<0.05 ) and the success rate of traditional patch ( 57.1%) was obviously lower than that of modified batch ( 85.7%) , too.With progression of modeling process, ALT, AST, ALB, TP of modeling group underwent significant changes compare to control group ( P<0.05 ); color doppler flow imaging showed the speed of portal venous blood flow of modeling group was obviously slower and CT values were significantly reduced comparing to control group;HE, Masson and IHC staining showed explicit liver fibrosis and pseudolobule could be seen, ISHAK score rised over time(1.33 ±0.52,1.83 ±0.75,4.17 ±0.75 of modified modeling group at 4,8,12 week respectively).Conclusion:Continuous injection of CCl4 can induce

  18. The potential protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and downregulation of MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtisam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis juice via the drinking water. The animals of Group IV received Physalis juice as Group III and also were intraperitoneally injected weekly with 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by improvement in liver enzymes serum levels, reduction in collagen areas, downregulation in expression of the fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in the peroxidative marker malonaldehyde and the inflammatory marker nitric oxide, and restoration of the activity of antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, namely, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities. The results show that the potential hepatoprotective effects of Physalis peruviana may be due to physalis acts by promotion of processes that restore hepatolobular architecture and through the inhibition of oxidative stress pathway. PMID:24876910

  19. The Potential Protective Effect of Physalis peruviana L. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Is Mediated by Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Downregulation of MMP-9 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam M. Al-Olayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis juice via the drinking water. The animals of Group IV received Physalis juice as Group III and also were intraperitoneally injected weekly with 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by improvement in liver enzymes serum levels, reduction in collagen areas, downregulation in expression of the fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in the peroxidative marker malonaldehyde and the inflammatory marker nitric oxide, and restoration of the activity of antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, namely, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities. The results show that the potential hepatoprotective effects of Physalis peruviana may be due to physalis acts by promotion of processes that restore hepatolobular architecture and through the inhibition of oxidative stress pathway.

  20. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  1. Extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide at the pressure values changing from 16 to 56 MPa at the fixed value of temperature: 60oC. The amount of the recovered liquid phase of oil was calculated as a percentage of the extracted amount to the initial...

  2. Volumetric properties of binary mixture of ethyl acetate and carbon tetrachloride%乙酸乙酯/四氯化碳二元混合体系的体积性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀琴; 黄荣谊

    2011-01-01

    The densities of the binary mixture formed by ethyl acetate with carbon tetrachloride were determined in the entire composition range and at the temperature of 288.15-323. IS K and atmospheric pressure. The calculation equations of densities and composition and temperature for the binary system were established, respectively. The results show that the excess molar volumes are positive in entire composition range and at determining temperature. It increases slightly when temperature increases. The regression coefficients and standard deviations were given by fitting the Redlich-Kister equation. Besides, the relation of apparent molar volumes and the molar volumes to the temperature and composition were investigated from density measurements, both values also increase with temperature rise.%常压下测定了乙酸乙酯与四氯化碳二元体系在288.15-323.15 K内全摩尔分数范围的密度,分别建立了该二元体系密度与组成和温度的计算方程.在此基础上,计算了该二元体系的超额摩尔体积,结果表明:该二元体系的超额摩尔体积在所测定温度和全摩尔分数范围内均呈正偏差,且均随温度的升高而偏差增大,并利用Redlich-Kister方程进行了关联,给出了回归系数和标准偏差.另外还探讨了该二元体系的组分表观摩尔体积和摩尔体积与温度和组成的关系,其值随温度的升高均呈增大的趋势.

  3. A mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the hydroxyl stretch in methanol/carbon tetrachloride mixtures III: nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics and infrared pump-probe spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan

    2013-06-27

    We present a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics following vibrational energy relaxation of the hydroxyl stretch in a 10 mol % methanol/carbon tetrachloride mixture and pure methanol. The ground and first-excited energy levels and wave functions are identified with the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the hydroxyl's adiabatic Hamiltonian and as such depend parametrically on the configuration of the remaining, classically treated, degrees of freedom. The dynamics of the classical degrees of freedom are in turn governed by forces obtained by taking the expectation value of the force with respect to the ground or excited vibrational wave functions. Polarizable force fields and nonlinear mapping relations between the hydroxyl transition frequencies and dipole moments and the electric field along the hydroxyl bond are used, which were previously shown to quantitatively reproduce the experimental infrared steady-state absorption spectra and excited state lifetime [Kwac, K.; Geva, E. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 9184; 2012, 116, 2856]. The relaxation from the first-excited state to the ground state is treated as a nonadiabatic transition. Within the mixed quantum-classical treatment, relaxation from the excited state to the ground state is accompanied by a momentum-jump in the classical degrees of freedom, which is in turn dictated by the nonadiabatic coupling vector. We find that the momentum jump leads to breaking of hydrogen bonds involving the relaxing hydroxyl, thereby blue-shifting the transition frequency by more than the Stokes shift between the steady-state emission and absorption spectra. The subsequent nonequilibrium relaxation toward equilibrium on the ground state potential energy surface is thereby accompanied by red shifting of the transition frequency. The signature of this nonequilibrium relaxation process on the pump-probe spectrum is analyzed in detail. The calculated pump-probe spectrum is found

  4. 四氯化碳淘汰背景下氯化聚丙烯的生产技术选择%Technical options for production of chlorinated polypropylene under phaseout of carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆颖舟; 杨礼荣; 王开祥; 王林宏; 李春喜

    2011-01-01

    综述了氯化聚丙烯(CPP)的主要生产工艺,提出了几种不使用四氯化碳(CTC)的CPP生产新工艺。分析了不同生产工艺的可行性和适用性,得出非CTC溶剂法是生产油墨用途的低氯化度CPP的最佳选择,而水相悬浮法适用于生产材料等用途的CPP产品,固相法虽有节能减排的特点但还不成熟,值得深入研究的结论。建议大力开发CPP新品种,满足日益多样化的产品需求。%This paper summarizes technologies of chlorinated polypropylene (CPP) production, and presents several new technologies for CPP production that do not use carbon tetrachloride (CTC). The feasibility and applicability of different technologies for CPP production are analyzed. Non-CTC solvent technology is the optimum process to produce CPP with low chlorinity which could be used for printing ink production. Water phase suspension technology is suitable for preparing CPP for applied materials production. Despite its advantage of energy-saving and emission-reduction, solid-phase technology is still not mature and should be further improved. Finally, it is suggested that new varieties of CPP should be developed to meet the increasing demands of diversified production.

  5. Comprehensive characterization of serum clinical chemistry parameters and the identification of urinary superoxide dismutase in a carbon tetrachloride-induced model of hepatic fibrosis in the female Hanover Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J; Clarke, Christopher J; Dare, Theo; Turton, John A

    2007-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was used to induce liver fibrosis in the rat. Using this model, we have identified changes in serum and urinary clinical chemistry parameters, and characterized histopathological lesions in the liver. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, rats were dosed at six levels of CCl(4) (0.06-0.36 ml/kg) twice weekly for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week non-dosing recovery period (week 12). Livers were removed for histology at 6 and 12 weeks and serum parameters analysed. In Experiment 2, rats were given seven dose levels of CCl(4) (0.4-1.0 ml/kg) twice weekly for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week recovery period (week 12); urine samples were analysed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Liver fibrosis was evident at 6 weeks in Experiments 1 and 2, and the activity of serum enzymes (including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) was increased. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis (Experiment 2) revealed a protein band at 18.4 kDa in urine from rats treated with CCl(4), not present in control urine, which was identified as copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD). Western blotting revealed that SOD was increased in urine from rats treated with CCl(4) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 9 and 12 weeks. We conclude that Cu/Zn SOD is a urinary marker of hepatic necrosis, but not hepatic fibrosis.

  6. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  7. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Martina; Maus, Martin; Wagner, Karl Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter Christian

    2005-06-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter delta and the partial solubility parameters delta(d) for the van der Waals and delta(EL) for the polar forces. Thus, delta(EL) enabled the estimation of the polarity of the extraction fluids and the solute molecules. If the value of delta(EL) of the extraction fluid reached the value of the solute molecule in the crude drug, i.e. minimum extraction value, the compound was soluble at the distinct extraction conditions. For a further increase in yield of the hydrophilic solutes, the polarity of the extraction fluid had to be increased, too. That means delta(EL) of the fluid exceeded the minimum extraction value. All simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin). CO2 extractions of the flowers of Matricaria recutita ((-)-alpha-bisabolol) were obtained from literature data. These four constituents with different properties, like molecular size and the allocation of polar functional groups were extracted, analysed, simulated and the extract content was correlated with the extraction fluid used, respectively. PMID:15911229

  8. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  9. Nickel Extraction from Olivine: Effect of Carbonation Pre-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore a novel mineral processing approach using carbon dioxide to promote mineral alterations that lead to improved extractability of nickel from olivine ((Mg,Fe2SiO4. The precept is that by altering the morphology and the mineralogy of the ore via mineral carbonation, the comminution requirements and the acid consumption during hydrometallurgical processing can be reduced. Furthermore, carbonation pre-treatment can lead to mineral liberation and concentration of metals in physically separable phases. In a first processing step, olivine is fully carbonated at high CO2 partial pressures (35 bar and optimal temperature (200 °C with the addition of pH buffering agents. This leads to a powdery product containing high carbonate content. The main products of the carbonation reaction include quasi-amorphous colloidal silica, chromium-rich metallic particles, and ferro-magnesite ((Mg1−x,FexCO3. Carbonated olivine was subsequently leached using an array of inorganic and organic acids to test their leaching efficiency. Compared to leaching from untreated olivine, the percentage of nickel extracted from carbonated olivine by acid leaching was significantly increased. It is anticipated that the mineral carbonation pre-treatment approach may also be applicable to other ultrabasic and lateritic ores.

  10. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T; Al-Angari, Samiah S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure.

  11. 静态顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳%Determination on Trichloromethane and Carbon tetrachloride in Drinking Water by Static Headspace Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪增香

    2012-01-01

    建立了静态顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳的方法。实验结果显示:三氯甲烷和四氯化碳在其测定范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.998~0.997,回收率为89.0%~107.0%。该方法简便、快速、可行。%To establish a static headspace capillary gas chromatography method for the determination of trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water.The results showed that the trichloromehane and carbon tetrachloride in the scope had a good linear relationship,the correlation coefficient were all 0.998~0.997,the recovery rate were 89%~107%.The method is simple,rapid and feasible.

  12. Extraction of Genistein from Sophora flavescens with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang-Nam; Kang, Choon-Hyoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This study was directed to finding an optimum extraction condition of genistein from the S. flavescens with supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent. In this effort, effects of the extraction conditions including pressure, temperature and a co-solvent on the extraction efficiency were investigated. The aqueous ethanol and methanol solutions were used as co-solvents while the tested operating pressure and temperature ranges were from 200 bar to 300 bar and from 308.15 K to 323.15 K, respectively. The concentration of genistein was determined by means of HPLC equipped with a UV detector. From the results, it was observed that an increase in pressure led to the higher extraction efficiency. Further, methanol showed better performance as a co-solvent than ethanol. The DPPH radical scavenging activities were measured to compare antioxidant activities of S. flavescens extracts.

  13. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Chemat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2 extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2. Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73% compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.

  14. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant an...

  15. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel by extract of Buddleia perfoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROY LOPES-SESENES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Buddleia perfoliata leaves extract has been investigated as a carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in 0.5 M sulfuric acid by using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight-loss tests at different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm and temperatures, namely 25, 40 and 60 °C. Results showthat inhibition efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration increases, decreases with temperature, and reaches a maximum value after 12 h of exposure, decreasing with a further increase in the exposure time. It was found that the inhibitory effect is due to the presence of tannines on this extract.

  16. 某水源地地下水四氯化碳污染特征分析%Characteristics of Carbon Tetrachloride Pollution in Groundwater in a Water Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭英; 田西昭; 张立宝; 何微; 单强

    2011-01-01

    通过对某水源地地下水的四氯化碳污染调查和日常监测数据分析,研究了该水源地四氯化碳污染晕的形态和变化特征,并选取典型水源井对其四氯化碳动态特征进行了分析.在污染发现初期,污染面积为2.73 km2,最高污染浓度为249.7μg/L,随着后期污染治理工作的开展,污染面积减小到1.24 km2,最高污染浓度下降到3.62μg/L.分析认为,污染晕形态在空间分布上主要受地下水流场的控制,同时受降水量、地下水位标高及开采量等多种因素控制,污染物由北区井群向南区井群扩散.单井四氯化碳含量动态则呈现出南北区的相反特征:在北区,四氯化碳含量随着地下水位的上升而上升,并随地下水流向南扩散;在南区,四氯化碳含量随着地下水位的上升而下降,并随地下水流向地下水漏斗中心汇集.这是由于赋存于SD1井附近包气带中的四氯化碳尚未清除造成的.%Based on the investigation and everyday monitoring data of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) pollution in the groundwater occurring at a water source zone,this paper studies the form of the contaminant plume as well as the changing features,and also it analyzes the dynamic characteristics of the CT in several chosen water source wells.The contaminated area at the initial stage reached 2.73 km2 ,with the max contaminant concentration of 249.7 μg/L.As the pollution control is carried out at the later stage,the contaminated area reduces to 1.24 km2 ,with the max contaminant concentration reduces to 3.62 μg/L.The results indicated that the form of contaminant plume was spatially determined by the groundwater flow field as a primary factor, and other factors included precipitation, elevation of groundwater level as well as the yield etc.The contaninant plume extends form the northern wells to the southern ones.In terms of the dynamic content of the CT in a single well, it's quite different in the northern and southern areas

  17. IFNα-2a对CCl4诱导肝纤维化的作用及影响因素%Interferon α-2a reduces carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 易珍; 叶长根; 刘翠芸; 孙水林; 李金明; 席文娜

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察干扰素α-2a(interferon alfa-2a,IFNα-2a)对CCl4诱导肝纤维化的作用及影响因素.方法:建立CCl4诱导大鼠肝纤维化模型,SD雌性大鼠50只,分成5组,每组10只,即生理盐水对照组(A组)、纤维化模型组(B组)、6×104 U/kg IFNα-2a干预组(C组)、12×104 U/kgIFNα-2a干预组(D组)及6×104 U/kg IFNα-2a对照组(E组).造模8 wk时采集血标本及肝组织标本,分别进行肝功能指标ALT、AST、TBIL、TP,肝纤维化指标HA、LN、PCIII检测,及组织病理形态学观察包括HE染色、Masson染色和网状纤维染色.结果:CCl4腹腔注射成功诱导大鼠肝纤维化模型,表现为汇管区周围纤维化明显,有芒状纤维和纤维间隔形成.血清学检测:B、C、D组ALT、AST、TBiL、HA、LN均明显高于A组(F值分别为14.8,4.4,7.8,51.3,68.9;均P<0.05);C、D组ALT、AST、TBiL均明显低于B组;D组的上述指标又明显低于C组.组织病理:HE染色、Masson染色和网状纤维染色均显示,C、D组肝组织炎症及肝纤维化程度较B组显著减轻,D组较C组肝纤维化程度更轻,A、E组肝组织未见炎症及纤维化.结论:IFNα-2a能够阻断CC14诱导肝纤维化,其作用效果随IFNα-2a剂量增加而增强.%AIM: To observe the effect of IFNα-2a on liver fibrosis induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCL,) in rats.METHODS: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally and randomly into five groups: groups A, B, C, D and E. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats of groups B, C and D with CCl4. Group A was treated with normal saline, while groups C, D and E were treated with 60 000, 120 000 and 60 000 U/kg IFNα-2a, respectively. At week 8, blood and liver tissue samples were collected to measure liver function (ALT, AST, TBIL, TP), evaluate liver fibrosis (HA, LN, PCIII) and pathological changes (HE staining, masson staining and reticular fiber staining).RESULTS: Hepatic fibrosis was successfully induced by CCl4 injection, and significant fibrosis around the

  18. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl4 + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl2. By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  19. Carbon price and optimal extraction of a polluting fossil fuel with restricted carbon capture

    OpenAIRE

    Coulomb, Renaud; Henriet, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    Among technological options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Carbon Capture and Storage technology (CCS) seems particularly promising. This technology allows to keep on extracting polluting fossil fuels without drastically increasing CO2 atmospheric concentration. We examine here a two-sector model with two primary energy resources, a polluting exhaustible resource and an expensive carbon-free renewable resource, in which an environmental regulation is imposed through a cap on the ...

  20. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods

  1. Chloroform and Carbon Tetrachloride Determination in Drinking Water with Headspace Capillary Column Gas Chromatography%顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中的氯仿和四氯化碳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波; 徐文清

    2014-01-01

    本方法采用顶空气相色谱法,利用毛细管柱、μ-ECD微电子捕获检测器对饮用水中氯仿和四氯化碳残留量进行了检测分析,检出限分别为0.02和0.2μg/L,回收率90.4%~95.6%,本方法分析简便,容易操作。%Residue of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water were measured by using headspace gas chromatography with capillary column or μ-ECD microelectronics capture detector. Detection limit was 0.02 and 0.2μg/L, respectively. Recovery was 90.4%-95.6%. This method was simple and sasy.

  2. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used

  3. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  4. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  5. Progressive extraction method applied to isotopic exchange of carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic exchange in natural settings is essentially an irreversible process, so that it progresses continuously until there is complete isotopic equilibrium. In soils, this process involves interaction between isotopes in the liquid and solid phases, and complete isotopic equilibrium may take a very long time. Measurements after partial isotopic exchange have been used to characterize the labile fraction of elements in soils. We describe a method to characterize the extent of isotopic exchange, with application here to incorporation of inorganic carbon-14 (14C) into mineral carbonates and organic matter in soils. The procedure uses a continuous addition of extractant, acid, or H2O2in the examples presented here, coupled with sequential sampling. The method has been applied to demonstrate the degree of isotopic exchange in soil. The same strategy could be applied to many other elements, including plant nutrients. (author)

  6. Therapeutic effect of arctigenin on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats%牛蒡子苷元对四氯化碳致大鼠肝纤维化的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓珣; 王俊; 赵宇; 张景耀; 李傲

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究牛蒡子苷元(ATG)对四氯化碳(CCl4)诱导的大鼠肝纤维化的防治作用及可能的作用机制。方法成年Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机分为溶剂对照组、ATG 3.0 mg·kg-1、CCl4模型组、CCl4+ATG 1.0和3.0 mg·kg-1组和CCl4+秋水仙碱(COL)0.1 mg·kg-1阳性对照组,采用sc的方法复制大鼠CCl4肝纤维化模型,造模8周。从第5周开始,ig给予ATG和COL,连续治疗4周。测定各组大鼠血清中谷丙转氨酶(GPT)、谷草转氨酶(GOT)的活性以及白蛋白(ALB)、总胆红素(TBIL)的水平,肝组织中羟脯氨酸(HYP)的含量;HE和Masson染色观察肝组织病理改变,并采用组织免疫荧光法检测活化的肝星状细胞增殖,Western蛋白质印迹法检测细胞周期相关蛋白的表达。结果与CCl4模型组比较,ATG 1.0和3.0 mg·kg-1可显著升高纤维化大鼠血清中ALB含量(P<0.05),降低血清中GPT,AST和TBIL水平(P<0.05),从而降低肝损伤的程度;ATG 1.0和3.0 mg·kg-1还能显著降低纤维化大鼠肝组织中HYP的含量(P<0.05),减少肝内纤维组织的形成。同时,ATG 1.0和3.0 mg·kg-1还能抑制纤维化大鼠肝组织中活化的HSC增殖,显著降低细胞周期相关调控蛋白细胞周期蛋白D1(cyclin D1)、细胞周期蛋白依赖性蛋白激酶(CDK)2和4及增殖细胞核抗原的表达(P<0.05),同时上调细胞周期阻抑物蛋白p27kip1的表达水平(P<0.05)。结论 ATG对CCl4诱导的大鼠肝损伤和肝纤维化具有显著的治疗作用,其作用机制可能与抑制活化的HSC增殖相关。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of arctigenin(ATG) on liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)and to explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups:vehicle,ATG 3.0 mg · kg-1 group,CCl4 model group,CCl4+ATG 1.0 and 3.0 mg·kg-1 groups,and CCl4+colchicine(COL)0.1 mg·kg-1

  7. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  8. Solvent extraction of rare earth metal ions with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of lutetium(III) and erbium(III) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN or HL) in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous solutions was examined. The composition of the complex extracted was determined and it was found that the extraction process can be described by the following equation (Ln3+ = Lu, Er): Ln(H2O)3+sub(m) + 3HLsub((0)) LnLsub(3(0)) + 3H+ + mH2O. The extraction constants (Ksub(ex)) and two-phase stability constants (βsup(x)3) for LnL3 complexes have been evaluated. (Author)

  9. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of Er(3), Yb(3) and Lu(3) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5(HPMBP or HL) in carbon tetrachloride has been studied as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration of the extractant in the organic phase. The equation for the extraction reaction has been suggested as: Ln3++3HL(0) rightleftdblarrow LnL3(0)+3H+(Ln3+ = Er, Yb, Lu). The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex) and two-phase stability constants (β3x) for the LnL3 complexes have been evaluated. (Author)

  10. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. ...

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ammania baccifera (L.) Whole plant extract in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subash vijayakumar; Ramaiyan Dhanapal; I Sarathchandran; A Saravana Kumar; JVijaya Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of whole plant of Ammania baccifera, Linn (EEAB). Methods: To investigate in rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced erythrocyte damage. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of the crude extracts (600 or 800 mg/kg body weight/day) with carbon tetrachloride (1ml/kg of body weight) to rats for alternate days of two weeks protected the loss of functional integrity and membrane lipid alteration in red blood cells induced by oxidative stress. Results: EEAB inhibited the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the plasma as well as maintained the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The extracts further had the ability to decrease the membrane fluidity induced by carbon tetrachloride. Conclusion:It can therefore be suggested that the whole plant of Ammania baccifera, Linn possess an erythrocyte protective activity against drug induced oxidative stress. These findings also provide a rationale for further studies on isolation of active principles and its pharmacological evaluation.

  13. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.

  14. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Benzoyl-Pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), 2. Extraction of Erbium(III), Ytterbium(III) and Lutetium(III) by HPMBP from aqueous-methanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of lanthanides(III)(Ln = Er, Yb, Lu) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HL) in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous-methanol phase was investigated. The equilibrium constants for the extraction from aqueous-50 % (ν/ν) methanol phase (Kex), two-phase stability constants of the complexes LnL3 (β3*) and stability constants of complexes LnL2+, LnL2+, LnL3(βn)(Ln = Yb, Lu) were calculated. It was confirmed that the addition of methanol to the aqueous phase causes a synergistic effect. The influence of methanol on the dissociation constant of HPMBP (Ka) and the distribution constant of HPMBP (pHL) between carbon tetrachloride and water-methanol solutions was investigated. (Authors)

  15. Metal Ions Extraction with Glucose Derivatives as Chelating Reagents in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chen YANG; Hai Jian YANG

    2006-01-01

    A series of glucose derivatives have been used as chelating reagents to extract metal ions in supercritical carbon dioxide. With perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid tetraethylammonium salt as additive, glucose derivatives were selective for Sr2+ and Pb2+ extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  16. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Effects of Foeniculum vulgare Miller Seed Fixed Oil Extract inMice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBEK, HANEFİ; Öztürk, Mustafa; Bayram, İrfan; UĞRAŞ, Serdar; SALTAN ÇİTOĞLU, GÜLÇİN

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate median lethal dose(LD50) and hypoglycemic effect of fixed oil ofFoeniculum vulgare Miller seed fixed oil (FFO) in miceand its hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats.Method: Extract of FFO, glibenclamide (as a referencegroup) and physiologic saline (control group) wereadministrated to the healthy and diabet occured micewith alloxan. Before treatment in the first, second, third,fourth and 24th hours, blood was ...

  17. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Root Extract Regulates the Oxidative Status and Antioxidant Gene Transcripts in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Yasser S.; Lebda, Mohamed A.; Mohammed Hassinin; Neoman, Saad A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control); chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks); CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only); or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks) + CCl4 injecti...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO METHODS FOR EVALUATING FIVE-CARBON SUGARS IN EUCALYPTUS EXTRACTION LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Chi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pre-extraction and hydrothermal hydrolysis were carried out with eucalyptus chips. Two methods were used to determine and calculate the extraction yield of five-carbon sugars. One is an indirect method, based on the difference of pentosan content between the chips before and after pre-extraction. The other method is to directly measure the content of five-carbon sugars in the extracting solution. The results indicated that there was a defined relationship between the two methods. For alkaline pre-extraction, a good logarithmic relationship was shown. There was a good linear relationship for hot water prehydrolysis. So the pentosan content of the extracted chips could be predicted from the results of the latter method, referring to the two relational expressions. In this study, a simple and rapid method of spectrophotometry was introduced, which will help in the evaluation of extraction yield of five-carbon sugars during biomass processing.

  20. Extraction of bixin from annatto seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of 93% pure bixin in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and of the bixin present in annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L. was measured. For the seeds, the measurements were made in a temperature range from 30 to 50ºC and pressure between 10 and 35 MPa and for the pure bixin, at 40ºC from 10 to 35 MPa. The main pigments of annatto seeds are bixin and norbixin, but the extracts only showed the presence of cis and trans-bixin, indicating that norbixin is not soluble in SC-CO2. The annatto seeds used in the experiments contained about 2.7% bixin and 3.1% oil. In the seeds, the crossover point of solubility was at about 28 MPa and values for solubility were about ten times higher than those of the pure bixin, giving evidence that the oil acted as a co-solvent with the CO2.

  1. Effect of diluents on the extraction of uranium (VI) with N-octanoyl-2-methylpiperidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Qun; BAO Bo-Rong; QIAN Qun; SHAO Hua

    2003-01-01

    The extraction of uranium ((Ⅵ) from nitric acid solution with N-octanoyl-2-methylpiperidine (OMPPD)in eight diluents and the dependence of distribution ratio on temperature and concentrations of both aqueous nitricacid and OMPPD were investigated. The interaction among OMPPD, the extracted species and diluent has been dis-cussed. The experiments show that the extraction ability of OMPPD decreases gradually for eight diluents in the fol-lowing order: benzene, toluene, n-octane, sulfonated kerosene, cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroetheneand chloroform. It cannot be interpreted only on the basis of polarity of diluents.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale and Cichorium intybus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of ginger, chicory and their mixture against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats. Carbon tetrachloride treatment significantly elevated the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities and the serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentration as compared to control group. It also increased RBCs counts and Hb concentration, total or differential leucocytes counts. However it decreased platelet counts, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet larger cell ratio. Methanol extract of ginger (250 and 500 mg/kg and chicory (250 and 500 mg/kg given alone or mixed (1:1 wt/wt significantly restored the carbon tetrachloride-induced alterations in the biochemical and cellular constituents of blood. No toxic symptoms were reported in doses up to 5 g/kg. Alkaloids and/or nitrogenous bases, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes are the main active constituents of their methanol extract. The hepatoprotective effect of ginger and chicory was also confirmed by the histopathological examination of liver tissue.

  3. Therapeutic detoxification of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice and its mechanism%槲皮素对四氯化碳引起的小鼠急性肝损伤治疗作用及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-qi ZHANG; Liang SHI; Xi-ning XU; Si-chong HUANG; Bin LU; Li-li JI; Zheng-tao WANG

    2014-01-01

    This study observes the therapeutic detoxification of quercetin, a wel-known flavonoid, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver injuryin vivo and explores its mechanism. Quercetin decreased CCl4-increased serum activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) when orally taken 30 min after CCl4 intoxica-tion. The results of a histological evaluation further evidenced the ability of quercetin to protect against CCl4-induced liver injury. Quercetin decreased the CCl4-increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced the glutathione (GSH) amounts in the liver. It also reduced the enhanced immunohistochemical staining of the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the liver induced by CCl4. Peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, thioredoxin reductase 1 and 2 (TrxR1/2), thioredoxin 1 and 2 (Trx1/2), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) al play critical roles in maintaining celular redox homeostasis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results demonstrated that quercetin reversed the decreased mRNA expression of al those genes induced by CCl4. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that quercetin ameliorates CCl4-induced acute liver injuryin vivo via aleviating oxidative stress injuries when oraly taken after CCl4 intoxication. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the antioxidant capacity induced by quercetin.

  4. Protective Effects of Dimethyl—4,4‘—Dinmethoxy—5,6,5’,6‘—Dimethylene Dioxybiphenyl—2,2’—Dicarboxylate on Damages of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride and D—galactosam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUTIEBO; LIUGENGTAO

    1992-01-01

    The rotective effect of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate(DDB)on chemically induced damages was studied in isolated suspended rat hepatocytes.The experimental results showed that DDB(200μg/106cells) efficiently protected the hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4 10mmol·L-1)and D-galactosamine(1mmol·L1)induce damages.Membranal lipid peroxidation(malondialdehyde,MDA formation(and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) release from the hepatocytes were markedly decreased.The damage of the cell surfaces of the hepatocytes were also reduced as seen under a scanning electrom microscope(SEM). Pretreatment with DDB(300mg·kg-1)orally ameliorated the reduction of liver glycogen and blood glucose caused by ip injection of D-galactosamine(800mg·kg-1)in mice.When normal rats were given DDB 300mg·kg-1 once daily for 10d,the free ribosomal protein and RNA in the liver increased significantly.These results indicate that DDB is of beneficial effects on both damaged and normal hepatocytes.

  5. Isomerization of -carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Rajendran; B H Chen

    2007-05-01

    Isomerization of all-trans--carotene occurs during shaking with 0.5% of titanium tetrachloride catalyst in methylene chloride at room temperature. In the present study we compared two types of columns C18 and C30 and various solvent systems for the separation of -carotene and its cis isomers by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that -carotene isomers were resolved by employing a C30 column with a mobile phase of methanol (100%) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) under a gradient elution condition. A total of eleven cis isomers and one all-trans--carotene isomer were resolved within 50 min at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection wave-length of 470 nm.

  6. High anti-inflammatory activity of harpagoside-enriched extracts obtained from solvent-modified super- and subcritical carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, M; Laufer, S; Schmidt, P C

    2006-01-01

    Solvent-modified carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens have been investigated with respect to extraction efficiency and content of harpagoside, and compared with a conventional extract. The effects of pressure, temperature, type and concentration of the modifier have been examined. Two extraction steps were necessary in order to achievehigh anti-inflammatory harpagoside-enriched extracts. The first extraction step was carried out in the supercritical state using carbon dioxide modified with n-propanol to remove undesired lipophilic substances. The main extraction was performed either in the supercritical or in the subcritical state with carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The supercritical fluid extraction resulted in extracts containing up to 30% harpagoside. The subcritical extracts showed a harpagoside content of ca. 20%, but the extraction yield was nearly three times greater compared with supercritical conditions. The total harpagoside recovery resulting from the sum of the extract and the crude drug residue was greater than 99% in all experiments. The conventional extract and two carbon dioxide extracts were tested for in-vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase-2 biosynthesis. Both carbon dioxide extracts showed total inhibition on 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis at a concentration of 51.8 mg/L. In contrast, the conventional extract failed to show any inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis. PMID:16454469

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda I

    2009-04-01

    Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: By-product, Solvent extraction, Kyoto protocol, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Palm Kernel Oil Received: 13 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 12 March 2009

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF STEPHANIA JAPONICA STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Bokshi , S.M. Abdur Rahman*, S. K. Sadhu , Ashif Muhammad and Hemayet Hossain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The different fractions of crude methanolic extract of stem of Stephania japonica (Thunb. Miers was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. The various fractions of S. japonica Stem i.e. Ethyl Acetate (EAJS, CHCl3 (CFJS, CCl4 (CTJS and Petroleum ether (PEJS were subjected to free radical scavenging activity. In this investigation, CFJS showed the most significant free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 119.0µg/ml for S. japonica stem. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The LC50 value of sample CTJS (Carbon Tetrachloride fraction of S. japonica Stem, was 3.0µg/ml is highly most significant. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The Carbon Tetrachloride soluble fraction showed good antibacterial activity against different species of bacteria at different doses. The Ethyl Acetate soluble fraction shows good activity only against E. coli at different doses.

  9. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO2) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl4-UO2 shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl2) that has a good solubility in molten UCl4. This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl4, ZrCl4, SiCl4, ThCl4) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl2) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl4

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  11. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  12. Extraction of copper ions by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Complexation combined with supercritical fluid extraction was used to extract Cu2+ in this study. The effects of pressure, temperature, volume of CO2 on the efficiency of extraction were systematically investigated. At the optimum condition a 57.32% recovery was achieved. Addition of suitable amount of methanol(v/v = 5 % ) to the supercritical CO2 can increase in the extraction of Cu2+ (72.69 %, RSD = 2.12 %, n = 3). And the recovery can further increase in the presence of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 because of its function of solubilization. Surfactant was first used in the extraction of metal ions in the present study, and the results are satisfied (90.52%, RSD=2.20%, n =3).

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ; SONJA ĐILAS; MILKA JADRANIN; VLATKA VAJS; NADA BABOVIĆ; SLOBODAN PETROVIĆ; IRENA ŽIŽOVIĆ

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.), originating from the southern Balkan Region. The antioxidant fraction was isolated from the plant material by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) fractional extraction under a pressure of 30 MPa and at temperatures of 40 and 100 °C. In the present study, kinetic data and yields of antioxidant extracts obtained ...

  14. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani; Sameerah I. Al-Saeedi; Rasmiah Almufarij

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV) extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca), Eruca Sativa (Arugula), Petroselinum crispum (Parsley), and Anethum Graveolens (Dill) were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss) method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inh...

  15. Composition of supercritical carbon dioxide derived extracts of Chamaemelum nobile / Joshua Lebanna

    OpenAIRE

    Lebanna, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of extracting botanical substances from samples of Cameamelum nobile (Roman chamomile) with supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-C02) was investigated. The advantages of clean technology and the relevance of chamomile extracts to the fragrance, flavour, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries sewed as motivation for the investigation. Extractions were performed on selected dried plant material using a commercial laboratory-size supercritical fluid extractor....

  16. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Da Sun; Shikang Zhang; Yuefei Wang; Ping Xu; Yuejin Zhu; Le Ying

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained f...

  17. Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide in the Extraction of Lanolin and Its Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林苗; 陈小立; 杨勇

    2003-01-01

    The use of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SFCO2) in extraction of lanolin and its alcohol is superior to the conventional solvent extraction method. Its distinctive advantages include high extractive ratio, nontoxic and nonflammable solvents, and minimal by -product pollution. The resulting refined lanolin and its alcohol have light color and little odor, and can be used as raw materials for high grade cosmetic products.

  18. Element fractionation by sequential extraction in a soil with high carbonate content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of carbonate and other buffering substances in soils on the results of a 3-step sequential extraction procedure (BCR) used for metal fractionation was investigated. Deviating from the original extraction scheme, where the extracts are analysed only for a limited number of metals, almost all elements in the soils were quantified by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in the initial samples as well as in the residues of all extraction steps. Additionally, the mineral contents were determined by X-ray diffractometry. Using this methodology, it was possible to correlate changes in soil composition caused by the extraction procedure with the release of elements. Furthermore, the pH values of all extracts were monitored, and certain extraction steps were repeated until no significant pH-rise occurred. A soil with high dolomite content (27%) and a carbonate free soil were extracted. Applying the original BCR-sequence to the calcareous soil, carbonate was found in the residues of the first two steps and extract pH-values rose by around two units in the first and second step, caused mainly by carbonate dissolution. This led to wrong assignment of the carbonate elements Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and also to decreased desorption and increased re-adsorption of ions in those steps. After repetition of the acetic acid step until extract pH remained low, the carbonate was completely destroyed and the distributions of the elements Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba as well as those of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were found to be quite different to those determined in the original extraction. Furthermore, it could be shown that the effectiveness of the reduction process in step two was reduced by increasing pH: Fe oxides were not significantly attacked by the repeated acetic acid treatments, but a 10-fold amount of Fe was mobilized by hydroxylamine hydrochloride after complete carbonate destruction. On the other hand, only small amounts of Fe were released anyway. Even repeated reduction steps did not

  19. Behavior of the extraction of metallic ions in carbonate medium, using N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) - benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of separating quantitatively trace impurities like Cu, Fe, In and Pb, present in uranium base materials of nuclear grade, is demonstrated. A solvent extraction is employed which makes use of -benzoylphenylhydroxylamine(BPHA)-benzene solution and separation is effected in a medium containing 252 moles per liter of sodium-uranyl tricarbonate at pH of 9,0. Carbonate ions under such conditions inhibit uranium extraction by masking uranyl ion-BPHA reaction. The uranyl ions show a demasking action, releasing, thereby, Pb(II) ions which are being extracted from carbonate medium. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry technique is used to obtain the experimental data

  20. Determination of traces of cadmium in zinc by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry after extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, A.; Willmann, K.H.; Simon, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of dithizone, diethyldithiocarbamate and tetramethylendithiocarbamate as chelating agents for the extraction-photometric cadmium determination by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the presence of zinc was investigated. It has been found that the extraction of the dithizone chelate by carbon tetrachloride permits an uninfluenced determination of cadmium in the presence of a zinc excess up to 10/sup 5/. Therefore the use of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry raises the selectivity as compared to photometry, because photometry only permits a 1000-fold excess of zinc. With this method 2x10/sup -4/% of cadmium in zinc can be determined without further corrections of matrix effects.

  1. Field tests of passive soil vapor extraction systems at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, site investigations began to support selection of a technology for removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone at the 200-ZP-2 Operable unit in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, Based on the initial site characterization and a detailed engineering evaluation and cost analysis, active soil vapor extraction was proposed, and full-scale operations began in 1992. During this time, additional investigations into the feasibility of using passive soil vapor extractions as complementary remediation process were initiated as part of the 200-ZP-2 well field design

  2. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi; S. M. Abdur Rahman; Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses ...

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bazargan, Maryam; Eidi, Akram; MORTAZAVI, Pejman; Zaringalam, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, ...

  4. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

    2008-10-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  5. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link be-tween the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced fac-tor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathe-matical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extrac-tion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  6. Hydrogenation of Silicon Tetrachloride in Microwave Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢振西; 张伟刚

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hydrogenation of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) in microwave plasma. A new launcher of argon (Ar) and hydrogen (H2) plasma was introduced to produce a non-thermodynamic equilibrium ac-tivation plasma. The plasma state exhibited a characteristic temperature related to the equilibrium constant, which was termed“Reactive Temperature”in this study. Thus, the hydrogenation of SiCl4 in the plasma could easily be handled with high conversion ratio and very high selectivity to trichlorosilane (SiHCl3). The effects of SiCl4/Ar and H2/Ar ratios on the conversion were also investigated using a mathematical model developed to determine the op-timum experimental parameters. The highest hydrogenation conversion ratio was produced at a H2/SiCl4 molar ratio of 1, with mixtures of SiCl4 and H2 to Ar molar ratio of 1.2 to 1.4. In this plasma, the special system pressure and incident power were required for the highest energy efficiency of hydrogenating SiCl4, while the optimum system pressure varies from 26.6 to 40 kPa depending on input power, and the optimum feed gas (H2 and SiCl4) molar en-ergy input was about 350 kJ·mol-1.

  7. The Application of the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction Technology on the Extraction of Micro Amount of Uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Zhi-jun; YU; Zhen; LIANG; Xiao-hu; DING; You-qian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The characteristic of solid radioactive wastes containing less 1% uranium, such as mine tailings, contaminated soil and sludge, is complex matrix and irregular surface. The traditional treatment technology usually consumes a lot of chemical reagents and produces a large amount of secondary wastes. The supercritical fluid has the advantage of high diffusivity, low viscosity, and liquid-like solvating capability, which enable the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) technology to be a alternative method to extract micro amount of uranium from solid radioactive wastes.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

  9. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2014-01-01

    The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total am...

  10. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  11. A study for uranium extraction from contaminated soil in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinhyun; Kim, Jeongsu; Koh, Moonsung; Park, Kwangheon [Kyung-Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyenam; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The extraction process of uranium is one of the most important fields from the uranium mining to the spent fuel reprocessing. However, conventional organic solvent extraction produces a lot of liquid waste. The SFE (Supercritical fluid extraction) is extraction by substances occurring at temperatures and pressures above critical. The agent most widely used for SFE is carbon dioxide, which is nontoxic, readily available, inexpensive and low critical parameters (temperature above 31 .deg. C and pressure above 73 bar). The Sc-CO{sub 2} (Supercritical carbon dioxide) may be a good extraction solvent due to the ease with which it can be recycled, and the fact it leaves negligible amounts of secondary wastes. But Sc-CO{sub 2} do not extract metallic contaminants because it has the non-polar property. So, in order to extract the radioactive metal from radioactive wastes, Sc-CO{sub 2} needs chelating ligands or surfactants such as organophosphorus, crown ethers, {beta}-diketone, or dialkyl dithiocarbamates. In our previous works, TBOD (Tetrabutyl pentaoxadiamine) was effective chelating ligand than TBP for extraction of uranium ion from aqueous solution using Sc-CO{sub 2}. The TBOD has some advantages: (i) high irradiation stability (ii) strong affinity to metallic ions (iii) completely incinerated without secondary solid waste. At this work, we have to extract the uranium metal from contaminated soil which adsorbed non-radioactive uranium using TBOD in Sc-CO{sub 2}.

  12. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  13. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  14. Development of partitioning process: back-extraction of actinoid and lanthanoid with hydrazine carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the back extraction of actinoid, lanthanoid, Y, Zr, and Mo from DIDPA [Diisodecylphosphoric Acid] and HDEHP [Di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric) Acid] was investigated by using hydrazine carbonate solution. Hydrazine carbonate is a salt-free reagent and easy to decompose. If it is possible to apply this reagent to the 4-group partitioning process, more sophisticated process would be constructed, because of the reduction of secondary wastes. All the elements other than Y could be back-extracted from HDEHP and all the elements other than Y and Mo could be back-extracted from DIDPA by hydrazine carbonate. It was found that the nature of alcohol which was added to avoid emulsification affects on the distribution ratio more than the added amount. (author)

  15. Extraction/fractionation and deacidification of wheat germ oil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zacchi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ oil was obtained by mechanical pressing using a small-scale screw press and by supercritical extraction in a pilot plant. With this last method, different pressures and temperatures were tested and the tocopherol concentration in the extract was monitored during extraction. Then supercritical extracted oil as well as commercial pressed oil were deacidified in a countercurrent column using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent under different operating conditions. Samples of extract, refined oil and feed oil were analyzed for free fatty acids (FFA and tocopherol contents. The results show that oil with a higher tocopherol content can be obtained by supercritical extraction-fractionation and that FFA can be effectively removed by countercurrent rectification while the tocopherol content is only slightly reduced.

  16. Supercritical extraction of pupunha (Guilielma speciosa oil in a fixed bed using carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupunha (Guilielma speciosa is the fruit of a palm tree typical of the Brazilian Northern region, whose stem is used as a source of heart of palm. The fruit, which is about 65% pulp, is a source of oil and carotenes. In the present work, an analysis of the kinetics of supercritical extraction of oil from the pupunha pulp is presented. Carbon dioxide was used as solvent. The extractions were carried out at 25 MPa and 323 K and 30 MPa and 318 K. The chemical composition of the extracts in terms of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. The amount of oleic acid, a saturated fatty acid, in the CO2 extracts was larger than that in the extract obtained with hexane. The overall extraction curves were modeled using the single-parameter model proposed in the literature to describe the desorption of toluene from activated coal.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  18. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  19. Evaluation of single-walled carbon nanohorns as sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Cardenas, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of single walled carbon nanohorns in dispersive solid phase microextraction has been evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was characterized for the extraction of PAHs from waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single walled carbon nanohorns were better extractant than carbon nanotubes and carbon nanocones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limits of detection were adequate for the target analytes in environmental waters. - Abstract: A new dispersive micro solid-phase extraction method which uses single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) as sorbent is proposed. The procedure combines the excellent sorbent properties of the nanoparticles with the efficiency of the dispersion of the material in the sample matrix. Under these conditions, the interaction with the analytes is maximized. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was selected as model analytical problem. Two dispersion strategies were evaluated, being the functionalization via microwave irradiation better than the use of a surfactant. The extraction was accomplished by adding 1 mL of oxidized SWHNs (o-SWNHs) dispersion to 10 mL of water sample. After extraction, the mixture was passed through a disposable Nylon filter were the nanoparticles enriched with the PAHs were retained. The elution was carried out with 100 {mu}L of hexane. The limits of detection achieved were between 30 and 60 ng L{sup -1} with a precision (as repeatability) better than 12.5%. The recoveries obtained for the analytes in three different water samples were acceptable in all instances. The performance of o-SWNHs was favourably compared with that provided by carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and thermally treated carbon nanocones.

  20. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  1. Biodegradability of soil water soluble organic carbon extracted from seven different soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCAGLIA Barbara; ADANI Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is considered the most mobile and reactive soil carbon source and its characterization is an important issue for soil ecology study. A biodegradability test was set up to study WSOC extracted from 7 soils differently managed. WSOC was extracted from soil with water (soil/water ratio of 1:2, W/V) for 30 min, and then tested for biodegradability by a liquid state respirometric test. Result obtained confirmed the finding that WSOC biodegradability depended on both land use and management practice. These results suggested the biodegradability test as suitable method to characterize WSOC, adding useful information to soil fertility.

  2. Study of Thermal Activated CO2 Extraction Processes from Carbonate Apatites Using Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Kuznetsov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of carbonate in the structure of carbonate-containing apatites (CCA is an actual problem due to the similarity of such systems to natural apatites of mammalian bone tissue. The search of the optimal synthesis procedures was also carried out in order to obtain carbonate apatites with the highest rate of carbonate ions incorporation into the apatite structure. The analysis of carbonate-group temperature behavior in apatites of various origin helps to understand their structural and functional roles in biologically relevant apatite materials. The thermal extraction and accumulation of CO2 from biogenic and geological apatites is also of interest for the further carbon isotope analysis with accelerating mass-spectrometry. X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy as well as self-proposed gas chromatography method with thermo-programmed probe extraction were used for carbonate temperature behavior study. This new method allows determining CO2 concentration released from CCA during annealing. The defined changes in carbonate apatite structure depending on synthesis procedure were observed.

  3. Effect of diluents on the extraction of praseodymium and samarium by Cyanex 923 from acidic nitrate medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA; El-Nadi

    2010-01-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr(Ⅲ) and Sm(Ⅲ) with trialkyl phosphine oxide(Cyanex 923) in chloroform,carbon tetrachloride,n-octane,cyclohexane,1,2-dichloroethane,benzene,toluene,xylene and nitrobenzene from acidic nitrate medium was investigated.On the basis of slope analysis data,the composition of the extracted species was determined as(M(NO3)3?2CY923),CY923 refers to Cyanex 923.The values of the equilibrium constants and the separation factors were calculated.The effect of the diluents on the metal extracti...

  4. Effect of Rice Straw Extract and Alkali Lignin on the Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paddy residue based corrosion inhibitor was prepared by treating finely powdered rice straw with aqueous ethanol under acid catalyst (0.01 M H2SO4). Commercial alkali lignin was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Prior to the corrosion test, the extraction yield and alkali lignin was characterized via FTIR to determine the functional group. The effect of paddy residue extract and commercial alkali lignin on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated through the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extract and alkali lignin at different immersion times (3 h, 24 h and 42 h) was evaluated. The results show that the paddy waste extract exhibited lesser weight loss of carbon steel in the acidic medium in comparison to the commercial alkali lignin, suggesting that the paddy residue extract is more effective than the commercial alkali lignin in terms of its corrosion inhibition properties. The results obtained proves that the extract from paddy residue could serve as an effective inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic mediums. (author)

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-21

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  6. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  8. A microfluidic study of liquid-liquid extraction mediated by carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Gabriella; Salari, Alinaghi; Abolhasani, Milad; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is an important separation and purification method; however, it faces a challenge in reducing the energy consumption and the environmental impact of solvent (extractant) recovery. The reversible chemical reactions of switchable solvents (nitrogenous bases) with carbon dioxide (CO2) can be implemented in reactive liquid-liquid extraction to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of solvent recovery. The development of new effective switchable solvents reacting with CO2 and the optimization of extraction conditions rely on the ability to evaluate and screen the performance of switchable solvents in extraction processes. We report a microfluidic strategy for time- and labour-efficient studies of CO2-mediated solvent extraction. The platform utilizes a liquid segment containing an aqueous extractant droplet and a droplet of a solution of a switchable solvent in a non-polar liquid, with gaseous CO2 supplied to the segment from both sides. Following the reaction of the switchable solvent with CO2, the solvent becomes hydrophilic and transfers from the non-polar solvent to the aqueous droplet. By monitoring the time-dependent variation in droplet volumes, we determined the efficiency and extraction time for the CO2-mediated extraction of different nitrogenous bases in a broad experimental parameter space. The platform enables a significant reduction in the amount of switchable solvents used in these studies, provides accurate temporal characterization of the liquid-liquid extraction process, and offers the capability of high-throughput screening of switchable solvents. PMID:27327198

  9. A gas extraction system for the measurement of carbon dioxide and carbon isotopes in polar ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the distribution of Carbon 13 in the glacial ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere is important to understanding the causes of glacial/interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. Although deep-ocean Carbon 13 values are well-constrained by ocean sediment studies, model-based estimates of changes in the carbon budget for the biosphere and atmosphere vary considerably. Measurement of atmospheric Carbon 13 in CO2 in ice cores will provide additional constraints on this budget and will also improve estimates of changes in the ocean surface layer Carbon 13. Direct measurement of ancient atmospheric Carbon 13 can be accomplished through polar ice core studies. A gas-extraction line for ice cores has been designed and constructed with particular attention to the specific difficulties of measuring Carbon 13 in CO2. The ice is shaved, rather than crushed, to minimize fractionation effects resulting from gas travel through long air-paths in the ice. To minimize the risk of isotopic contamination and fractionation within the vacuum line, CO2 is separated immediately from the air; the CO2 concentration is then measured by a simple pressure/volume comparison rather than by gas chromatography or spectroscopy. Measurements from Greenland ice core samples give an average value of 280±2 ppM CO2 for preindustrial samples, demonstrating that the extraction system gives accurate, precise determinations Of CO2 concentrations. Measurement of δ13C from polar ice samples has not been achieved at this time. However, results on standard air samples demonstrate a precision for δ13C of less than 0.2 per-thousand at the 95% confidence level

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  12. Selective Extraction Methods for Aluminium, Iron and Organic Carbon from Montane Volcanic Ash Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. JANSEN; F. H. TONNEIJCK; J. M. VERSTRATEN

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle.Given the central role of A1 and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils,we assessed various extraction methods of A1,Fe,and C fractions from montane volcanic ash soils in northern Ecuador,aiming at elucidating the role of A1 and Fe in stabilizing soil organic matter (SOM).We found extractions with cold sodium hydroxide,ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid,sodium pyrophosphate,and sodium tetraborate to be particularly useful.Combination of these methods yielded information about the role of the mineral phase in stabilizing organic matter and the differences in type and degree of complexation of organic matter with Al and Fe in the various horizons and soil profiles.Sodium tetraborate extraction proved the only soft extraction method that yielded simultaneous information about the Al,Fe,and C fractions extracted.It also appeared to differentiate between SOM fractions of different stability.The fractions of copper chloride- and potassium chloride-extractable A1 were useful in assessing the total reactive and toxic Al fractions,respectively.The classical subdivision of organic matter into humic acids,fulvic acids,and humin added little useful information.The use of fulvic acids as a proxy for mobile organic matter as done in several model-based approaches seems invalid in the soils studied.

  13. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous. PMID:25617183

  14. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous.

  15. Equilibrium and kinetic aspects of Hg(II) extraction from natural waters with diphenylthiocarbazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffar, M.; Ashraf, M.

    1987-12-01

    A diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) based liquid-liquid extraction method of general utility is proposed for small-scale Hg(II) extraction from natural waters. The quantitative aspects related to the extraction are studied in terms of distribution of mercury dithizonate in carbon tetrachloride-water system at 293 K (20 +/- 1/sup 0/C). Various distribution constants related to the reagent and the complex formed are evaluated. The equilibrium and kinetic studies of extraction and complex formation are analytically based on atomic absorption and colorimetric methods. Local natural waters were subjected to the proposed method for Hg(II) removal. The method is found to be capable of removing above 98% mercury in a single-step extraction under the conditions evaluated in terms of matrix pH, equilibration time and amount of reagent.

  16. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  17. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapepol Bavovada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae (AC and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae (QI were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl4. It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress−induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts.

  18. Destructive Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride on Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Mestl, Gerhard; Rosynek, Michael P.; Krawietz, Thomas R.; Haw, James F.; Lunsford, Jack H.

    2001-01-01

    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO has been studied as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. The reaction was followed using in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 13 C mag

  19. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; Villarruel, M. C.; Fernández, G.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    CCl4 administration to rabbits leads to early destruction of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, to depression of glucose 6 phosphatase, to ultrastructurally revealable alterations and to an intense necrosis and fat accumulation in liver. Despite the known resistance of rabbit liver microsomes to lipid peroxidation, CCl4 administration to rabbits promoted lipid peroxidation of their liver microsomal lipids as revealable by the diene hyperconjugation technique, at periods of time from 1 to 12 h. Nevertheless, the intensity of this process is not equivalent to that occurring in rat liver microsomes, since the arachidonic acid content of rabbit liver microsomal lipids does not decrease at either 6 or 24 h after CCl4 administration. Rabbit liver is able to activate CCl4 to reactive metabolites that bind covalently to lipids. Relevance of covalent binding of CCl4 reactive metabolites and CCl4-promoted lipid peroxidation to CCl4-induced rabbit liver injury is analysed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6309207

  20. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; Villarruel, M. C.; Fernández, G.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    CCl4 administration to rabbits leads to early destruction of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, to depression of glucose 6 phosphatase, to ultrastructurally revealable alterations and to an intense necrosis and fat accumulation in liver. Despite the known resistance of rabbit liver microsomes to lipid peroxidation, CCl4 administration to rabbits promoted lipid peroxidation of their liver microsomal lipids as revealable by the diene hyperconjugation technique, at periods of time from 1 to 12 h...

  1. Extraction of pesticides in soil using supercritical carbon dioxide co-solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, three organic solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol and acetone) were used as co solvent in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of a mixture of pesticides with different physical and chemical properties present in soil. These pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with electronic micro capture detector μECD and nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), coupled in parallel. The extractions were performed on spiked soil samples using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 SC) as the extracting phase to 35 celsius degrade and 14 MPa, using 10 mL of each co solvent and it was found that methanol offers the greatest efficiency in the extraction process obtaining recovery values between 51.24 and 123.50%.

  2. Feasibility of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for direct analysis of samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Riahi, Farhad

    2014-05-23

    The capability of corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) for direct analysis of the samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was investigated and evaluated, for the first time. To that end, an appropriate new injection port was designed and constructed, resulting in possibility of direct injection of the known sample volume, without tedious sample preparation steps (e.g. derivatization, solvent evaporation, and re-solving in another solvent…). Malathion as a test compound was extracted from different matrices by a rapid and convenient DLLME method. The positive ion mobility spectra of the extracted malathion were obtained after direct injection of carbon tetrachloride or methanol solutions. The analyte responses were compared and the statistical results revealed the feasibility of direct analysis of the extracted samples in carbon tetrachloride, resulting in a convenient methodology. The coupled method of DLLME-CD-IMS was exhaustively validated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, recovery, and enrichment factor. Finally, various real samples of apple, river and underground water were analyzed, all verifying the feasibility and success of the proposed method for the easy extraction of the analyte using DLLME separation before the direct analysis by CD-IMS. PMID:24742534

  3. [Effects of lipid extraction on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of Ommastrephes bartramii muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-Jun; Gao, Chun-Xia; Li, Yun-Kai

    2014-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) has become an important tool to investigate diet shift, habitat use and trophic structure of animal population. Muscle is considered to be the most common tissue for SIA, however, lipid content in muscle causes a considerable bias to the interpretation of isotopic ratios of animals. Neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) is an important economic cephalopod of Chinese distant water fishery, and plays a major role in marine ecosystems. In this study, the effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios of the muscles of 53 neon flying squids were investigated and the interference mechanism of lipid in SIA was clarified with the aim of contrasting the suitability of different lipid correction models of stable carbon isotope. Results showed that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of non-lipid extracted samples significantly increased after lipid extractions by 0.71 per thousand and 0.47 per thousand, respectively, which suggested that lipid extraction in cephalopod isotope study is needed prior to stable carbon isotope analysis but not recommended for stable nitrogen isotope analysis. The results could help remove the effects of lipid contents and standardize SIA muscle samples, thereby getting better understanding of the isotopic change of neon flying squids in the future. PMID:25898636

  4. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  5. Effect of Alkaline-Stabilised Sewage Sludge on Extractable Organic Carbon and Copper in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for water contamination with sludgederived organic substances and copper following land application of alkaline-stabilised sewage sludge. Two contrasting sludge-amended soils were studied. Both soils were previously treated with urban and rural alkaline biosolids separately at sludge application rates of 0, 30 and 120 t ha-1 fresh product. The air-dried soil/sludge mixtures were wetted with distilled water, maintained at 40 % of water-holding capacity and equilibrated for three weeks at 4 ℃ before extraction. Subsamples were extracted with either distilled water or 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 solution. The concentrations of organic C in the aqueous and chemical extracts were determined directly with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyser. The concentrations of Cu in the two extracts were also determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The relationship between the two extractable organic C fractions was examined, together with that between extractable organic C concentration and extractable Cu concentration. Application of alkaline biosolids increased the concentrations of soil mobile organic substances and Cu. The results are discussed in terms of a possible increase in the potential for leaching of sludge-derived organics and Cu in the sludge-amended soils

  6. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v, and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v. Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L., originating from the southern Balkan Region. The antioxidant fraction was isolated from the plant material by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 fractional extraction under a pressure of 30 MPa and at temperatures of 40 and 100 °C. In the present study, kinetic data and yields of antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary and sage under different conditions were determined. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy assay on the ability of the extracts to scavenge stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals during the Fenton reaction trapped by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO showed that the investigated extracts had antioxidant activity comparable to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and commercial rosemary extract. The antioxidant fractions isolated at the higher temperature had higher antioxidant activities. A tentative analysis of the chemical composition of the antioxidant fractions obtained at the higher temperature was accomplished by LC-DAD and LC-MS analytical methods. Abietane-type diterpenoids, flavonoids and fatty acids were identified in the SC-CO2 extract of rosemary and sage.

  8. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae, or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and conventional solvents (ethanol, water. The results showed that the SC-CO2 extract contained significantly higher yield, total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents than those obtained from ethanol and water. It also demonstrated the greatest antioxidant activities as assessed by ABTS radical cation decolorization, DPPH radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD/MSD revealed the presence of catechin as a major phenolic compound of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae, with the maximum amount detected in the SC-CO2 extract. These data indicate that SFE technology improves both quantity and quality of Antidesma thwaitesianum fruit extract. The findings added more reliability of using this technique to produce high added value products from this medicinal plant.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted oil from Jatropha curcas: directive for the biodiesel industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Breet, Ernst Lodewyk Johannes; Van Greuning, Christien; Nortjé, Yolandi

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas oil was extracted from seed by supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) and converted to a biodiesel in support of a world-wide search for a sustainable energy source produced by clean technology to replace rapidly dwindling fossil fuel resources. Analysis of the extracted oil by one-dimensional and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC–TOFMS) before and after transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) proved tha...

  11. Optimizing oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Salea, Rinaldi; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2014-01-01

    Oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized using Taguchi method. The factors considered were pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide flowrate and time at levels ranging between 10–25 MPa, 35–60 °C, 10–25 g/min and 60–240 min respectively. The highest oil yield (8.0 %) was achieved at factor combination of 15 MPa, 50 °C, 20 g/min and 180 min whereas the highest xanthorrhizol content (128.3 mg/g oil) in Curcuma xanthorrhi...

  12. Ameliorative effect of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (Poir.) Hook. f. & Thoms. roots (ACP) on APAP/CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats and in vitro free radical scavenging property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varghese Jancy Shine; Somasekharan Nair Rajam Suja; Gangadharan Indira Anuja; Gopan Raj; Sreedharan Nair Rajasekharan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (C. peltata) against paracetamol/carbon tetra chloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats.Methods: In vivo paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats, in vitro free radical scavenging studies, HPTLC estimation of tetrandrine and direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry of alkaloid extract of C. peltata were used for the validation. Results: The results showed that pretreatment with alkaloid extract of C. peltata caused significant reduction of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum cholesterol, liver malondialdehyde levels. The reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase levels in liver were increased with alkaloid extract of C. peltata treatment. These results were almost comparable to silymarin and normal control. Histopathological studies also substantiated the biochemical findings. The in vitro hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH scavenging study of alkaloid extract of C. peltata showed significant free radical scavenging property.Conclusions:The hepatoprotective property of alkaloid extract of C. peltata against paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride may be due the synergistic action of alkaloids especially tetrandrine, fangchinoline through free radical scavenging and thus preventing oxidative stress.

  13. Extraction of graphitic carbon quantum dots by hydrothermal treatment commercially activated carbon: the role of cation–π interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chaofan, E-mail: huchaofan@tyut.edu.cn [Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Mechanics (China); Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@scau.edu.cn; Lei, Bingfu; Zheng, Mingtao; Xiao, Yong [South China Agricultural University, College of Science (China)

    2015-12-15

    Graphitic carbon quantum dots (GCQDs) are obtained by hydrothermal treatment of commercially available activated carbon in the presence of KOH. Transmission electron microscope observation indicated narrow particle size distribution between 1 and 6 nm with an average diameter 3.5 nm and high crystallinity of GCQDs. The as-prepared GCQDs exhibited bright yellow luminescence under UV light irradiation and a quantum yield of maximum 11.6 % at the excitation wavelength of 480 nm is achieved. In addition, GCQDs performed very well in the application of bio-imaging. The successful introduction of oxygen-related groups on GCQDs was evident by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. A new mechanism based on hydrothermal induced crystallization and extraction of GCQDs by cation–π interaction is proposed to explain the formation of GCQDs.

  14. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Terrestrial Carbonate Species using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure Impacting Mars Carbonate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Niles, P. B.; Locke, D.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five OC meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were selected for analysis based upon their size and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They were also selected based on petrologic type (3+) such that they were likely to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This study has two main tasks: 1) characterize the isotopic composition of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals formed on meteorites in Antarctica, and 2) study the mechanisms of carbonate formation in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for Mars. Two samples from each meteorite, each ~0.5g, was crushed and dissolved in pure phosphoric acid for 3 sequential reactions: a) Rx0 for 1 hour at 30°C, b) Rx1 for 18 hours at 30°C, and c) Rx2 for 3 hours at 150°C. CO2 was distilled by freezing with liquid nitrogen from each sample tube, then separated from organics and sulfides with a TRACE GC using a Restek HayeSep Q 80/100 6' 2mm stainless column, and then analyzed on a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS in Dual Inlet mode. This system was built at NASA/JSC over the past 3 years and proof tested with known carbonate standards to develop procedures, assess yield, and quantify expected uncertainties. Two distinct species of carbonates are found based on the stepped extraction technique: 1) Ca-rich carbonate released at low temperatures, and 2) Mg, or Fe-rich carbonate released at high temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that most of the carbonates present in the ordinary chondrites analyzed have δ13C=+5‰, which is consistent with formation from atmospheric CO2 δ13C=-7‰ at -20°C. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates vary between +4‰ and +34‰ with the Mg-rich and/or Fe-rich carbonates possessing the lowest δ18O values. This suggests that the carbonates formed under a wide range of temperatures. However, the carbonate oxygen

  15. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kinji Kobori; Yuto Maruta; Shigeru Mineo; Toru Shigematsu; Masao Hirayama

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (9...

  16. CCl4诱导大鼠纤维化肝组织 microRNA 差异表达及其初步分析%Differentially expressed and preliminary analysis of microRNA profiles in liver tissue of rat induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业方; 张传涛; 李白雪; 郭尹玲; 王宝家; 唐洪屈; 王政; 张凤; 杨宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of expression profiles and significance of the microRNA in liver tissue of rat induced by carbon tetrachloride(CCl4 ).Methods The microRNA differential expression analysis between normal group(n = 10) and model group(n=10)was conducted on high-throughput methods.Gene ontology enrichment analysis and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis of the targets of miRNA were carried out in this study.Results Some differentally expressed microRNA with 29 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated were identified in our study.Through evaluaing the value of microRNA in the network,we find that the key microRNA of rising are miR-184,miR-10b-5p,miR-1 99a-3p,and the key microRNA of cutting are miR-200b-3p,miR-1 99a-5p,miR-125b-5p and so on.Conclusion The microRNA expression level in the model group has a signifi-cant change.Therefore,the courses of liver fibrosis is related to some process which microRNA control the regulation of cell prolif-eration,cell apoptosis,cell cycle,and so on.%目的:探索 microRNA 在四氯化碳(CCl4)诱导的大鼠纤维化肝组织中的差异表达及其意义。方法采用 microR-NA 高通量测序分析技术检测对照组(n=10)与模型组(n=10)肝脏组织 microRNA 表达,对差异 microRNA 进行靶基因预测,对靶基因进行基因本(GO)分析、pathway 分析。结果对照组与模型组间筛选出37个差异 microRNA,上调29个,下调8个;从microRNA-基因网络图中发现关键上调为 miR-184、miR-10b-5p、miR-199a-3p 等;关键下调为 miR-200b-3p、miR-199a-5p、miR-125b-5p 等。结论模型组 microRNA 表达谱变化明显,肝纤维化的形成与 microRNA 调控细胞增殖、凋亡、细胞周期等有关。

  17. Functional Ginger Extracts from Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide Extraction via In Vitro and In Vivo Assays: Antioxidation, Antimicroorganism, and Mice Xenografts Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chen Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction technology was developed to gain the active components from a Taiwan native plant, Zingiber officinale (ginger. We studied the biological effects of ginger extracts via multiple assays and demonstrated the biofunctions in each platform. Investigations of ginger extracts indicated antioxidative properties in dose-dependant manners on radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and metal chelating powers. We found that ginger extracts processed moderate scavenging values, middle metal chelating levels, and slight ferric reducing powers. The antibacterial susceptibility of ginger extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, S. mutans, and Escherichia coli was determined with the broth microdilution method technique. The ginger extracts had operative antimicroorganism potentials against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further discovered the strong inhibitions of ginger extracts on lethal carcinogenic melanoma through in vivo xenograft model. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agents, pharmaceutical antibiotics, and food supplements.

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of uranium from acidic medium employing crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium employing various crown ethers was studied. CO2-phillic C-F bonds in pentadecafluoro-n-octanic acid (HPFOA) counter ion enhanced the extraction efficiency. Pressure (100-300 atm) and temperature (323-353 K) were found to influence extraction efficiency by affecting SC CO2 density as well as due to large size cluster formation of supercritical fluid near critical point thereby resulting in reduced interaction with solute. Pressure of 200 atm and temperature of 323 K were found to be optimum. The trend in efficiency for benzo substituted crown ethers was due to the combined effect of cavity size and number of ether oxygen atoms. The extraction efficiency among 18-crown-6 series is influenced by the extent of basicity of ether oxygen, which in turn is dictated by the substituent group. Efficiency also decreased beyond 2 M nitric acid due to co-extraction of crown-nitric acid complex. Uranium: crown: HPFOA mole ratio influenced extraction efficiency, having optimum value at 1: 10: 100. Under optimized conditions with ditertiarybutyldicyclohexano-18-crown-6 the efficiency was found to be (86 ± 5)%. (orig.)

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S J; Tsai, J Y; Chang, S P; Lin, D L; Wang, S S; Huang, S N; Ng, L T

    2006-12-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) method was employed to obtain three different PP extracts, namely SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5. The total flavonoid and phenol concentrations, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these extracts were analyzed and compared with aqueous and ethanolic PP extracts. Among all the extracts tested, SCEPP-5 demonstrated the highest total flavonoid (234.63+/-9.61 mg/g) and phenol (90.80+/-2.21 mg/g) contents. At concentrations 0.1-30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect. At 30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/ml)-induced cell cytotoxicity in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells. At 10-50 microg/ml, it also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO release and PGE2 formation in a dose-dependent pattern. SCEPP-5 at 30 microg/ml remarkably blocked the LPS induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results suggest that SCEPP-5, an extract of SFE-CO2, displayed the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to other extracts. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. PMID:16820275

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of pigments from Bixa orellana seeds (experiments and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Nobre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of the pigments from Bixa orellana seeds was carried out in a flow apparatus at a pressure of 200 bar and a temperature of 40 ºC at two fluid flow rates (0.67g/min and 1.12g/min. The efficiency of the extraction was low (only about 1% of the pigment was extracted. The increase in flow rate led to a decrease in pigment recovery. A large increase in recovery (from 1% to 45% was achieved using supercritical carbon dioxide with 5 mol % ethanol as extraction fluid at pressures of 200 and 300 bar and temperatures of 40 and 60 ºC. Although the increase in temperature and pressure led to an increase in recovery, the changes in flow rate did not seem to affect it. Furthermore, two plug flow models were applied to describe the supercritical extraction of the pigments from annatto seeds. Mass transfer coefficients were determined and compared well with those obtained by other researchers with similar models for the supercritical extraction of solutes from plant materials.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  2. Extraction and Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Biological Matrices with Application to Rat Lung Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudrick, Kyle; Corson, Nancy; Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Herckes, Pierre; Halden, Rolf U.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from biological matrices such as rat lung tissue is integral to developing a quantification method for evaluating the environmental and human health exposure and toxicity of CNTs. The ability of various chemical treatment methods, including Solvable (2.5% sodium hydroxide/surfactant mixture), ammonium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and proteinase K, to extract CNTs from rat lung tissue was evaluated. CNTs were quantified using programmed thermal analysis (PTA). Two CNTs were used to represent the lower (500°C) and upper (800°C) PTA limit of CNT thermal stability. The recovery efficiency of each of the eight chemical reagents evaluated was found to depend on the ability to (1) minimize oxidation of CNTs, (2) remove interfering background carbon from the rat lung tissue, and (3) separate the solid-phase CNTs from the liquid-phase dissolved tissue via centrifugation. A two-step extraction method using Solvable and proteinase K emerged as the optimal approach, enabling a recovery of 98 ± 15% of a 2.9 ± 0.19 µg CNT loading that was spiked into whole rat lungs. Due to its high yield and applicability to low organ burdens of nanomaterials, this extraction method is particularly well suited for in vivo studies to quantify clearance rates and retained CNTs in lungs and other organs. PMID:23992048

  3. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A.; López, Víctor H.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P.; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis. PMID:27164081

  5. Sodium insertion/extraction from single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The differences and similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Choucair, Mohammad; Rawal, Aditya; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the sodium-ion insertion and extraction of commercially-available multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes is reported. Single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit charge/discharge capacities of 126 mA h g-1 and multi-wall carbon nanotubes produce a lower capacity of 28 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 25 mA g-1. To understand these differences, a combination of X-ray diffraction and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at various states of sodium insertion and extraction.23Na nuclear magnetic resonance studies, a technique previously rarely used for characterising electrodes from sodium-ion batteries, shows differences in the sodium chemical environment near multi-wall compared to single-wall carbon nanotubes with distinct sodium sites found to be active during sodium insertion and extraction for the carbon nanotubes. Both types of carbon nanotubes show a similar amount of reversible sodium available for insertion/extraction reactions, but multi-wall carbon nanotubes feature half the initial insertion capacity relative to single-wall carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube electrodes are discussed in relation to the observed mechanism of sodium insertion.

  6. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2010-12-01

    Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds. PMID:23572692

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Activities in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Gloiopeltis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Zheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical, compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 3.9 mg/mL, Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL, and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO2-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing.

  8. Solid-Phase Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites Using an Activated Carbon Fiber Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction method using activated carbon fiber (ACF) was developed and validated. ACF has a vast network of pores of varying sizes and microporous structures that result in rapid adsorption and selective extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites according to the pH of eluting solvents. ACF could not only selectively extract thiodiglycol and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio)-ethylsulfonyl]ethane eluting a 9:1 ratio of dichloromethane to acetone, and 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] and 1,1'-sulfonylbis- [2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] eluting 3% hydrogen chloride in methanol, but could also eliminate most interference without loss of analytes during the loading and washing steps. A sample preparation method has been optimized for the extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites from human urine using an ACF sorbent. The newly developed extraction method was applied to the trace analysis of metabolites of sulfur mustard in human urine matrices in a confidence-building exercise for the analysis of biomedical samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. PMID:26364317

  9. Potentiometric determination of uranium in organic extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentimetric determination of uranium in organic extracts was studied. A mixture of 30% TBP, (tributylphosphate), in carbon tetrachloride was used, with the NBL (New Brunswick Laboratory) titrimetric procedure. Results include a comparative analysis performed on organic extracts of fissium alloys vs those performed on aqueous samples of the same alloys which had been treated to remove interfering elements. Also comparative analyses were performed on sample solutions from a typical scrap recovery operation common in the uranium processing industry. A limited number of residue type materials, calciner products, and presscakes were subjected to analysis by organic extraction. The uranium extraction was not hindered by 30% TBP/CCl4. To fully demonstrate the capabilities of the extraction technique and its compatibility with the NBL potentiometric uranium determination, a series of uranium standards was subjected to uranium extraction with 30% TBP/CCl4. The uranium was then stripped out of the organic phase with 40 mL of H3PO4, 15 mL of H20, and 1 mL of 1M FeSO4 solution. The uranium was then determined in the aqueous phosphoric phase by the regular NBL potentiometric method, omitting only the addition of another 40 mL of H3PO4. Uranium determinations ranging from approximately 20 to 150 mg of U were successfully made with the same accuracy and precision normally achieved. 8 tables

  10. Extraction of hydrocarbons from high-maturity Marcellus Shale using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Palma B.; Philip A. Candela,; Wenlu Zhu,; Alan J. Kaufman,

    2015-01-01

    Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80 °C and 21.7 MPa, respectively) were chosen to represent approximate in situ reservoir conditions at sample depth (1920−2280 m). Hydrocarbon yield was evaluated as a function of sample matrix particle size (sieve size) over the following size ranges: 1000−500 μm, 250−125 μm, and 63−25 μm. Several methods of shale characterization including Rock-Eval II pyrolysis, organic petrography, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller surface area, and X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed to better understand potential controls on extraction yields. Despite high sample thermal maturity, results show that supercritical CO2 can liberate diesel-range (n-C11 through n-C21) n-aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total quantity of extracted, resolvable n-aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges from approximately 0.3 to 12 mg of hydrocarbon per gram of TOC. Sieve size does have an effect on extraction yield, with highest recovery from the 250−125 μm size fraction. However, the significance of this effect is limited, likely due to the low size ranges of the extracted shale particles. Additional trends in hydrocarbon yield are observed among all samples, regardless of sieve size: 1) yield increases as a function of specific surface area (r2 = 0.78); and 2) both yield and surface area increase with increasing

  11. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction and temperature-programmed desorption of phenol and its oxidative coupling products from activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humayun, R.; Karakas, G.; Dahlstrom, P.R.; Ozkan, U.S.; Tomasko, D.L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-08-01

    Activated carbon remains one of the most economical adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from water. In particular, activated carbon is known to have an extremely high affinity for phenol and its derivatives. This has been shown to be the result of a catalytic process wherein activated carbon catalyzes the oxidative coupling reactions of phenol in aqueous solution when molecular oxygen is present. These reactions are believed to be the source of the difficulty of regenerating activated carbon loaded with phenol. This paper reports on efforts toward using supercritical fluids to regenerate activated carbon combined with a concurrent temperature-programmed desorption study to identify reaction products and their binding strength to the carbon surface. The results show unequivocally that part of the phenol is chemisorbed on the surface and part of it undergoes polymerization. Dihydroxybiphenyls and phenoxyphenols are the major reaction products present on the surface. Isotope studies showed that surface carbon atoms do not directly participate in these reactions. Supercritical extraction was found to perform as well as solvent extraction for the regeneration of activated carbon loaded with phenol. However, due to the chemisorbed nature of these oxidative coupling products, the reduced mass-transfer limitations afforded by supercritical extraction cannot improve the overall extent of extraction even though the rate is improved with the addition of cosolvents.

  13. Optimisation of supercritical carbon dioxide derived high-value botanical extracts of Melissa officinalis / André Joubert

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, André

    2004-01-01

    This project dealt with the acquisition of supercritical carbon dioxide (scG02) derived extracts from Melissa officinalis. The actuality of such extracts lies in the diversity of its components, which are relevant to the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fragrance/flavour and food industries. Extractions were performed on selected dried plant material using a laboratory-scale supercritical fluid extractor. The runs were executed according to an orthogonal, rotatable statistical desi...

  14. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-Mei Ru; Jian-Hua Liu; Ping Shao; Jin-Zhe He

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest e...

  15. Study of variables affecting extraction of organic solvents from solid sorbent sampling media using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.A. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shulman, S.A. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The extraction of our solvents from three sorbents, using supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. Toluene and isooctane were extracted from Anasorb 747{sup R}, a synthetic carbon; 1-butanol from silica gel; and 2-nitropropane from Anasorb 727{sup R}, a porous organic polymer. Preliminary experiments indicated that dynamic extraction was required; these experiments also fixed the duration of extraction of the analytes. All extractions were performed at 1.0 mL min{sup -1}. The temperature and density of the supercritical extraction fluid were then varied, according to a fractional factorial statistical design. The amounts remaining on the sorbent were determined via solvent desorption of the analytes and gas chromatography of the eluents. The fraction extracted data were modeled as a function of temperature and density according to a thermodynamic approach that permitted computation of constant-density enthalpies of desorption. This study indicates a significant temperature- and density-dependence for quantitative extraction of isooctane and toluene from Anasorb 747{sup R} and 1-butanol from silica gel, with no measurable temperature- or density-dependence for extraction of 2-nitropropane from Anasorb 727{sup R}. The extracted analytes were also collected via cryotrapping; only higher level masses of 1-butanol were quantitativley recovered. The dependence of the extraction efficiency on the thimble volumes passed over the matrix is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Extraction and isotopic analysis of medium molecular weight hydrocarbons from Murchison using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Iain; Pillinger, Colin

    1993-03-01

    The large variety of organic compounds present in carbonaceous chondrites poses particular problems in their analysis not the least of which is terrestrial contamination. Conventional analytical approaches employ simple chromatographic techniques to fractionate the extractable compounds into broad classes of similar chemical structure. However, the use of organic solvents and their subsequent removal by evaporation results in the depletion or loss of semi-volatile compounds as well as requiring considerable preparative work to assure solvent purity. Supercritical fluids have been shown to provide a powerful alternative to conventional liquid organic solvents used for analytical extractions. A sample of Murchison from the Field Museum was analyzed. Two interior fragments were used; the first (2.85 g) was crushed in an agate pestel and mortar to a grain size of ca. 50-100 micron, the second (1.80 g) was broken into chips 3-8 mm in size. Each sample was loaded into a stainless steel bomb and placed in the extraction chamber of an Isco supercritical fluid extractor maintained at 35 C. High purity (99.9995 percent) carbon dioxide was used and was pressurized using an Isco syringe pump. The samples were extracted dynamically by flowing CO2 under pressure through the bomb and venting via a 50 micron fused filica capillary into 5 mls of hexane used as a collection solvent. The hexane was maintained at a temperature of 0.5 C. A series of extractions were done on each sample using CO2 of increasing density. The principal components extracted in each fraction are summarized.

  17. Purification of Single-Wall carbon nanotubes by heat treatment and supercritical extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bertoncini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arc discharge is the most practical method for the synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. However, the production of SWCNT by this technique has low selectivity and yield, requiring further purification steps. This work is a study of purification of SWCNT by heat treatment in an inert atmosphere followed by supercritical fluid extraction. The raw arc discharge material was first heat-treated at 1250 °C under argon. The nanotubes were further submitted to an extraction process using supercritical CO2 as solvent. A surfactant (tributylphosphate, TBP and a chelating agent (hexafluoroacetylacetone, HFA were used together to eliminate metallic impurities from the remaining arc discharge catalysts. Analysis of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES showed an efficient removal of iron and cobalt (>80%. The purified nanotubes were further analyzed by TGA and Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinji Kobori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1% and polyphenols (84.7%. The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP made with this optimized SCCO2 extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO2 extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO2 extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  19. Extraction of scandium from red mud by modified activated carbon and kinetics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hualei; LI Dongyan; TIAN Yajun; CHEN Yunfa

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was modified by tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) for selectively extracting scandium from red mud and characterized by BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area. The modified AC had a preferential adsorption to scandium. The influences of adsorbent dosage, adsorption temperature, and time on adsorption capacity and selectivity to scandium were examined. An optimum adsorbent dosage (~6.25g/L), adsorption temperature (308K), and adsorption time (40min) were figured out. A pseudo-second-order kinetics model was employed for describing the adsorption process of scandium.

  20. Nomographs for soil vapor extraction and off-gas treatment by activated carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egemen, E.; Nirmalakhandan, N. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Civil, Agricultural, and Geological Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a widely accepted in-place treatment technology that uses forced air to remove contaminant vapors from zones of permeable vapor flow, thereby enhancing the volatilization of contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting off-gases are contaminated with volatiles and semi-volatiles and have to treated by catalytic or thermal destruction systems, activated carbon adsorbers, or bioreactors. Of these, activated carbon adsorption is the most commonly used technology. From the theoretical foundation of SVE and carbon adsorption, two nomographs were developed for remedial investigation, feasibility studies, planning, operation, and preliminary design purposes. An advantage of such nomographs is that they graphically indicate the sensitivity of the remediation process to different design parameters and critical ranges within a given parameter. In effect, nomographs can help to foster an intuitive understanding of the SVE and adsorption processes itself, which is of considerable value to a process engineer. In addition, such a nomograph provides a utilitarian resource to those who do not have direct access to a comparable computer model. The purpose of this paper is to present the design equations and their use in the development of nomographs for the design of SVE systems and treatment of contaminated air streams by activated carbon canisters.

  1. The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde%甲醛致扩张性简单串联重复序列突变小鼠子代对四氯化碳和苯暴露易感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘云儒; 周印; 李爱萍; 周建伟

    2011-01-01

    为5.88‰±4.55‰,F10代为8.25‰±2.06‰;C组1000 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为7.50‰±6.99‰,F10代为10.67‰±1.16‰;H组500 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为7.88‰±3.09‰,F10代为9.20‰±1.30‰;H组1000 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为9.63‰±4.34‰,F10代为13.33‰±2.08‰)随苯剂量的增加而增加,与溶剂对照组(C组F5代为1.13‰±0.35‰,F10代为1.20‰±0.82‰;H组F5代为1.25‰±0.46‰,F10代为1.33‰±1.03‰)的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 甲醛暴露引起的基因组ESTR突变可改变子代小鼠对CCl4和苯的易感性.ESTR突变可能是影响机体对化学物易感性的生物学标志,其分子机制有待进一步阐明.%Objective To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). Methods F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 ×2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group(group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light microscope; the micronucleus in sternum bone marrow cells as the biomarker of benzene blood toxicity were measured. Results ALT and AST activities in group C of F5 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, ALT in groups C and H of F10 mice exposed to 0.05%, 0.50%, 5.00% CCl4, AST in groups C and H of F10 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4 were significantly higher than those in controls, respectively (P<0.05); as compared to the control, hepatic SOD activities in group C of F5 and F10 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, in group H of F5 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, and

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  3. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), III: extraction of gadolinium(III), terbium(III), dysprosium(III), holmium(III), and thulium(III) by HPMBP from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction behaviour of Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Tm(III) has been investigated using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP or HL) in carbon tetrachloride as the extractant. Depending on the concentration of HPMBP in the organic phase the chelates LnL3[Ln(III)=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm] and adducts LnL3.HL[Ln(III)=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho] were extracted. The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex3 or Kex4) for the formation of LnL3 or LnL3.HL and the two-phase stability constants of the chelates or adducts (β3x, β4x) have been evaluated. (authors)

  4. Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Atmosphere Through Engineered Chemical Sinkage: Enabling Energy and Environmental Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Smith, W. S.; Colman, J.; Elliott, S.; Lackner, K.; Johnston, N. A.

    2002-05-01

    We present the case for carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction from air using engineered chemical sinks as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Existing carbon sequestration strategies such as CO2 injection into geologic formations or the deep ocean and mineral carbonation, require a pure stream of concentrated CO2 to be viable. Furthermore, current emphasis on reducing the global CO2 emissions is on large centralized power plants. However, more than half of all emissions are from the transportation sector and small, distributed sources such as home heating, etc. Most solutions for dealing with these sources explicitly or implicitly entail completely overhauling the existing infrastructure. To solve these problems, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conceived a novel approach for directly extracting CO2 from the atmosphere. Direct extraction converts the dilute CO2 (370 parts per million) in the atmosphere into a pure CO2 stream ready for permanent sequestration. It provides the following advantages: (1) Preserves our existing energy use and fuel distribution systems, which represent a large investment, (2) Indirectly captures CO2 from the myriad of small, distributed, and mobile sources that otherwise are not accessible to sequestration, (3) Allows atmospheric CO2 levels to be restored to their pre-industrial age value, (4) Provides free transport of CO2 to suitable sequestration sites by using natural atmospheric circulation, and (5) Is relatively compact and therefore inexpensive when compared to renewable concepts. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO2 to sites where the CO2 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. The bound CO2 is then recovered as pure gas by heating together with the solid adsorbent that is recycled. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts CO2 to a CaCO3 solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO2 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs

  5. Extraction of α-humulene-enriched oil from clove using ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and studies of its fictitious solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Xiao, Jianbo; Yang, Yu-Chiao

    2016-11-01

    Clove buds are used as a spice and food flavoring. In this study, clove oil and α-humulene was extracted from cloves using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with and without ultrasound assistance (USC-CO2 and SC-CO2, respectively) at different temperatures (32-50°C) and pressures (9.0-25.0MPa). The results of these extractions were compared with those of heat reflux extraction and steam distillation methods conducted in parallel. The extracts obtained using these four techniques were analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results demonstrated that the USC-CO2 extraction procedure may extract clove oil and α-humulene from clove buds with better yields and shorter extraction times than conventional extraction techniques while utilizing less severe operating parameters. Furthermore, the experimental fictitious solubility data obtained using the dynamic method were well correlated with density-based models, including the Chrastil model, the Bartle model and the Kumar and Johnston model. PMID:27211636

  6. 四氯乙烯替代四氯化碳作为石油类测定萃取剂研究%Tetrachloroethylene Replacing Carbon Tetrachloride as Extractant Determining Petroleum Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保华; 王亮; 雷岗星

    2013-01-01

    四氯化碳作为石油类萃取剂对人体毒害较大,破坏臭氧层,已被联合国环境规划署列入加速淘汰计划.本研究尝试用四氯乙烯替代四氯化碳作为石油类测定萃取剂.结果表明,二者在线性、检出限、精密度、萃取率、加标回收率、质控样品测定方面没有显著差异,该替代方法基本可行.

  7. Application of molecular sieves in the fractionation of lemongrass oil from high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paviani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous process of high-pressure extraction and fractionation of lemongrass essential oil using molecular sieves. For this purpose, a high-pressure laboratory-scale extraction unit coupled with a column with four different stationary phases for fractionation: ZSM5 zeolite, MCM-41 mesoporous material, alumina and silica was employed. Additionally, the effect of carbon dioxide extraction variables on the global yield and chemical composition of the essential oil was also studied in a temperature range of 293 to 313 K and a pressure range of 100 to 200 bar. The volatile organic compounds of the extracts were identified by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS. The results indicated that the extraction process variables and the stationary phase exerted an effect on both the extraction yield and the chemical composition of the extracts.

  8. Extraction equilibrium of ytterbium(III) with sulfoxides and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction equilibria of 175Yb from thiocyanate solutions with di-n-pentyl sulfoxide (DPSO), di-n-octyl sulfoxide (DOSO), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and their mixtures in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated. A relatively small synergistic enhancement has been observed with mixtures of dialkyl sulfoxides (DPSO + DOSO) and also with mixtures of DPSO + TOPO. These extraction data have been analyzed with the aid of a computer by taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by inorganic ligands and assuming a set of product species in the organic phase and adjusting their information constants through an interative non-linear least-squares procedure to obtain the best fit to the data. The extraction of the metal is inversely and linearly dependent upon the dielectric constant of the solvent and temperature of the system. (author) 10 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. The formation of sinusoidal capillarization in the process of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats%四氯化碳诱导的肝纤维化大鼠肝窦毛细血管化的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭杞兰; 黄月红; 陈治新; 王小众

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the formation of sinusoidal capillarization in the process of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )in rats,and to explore the relevance between sinusoidal capillarization and hepatic fibrosis. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were divided randomly into control group (group N)and fibrosis model group (group M). Rats in group N were treated with 2 ml/kg normal sodium twice a week for eight weeks via intraperitoneal injection,while rats in group M were treated with 2 ml/kg a mixture of 50% CCl4 and castor oil twice a week for eight weeks. Rats were executed at the end of 2th wk,4th wk,6th wk,8th wk to collect samples of liver tissue and serum. Grading and staging of hepatic fibrosis were measured by HE staining and masson staining. Changes of HA from serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. Structure of sinus wall in liver sinusoids was observed by TEM. Expressions of CD3 1 ,LN and Col-IV in liver tissue were measured by S-P immunohistochemistry. Results Liver pathohistology analysis confirmed that hepatic fibrosis rat model induced by CCl4 was established successfully. Fibrous septum could be observed at the end of 6th wk. TEM showed that fenestrae of some liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)diminished after treated with CCl4 for two weeks with observing no basement membrane (BM). Fenestrae of LSECs diminished along with the development of hepatic fibrosis,even disappeared. Consecutive BM formed at the end of 6th wk~8th wk in local sinusoidal endothelium. Concentration of HA from serum,and expressions of CD31 ,Col-IV and LN in hepatic sinusoids increased gradually along with development of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion Formation of sinusoidal capillarization was occurred gradually along with development of hepatic fibrosis. Fibrous septa formed later than fenestrae losing in LSECs,but earlier than formation of sinusoidal endothelial basement membrane.%目的:观察四氯化碳(CCl4)诱导的大鼠肝纤维化过程中肝窦

  10. Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 on sinusoidal capillarization in cirrhotic rats induced by carbon tetrachloride%环氧合酶-2在四氯化碳诱导肝硬化大鼠肝窦毛细血管化形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂传涛; 王吉耀; 郭津生

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察环氧合酶-2(COX-2)在实验性肝硬化大鼠肝窦毛细血管化形成中的作用.方法 腹腔注射CCl4每周2次共8周诱导雄性SD大鼠肝硬化模型.将SD大鼠分成3组:正常对照组(n=10)、模型对照组(n=15)和罗非昔布治疗组(10 mg·kg-1·d-1,n=15).光镜下观察肝组织标本,电镜观察肝窦超微结构改变.用Western印迹和免疫组化法检测基底膜蛋白主要成分层粘连蛋白(LN)和Ⅳ型胶原,同时通过Ⅷ因子相关抗原(vWF)免疫组化标记微血管牛成密度.结果 与模型对照组相比,罗非昔布干预治疗能减少肝纤维化面积(分别为30.7±8.9和23.5±6.5,P<0.05).光镜及电镜提示,在模型对照组可见肝窦内皮细胞窗孔减少、缩小,有完整的基底膜形成,Disse腔隙内有大量的胶原纤维沉积,罗非昔布组上述病变有所减轻.随着肝硬化的形成,肝组织微血管密度明显升高,罗非昔布组肝组织微血管密度(6.4±0.7)较模型对照组(11.3±1.6)明显降低(P<0.01).肝硬化时肝组织表达Ⅳ型胶原和LN蛋白明显增加(分别为3.8±0.4和3.7±0.5),罗非昔布能降低Ⅳ犁胶原和LN的表达(分别为3.0±0.5和3.0±0.5;与模型对照组相比两者均为Pcarbon tetrachloride (CCl4) twice a week for 8 weeks to induce liver cirrhosis. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (n= 10), model control group (n= 15) and rofecoxib treated group (received 10 mg/kg of rofecoxib daily, n = 15). Liver histopathology was examined by light microscopy, and sinusoidal ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the level of basement membrane proteins (collagen type

  11. Kinetics and Mechanism of Carbon Tetrachloride Rapid Reduction by Nanoscale Ni-Fe Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope%利用扫描电镜技术研究纳米Ni-Fe 颗粒对四氯化碳快速脱氯的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄园英; 王倩; 韩子金; 刘菲

    2015-01-01

    纳米铁具有高的比表面积和高反应活性,能快速将氯代烯烃还原成无毒氯离子、乙烯和乙烷,但对于氯代烷烃的脱氯仍能产生大量的氯代中间或最终产物,可以通过合成制得纳米双金属提高脱氯速率和减少氯代中间产物。本文利用扫描电镜测得实验室制备的纳米 Ni -Fe(2%,质量分数)颗粒直径为20~60 nm,通过批实验方式对纳米 Ni -Fe 降解四氯化碳的反应动力学性质、产物、持久性能和反应机理进行了探讨。结果表明,纳米 Ni -Fe 体系主要最终产物为42% CH4和17% CH2 Cl2。与铸铁屑和纳米铁相比,纳米Ni -Fe由于催化脱氯加氢,显著提高了氯代烃脱氯速率,同时降低了有毒氯代产物的产量,且 Ni 作为催化剂不会进入水体引起二次污染。纳米 Ni -Fe 颗粒在空气中具有很好的稳定性,虽然降解四氯化碳的最终产物CH4与纳米 Pd -Fe 相比少13%,但由于价格便宜,有望在工程上应用于氯代有机化合物水土污染治理。%The nanoscale iron particles have high specific surface area and high reactivity,can be used to rapidly reduce chlorinated alkene to the non-toxic chloride ions,chlorine-free end products ethene and ethane.But nanoscale iron particle degrades chlorinated alkanes with much toxic intermediate or end products.A small amount of a second metal deposited on the iron surface has proved to enhance the reactivity of metal particles.In this paper,laboratory-synthesized nanoscale Ni-Fe (2% by weight)particles have diameters on the order of 20 -60 nm using Scanning Electron Microscope.In batch experiments,the kinetics,products,stability of performance,and mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CT)by Ni-Fe nanoparticles were investigated.CH4 (~42%)and CH2 Cl2 (~17%)in nanoscale Ni-Fe system were the major end products.Compared to nanoscale iron and the cast iron scarp,a major benefit of the nanoscale Ni-Fe particles

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: Process Optimization and Composition Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Jun Wei; Zeng Dong; Ai-Mei Liao; Wen-Juan Pan; Jian-Guo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate o...

  13. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Chi Wei; Yu-Chiao Yang; Show-Jen Hong

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2) extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant) and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant) were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, ...

  14. Carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents prior to atomic spectrometric determination of metal species: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The use of CNTs as sorbent for metal species in solid phase extraction has been described. ► Physical and chemical strategies for functionalization of carbon nanotubes have been discussed. ► Published analytical methods concerning solid phase extraction and atomic spectrometric determination have been reviewed. - Abstract: New materials have significant impact on the development of new methods and instrumentation for chemical analysis. From the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes – due to their high adsorption and desorption capacities – have been employed as sorption substrates in solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of metal species from diverse matrices. Looking for successive improvements in sensitivity and selectivity, in the past few years, carbon nanotubes have been utilized as sorbents for solid phase extraction in three different ways: like as-grown, oxidized and functionalized nanotubes. In the present paper, an overview of the recent trends in the use of carbon nanotubes for solid phase extraction of metal species in environmental, biological and food samples is presented. The determination procedures involved the adsorption of metals on the nanotube surface, their quantitative desorption and subsequent measurement by means of atomic spectrometric techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, among others. Synthesis, purification and types of carbon nanotubes, as well as the diverse chemical and physical strategies for their functionalization are described. Based on 140 references, the performance and general properties of the applications of solid phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for metal species atomic spectrometric determination are discussed.

  15. Carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents prior to atomic spectrometric determination of metal species: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Latorre, C., E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Alvarez Mendez, J.; Barciela Garcia, J.; Garcia Martin, S.; Pena Crecente, R.M. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2012-10-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of CNTs as sorbent for metal species in solid phase extraction has been described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical strategies for functionalization of carbon nanotubes have been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Published analytical methods concerning solid phase extraction and atomic spectrometric determination have been reviewed. - Abstract: New materials have significant impact on the development of new methods and instrumentation for chemical analysis. From the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes - due to their high adsorption and desorption capacities - have been employed as sorption substrates in solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of metal species from diverse matrices. Looking for successive improvements in sensitivity and selectivity, in the past few years, carbon nanotubes have been utilized as sorbents for solid phase extraction in three different ways: like as-grown, oxidized and functionalized nanotubes. In the present paper, an overview of the recent trends in the use of carbon nanotubes for solid phase extraction of metal species in environmental, biological and food samples is presented. The determination procedures involved the adsorption of metals on the nanotube surface, their quantitative desorption and subsequent measurement by means of atomic spectrometric techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, among others. Synthesis, purification and types of carbon nanotubes, as well as the diverse chemical and physical strategies for their functionalization are described. Based on 140 references, the performance and general properties of the applications of solid phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for metal species atomic spectrometric determination are discussed.

  16. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling; Elaboration de zirconium par reduction de tetrachlorure de zirconium par magnesothermie. Etude experimentale et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basin, N

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl{sub 4} + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl{sub 2}. By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  17. Microporous Carbon Spheres Solid Phase Membrane Tip Extraction for the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) utilizing microporous carbon spheres (MCS) was developed for the analysis of nitrosamines in aqueous samples. The method termed MCS-SPMTE was optimized for various important extraction parameters namely conditioning organic solvent, extraction time, effects of salt addition and pH change, desorption time, desorption solvent and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, the method indicated good linearity in the range of 10-100 μg/ L with coefficients of determination, r2≥0.9984. The method also demonstrated good reproducibility with % RSDs values ranging from 2.2 - 8.9 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method ranged from 3.2 - 4.8 μg/ L and 10.9 - 15.9 μg/L respectively. Recoveries for both tap-water and lake water samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 83.2 - 107.5 %. (author)

  18. Predicting the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oregano bract essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Moghadassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of essential oils using compressed carbon dioxide is a modern technique offering significant advantagesover more conventional methods, especially in particular applications. The prediction of extraction efficiency is a powerful toolfor designing and optimizing the process. The current work proposed a new method based on the artificial neural network(ANN for the estimation of the extraction efficiency of the essential oil oregano bract. In addition, the work used the backpropagationlearning algorithm, incorporating different training methods. The required data were collected; pre-treating wasused for ANN training. The accuracy and trend stability of the trained networks were verified according to their ability to predictunseen data. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has been found to be the most suitable algorithm, with the appropriatenumber of neurons (i.e., ten neurons in the hidden layer and a minimum average absolute relative error (i.e., 0.019164. Inaddition, some excellent predictions with maximum error of 0.039313 were observed. The results demonstrated the ANN’scapability to predict the measured data. The ANN model performance was also compared to a suitable mathematical model,thereby confirming the superiority of the ANN model.

  19. Seed Extract of Psidium guajava as Ecofriendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.P.Vinod Kumar; M. Sankara Narayana Pillai; G. Rexin Thusnavis

    2011-01-01

    The anticorrosion characteristics of the seeds of Psidium guajava (P. Guajava) fruits on carbon steel in acid medium were examined with weight loss data and subsequently thermodynamic factors such as heat of adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface (Q), change in entropy (△S), change in free energy of the reaction (△G), corrosion rate (CR) and energy of activation for corrosion reaction of carbon steel (E) were also evaluated. Adsorption isotherm was plotted to study the adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface with increasing concentration of the inhibitor. The functional groups responsible for inhibition were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Electrochemical parameters were evaluated through the potentiodynamic Tafel polarization and impedance spectral studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs were recorded to investigate the change in surface morphology. The complete study reveals the efficiency of seed extract of P. Guajava as a safe, ecofriendly and alternate corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in acid medium.

  20. Unusual N—Alkane Distributions in Extracts from Marine Carbonate Rocks at High Levels of Maturity and Overmaturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景贵; R.PAULPHILP; 等

    2002-01-01

    N-alkanes in extracts from possible carbonate source rocks of the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the central gas field of the Shanganning Basin and the Upper Sinian Dengying Formation in the Weiyuan gas field of the Sichuan Basin,are characterized by bimodal distributions with the dominant carbon numbers in the range C17-C21 and C25-C29.In most sam-ples,the lower carbon number components are present in greater abundance than the higher car-bon number ones.Most samples contain significant concentrations of waxy hydrocarbons(C22+)with C21-/C22+ ratios between 0.50 to 3.16 ,and an average value of 1.34.The n-alkanes in extracts of outcrops and shallow core samples of Upper Proterozoic and Lower Palaeozoic carbon-ate rocks in the western and southern parts of the North China Basin are of unimodal distribu-tions dominated by n-alkanes maximizing in the C25-C29 range.These extracts have very high concentrations of waxy hydrocarbons with C21-/C22+ ratios all<1.0,ranging from 0.14 to 0.90 and averaging 0.36.All of the extracts have a marked odd/even predominance in the high mo-lecular weight n-alkane range regardless of whether they are from shallow or deep cores or out-crop samples.Simulation experiments were performed using typical sapropelic-type kerogens from the immature Sinian Lower Xiamalin Formation carbonate-rich shales collected at Jixian ,Hebei Province,North China Basin ,and the contemporary microplanktonic blue-green algae Spirulina subsala.Results indicate that the unusual distribution of n-alkanes in the extracts of Upper Proterozoic and Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rocks possibly originated from algae in the source rocks at high levels fo maturity and overmaturity.

  1. Unusual N-Alkane Distributions in Extracts from Marine Carbonate Rocks at High Levels of Maturity and Overmaturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JINGGUI(李景贵); R. PAUL PHILP; CUI MINGZHONG(崔明中)

    2002-01-01

    N-alkanes in extracts from possible carbonate source rocks of the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the central gas field of the Shanganning Basin and the Upper Sinian Dengying Formation in the Weiyuan gas field of the Sichuan Basin, are characterized by bimodal distributions with the dominant carbon numbers in the range C17-C21 and C25-C29. In most samples, the lower carbon number components are present in greater abundance than the higher carbon number ones. Most samples contain significant concentrations of waxy hydrocarbons ( C22 + )with C21-/C22+ ratios between 0.50 to 3.16, and an average value of 1.34. The n-alkanes in extracts of outcrops and shallow core samples of Upper Proterozoic and Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rocks in the western and southern parts of the North China Basin are of unimodal distributions dominated by n-alkanes maximizing in the C25-C29 range. These extracts have very high concentrations of waxy hydrocarbons with C21 -/C22 + ratios all <1.0, ranging from 0. 14 to 0. 90 and averaging 0.36. AⅡ of the extracts have a marked odd/even predominance in the high molecular weight n-alkane range regardless of whether they are from shallow or deep cores or outcrop samples. Simulation experiments were performed using typical sapropelic-type kerogens from the immature Sinian Lower Xiamalin Formation carbonate-rich shales collected at Jixian,Hebei Province, North China Basin, and the contemporary microplanktonic blue-green algae Spirulina subsala. Results indicate that the unusual distribution of n-alkanes in the extracts of Upper Proterozoic and Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rocks possibly originated from algae in the source rocks at high levels of maturity and overmaturity.

  2. Double-bed-type extraction needle packed with activated-carbon-based sorbents for very volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Ikuo; Samsudin, Emi Liana; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Takeuchi, Hayato; Shinki, Takumi; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A novel needle-type sample preparation device was developed for the determination of very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs) in gaseous samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of activated-carbon-based sorbents, Carbopack X and a carbon molecular sieve (CMS), were investigated as the extraction medium. A double-bed-type extraction needle showed successful extraction and desorption performance for all investigated VVOCs, including acetaldehyde, isoprene, pentane, acetone, and ethanol. Sensitive and reliable determination of VVOCs was achieved by systematically optimizing several desorption conditions. In addition, the effects of sample humidity on the extraction and desorption of analytes were investigated with the needle-type extraction devices. Only the CMS packed extraction needle was adversely affected by sample humidity during the desorption process; on the other hand the double-bed-type extraction needle was unaffected by sample humidity. Finally, the developed double-bed-type extraction needle was successfully applied to the analysis of breath VVOCs of healthy subjects. PMID:24176747

  3. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Ferella; Ida De Michelis; Francesca Beolchini; Valentina Innocenzi; Francesco Vegliò

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values exp...

  4. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes in solvent-extractable organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    CCl4 and CH3OH solvent extractions were performed on the Murray, Murchison, Orgueil and Renazzo carbonaceous chondrites. Delta-D values of +300-+500% are found in the case of the CH3OH-soluble organic matter. The combined C, H and N isotope data makes it unlikely that the CH3OH-soluble components are derivable from, or simply related to, the insoluble organic polymer found in the same meteorites. A relation between the event that formed hydrous minerals in CI1 and CM2 meteorites and the introduction of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds is suggested. Organic matter soluble in CCl4 has no N, and delta-C-13 values are lower than for CH3OH-soluble phases. It is concluded that there either are large isotopic fractionations for carbon and hydrogen between different soluble organic phases, or the less polar components are partially of terrestrial origin.

  5. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. PMID:26522747

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and quantitation of oils from Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chiao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Hong, Show-Jen

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (USC-CO2) extraction for determining the extraction yields of oils and the contents of eugenol, β-caryophyllene, eugenyl acetate and α-humulene from clove buds. Compared to traditional SC-CO2 extraction, USC-CO2 extraction might provide a 13.5% increase in the extraction yield for the oil while utilizing less severe operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, CO2 flow rate and the time consumed by the process. Our results were comparable to those obtained using the heat reflux extraction method, though the yield was improved by 20.8% using USC-CO2. In kinetic studies, the USC-CO2 extraction of clove oil followed second-order kinetics. The activation energy for the oil extraction was 76.56kJ/mol. The USC-CO2 procedure facilitated the use of mild extraction conditions, improved extraction efficiency and the quality of products and is a potential method for industry. PMID:24290173

  7. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  8. PALM KERNEL OIL SOLUBITY EXAMINATION AND ITS MODELING IN EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Bahari Setianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of  supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 to vegetable oil extraction became an attractive technique due to its high solubility, short extraction time and simple purification. The method is considered as earth friendly technology due to the absence of chemical usage. Solubility of solute-SC-CO2 is an important data for application of the SC-CO2 extraction. In this work, the equilibrium solubility of the palm kernel oil (PKO in SC-CO2 has been examined using extraction curve analysis. The examinations were performed at temperature and pressure ranges of  323.15 K to 353.15 K and 20.7 to 34.5 MPa respectively. It was obtained that the experimental solubility were from 0.0160 to 0.0503 g oil/g CO2 depend on the extraction condition. The experimental solubility data was well correlated with a solvent density based model with absolute percent deviation of 0.96. PENENTUAN KELARUTAN MINYAK INTI KELAPA SAWIT DAN PEMODELAN EKSTRAKSI DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK. Sehubungan dengan kelarutan yang tinggi, waktu ekstraksi yang pendek dan pemurnian hasil yang mudah, aplikasi karbon dioksida superkritis (SC-CO2 pada ekstraksi minyak nabati menjadi sebuah teknik ekstraksi yang menarik. Karena tanpa penggunaan bahan kimia, metode ekstraksi ini dianggap sebagai teknologi yang ramah lingkungan. Kelarutan zat terlarut pada SC-CO2 merupakan data yang penting dalam aplikasi SC-CO2 pada proses ekstraksi.  Pada penelitian ini,  kelarutan kesetimbangan dari minyak biji sawit (PKO dalam SC-CO2 telah diuji dengan mengunakan analisa kurva proses ekstraksi. Pengujian kelarutan tersebut dilakukan pada rentang suhu 323,15 K sampai 353,15 K dan rentang tekanan 20,7 MPa sampai 34,5 MPa. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  PKO pada SC-CO2 adalah 0.0160 g minyak/g CO2 sampai 0,0503 g minyak/g CO2 tergantung pada kondisi ekstraksi. Data kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  telah dikorelasaikan dengan baik menggunakan

  9. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Carbonate Species Using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five Ordinary Chondrite (OC) meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were identified and requested from NASA based upon their size, alteration history, and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They are also assumed to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This research addresses two questions involving Mars carbonates: 1) characterize terrestrial, secondary carbonate isotope values to apply to Martian meteorites for isolating in-situ carbonates, and 2) increase understanding of carbonates formed in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for Mars. Two samples from each meteorite, each approximately 0.5 grams, were crushed and dissolved in pure phosphoric acid for 3 sequential reactions: a) R times 0 for 1 hour at 30 degrees Centigrade (fine calcite extraction), b) R times 1 for 18 hours at 30 degrees Centigrade (course calcite extraction), and c) R times 2 for 3 hours at 150 degrees Centigrade (siderite and/or magnesite extraction). CO (sub 2) was distilled by freezing with liquid nitrogen from each sample tube, then separated from organics and sulfides with a TRACE GC using a Restek HayeSep Q 80/100 6 foot 2 millimeter stainless column, and then analyzed on a Thermo MAT 253 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) in Dual Inlet mode. This system was built at NASA/JSC over the past 3 years and proof-tested with known carbonate standards to develop procedures, assess yield, and quantify expected error bands. Two distinct species of carbonates are found: 1) calcite, and 2) non-calcite carbonate (future testing will attempt to differentiate siderite from magnesite). Preliminary results indicate the terrestrial carbonates are formed at approximately sigma (sup 13) C equal to plus 5 per mille, which is consistent with atmospheric CO (sub 2) sigma (sup 13) C equal to minus 7 per mille and fractionation of plus

  10. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document.

  11. Production of glycerol carbonate via reactive distillation and extractive distillation:An experimental study☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajun Wang; Lei Pang; Chao Yang; Yihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    A process for the production of glycerol carbonate (GC) is proposed with the transesterification of glycerol (GL) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) with CaO as catalyst by reactive distil ation and extractive distil ation. The perfor-mance of solvents in separating DMC-methanol azeotrope and the effects of operation parameters on the reactive distillation process are investigated experimental y. The results indicate that both the GL conversion and GC yield increase with the DMC/GL molar ratio, reflux ratio, final temperature of tower bottom, and CaO/GL molar ratio and decrease as the recycle number of CaO increases. The calcium concentration in the residual reaction mixture also decreases remarkably as the DMC/GL molar ratio increases. At DMC/GL molar ratio 4.0, reflux ratio 1.0, final temperature of tower bottom 358 K, and CaO/GL molar ratio 0.05, both the GL conversion and GC yield can reach above 99.0%, and the mass concentration of calcium in the product is less than 0.08%.

  12. Continuing assessment of the 5 day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay as an indicator test for silicon fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The five day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay has been proposed by the AAFPCO as a standard test to identify fertilizers that provide plant-available Si. A single-lab validation test was previously performed; however, the analysis lacked any correlation to a grow-out study. To do...

  13. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives.

  14. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives. PMID:27173535

  15. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Xuchong Tang; Yuqin Zhang; Huang Li; Lidian Chen; Wei Xu; Kedan Chu

    2011-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD). Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3%) was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of...

  16. Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    2001-03-01

    We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2

  17. Solvent extraction of rare earth metal ions with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-Naphthol (PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the Tm(3) complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN or HL) in aqueous-methanol mixtures (50 and 75% v/v) was studied by a spectrophotometric method. The equilibrium constant for the complexing reaction and the stability constant of the complex TmL2+ were calculated. The solvent extraction of Tm(3) by PAN in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous and aqueous-methanol phase was investigated. The extraction equilibrium constants and two-phase stability constants for the TmL3 and the TmL3(MeOH)3 complexes were evaluated. It was confirmed that the addition of methanol to the aqueous phase (above 25% v/v) causes a synergistic effect. (Author)

  18. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbafor, K N; Nwachukwu, N

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water) were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl(4)) treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL/kg body weight) of CCl(4). Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P > .05) from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P uses of these plants. PMID:21547085

  19. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil extracts investigated by FT-ICR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Steffen, D.; Jablonowski, N. D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting usually increases the release of xenobiotics like pesticides present in agricultural soils. Besides the effect on the release of two aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues we focus on the characterisation of simultaneously remobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to gain new insights into structure and stability aspects of soil organic carbon fractions. The test soil (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) was obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45°C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (2000 g). This extraction procedure was repeated several individual times, for both setups. The first three individual extractions, respectively were used for further investigations. Salt was removed from samples prior analysis because of a possible quench effect in the electrospray (ESI) source by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Chromabond C18 Hydra-cartridges (Macherey-Nagel) and methanol as backextraction solvent. The so preconcentrated and desalted samples were introduced by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for complex natural systems attributed by their outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (≤ 1ppm) by simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds and was successful applied for the investigations of natural organic matter (NOM) different sources like marine and surface water, soil, sediment, bog and crude oil

  20. Efficient Charge Extraction and Slow Recombination in Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Capped with Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihly, Rachelle; Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Yang, Mengjin; Schulz, Philip; Stanton, Noah J.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Zhu, Kai; Berry, Joseph J.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    2016-04-01

    Metal-halide based perovskite solar cells have rapidly emerged as a promising alternative to traditional inorganic and thin-film photovoltaics. Although charge transport layers are used on either side of perovskite absorber layers to extract photogenerated electrons and holes, the time scales for charge extraction and recombination are poorly understood. Ideal charge transport layers should facilitate large discrepancies between charge extraction and recombination rates. Here, we demonstrate that highly enriched semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films enable rapid (sub-picosecond) hole extraction from a prototypical perovskite absorber layer and extremely slow back-transfer and recombination (hundreds of microseconds). The energetically narrow and distinct spectroscopic signatures for charges within these SWCNT thin films enables the unambiguous temporal tracking of each charge carrier with time-resolved spectroscopies covering many decades of time. The efficient hole extraction by the SWCNT layer also improves electron extraction by the compact titanium dioxide electron transport layer, which should reduce charge accumulation at each critical interface. Finally, we demonstrate that the use of thin interface layers of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes between the perovskite absorber layer and a prototypical hole transport layer improves device efficiency and stability, and reduces hysteresis.

  1. Processing of Various Plants using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide : Optimization and Modeling of Extraction Process

    OpenAIRE

    Machmudah, Siti; マームダー, シティ

    2008-01-01

    In this work, scC02 extraction of valuable compounds from various naturalproducts of plants has been done. Extractions were carried out using a semicontinuous flow extractor with and/or without cosolvent/entrainer. The effect of extraction conditions on the recovery of extracted valuable compounds was studied. Optimizations of the extraction process were also conducted to determine optimal condition of the process. Furthermore, mathematical model of the extraction process was developed in ord...

  2. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinnai, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation, and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred.El uso de dióxido de carbono sólido (hielo seco como criogénico está muy extendido en la industria alimentaria para producir vinos de alta calidad, ricos en color y perfumes. La adición directa de dióxido de carbono en estado sólido a las aceitunas antes de la molienda representa el paso fundamental que caracteriza este innovador sistema de extracción. En condiciones ambientales el dióxido de carbono sólido evoluciona directamente en la fase de aire (sublimación, y el contacto directo entre el criógeno y las aceitunas induce una solidificación parcial del agua celular dentro de los frutos. Dado que el volumen ocupado por el agua en el estado sólido es mayor que en el

  3. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Mei Ru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE. Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel.

  4. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  5. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions by using Calcium Carbonate Extracted from Starfish Treated by Protease and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Soo Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available CaCO3 extracted from starfish by using the commercial protein lyase having α-amylase, β-amylase, and protease is applied to remove heavy metal ions. The extracted CaCO3 shows excellent characteristics in removing heavy metal ions such as Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cr6+ compared with conventional materials such as crab shells, sawdust, and activated carbon except for removing Zn2+. SEM images reveal that the extracted CaCO33 has a good morphology and porosity. We characterize the removal efficiencies of the extracted CaCO3 for the heavy metal ions according to the concentrations, pH, temperatures, and conditions of empty bed contact times.

  6. In situ self-catalyzed reactive extraction of germinated oilseed with short-chained dialkyl carbonates for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjun; Li, Dan; Li, Yang; Gao, Jing; Zhou, Liya; He, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In order to eliminate the expense associated with solvent extraction and oil cleanup, and reduce the processing steps in biodiesel production, reactive extraction has become a focus of research in recent years. In this study, germinated castor seed was used as substrate and catalyst, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor and oil extractant to produce biodiesel. The optimum conditions were as follows: the germination time of castor seed was 72 h, DMC/germinated seed ratio was 12.5 ml/g, reaction temperature was 35°C, and water content was 2.11%. The biodiesel yield could reach as much as 87.41% under the optimized conditions. This germinated oilseed self-catalyzed reactive extraction can be a promising route for biodiesel production. PMID:24144599

  7. In situ lipase-catalyzed reactive extraction of oilseeds with short-chained dialkyl carbonates for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; You, Pengyong; Wei, Dongzhi

    2009-12-01

    Dimethyl/diethyl carbonate was adopted as extraction solvent and transesterification reagent at the same time for in situ lipase-catalyzed reactive extraction of oilseeds for biodiesel production in this work. Fatty acid methyl esters and ethyl esters were respectively obtained with higher yields than those achieved by conventional two-step extraction/transesterification. The augment ranged from 15.7% to 31.7%. The key parameters such as solvent/seed ratio and water content were further investigated to find their effects on the in situ reactive extraction. The highest yields of Pistacia chinensis Bunge methyl ester, P. chinensis Bunge ethyl ester, Jatropha curcas L methyl ester and J. curcas L ethyl ester could attain 89.6%, 90.7%, 95.9% and 94.5%, respectively under the optimized conditions. PMID:19615896

  8. Application of mesoporous carbon as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of volatile aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Guijiang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    A mesoporous carbon was fabricated using MCM-41 as a template and sucrose as a carbon source. The carbon material was coated on stainless-steel wires by using the sol-gel technique. The prepared solid-phase microextraction fiber was used for the extraction of five volatile aromatic compounds (chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, bromobenzene, and 4-chlorotoluene) from tea beverage samples (red tea and green tea) prior to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The main experimental parameters affecting the extraction of the volatile aromatic compounds by the fiber, including the extraction time, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and desorption conditions, were investigated. The linearity was observed in the range from 0.1 to 10.0 μg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9923 to 0.9982 and the limits of detection were less than 10.0 ng/L. The recoveries of the volatile aromatic compounds by the method from tea beverage samples at spiking levels of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/L ranged from 73.1 to 99.1%. PMID:26041569

  9. Application of mesoporous carbon as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of volatile aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Guijiang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    A mesoporous carbon was fabricated using MCM-41 as a template and sucrose as a carbon source. The carbon material was coated on stainless-steel wires by using the sol-gel technique. The prepared solid-phase microextraction fiber was used for the extraction of five volatile aromatic compounds (chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, bromobenzene, and 4-chlorotoluene) from tea beverage samples (red tea and green tea) prior to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The main experimental parameters affecting the extraction of the volatile aromatic compounds by the fiber, including the extraction time, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and desorption conditions, were investigated. The linearity was observed in the range from 0.1 to 10.0 μg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9923 to 0.9982 and the limits of detection were less than 10.0 ng/L. The recoveries of the volatile aromatic compounds by the method from tea beverage samples at spiking levels of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/L ranged from 73.1 to 99.1%.

  10. A randomized controlled study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness in sperm extraction using carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide free system in relation to intrauterine insemination pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Bhakta; Pratap Kumar; Satish Kumar Adiga; Gurprasad Kalthur

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of two different systems i.e. circulating water bath and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) incubator in extracting motile sperm for IUI programme and their effect on pregnancy outcome.Methods: The study was performed on sixty-two patients recruited for ovulation induction followed by intrauterine insemination (IUI) in University fertility clinic. The patients were randomly divided into two groups and sperm preparation was performed with either water bath or CO 2...

  11. Magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes modified with dual hydroxy functional ionic liquid for the solid-phase extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Zhou, Yigang

    2015-05-21

    A novel adsorbent based on silica-coated magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface modified by dual hydroxy functional ionic liquid (FIL) ([OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2) has been designed and used for the purification of lysozyme (Lys) by magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2. After extraction, the concentration of Lys was determined by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 278 nm. A series of single-factor experiments were carried out to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction and the extraction amount could reach up to 94.6 mg g(-1). The RSD of the precision, the repeatability and the stability experiments were 0.37% (n = 3), 0.47% (n = 3) and 0.52% (n = 3), respectively. Comparison of [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2 with silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2), silica-coated magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs@SiO2) and alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquid-modified on m-MWCNTs@SiO2 was carried out by extracting Lys. The extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA), trypsin (Try) and ovalbumin (OVA) was also done by the proposed method. Desorption of Lys was carried out by 0.005 mol L(-1) Na2HPO4-1 mol L(-1) NaCl as the eluent solution and the desorption ratio reached 91.6%. Nearly 97.8% of the [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2 could be recovered from each run, and the extraction amount decreased less after five runs. The circular dichroism spectral experiment analysis indicated that the secondary structure of Lys was unchanged after extraction.

  12. Characterization and biodegradation of water-soluble biomarkers and organic carbon extracted from low temperature chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Matt J.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Harvey, Omar

    2013-03-16

    This study demonstrates that wildfires/biomass combustion may be an important source of labile pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Py-WSOM) to aquatic systems. Spectroscopic analysis (of the solid char and Py-WSOM) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the Py-WSOM extracted from two low temperature chars (one wood, one grass) was dominated by polar moieties (-OH and C-O) derived from depolymerization and fragmentation of lignocellulose. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions with unsterilized river water suggested that Py-WSOM and associated biomarkers may have turnover rates on the order of weeks to months, consistent with mixing and transport conditions of riverine systems. For example, pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) had a half-life of 30-40 days. Turnover rate for the combustion biomarkers was shorter, with levoglucosan and free lignin phenols having a half-life around 3-4 days and polymeric lignin components 13-14 days. The latter observations contradict earlier studies on the biodegradation of dissolved lignin and point to the need for re-assessment of lignin degradation kinetics in well-mixed riverine systems, particularly when such lignin components are derived from thermally altered plant material that may exist in a form more labile than that in highly processed riverine DOM.

  13. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  14. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  15. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  16. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2 extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v and SC–CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP. The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations.

  17. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Hong, Show-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC-CO2) extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC-CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant) and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant) were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v) cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v) and SC-CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP). The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations. PMID:26089939

  18. Comparison between the essential oil and supercritical Carbon Dioxide extraction of Mentha Piperita L. cultivated in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Aghel N; Yamini Y; Hadji Akhoondi A

    2002-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils and the volatile concentrate of Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) at 35°C and 100 atm were compared using GC/MS. Whereas twenty four components were identified in the essential oil, only seven compounds, including the main compounds of the peppermint oil were isolated by the SFE. The percent of major components of the oil and the extract were: Menthol (31.53 and 48.39), Menthone (23.37 and 26...

  19. Water-Extractable Carbon Pools and Microbial Biomass Carbon in Sodic Water-Irrigated Soils Amended with Gypsum and Organic Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.P.CHOUDHARY; J.K.GILL; BIJAY-SINGH

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biomass carbon (MBC),a small fraction of soil organic matter,has a rapid turnover rate and is a reservoir of labile nutrients.The water-extractable carbon pools provide a fairly good estimate of labile C present in soil and can be easily quantified.Changes in soil MBC and water-extractable organic carbon pools were studied in a 14-year long-term experiment in plots of rice-wheat rotation irrigated with canal water (CW),sodic water (SW,10-12.5 mmolc L-1 residual sodium carbonate),and SW amended with gypsum with or without application of organic amendments including farmyard manure (FYM),green manure (GM),and wheat straw (WS).Irrigation with SW increased soil exchangeable sodium percentage by more than 13 times compared to irrigation with CW.Sodic water irrigation significantly decreased hot water-extractable organic carbon (HWOC) from 330 to 286 mg kg-1 soil and cold water-extractable organic carbon (CWOC) from 53 to 22 mg kg-1 soil in the top 0-7.5 cm soil layer.In the lower soil layer (7.5-15 cm),reduction in HWOC was not significant.Application of gypsum alone resulted in a decrease in HWOC in the SW plots,whereas an increase was recorded in the SW plots with application of both gypsum and organic amendments in both the soil layers.Nevertheless,application of gypsum and organic amendments increased the mean CWOC as compared with application of gypsum alone.CWOC was significantly correlated with MBC but did not truly reflect the changes in MBC in the treatments with gypsum and organic amendments applied.For the treatments without organic amendments,HWOC was negatively correlated with MBC (r =-0.57*)in the 0-7.5 cm soil layer,whereas for the treatments with organic amendments,both were positively correlated.Irrigation with SW significantly reduced the rice yield by 3 t ha-1 and the yield of rice and wheat by 5 t ha-1 as compared to irrigation with canal water.Application of amendments significantly increased rice and wheat yields.Both the rice yield and

  20. Usability of cement paste containing carbon nanofibres as an anode in electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral, B. del

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the application of the electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE technique, traditionally, the Ti-RuO2 wire netting has been used as the external anode. This article provides the results of the research based on the use of conductive cement paste with addition of carbon nanofibers (CNF as anodes and its application in ECE. The tests were developed in concrete specimens previously contaminated with chloride. The efficiencies achieved were compared with those obtained using a traditional anode (Ti-RuO2 and cement pastes with the addition of other carbonaceous materials. The results show the feasibility of using conductive cement paste with CNF as the anode in the electrochemical extraction of chlorides in concrete, finding similar efficiencies to those obtained with traditional Ti-RuO2 wire netting but with the added advantage that it can be adapted to complex structural geometries as it can be applied as a paste.

    En la aplicación de la técnica de extracción electroquímica de cloruros (EEC, tradicionalmente se ha venido empleando como ánodo externo una malla de Ti-RuO2. En este artículo se aportan los resultados de investigaciones basadas en la utilización de ánodos formados por pasta de cemento conductora con adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC y su aplicación en EEC. Las experiencias se desarrollaron en probetas de hormigón contaminado previamente con cloruro. Las eficiencias alcanzadas se compararon con las obtenidas empleando un ánodo tradicional (Ti-RuO2 así como pastas de cemento con adición de otros materiales carbonosos. Los resultados muestran la viabilidad en la utilización de la pasta de cemento conductora con NFC como ánodo en la aplicación en EEC en hormigón, encontrándose eficiencias similares a las obtenidas con la tradicional malla de Ti-RuO2 pero teniendo la ventaja añadida sobre ésta de que es posible adaptarla a geometrías estructurales complejas al ser aplicada en forma de pasta.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction: spectroscopic study of interactions comparison to solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustenholtz Farawila, A

    2005-06-15

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) was chosen to study Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of cesium and uranium. At first, crown ethers were considered as chelating agents for the SFE of cesium. The role of water and its interaction with crown ethers were especially studied using Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy in SF-CO{sub 2}. A sandwich configuration between two crown ethers and a water molecule was observed in the SF-CO{sub 2} phase for the first time. The equilibrium between the single and the bridge configurations was defined. The enthalpy of the hydrogen bond formation was also calculated. These results were then compared to the one in different mixtures of chloroform and carbon tetra-chloride using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). To conclude this first part and in order to understand the whole picture of the recovery of cesium, I studied the role of water in the equilibrium between the cesium and the di-cyclo-hexano18-crown-6.In a second part, the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium was studied in SF-CO{sub 2}. For this purpose, different complexes of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water were used as chelating and oxidizing agents. I first used FT-IR to study the TBP-water interaction in SF-CO{sub 2}. These results were then compared to the one obtained with NMR in chloroform. NMR spectroscopy was also used to understand the TBP-nitric acid-water interaction first alone and then in chloroform. To conclude my research work, I succeeded to improve the efficiency of uranium extraction and stripping into water for a pilot-plant where enriched uranium is extracted from incinerated waste coming from nuclear fuel fabrication. TBP-nitric acid complexes were used in SF-CO{sub 2} for the extraction of uranium from ash. (author)

  2. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Warut Poontawee; Surapol Natakankitkul; Orawan Wongmekiat

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae), or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae)...

  3. Comparison between the essential oil and supercritical Carbon Dioxide extraction of Mentha Piperita L. cultivated in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghel N

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils and the volatile concentrate of Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE at 35°C and 100 atm were compared using GC/MS. Whereas twenty four components were identified in the essential oil, only seven compounds, including the main compounds of the peppermint oil were isolated by the SFE. The percent of major components of the oil and the extract were: Menthol (31.53 and 48.39, Menthone (23.37 and 26.68 and Isomenthone (11.11 and 6.58, respectively. From these results it may concluded that the SFE method supply a selective essential oil extract.

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Organic Matter from Petroleum Source Rocks and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈忠民; 周光甲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Organic matter was experimentally extracted by supercritical fluids(CO2+1% isopropanol)from petroleum source rocks of different thermo-maturities at different buried depths in the same stratigraphic unit in the Dongying Basin.The results show that supercritical fluid extraction(SFE)is more effective than Soxhlet extraction(SE),with higher amounts and greater varieties of hydrocarbons and soluble organic matter becoming extractive.The supercritical CO2 extraction is therefore considered more valuable in evaluation of petroleum source rocks and oil resources,particularly those of immature types.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  6. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of chenopodium album extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Baldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chenopodium album (Bathua, a native Indian herb, has been used for treatment of abdominal pain, eye disease, throat troubles and cardiovascular disorders. The present study was carried out to explore antioxidant and hepatoprotective efficacy of C. album extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. album seeds was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using three established models (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method, 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation decolorization assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging method and hepatoprotective activity was also assessed against CCl 4 induced hepatic damage in rats at the doses of 300 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg. Results: C. album extract was found to exhibit excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, when compared with ascorbic acid during in vitro studies. C. album extract at a dose of 450 mg/kg showed inhibition of elevation of the biochemical parameters comparable with silymarin (100 mg/kg and hence shown remarkable protection in hepatic injury induced by free radicals generated due to administration of CCl 4 as toxicant. The observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Conclusion: This study establish scientific evidences to folklore use of C. album in treatment of hepatic disorders and also suggests that free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phytoconstituents may be the possible mechanisms of its hepatoprotective potential.

  7. To fulfill "the Convention ",improve extraction technology for infrared method determining oil in water%为履行“国际公约”改进红外法测定水中油萃取技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子优

    2012-01-01

    四氯化碳是国际公约《关于消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书》确定为全球禁止使用的试剂,为此,四氯化碳作为红外法测定水中油的萃取剂应逐步被低毒和环保的试剂所取代,国外已在测定方法和萃取剂取代两方面做了大量工作,这些经验可以为我们所借鉴.%Carbon tetrachloride is the reagent banned by "The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer " in the world, carbon tetrachloride as extractant to be used in the infrared method for the determination of oil in water should be replaced gradually with other low toxicity and more environmentally friendly reagents. Some countries have been done a lot of work in both testing method and replacing the extractant. These experiences may use for reference for us.

  8. Oscillator-strength distributions for oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, methyl chloride, and carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New measurements of photoabsorption give oscillator-strength values for the following gases and energy regions: O2, 7.34 to 11.79 eV; CO2, 7.34 to 11.77 eV; H2O, 6.62 to 11.80 eV; CH3CL, 6.14 to 11.25 eV; and CCl4, 6.14 to 11.49 eV. Comparisons are made with some values from the literature

  9. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC in soil water extracts using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Ma

    Full Text Available Assimilable organic carbon (AOC is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l(-1 glucose (equivalent to 0-16.0 mg glucose C kg(-1 soil with the detection limit of 10 µg l(-1 equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg(-1 soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 32 soils tested was 2.9±2.2 mg glucose C kg(-1. Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (P<0.05 with microbial biomass determined as microbial biomass carbon, indicating that the AOC concentrations determined by the method developed might be a good indicator of soil microbial biomass. Our findings provide a new approach that may be used to determine AOC in environmental samples using a non-growth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggest possible the links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils.

  10. A randomized controlled study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness in sperm extraction using carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide free system in relation to intrauterine insemination pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Bhakta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of two different systems i.e. circulating water bath and carbon dioxide (CO 2 incubator in extracting motile sperm for IUI programme and their effect on pregnancy outcome.Methods: The study was performed on sixty-two patients recruited for ovulation induction followed by intrauterine insemination (IUI in University fertility clinic. The patients were randomly divided into two groups and sperm preparation was performed with either water bath or CO 2 incubator system. The efficiency of the two systems was analyzed in relation to pregnancy outcome. Results: There was no significant difference in the efficacy of water bath and CO 2 system with respect to the quality of sperm extracted and pregnancy outcome. Although pregnancy rate was marginally higher in water bath group, it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: CO 2 -free system can be a cost-effective approach in IUI programme which does not compromise with pregnancy rate.

  11. A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Radecka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the Nterminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M. The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  12. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in HCl Solution by Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The strict environmental legislations and increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. In the present work, literature on green corrosion inhibitors has been reviewed, and the salient features of our work on green corrosion inhibitors have been highlighted. Among the studied leaves, extract Andrographis paniculata showed better inhibition performance (98% than the other leaves extract. Strychnos nuxvomica showed better inhibition (98% than the other seed extracts. Moringa oleifera is reflected as a good corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 M HCl with 98% inhibition efficiency among the studied fruits extract. Bacopa monnieri showed its maximum inhibition performance to be 95% at 600 ppm among the investigated stem extracts. All the reported plant extracts were found to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in acid media.

  13. Kinetic equation for the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with hydride functional groups of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, A.B.; Smirnov, E.P.

    1989-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the kinetics of the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with the hydride functional groups of diamond. The research was performed on submicron powders of ASM 0.7/0.3 grade synthetic diamond with a specific surface area of 8.0 m/sup 2//g as measured from the adsorption of nitrogen. The reaction was carried out in a flow-through quartz reactor in a flow of dry He. The content of the titanium in the samples was determined by a photocolorimetric method. A kinetic equation for the reaction of diamond with titanium tetrachloride was found on the basis of a statistical approach.

  14. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root extract regulates the oxidative status and antioxidant gene transcripts in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; Lebda, Mohamed A; Hassinin, Mohammed; Neoman, Saad A

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control); chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks); CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only); or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks) + CCl4 injection on days 16 and 17. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and molecular biomarkers were estimated twenty-four hours after the last CCl4 injection. Pretreatment with chicory extract significantly reduced CCl4-induced elevation of malondialdehyde levels and nearly normalized levels of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), and arylesterase in the liver. Chicory extract also attenuated CCl4-induced downregulation of hepatic mRNA expression levels of GPx1, CAT and PON1 genes. Results of DNA fragmentation support the ability of chicory extract to ameliorate CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chicory extract is rich in natural antioxidants and able to attenuate CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury, likely by scavenging reactive free radicals, boosting the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and overexpressing genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25807561

  15. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. root extract regulates the oxidative status and antioxidant gene transcripts in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S El-Sayed

    Full Text Available The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control; chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks; CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only; or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks + CCl4 injection on days 16 and 17. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and molecular biomarkers were estimated twenty-four hours after the last CCl4 injection. Pretreatment with chicory extract significantly reduced CCl4-induced elevation of malondialdehyde levels and nearly normalized levels of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT, paraoxonase-1 (PON1, and arylesterase in the liver. Chicory extract also attenuated CCl4-induced downregulation of hepatic mRNA expression levels of GPx1, CAT and PON1 genes. Results of DNA fragmentation support the ability of chicory extract to ameliorate CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chicory extract is rich in natural antioxidants and able to attenuate CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury, likely by scavenging reactive free radicals, boosting the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and overexpressing genes encoding antioxidant enzymes.

  16. A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, J.W.

    1961-12-19

    A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

  17. Carbon beam extraction with 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Oh, Byung-Hoon; Chang, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Sun-Chan

    2014-02-01

    A 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been made to produce C4+ beam for using a carbon therapy facility and recently tested at KAERI. Highly charged carbon ions have been successfully extracted. When using only CO2 gas, the beam current of C4+ was almost 14 μA at 15 kV extraction voltage. To get higher current of the C4+ beam, while optimizing confinement magnetic field configuration (e.g., axial strengths at minimum and extraction side), gas-mixing (CO2/He), and biased disk were introduced. When the gas mixing ratio of the CO2/He gas is 1:8 at an operational pressure of 5 × 10-7 mbar and the disk was biased to -150 V relative to the ion source body, the highest current of the C4+ beam was achieved to be 50 μA, more than three times higher than previously observed only with CO2 gas. Some details on the operating conditions of the ECRIS were discussed.

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide extractions of agricultural chemicals from aqueous solutions; Chorinkai nisankatanso ni yoru suiyoeki karano noyaku no chushitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, T.; Sato, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Kato, Y. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan). Advanced Water Treatment Division

    1999-12-10

    Examination was made on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of agricultural chemicals from aqueous solutions. In the case of the semi batch extraction blowing supercritical carbon dioxide into the aqueous solutions at a concentration of 5 mg L{sup -1}, the dependencies of the removal ratios of four kinds of agricultural chemicals on temperature and pressure were shown in different patterns depending on the agricultural chemicals. For simazin (CAT), no unusual phenomena were observed. On the other hand, isoprothiolane (IPT) exhibited unusual phenomena. That is, the removal ratios decreased, as the pressure increased above 100 kg cm{sup -2} at temperatures of 45 degree C and 50 degree C. A similar phenomenon was observed for fenitrothion (MEP) or napropamide (NPP). Complicate pattern was shown for MEP. The removal ratios at pressures of 80 kg cm{sup -2} and 90 kg cm{sup -2} had maxima at 40 degree C and 45 degree C, respectively. These phenomena were discussed in terms of equilibrium and mass transfer. It was referred to that consideration should be given to such phenomena when the extraction technique is used for analysis. The order of the easiness of the separation of agricultural chemical from aqueous solution (that was estimated by the removal ratio at temperature of 35 degree C and pressure of 100 kg cm{sup -2}) was IPT>NPP>MEP>CAT. Correlation was seen between the removal ratio and the solubility of agricultural chemical in water, and in hexane or the melting point. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel carbon/zirconia based material, SupelTM QuE Verde (Verde), was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup of QuEChERS extracts of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado for residual analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants. Low pressure (LP) GC-MS/MS w...

  20. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambara Murthy, Kotamballi N; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvahally K; Singh, Ravendra P

    2002-08-14

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts have been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in various in vitro models. Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted with methanol for 4 h. The dried methanolic extract was fed to albino rats of the Wistar strain, followed by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and the levels of various enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation were studied. Treatment of rats with a single dose of CCl4 at 2.0 g/kg of body weight decreases the levels of catalase, SOD, and peroxidase by 81, 49, and 89% respectively, whereas the lipid peroxidation value increased nearly 3-fold. Pretreatment of the rats with a methanolic extract of pomegranate peel at 50 mg/kg (in terms of catechin equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment causes preservation of catalase, peroxidase, and SOD to values comparable with control values, wheres lipid peroxidation was brought back by 54% as compared to control. Histopathological studies of the liver were also carried out to determine the hepatoprotection effect exhibited by the pomegranate peel extract against the toxic effects of CCl4. Histopathological studies of the liver of different groups also support the protective effects exhibited by the MeOH extract of pomegranate peel by restoring the normal hepatic architecture.

  1. Pressure dependence of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction equilibrium of palladium(II)with 2-methyl-8-quinolinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure effect on the distribution of Pd(II) between an aqueous chloride solution and a supercritical carbon dioxide phase in the presence of 2-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMQ) as a chelating extractant has been investigated. The distribution ratio (D) of Pd(II) extracted as Pd(MQ)2 complex does not depend on the pressure in the range of 8.5 to 23 MPa, when the pH of the aqueous solution is buffered at pH 2.77∼2.96. The CO2 pressure affects the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase and therefore the pH of the non-buffered aqueous solution changed with the pressure, which leads to a change of D with the pressure. The extraction of Pd(II) into the supercritical CO2 using HMQ is promising for the recovery of Pd(II) in the aqueous chloride media. The HMQ forms the water-soluble protonated species, H2MQ|, which allows the coexistence of HMQ of enough high concentration in the extraction system. (author)

  2. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  3. Comparative study on the quality of oil extracted from two tucumã varieties using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elizabeth Teixeira COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vast Amazon region has considerable territorial peculiarities and plant species diversity, sometimes from the same botanical family, which can exhibit significant differences in physicochemical properties. From this diversity, two species stand out – Amazonas tucumã (Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer and Pará tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.. The research focus is to analyze, comparatively, these oleaginous fruits, their similarities, particularities and potentials regarding the oil quality extracted from two tucumã varieties from the states of Amazonas and Pará, obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide, under different extraction parameters. The results demonstrate the biometric particularities of each species, highlighting the Amazon fruit, which also showed higher oil yield using supercritical CO2 extraction. The fatty acid quality and profile aspects of the oils show their unsaturated predominance, considering carotenoid content and how the extraction temperature can influence the nutritional quality of the oils. The statistical analyses indicated that the Amazon tucumã oil is superior to the Pará tucumã oil. However, in terms of added value both oils have potential applications in various industrial segments.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in HCl Solution by Some Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrish Singh; Ebenso, Eno E.; M. A. Quraishi

    2012-01-01

    The strict environmental legislations and increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. In the present work, literature on green corrosion inhibitors has been reviewed, and the salient features of our work on green corrosion inhibitors have been highlighted. Among the studied leaves, extract Andrographis paniculata showed better inhibition performance (98%) than the other leaves extract. Strychnos nuxvomica showed b...

  5. Enzyme-aided extraction of lycopene from high-pigment tomato cultivars by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; De Caroli, Monica; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Iurlaro, Andrea; Rescio, Leonardo; Böhm, Volker; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    This work reports a novel enzyme-assisted process for lycopene concentration into a freeze-dried tomato matrix and describes the results of laboratory scale lycopene supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extractions carried out with untreated (control) and enzyme-digested matrices. The combined use of food-grade commercial plant cell-wall glycosidases (Celluclast/Novozyme plus Viscozyme) allows to increase lycopene (∼153%) and lipid (∼137%) concentration in the matrix and rises substrate load onto the extraction vessel (∼46%) compared to the control. The addition of an oleaginous co-matrix (hazelnut seeds) to the tomato matrix (1:1 by weight) increases CO2 diffusion through the highly dense enzyme-treated matrix bed and provides lipids that are co-extracted increasing lycopene yield. Under the same operative conditions (50 MPa, 86 °C, 4 mL min(-1) SC-CO2 flow) extraction yield from control and Celluclast/Novozyme+Viscozyme-treated tomato matrix/co-matrix mixtures was similar, exceeding 75% after 4.5h of extraction. However, the total extracted lycopene was ∼3 times higher in enzyme-treated matrix than control.

  6. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Comparison of the quaternary aromatic carbon contents of a coal, a coal extract, and its hydrocracking products by NMR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanessa Begon; Isabel Suelves; Carlos A. Islas; Marcos Millan; Christophe Dubau; M.-J. Lazaro; Robert V. Law; Alan A. Herod; Denis R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology and Department of Chemistry

    2003-12-01

    Samples of a coal extract and its hydrocracked products have been examined by solution-state and solid-state NMR spectroscopy to establish if these methods could follow the reaction process that is expected to convert bridgehead C atoms into hydrogen-substituted C atoms. The changes have also been followed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), elemental analysis, basic -OH titration, and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. NMR spectra in CDCl{sub 3} indicated that the products contained more bridgehead C atoms than the extract. Spectra obtained using a better solvent, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), did indicate that the extract contained more bridgehead C atoms than the products. The basic -OH measurement indicated rapid removal of the group by hydrocracking; however, this was a relatively minor correction to the overall quaternary carbon concentration. The evidence from SEC and UV-fluorescence suggested that the large molecules that were indicated to be present in the coal extract and the products did not give good NMR spectra, because the solvents did not dissolve them. Therefore, results from solution-state NMR of such coal liquids must be considered as only partial results and not covering the entire sample. Solid-state {sup 13}C NMR methods showed that the process solvent could not dissolve the most aromatic components of the coal, with a significant loss of aromaticity in the digestion stage. Nonquaternary suppression (NQS) spectra of the microbomb product indicated the formation of methyl groups by the formation of methyl-substituted five-membered rings from tetralin. Solid-state {sup 1}H spectra of the coal extract and products showed a decrease of aromatic to aliphatic hydrogen on reaction, as expected. 54 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-